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Journal Cover The Lancet Infectious Diseases
  [SJR: 11.233]   [H-I: 161]   [144 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1473-3099
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • Infectious disease surveillance update
    • Authors: Ruth Zwizwai
      First page: 485
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Ruth Zwizwai


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30201-3
       
  • Research brief
    • Authors: Dara Mohammadi
      First page: 486
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Dara Mohammadi


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30199-8
       
  • The imperative of vaccination
    • Authors: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      First page: 1099
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): The Lancet Infectious Diseases


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30590-x
       
  • Measuring progress on preventing pneumonia deaths: are we there yet'
    • Authors: Cynthia G Whitney
      Pages: 1100 - 1101
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Cynthia G Whitney


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30481-4
       
  • Global deworming: moving past albendazole and mebendazole
    • Authors: Peter J Hotez
      Pages: 1101 - 1102
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Peter J Hotez


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30484-x
       
  • Understanding commitment to polio vaccination
    • Authors: Kathleen M O'Reilly
      Pages: 1103 - 1104
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Kathleen M O'Reilly


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30473-5
       
  • Spreading the knowledge on the epidemiology of sepsis
    • Authors: Jorge I F Salluh; Marcio Soares; Mervyn Singer
      Pages: 1104 - 1106
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Jorge I F Salluh, Marcio Soares, Mervyn Singer


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30480-2
       
  • Tuberculosis—making predictions, especially about the future
    • Authors: Anna M Mandalakas; Frank Cobelens
      Pages: 1106 - 1107
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Anna M Mandalakas, Frank Cobelens


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30492-9
       
  • Zika virus infection in semen: effect on human reproduction
    • Authors: Luisa Barzon; Enrico Lavezzo; Giorgio Palù
      Pages: 1107 - 1109
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Luisa Barzon, Enrico Lavezzo, Giorgio Palù


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30495-4
       
  • Yellow fever vaccination: estimating coverage
    • Authors: Annelies Wilder-Smith
      Pages: 1109 - 1111
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Annelies Wilder-Smith


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30494-2
       
  • Recovery from serious fungal infections should be realisable for everyone
    • Authors: Juan Luis Rodríguez Tudela; David W Denning
      Pages: 1111 - 1113
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Juan Luis Rodríguez Tudela, David W Denning


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30319-5
       
  • Infectious disease trends in China since the SARS outbreak
    • Authors: Zhongjie Li; George F Gao
      Pages: 1113 - 1115
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Zhongjie Li, George F Gao


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30579-0
       
  • Threats of vector-borne zoonotic disease in Europe: dogs, drosophilids,
           and Oriental eye worm
    • Authors: John W McGarry; John Graham-Brown; Monika Pasztor
      Pages: 1115 - 1117
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): John W McGarry, John Graham-Brown, Monika Pasztor


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30580-7
       
  • The 2017 Dhaka chikungunya outbreak
    • Authors: Iqbal Kabir; Megnath Dhimal; Ruth Müller; Swagata Banik; Ubydul Haque
      First page: 1118
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Iqbal Kabir, Megnath Dhimal, Ruth Müller, Swagata Banik, Ubydul Haque


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30564-9
       
  • Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions: an urgent requirement in
           post-flood Nepal
    • Authors: Om Prasad Gautam; Yael Velleman; Krishna Prasad Paudel; Meghnath Dhimal; Val Curtis
      Pages: 1118 - 1119
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Om Prasad Gautam, Yael Velleman, Krishna Prasad Paudel, Meghnath Dhimal, Val Curtis


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30569-8
       
  • Hospital antimicrobial stewardship: the way forward
    • Authors: Charis A Marwick; Bruce Guthrie; Peter G Davey
      Pages: 1119 - 1120
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Charis A Marwick, Bruce Guthrie, Peter G Davey


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30566-2
       
  • Hospital antimicrobial stewardship: the way forward
    • Authors: Céline Pulcini; Peter Collignon
      First page: 1120
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Céline Pulcini, Peter Collignon


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30570-4
       
  • Hospital antimicrobial stewardship: the way forward – Authors' reply
    • Authors: Evelina Tacconelli; Beryl Primrose Gladstone
      Pages: 1120 - 1121
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Evelina Tacconelli, Beryl Primrose Gladstone


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30581-9
       
  • Proposed treatment strategies for non-gonococcal urethritis
    • Authors: Takashi Deguchi
      Pages: 1121 - 1122
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Takashi Deguchi


