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Journal Cover British Journal of Psychiatry
  [SJR: 2.674]   [H-I: 178]   [176 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0007-1250 - ISSN (Online) 1472-1465
   Published by Royal College of Psychiatrists Homepage  [3 journals]
  • Highlights of this issue [Highlights of this issue]
    • Authors: Tracy D. K.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.211.5.A19
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Shrink rethink: rebranding psychiatry [EDITORIALS]
    • Authors: Crabb, J; Barber, L, Masson, N.
      Pages: 259 - 261
      Abstract: Negative public attitudes towards psychiatry hinder individuals coming for treatment and prevent us from attracting and retaining the very brightest and best doctors. As psychiatrists we are skilled in using science to change the thoughts and behaviours of individuals, however, we lack the skills to engage entire populations. Expertise in this field is the preserve of branding, advertising and marketing professionals. Techniques from these fields can be used to rebrand psychiatry at a variety of levels from national recruitment drives to individual clinical interactions between psychiatrists and their patients.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.116.197210
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Schizophrenia - an anxiety disorder' [EDITORIALS]
    • Authors: Hall J.
      Pages: 262 - 263
      Abstract: Anxiety and affective symptoms are prominent features of schizophrenia which are often present in the prodromal phase of the illness and preceding psychotic relapses. A number of studies suggest that genetic risk for the disorder may be associated with increased anxiety long before the onset of psychotic symptoms. Targeting anxiety symptoms may represent an important strategy for primary and secondary prevention in schizophrenia.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.116.195370
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Suicide prevention in low- and middle-income countries: part perceptions,
           partial solutions [EDITORIALS]
    • Authors: Jacob K. S.
      Pages: 264 - 265
      Abstract: Suicide, a common cause of death in many low- and middle-income countries, has often been viewed through a medical/psychiatric lens. Such perspectives medicalise social and personal distress and suggest individual and medication-based treatments. This editorial argues for the need to examine suicide from a public health perspective and suggests the need for population-based social and economic interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.198150
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Confusing procedures with process when appraising the impact of cognitive
           bias modification on emotional vulnerability{dagger} [Analysis]
    • Authors: Grafton, B; MacLeod, C, Rudaizky, D, Holmes, E. A, Salemink, E, Fox, E, Notebaert, L.
      Pages: 266 - 271
      Abstract: If meta-analysis is to provide valuable answers, then it is critical to ensure clarity about the questions being asked. Here, we distinguish two important questions concerning cognitive bias modification research that are not differentiated in the meta-analysis recently published by Cristea et al (2015) in this journal: (1) do the varying procedures that investigators have employed with the intention of modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability'; and (2) does the process of successfully modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability' We reanalyse the data from Cristea et al to address this latter question. Our new analyses demonstrate that successfully modifying cognitive bias does significantly alter emotional vulnerability. We revisit Cristea et al's conclusions in light of these findings.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.115.176123
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Invited commentary on ... Confusing procedures with process in cognitive
           bias modification research{dagger} [Invited commentary]
    • Authors: Cristea, I. A; Kok, R. N, Cuijpers, P.
      Pages: 272 - 273
      Abstract: The notion that cognitive bias modification should be appraised exclusively on the basis of trials where its postulated mechanisms were successfully changed starkly contradicts the standards of evidence-based psychotherapy. In the laboratory or as a treatment, cognitive bias modification cannot continue to eschew the rigorous scrutiny applied to other interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.200972
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Can psychotherapy replace the void left by religion in a modern
           post-religious society' First-person account - extra [Extras]
    • Authors: Hofert K.
      Pages: 273 - 273
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.200964
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Behavioural activation for depression in older people: systematic review
           and meta-analysis [REVIEW ARTICLES]
    • Authors: Orgeta, V; Brede, J, Livingston, G.
      Pages: 274 - 279
      Abstract: BackgroundBehavioural activation is an effective treatment for depression in the general adult population but it is unclear whether it is effective for older people.AimsTo systematically review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural activation for depression in older people.MethodWe searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and online trial registers for RCTs of behavioural activation for depression in older people.ResultsEighteen trials were included in the meta-analyses. Behavioural activation reduced mean depression scores for older people living in the community as a stand-alone treatment: standardised mean difference (SMD) –0.72, 95% Cl –1.04 to –0.41. It was also effective as part of a multicomponent intervention (SMD –0.44, 95% CI –0.56 to –0.32).ConclusionsBehavioural activation significantly reduces depressive symptoms in older people in the community; however, given that most studies are small and with significant bias results should be interpreted with caution. Further high-quality trials of behavioural activation for this age group are needed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.205021
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Childhood adversities and post-traumatic stress disorder: evidence for
           stress sensitisation in the World Mental Health Surveys [PAPERS]
    • Authors: McLaughlin, K. A; Koenen, K. C, Bromet, E. J, Karam, E. G, Liu, H, Petukhova, M, Ruscio, A. M, Sampson, N. A, Stein, D. J, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Alonso, J, Borges, G, Demyttenaere, K, Dinolova, R. V, Ferry, F, Florescu, S, de Girolamo, G, Gureje, O, Kawakami, N, Lee, S, Navarro-Mateu, F, Piazza, M, Pennell, B.-E, Posada-Villa, J, ten Have, M, Viana, M. C, Kessler, R. C.