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30571-6
       
  • Itraconazole and antiretroviral therapy: strategies for empirical dosing
    • Authors: Ilan S Schwartz; Sean Wasserman
      Pages: 1122 - 1123
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Ilan S Schwartz, Sean Wasserman


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30568-6
       
  • Itraconazole and antiretroviral therapy: strategies for empirical dosing
           – Author's reply
    • Authors: Thuy Le; Antoine Adenis; Andrew Limper; Thomas Harrison
      Pages: 1123 - 1124
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Thuy Le, Antoine Adenis, Andrew Limper, Thomas Harrison


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30582-0
       
  • Post-migration follow-up of migrants at risk of tuberculosis
    • Authors: Peter J White; Ibrahim Abubakar; Robert W Aldridge; Andrew C Hayward
      First page: 1124
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Peter J White, Ibrahim Abubakar, Robert W Aldridge, Andrew C Hayward


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30567-4
       
  • HIV and antenatal care in Sri Lanka: a global health success
    • Authors: Sophie Cousins
      First page: 1126
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Sophie Cousins


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30584-4
       
  • International Forum on Gonococcal Infections and Resistance
    • Authors: Marco De Ambrogi
      First page: 1127
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Marco De Ambrogi


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30585-6
       
  • Antibiotic development pipeline slows to a trickle
    • Authors: Talha Burki
      Pages: 1128 - 1129
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Talha Burki


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30586-8
       
  • Voices on antimicrobial resistance
    • Authors: Clare Sansom
      First page: 1131
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): Clare Sansom


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30588-1
       
  • Criminalising transmission of infections
    • Authors: George Mawhinney
      First page: 1132
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): George Mawhinney


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30589-3
       
  • Effect of HIV-1 low-level viraemia during antiretroviral therapy on
           treatment outcomes in WHO-guided South African treatment programmes: a
           multicentre cohort study
    • Authors: Lucas E Hermans; Michelle Moorhouse; Sergio Carmona; Diederick E Grobbee; L Marije Hofstra; Douglas D Richman; Hugo A Tempelman; Willem D F Venter; Annemarie M J Wensing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Lucas E Hermans, Michelle Moorhouse, Sergio Carmona, Diederick E Grobbee, L Marije Hofstra, Douglas D Richman, Hugo A Tempelman, Willem D F Venter, Annemarie M J Wensing
      Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) that enables suppression of HIV replication has been successfully rolled out at large scale to HIV-positive patients in low-income and middle-income countries. WHO guidelines for these regions define failure of ART with a lenient threshold of viraemia (HIV RNA viral load ≥1000 copies per mL). We investigated the occurrence of detectable viraemia during ART below this threshold and its effect on treatment outcomes in a large South African cohort. Methods In this observational cohort study, we included HIV-positive adults registered between Jan 1, 2007, and May 1, 2016, at 57 clinical sites in South Africa, who were receiving WHO-recommended ART regimens and viral load monitoring. Low-level viraemia was defined as the occurrence of at least one viral load measurement of 51–999 copies per mL during ART. Outcomes were WHO-defined virological failure (one or more viral load measurement of ≥1000 copies per mL) and switch to second-line ART. Risks were estimated with Cox proportional hazard models. Findings 70 930 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 67 644 received first-line ART, 1476 received second-line ART, and 1810 received both. Median duration of follow-up was 124 weeks (IQR 56–221) for patients on first-line ART and 101 weeks (IQR 51–178) for patients on second-line ART. Low-level viraemia occurred in 16 013 (23%) of 69 454 patients, with an incidence of 11·5 per 100 person-years of follow-up (95% CI 11·4–11·7), during first-line ART. Virological failure during follow-up occurred in 14 380 (22%) of 69 454 patients on first-line ART. Low-level viraemia was associated with increased hazards of virological failure (hazard ratio [HR] 2·6, 95% CI 2·5–2·8; p<0·0001) and switch to second-line ART (HR 5·2, 4·4–6·1; p<0·0001]) compared with virological suppression of less than 50 copies per mL. Risk of virological failure increased further with higher ranges and persistence of low-level viraemia. Interpretation In this large cohort, low-level viraemia occurred frequently and increased the risk of virological failure and switch to second-line ART. Strategies for management of low-level viraemia need to be incorporated into WHO guidelines to meet UNAIDS-defined targets aimed at halting the global HIV epidemic. Funding None.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30681-3
       
  • Human papillomavirus types from infection to cancer in the anus, according
           to sex and HIV status: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Authors: Chunqing Lin; Silvia Franceschi; Gary M Clifford
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Chunqing Lin, Silvia Franceschi, Gary M Clifford
      Background Data on carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in the anus are needed to inform anal cancer prevention through vaccination and screening. This is particularly the case for people infected with HIV, who are at an increased risk of anal cancer. Methods We did a systematic review of studies published from January, 1986, to July, 2017, in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library on anal HPV infection, without any language restrictions. Eligible studies reported type-specific HPV prevalence by strata of cytopathological or histopathological anal diagnosis, sex, and HIV status. Data requests were made to authors when necessary. We did a meta-analysis of type-specific HPV prevalence across the full spectrum of anal diagnoses, from normal cytology to anal cancer. We assessed the main outcome of type-specific HPV prevalence ratios [PR], calculated across strata of anal diagnoses, gender, or HIV status, by use of generalised linear models. Findings 95 studies were identified from the search, published between 1992–2017, from which 18 646 individuals fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in the analyses: 8534 people with normal cytology, 5730 with low-grade lesions, 2024 with high-grade lesions, and 2358 with anal cancer. HPV prevalence varied in normal cytology from 42% in HIV-negative women to 76% in HIV-positive men and, for each diagnosis, was higher in individuals who were HIV positive than those who were HIV negative. HPV16 positivity increased with diagnosis severity, being the only HPV type accounting for more HPV infection in anal cancer than normal cytology, both in individuals who were HIV negative (PR 5·0, 95% CI 3·8–6·6, p<0·0001) and those who were HIV positive (2·3, 1·9–2·7, p<0·0001). HPV16 positivity increased even between high-grade lesions and anal cancer, whereas other high-risk HPV types accounted for high proportions of low-grade or high-grade lesions but their prevalence decreased in anal cancer. However, HPV16 was less frequent in HIV-positive than HIV-negative anal cancer, both in men (PR 0·8, 95% CI 0·7–0·9, p<0·0001) and women (0·8, 0·6–1·0, p=0·063), and in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative high-grade lesions in women (0·6, 0·5–0·9, p=0·0077). Type-specific attribution of the non-HPV16 fraction of HIV-positive anal cancer is hindered by a high prevalence of multiple HPV infections. Interpretation HPV16 is by far the most carcinogenic HPV type in the anus, with enrichment of HPV16 even from high-grade lesions to anal cancer, both in individuals who are HIV negative and those who are HIV positive. Nevertheless, the fraction of anal cancer attributable to HPV16 is smaller in the HIV-positive population. Funding International Agency for Research on Cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30653-9
       
  • The importance of HPV16 in anal cancer prevention
    • Authors: Ulrike Wieland; Alexander Kreuter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Ulrike Wieland, Alexander Kreuter


      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30683-7
       
  • Stepping up HIV-1 low-level viraemia surveillance in South Africa
    • Authors: Antonella Castagna; Laura Galli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Antonella Castagna, Laura Galli