      Pages: 280 - 288
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough childhood adversities are known to predict increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic experiences, it is unclear whether this association varies by childhood adversity or traumatic experience types or by age.AimsTo examine variation in associations of childhood adversities with PTSD according to childhood adversity types, traumatic experience types and life-course stage.MethodEpidemiological data were analysed from the World Mental Health Surveys (n = 27 017).ResultsFour childhood adversities (physical and sexual abuse, neglect, parent psychopathology) were associated with similarly increased odds of PTSD following traumatic experiences (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8), whereas the other eight childhood adversities assessed did not predict PTSD. Childhood adversity–PTSD associations did not vary across traumatic experience types, but were stronger in childhood-adolescence and early-middle adulthood than later adulthood.ConclusionsChildhood adversities are differentially associated with PTSD, with the strongest associations in childhood–adolescence and early-middle adulthood. Consistency of associations across traumatic experience types suggests that childhood adversities are associated with generalised vulnerability to PTSD following traumatic experiences.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.116.197640
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • 'A Week Before Examination by Lucretia Maria Davidson (1808-1825) -
           psychiatry in history [Extras]
    • Authors: Ayonrinde O.
      Pages: 288 - 288
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.204032
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Adult disinhibited social engagement in adoptees exposed to extreme
           institutional deprivation: examination of its clinical status and
           functional impact [PAPERS]
    • Authors: Kennedy, M; Kreppner, J, Knights, N, Kumsta, R, Maughan, B, Golm, D, Hill, J, Rutter, M, Schlotz, W, Sonuga-Barke, E.
      Pages: 289 - 295
      Abstract: BackgroundEarly-life institutional deprivation produces disinhibited social engagement (DSE). Portrayed as a childhood condition, little is known about the persistence of DSE-type behaviours into, presentation during, and their impact on, functioning in adulthood.AimsWe examine these issues in the young adult follow-up of the English and Romanian Adoptees study.MethodA total of 122 of the original 165 Romanian adoptees who had spent up to 43 months as children in Ceausescu's Romanian orphanages and 42 UK adoptees were assessed for DSE behaviours, neurodevelopmental and mental health problems, and impairment between ages 2 and 25 years.ResultsYoung adult DSE behaviour was strongly associated with early childhood deprivation, with a sixfold increase for those who spent more than 6 months in institutions. However, although DSE overlapped with autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms it was not, in itself, related to broader patterns of mental health problems or impairments in daily functioning in young adulthood.ConclusionsDSE behaviour remained a prominent, but largely clinically benign, young adult feature of some adoptees who experienced early deprivation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.200618
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Changing the obesogenic environment to improve cardiometabolic health in
           residential patients with a severe mental illness: cluster randomised
           controlled trial [PAPERS]
    • Authors: Looijmans, A; Stiekema, A. P. M, Bruggeman, R, van der Meer, L, Stolk, R. P, Schoevers, R. A, Jörg, F, Corpeleijn, E.
      Pages: 296 - 303
      Abstract: BackgroundFor patients with severe mental illness (SMI) in residential facilities, adopting a healthy lifestyle is hampered by the obesity promoting (obesogenic) environment.AimsTo determine the effectiveness of a 12-month lifestyle intervention addressing the obesogenic environment with respect to diet and physical activity to improve waist circumference and cardiometabolic risk factors v. care as usual (Dutch Trial Registry: NTR2720).MethodIn a multisite cluster randomised controlled pragmatic trial, 29 care teams were randomised into 15 intervention (365 patients) and 14 control teams (371 patients). Intervention staff were trained to improve the obesogenic environment.ResultsWaist circumference decreased 1.51 cm (95% CI –2.99 to –0.04) in the intervention v. control group after 3 months and metabolic syndrome z-score decreased 0.22 s.d. (95% CI –0.38 to –0.06). After 12 months, the decrease in waist circumference was no longer statistically significantly different (–1.28 cm, 95% CI –2.79 to 0.23, P=0.097).ConclusionsTargeting the obesogenic environment of residential patients with SMI has the potential to facilitate reduction of abdominal adiposity and cardiometabolic risk, but maintaining initial reductions over the longer term remains challenging.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.199315
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • The Clearing - poems by doctors [Extras]
    • Authors: Racey D.