      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30680-1
       
  • Efficacy and safety of tribendimidine versus praziquantel against
           Opisthorchis viverrini in Laos: an open-label, randomised,
           non-inferiority, phase 2 trial
    • Authors: Somphou Sayasone; Jennifer Keiser; Isabel Meister; Youthanavanh Vonghachack; Syda Xayavong; Kanpaseuth Senggnam; Khampheng Phongluxa; Jan Hattendorf; Peter Odermatt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Somphou Sayasone, Jennifer Keiser, Isabel Meister, Youthanavanh Vonghachack, Syda Xayavong, Kanpaseuth Senggnam, Khampheng Phongluxa, Jan Hattendorf, Peter Odermatt
      Background Praziquantel is the only option for treatment of the liver fluke infection Opisthorchis viverrini. Tribendimidine could be an alternative drug. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of a single, oral dose of tribendimidine, compared with praziquantel administered in two doses, in participants with O viverrini infection. Method We did an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 2 trial in children (8–14 years) and adolescents and adults (≥15 years) in Champasack province, southern Laos. Participants infected with O viverrini were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated block-randomisation procedure (block sizes of two, four, and six), to receive a single, oral dose of tribendimidine (200 mg for children, 400 mg for adolescents and adults) or two oral doses of praziquantel (50 mg/kg bodyweight and 25 mg/kg bodyweight, 6 h apart). Physicians assessing adverse events and laboratory personnel were masked to treatment allocation, but the investigators administering treatment and the participants could have recognised the treatment group based on differences in the number, appearance, and odour of the tablets. The primary outcomes were cure rate, defined as no parasite eggs in stool at 3 weeks' follow-up, and egg reduction rate. We did available-case analysis of all participants with primary endpoint data. The non-inferiority margin for the difference in cure rates between the groups was pre-specified as −3 percentage points. Adverse events were monitored at 3 h and 24 h after treatment. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN96948551. Findings Between Feb 1, and April 30, 2014, we assigned 607 participants with confirmed O viverrini infection to receive tribendimidine (n=300) or praziquantel (n=307). 11 participants (five in the tribendimidine group and six in the praziquantel group) did not provide stool samples at 3 weeks' follow-up and were excluded from the available-case analysis. 276 (93·6%) of 295 participants in the tribendimidine group were cured compared with 293 (97·3%) of 301 participants in the praziquantel group. The difference in cure rates between the two groups was −3·8 percentage points (95% CI −7·1 to −0·4), thus the lower limit of the confidence interval exceeded the non-inferiority margin. In both treatment groups, egg reduction rates were 99·9%. Adverse events were of mild and moderate intensity and were more frequent in the praziquantel group than in the tribendimidine group (odds ratio 4·5, 95% CI 3·2–6·3; p<0·0001). The most frequent adverse events were headache, vertigo, nausea, and fatigue. Interpretation Tribendimidine has a slightly lower cure rate than praziquantel and non-inferiority was not shown. However, tribendimidine has a similar egg reduction rate to praziquantel and leads to fewer adverse events and thus might complement praziquantel in O viverrini control programmes, particularly in settings co-endemic for hookworm. Funding Joint Global Health Trials scheme from the Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development, and Medical Research Council.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30624-2
       
  • Tribendimidine: an alternative to praziquantel to treat human liver fluke
           infection'
    • Authors: Banchob Sripa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Banchob Sripa


      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30675-8
       
  • Ebola virus disease: an update on post-exposure prophylaxis
    • Authors: William A Fischer; Pauline Vetter; Daniel G Bausch; Timothy Burgess; Richard T Davey; Robert Fowler; Frederick G Hayden; Peter B Jahrling; Andre C Kalil; Douglas L Mayers; Aneesh K Mehta; Timothy M Uyeki; Michael Jacobs
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): William A Fischer, Pauline Vetter, Daniel G Bausch, Timothy Burgess, Richard T Davey, Robert Fowler, Frederick G Hayden, Peter B Jahrling, Andre C Kalil, Douglas L Mayers, Aneesh K Mehta, Timothy M Uyeki, Michael Jacobs
      The massive outbreak of Ebola virus disease in west Africa between 2013 and 2016 resulted in intense efforts to evaluate the efficacy of several specific countermeasures developed through years of preclinical work, including the first clinical trials for therapeutics and vaccines. In this Review, we discuss how the experience and data generated from that outbreak have helped to advance the understanding of the use of these countermeasures for post-exposure prophylaxis against Ebola virus infection. In future outbreaks, post-exposure prophylaxis could play an important part in reducing community transmission of Ebola virus by providing more immediate protection than does immunisation as well as providing additional protection for health-care workers who are inadvertently exposed over the course of their work. We propose provisional guidance for use of post-exposure prophylaxis in Ebola virus disease and identify the priorities for future preparedness and further research.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30677-1
       
  • Zika virus in French Polynesia 2013–14: anatomy of a completed
           outbreak
    • Authors: Didier Musso; Hervé Bossin; Henri Pierre Mallet; Marianne Besnard; Julien Broult; Laure Baudouin; José Eduardo Levi; Ester C Sabino; Frederic Ghawche; Marion C Lanteri; David Baud
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Didier Musso, Hervé Bossin, Henri Pierre Mallet, Marianne Besnard, Julien Broult, Laure Baudouin, José Eduardo Levi, Ester C Sabino, Frederic Ghawche, Marion C Lanteri, David Baud
      The Zika virus crisis exemplified the risk associated with emerging pathogens and was a reminder that preparedness for the worst-case scenario, although challenging, is needed. Herein, we review all data reported during the unexpected emergence of Zika virus in French Polynesia in late 2013. We focus on the new findings reported during this outbreak, especially the first description of severe neurological complications in adults and the retrospective description of CNS malformations in neonates, the isolation of Zika virus in semen, the potential for blood-transfusion transmission, mother-to-child transmission, and the development of new diagnostic assays. We describe the effect of this outbreak on health systems, the implementation of vector-borne control strategies, and the line of communication used to alert the international community of the new risk associated with Zika virus. This outbreak highlighted the need for careful monitoring of all unexpected events that occur during an emergence, to implement surveillance and research programmes in parallel to management of cases, and to be prepared to the worst-case scenario.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30446-2
       
  • Immunogenicity and safety of one versus two doses of tetravalent dengue
           vaccine in healthy children aged 2–17 years in Asia and Latin America:
           18-month interim data from a phase 2, randomised, placebo-controlled study
           
    • Authors: Xavier Sáez-Llorens; Vianney Tricou; Delia Yu; Luis Rivera; José Jimeno; Ana Cecilia Villarreal; Epiphany Dato; Sonia Mazara; Maria Vargas; Manja Brose; Martina Rauscher; Suely Tuboi; Astrid Borkowski; Derek Wallace
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Vianney Tricou, Delia Yu, Luis Rivera, José Jimeno, Ana Cecilia Villarreal, Epiphany Dato, Sonia Mazara, Maria Vargas, Manja Brose, Martina Rauscher, Suely Tuboi, Astrid Borkowski, Derek Wallace
      Background Development of vaccines that are effective against all four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1–4) in all age groups is important. Here, we present 18-month interim data from an ongoing study undertaken to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Takeda's tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) candidate over 48 months in children living in dengue-endemic countries. Methods We undertook a phase 2, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at three sites in the Dominican Republic, Panama, and the Philippines. We randomly assigned children aged 2–17 years to receive either two TDV doses 3 months apart (group 1), one TDV dose (group 2), one TDV dose and a booster dose 1 year later (group 3), or placebo (group 4). We did the randomisation (1:2:5:1) using an interactive web response system stratified by age. The primary endpoint of this 18-month interim analysis was DENV serotype-specific antibody geometric mean titres (GMTs) in the per-protocol immunogenicity subset on days 1, 28, 91, 180, 365, 393, and 540. Secondary safety endpoints were the proportions of participants with serious adverse events and with virologically confirmed dengue in the safety set, and solicited and unsolicited adverse events in the immunogenicity subset. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02302066. Findings Between Dec 5, 2014, and Feb 13, 2015, 1800 children were randomly assigned to group 1 (n=201), group 2 (n=398), group 3 (n=1002), and group 4 (n=199). 1794 participants received at least one dose of TDV or placebo (safety set), of whom 562 participated in the immunogenicity subset and 509 were included in the per-protocol set. Antibody titres remained elevated 18 months after vaccination in all TDV groups. At day 540, in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, DENV-1 GMTs were 476 (95% CI 286–791), 461 (329–647), 1056 (804–1388), and 92 (49–173); DENV-2 GMTs were 1212 (842–1744), 1242 (947–1628), 1457 (1182–1796), and 177 (93–337); DENV-3 GMTs were 286 (171–478), 298 (205–433), 548 (411–730), and 78 (44–137); and DENV-4 GMTs were 98 (65–150), 102 (75–139), 172 (133–222), and 33 (21–52). Limited differences in GMTs were observed between groups 1 and 2 (in which participants received one and two doses of TDV, respectively). In baseline-seronegative participants, a 1-year booster clearly increased GMTs. Vaccine-related unsolicited adverse events occurred in 14 (2%) of 562 participants, but no vaccine-related serious adverse events arose. Symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue was recorded in 21 (1·3%) of 1596 participants vaccinated with TDV compared with nine (4·5%) of 198 placebo recipients. Interpretation TDV was well tolerated and immunogenic against all four dengue serotypes, irrespective of baseline dengue serostatus. These data provide proof of concept for TDV and support the ongoing phase 3 efficacy assessment of two doses 3 months apart. Funding Takeda Vaccines.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30632-1
       