      Pages: 303 - 303
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.204479
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Effect of stage, comorbidities and treatment on survival among cancer
           patients with or without mental illness [PAPERS]
    • Authors: Manderbacka, K; Arffman, M, Suvisaari, J, Ahlgren-Rimpiläinen, A, Lumme, S, Keskimäki, I, Pukkala, E.
      Pages: 304 - 309
      Abstract: BackgroundEarlier research suggests poorer outcome of cancer care among people with severe mental illness (SMI).AimsTo assess the effect of stage at presentation, comorbidities and treatment on differences in survival among cancer patients with and without a history of SMI in Finland.MethodThe total population with a first cancer diagnosis in 1990–2013 was drawn from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Hospital admissions because of SMI and deaths were obtained from administrative registers. We calculated Kaplan–Meier estimates and Cox regression models to examine survival differences.ResultsWe found excess mortality in people with a history of psychotic and substance use disorders. Cancer stage and comorbidity did not explain mortality differences. Controlling for cancer treatment decreased the differences. The mortality gap between patients with psychosis and cancer patients without SMI increased over time.ConclusionsIntegrated medical and psychiatric care is needed to improve outcomes of cancer care among patients with SMI.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.198952
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • A Monster Calls - dissociation in children's literature - reflection
    • Authors: Ghoshal, N; Wilkinson, P. O.
      Pages: 309 - 309
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.199620
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Work-related ill health in doctors working in Great Britain: incidence
           rates and trends [PAPERS]
    • Authors: Zhou, A. Y; Carder, M, Gittins, M, Agius, R.
      Pages: 310 - 315
      Abstract: BackgroundDoctors have a higher prevalence of mental ill health compared with other professional occupations but incidence rates are poorly studied.AimsTo determine incidence rates and trends of work-related ill health (WRIH) and work-related mental ill health (WRMIH) in doctors compared with other professions in Great Britain.MethodIncidence rates were calculated using an occupational physician reporting scheme from 2005–2010. Multilevel regression was use to study incidence rates from 2001 to 2014.ResultsAnnual incidence rates for WRIH and WRIMH in doctors were 515 and 431 per 100 000 people employed, respectively. Higher incidence rates for WRIH and WRMIH were observed for ambulance staff and nurses, respectively. Doctors demonstrated an annual average incidence rates increase for WRIH and WRMIH, especially in women, whereas the other occupations demonstrated a decreasing or static trend. The difference in trends between the occupations was statistically significant.ConclusionsWRIH and WRMIH incidence rate are increasing in doctors, especially in women, warranting further research.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.202929
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Relationships between anti-stigma programme awareness, disclosure comfort
           and intended help-seeking regarding a mental health problem [PAPERS]
    • Authors: Henderson, C; Robinson, E, Evans-Lacko, S, Thornicroft, G.
      Pages: 316 - 322
      Abstract: BackgroundAnti-stigma programmes should aim to increase disclosure to those who can support someone with a mental health problem and appropriate professional help-seeking.AimsWe investigated associations among public awareness of England's Time to Change anti-stigma campaign and: (a) comfort envisaged in disclosing a mental health problem to family and friends; (b) comfort in disclosing to an employer; and (c) intended professional help-seeking from a general practitioner, i.e. a physician working in primary care.MethodUsing data from a survey of a nationally representative sample of adults, we created separate logistic regression models to test for campaign awareness and other variables as predictors of comfort in disclosure and intended help-seeking.ResultsWe found positive relationships between campaign awareness and comfort in disclosing to family and friends (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% CI 1.14–1.43) and to a current or prospective employer (OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.06–1.35); and likelihood of help-seeking (OR=1.18 95% CI 1.03–1.36).ConclusionsAwareness of an anti-stigma campaign was associated with greater comfort in disclosing a mental health problem and intended help-seeking.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.116.195867
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Psychiatry and Racial Liberalism in Harlem, 1936-1968 [Book reviews]
    • Pages: 323 - 323
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.116.197764
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Psychoanalysis in Britain 1893-1913: Histories and Historiography [Book
    • Pages: 323 - 324
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.203851
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Prozak Diaries: Psychiatry and Generational Memory in Iran [Book reviews]
    • Pages: 324 - 324
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.205609
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Transgender Children and Youth: Cultivating Pride and Joy with Families in
           Transition [Book reviews]
    • Pages: 324 - 325
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.117.202895
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Kaleidoscope [Kaleidoscope]
    • Authors: Tracy, D. K; Joyce, D. W, Shergill, S. S.
      Pages: 327 - 328
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.211.5.327
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
  • Positive brands for brain, mind and body [From the Editor's desk]
    • Authors: Bhui K.
      Pages: 329 - 330
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T00:05:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1192/bjp.211.5.329
      Issue No: Vol. 211, No. 5 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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