  • Prolonged versus short-term intravenous infusion of antipseudomonal
           β-lactams for patients with sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
           of randomised trials
    • Authors: Konstantinos Z Vardakas; Georgios L Voulgaris; Athanasios Maliaros; George Samonis; Matthew E Falagas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Georgios L Voulgaris, Athanasios Maliaros, George Samonis, Matthew E Falagas
      Background The findings of randomised controlled trials (RCT), observational studies, and meta-analyses vary regarding the effectiveness of prolonged β-lactam infusion. We aimed to identify the effectiveness of prolonged versus short-term infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactams in patients with sepsis. Methods We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare prolonged versus short-term intravenous infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactams in patients with sepsis. Two authors independently searched PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library of clinical trials until November, 2016, without date or language restrictions. Any RCT comparing mortality or clinical efficacy of prolonged (continuous or ≥3 h) versus short-term (≤60 min) infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactams for the treatment of patients with sepsis was eligible. Studies were excluded if they were not RCTs, the antibiotics in the two arms were not the same, neither mortality nor clinical efficacy was reported, only pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic outcomes were reported, or if ten or fewer patients were enrolled or randomised. Data were extracted in prespecified forms and we then did a meta-analysis using a Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at any timepoint. This meta-analysis is registered with the PROSPERO database, number CRD42016051678, and is reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Findings 2196 articles were identified and screened, and 22 studies (1876 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. According to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation tool, the quality of evidence for mortality was high. Carbapenems, penicillins, and cephalosporins were studied. Patients with variable age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, severity of sepsis and renal function were enrolled. Prolonged infusion was associated with lower all-cause mortality than short-term infusion (risk ratio [RR] 0·70, 95% CI 0·56–0·87). Heterogeneity was not observed (p=0·93, I 2=0%). The funnel plot and the Egger's test (p=0·44) showed no evidence of publication bias. Interpretation Prolonged infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactams for the treatment of patients with sepsis was associated with significantly lower mortality than short-term infusion. Further studies in specific subgroups of patients according to age, sepsis severity, degree of renal dysfunction, and immunocompetence are warranted. Funding None.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T09:05:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30615-1
       
  • Hepatitis C virus treatment as prevention in an extended network of people
           who inject drugs in the USA: a modelling study
    • Authors: Alexei Zelenev; Jianghong Li; Alyona Mazhnaya; Sanjay Basu; Frederick L Altice
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Alexei Zelenev, Jianghong Li, Alyona Mazhnaya, Sanjay Basu, Frederick L Altice
      Background Chronic infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are highly prevalent in the USA and concentrated in people who inject drugs. Treatment as prevention with highly effective new direct-acting antivirals is a prospective HCV elimination strategy. We used network-based modelling to analyse the effect of this strategy in HCV-infected people who inject drugs in a US city. Methods Five graph models were fit using data from 1574 people who inject drugs in Hartford, CT, USA. We used a degree-corrected stochastic block model, based on goodness-of-fit, to model networks of injection drug users. We simulated transmission of HCV and HIV through this network with varying levels of HCV treatment coverage (0%, 3%, 6%, 12%, or 24%) and varying baseline HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs (30%, 60%, 75%, or 85%). We compared the effectiveness of seven treatment-as-prevention strategies on reducing HCV prevalence over 10 years and 20 years versus no treatment. The strategies consisted of treatment assigned to either a randomly chosen individual who injects drugs or to an individual with the highest number of injection partners. Additional strategies explored the effects of treating either none, half, or all of the injection partners of the selected individual, as well as a strategy based on respondent-driven recruitment into treatment. Findings Our model estimates show that at the highest baseline HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs (85%), expansion of treatment coverage does not substantially reduce HCV prevalence for any treatment-as-prevention strategy. However, when baseline HCV prevalence is 60% or lower, treating more than 120 (12%) individuals per 1000 people who inject drugs per year would probably eliminate HCV within 10 years. On average, assigning treatment randomly to individuals who inject drugs is better than targeting individuals with the most injection partners. Treatment-as-prevention strategies that treat additional network members are among the best performing strategies and can enhance less effective strategies that target the degree (ie, the highest number of injection partners) within the network. Interpretation Successful HCV treatment as prevention should incorporate the baseline HCV prevalence and will achieve the greatest benefit when coverage is sufficiently expanded. Funding National Institute on Drug Abuse.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T09:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30676-x
       
  • Advancing political will to end the tuberculosis epidemic
    • Authors: Nick Herbert; Baroness Susan Masham; Baroness Alison Suttie; Virendra Sharma; Stephan Albani; Oxana Domenti; Rosanna Flurry; Matthew Oliver; Alimuddin Zumla
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Nick Herbert, Baroness Susan Masham, Baroness Alison Suttie, Virendra Sharma, Stephan Albani, Oxana Domenti, Rosanna Flurry, Matthew Oliver, Alimuddin Zumla


      PubDate: 2017-11-16T09:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30679-5
       
  • How to eliminate HCV in people who inject drugs in the USA
    • Authors: Harel Dahari; Basmattee Boodram
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Harel Dahari, Basmattee Boodram


      PubDate: 2017-11-16T09:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30678-3
       
  • Use of mathematical modelling to assess the impact of vaccines on
           antibiotic resistance
    • Authors: Katherine E Atkins; Erin I Lafferty; Sarah R Deeny; Nicholas G Davies; Julie V Robotham; Mark Jit
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Katherine E Atkins, Erin I Lafferty, Sarah R Deeny, Nicholas G Davies, Julie V Robotham, Mark Jit
      Antibiotic resistance is a major global threat to the provision of safe and effective health care. To control antibiotic resistance, vaccines have been proposed as an essential intervention, complementing improvements in diagnostic testing, antibiotic stewardship, and drug pipelines. The decision to introduce or amend vaccination programmes is routinely based on mathematical modelling. However, few mathematical models address the impact of vaccination on antibiotic resistance. We reviewed the literature using PubMed to identify all studies that used an original mathematical model to quantify the impact of a vaccine on antibiotic resistance transmission within a human population. We reviewed the models from the resulting studies in the context of a new framework to elucidate the pathways through which vaccination might impact antibiotic resistance. We identified eight mathematical modelling studies; the state of the literature highlighted important gaps in our understanding. Notably, studies are limited in the range of pathways represented, their geographical scope, and the vaccine–pathogen combinations assessed. Furthermore, to translate model predictions into public health decision making, more work is needed to understand how model structure and parameterisation affects model predictions and how to embed these predictions within economic frameworks.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T09:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30478-4
       
  • Addressing antimicrobial resistance in the UK and Europe
    • Authors: Victoria Wells; Laura J V Piddock
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Victoria Wells, Laura J V Piddock


      PubDate: 2017-11-16T09:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30633-3
       
  • Corrections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases


      PubDate: 2017-11-09T08:45:44Z
       
  • Encouraging results but questions remain for dengue vaccine
    • Authors: In-Kyu Yoon; Stephen J Thomas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): In-Kyu Yoon, Stephen J Thomas


      PubDate: 2017-11-09T08:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30634-5
       
  • β-lactam prolonged infusion: it's time to implement!
    • Authors: Mical Paul; Ursula Theuretzbacher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Mical Paul, Ursula Theuretzbacher


      PubDate: 2017-11-09T08:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30614-x
       
  • Surveillance for control of antimicrobial resistance
    • Authors: Evelina Tacconelli; Frangiscos Sifakis; Stephan Harbarth; Remco Schrijver; Maaike van Mourik; Andreas Voss; Mike Sharland; Nithya Babu Rajendran; Jesús Rodríguez-Baño; Julia Bielicki; Marlieke de Kraker; Sumanth Gandra; Petra Gastmeier; Kim Gilchrist; Achilleas Gikas; Beryl Primrose Gladstone; Herman Goossens; Hasan Jafri; Gunnar Kahlmeter; Frank Leus; Christine Luxemburger; Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar; Giuseppe Marasca; Michael McCarthy; María Dolores Navarro; María Nuñez-Nuñez; Abdel Oualim; Jessica Price; Jérôme Robert; Harriet Sommer; Maja von Cube; Cuong Vuong; Irith Wiegand; Anne Therese Witschi; Martin Wolkewitz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Evelina Tacconelli, Frangiscos Sifakis, Stephan Harbarth, Remco Schrijver, Maaike van Mourik, Andreas Voss, Mike Sharland, Nithya Babu Rajendran, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
      Antimicrobial resistance poses a growing threat to public health and the provision of health care. Its surveillance should provide up-to-date and relevant information to monitor the appropriateness of therapy guidelines, antibiotic formulary, antibiotic stewardship programmes, public health interventions, infection control policies, and antimicrobial development. In Europe, although the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network provides annual reports on monitored resistant bacteria, national surveillance efforts are still fragmented and heterogeneous, and have substantial structural problems and issues with laboratory data. Most incidence and prevalence data cannot be linked with relevant epidemiological, clinical, or outcome data. Genetic typing, to establish whether trends of antimicrobial resistance are caused by spread of resistant strains or by transfer of resistance determinants among different strains and species, is not routinely done. Furthermore, laboratory-based surveillance using only clinical samples is not likely to be useful as an early warning system for emerging pathogens and resistance mechanisms. Insufficient coordination of surveillance systems of human antimicrobial resistance with animal surveillance systems is even more concerning. Because results from food surveillance are considered commercially sensitive, they are rarely released publicly by regulators. Inaccurate or incomplete surveillance data delay a translational approach to the threat of antimicrobial resistance and inhibit the identification of relevant target microorganisms and populations for research and the revitalisation of dormant drug-discovery programmes. High-quality, comprehensive, and real-time surveillance data are essential to reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance. Improvement of national antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems and better alignment between human and veterinary surveillance systems in Europe must become a scientific and political priority, coordinated with international stakeholders within a global approach to reduce the burden of antimicrobial resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T08:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30485-1
       
  • The unexpected success of NRTIs in second-line treatment
    • Authors: Andrew M Hill; Francois Venter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): Andrew M Hill, Francois Venter


      PubDate: 2017-11-09T08:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/s1473-3099(17)30631-x
       
  • Lopinavir plus nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, lopinavir plus
           raltegravir, or lopinavir monotherapy for second-line treatment of HIV
           (EARNEST): 144-week follow-up results from a randomised controlled trial
    • Authors: James Hakim; Jennifer Thompson Cissy Kityo Anne Hoppe Andrew Kambugu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases
      Author(s): James G Hakim, Jennifer Thompson, Cissy Kityo, Anne Hoppe, Andrew Kambugu, Joep J van Oosterhout, Abbas Lugemwa, Abraham Siika, Raymond Mwebaze, Aggrey Mweemba, George Abongomera, Margaret J Thomason, Philippa Easterbrook, Peter Mugyenyi, A Sarah Walker, Nicholas I Paton
      Background Millions of HIV-infected people worldwide receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) in programmes using WHO-recommended standardised regimens. Recent WHO guidelines recommend a boosted protease inhibitor plus raltegravir as an alternative second-line combination. We assessed whether this treatment option offers any advantage over the standard protease inhibitor plus two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) second-line combination after 144 weeks of follow-up in typical programme settings. Methods We analysed the 144-week outcomes at the completion of the EARNEST trial, a randomised controlled trial done in HIV-infected adults or adolescents in 14 sites in five sub-Saharan African countries (Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kenya, Zambia). Participants were those who were no longer responding to non-NRTI-based first-line ART, as assessed with WHO criteria, confirmed by viral-load testing. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (lopinavir 400 mg with ritonavir 100 mg, twice per day) plus two or three clinician-selected NRTIs (protease inhibitor plus NRTI group), protease inhibitor plus raltegravir (400 mg twice per day; protease inhibitor plus raltegravir group), or protease inhibitor monotherapy (plus raltegravir induction for first 12 weeks, re-intensified to combination therapy after week 96; protease inhibitor monotherapy group). Randomisation was by computer-generated randomisation sequence, with variable block size. The primary outcome was viral load of less than 400 copies per mL at week 144, for which we assessed non-inferiority with a one-sided α of 0·025, and superiority with a two-sided α of 0·025. The EARNEST trial is registered with ISRCTN, number 37737787. Findings Between April 12, 2010, and April 29, 2011, 1837 patients were screened for eligibility, of whom 1277 patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group. In the primary (complete-case) analysis at 144 weeks, 317 (86%) of 367 in the protease inhibitor plus NRTI group had viral loads of less than 400 copies per mL compared with 312 (81%) of 383 in the protease inhibitor plus raltegravir group (p=0·07; lower 95% confidence limit for difference 10·2% vs specified non-inferiority margin 10%). In the protease inhibitor monotherapy group, 292 (78%) of 375 had viral loads of less than 400 copies per mL; p=0·003 versus the protease inhibitor plus NRTI group at 144 weeks. There was no difference between groups in serious adverse events, grade 3 or 4 adverse events (total or ART-related), or events that resulted in treatment modification. Interpretation Protease inhibitor plus raltegravir offered no advantage over protease inhibitor plus NRTI in virological efficacy or safety. In the primary analysis, protease inhibitor plus raltegravir did not meet non-inferiority criteria. A regimen of protease inhibitor with NRTIs remains the best standardised second-line regimen for use in programmes in resource-limited settings. Funding European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP), UK Medical Research Council, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Irish Aid, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Instituto Superiore di Sanita, Merck, ViiV Healthcare, WHO.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T08:45:44Z
       
  • WHO delays guinea-worm disease eradication to 2020: are dogs the sole
           culprits'
    • Authors: Teresa
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 17, Issue 11
      Author(s): M Teresa Galán-Puchades


      PubDate: 2017-11-02T08:22:14Z
       
  • Corrections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2017
      Source:The Lancet Infectious Diseases


      PubDate: 2017-09-15T08:05:21Z
       
 
 
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