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Journal Cover Academy of Management Journal
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   ISSN (Print) 0001-4273 - ISSN (Online) 1948-0989
   Published by Academy of Management Homepage  [6 journals]
  • An Inconvenient Truth: How Organizations Translate Climate Change into
           Business as Usual
    • Authors: Christopher Wright; Daniel Nyberg
      Pages: 1633 - 1661
      Abstract: Climate change represents the grandest of challenges facing humanity. In the space of two centuries of industrial development, human civilization has changed the chemistry of the atmosphere and oceans, with devastating consequences. Business organizations are central to this challenge, in that they support the production of escalating greenhouse gas emissions but also offer innovative ways to decarbonize our economies. In this paper, we examine how businesses respond to climate change. Based on five in-depth case studies of major Australian corporations over a 10-year period (2005–2015), we identify three key stages in the corporate translation of climate change: framing, localizing, and normalizing. We develop a grounded model that explains how the revolutionary import of grand challenges is converted into the mundane and comfortable concerns of “business as usual.” We find that critique is the major driver of this process by continuously revealing the tensions between the demands of the grand challenge and business imperatives. Our paper contributes to the literature on business and the natural environment by identifying how and why corporate environmental initiatives deteriorate over time. More specifically, we highlight the policy limitations of a reliance on business and market responses to the climate crisis.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0718
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • Corporate Volunteering Climate: Mobilizing Employee Passion for Societal
           Causes and Inspiring Future Charitable Action
    • Authors: Jessica B. Rodell; Jonathan E. Booth, John W. Lynch, Kate P. Zipay
      Pages: 1662 - 1681
      Abstract: Today’s corporations are increasingly engaging in efforts to address societal concerns ranging from hunger and poverty to education and financial stability, predominantly through corporate volunteering. Yet, because research has been focused on the individual volunteer we still know relatively little about how corporate volunteering can help address grand challenges. In this study, we introduce the concept of “corporate volunteering climate” in order to examine the broader, more system-level functioning of corporate volunteering in workplaces. Drawing on the sensemaking process, we theorize about how this climate develops—to what extent is it driven by company-level policies versus employee convictions for a cause' We also explore the potential influence of corporate volunteering climate for volunteers and non-volunteers, in terms of the workplace (through employee affective commitment) and the community (through employee intentions to volunteer, whether through corporate opportunities or personally). The results of a study conducted with United Way Worldwide suggest that corporate volunteering climate arises through both employee belief in the cause and corporate policies, and that these forces act as substitutes for each other. Moreover, by fostering a sense of collective pride among employees, this climate is related to affective commitment, and corporate and personal volunteering intentions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0726
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • Masters of Disasters' An Empirical Analysis of How Societies Benefit
           from Corporate Disaster Aid
    • Authors: Luis Ballesteros; Michael Useem, Tyler Wry
      Pages: 1682 - 1708
      Abstract: Corporations are increasingly influential within societies worldwide, while the relative capacity of national governments to meet large social needs has waned. Consequentially, firms face social pressures to adopt responsibilities that have traditionally fallen to governments, aid agencies, and other types of organizations. There are questions, though, about whether this is beneficial for society. We study this in the context of disaster relief and recovery, in which companies account for a growing share of aid, as compared to traditional providers. Drawing on the dynamic capabilities literature, we argue that firms are more able than other types of organizations to sense areas of need following a disaster, seize response opportunities, and reconfigure resources for fast, effective relief efforts. As such, we predict that, while traditional aid providers remain important for disaster recovery, relief will arrive faster and nations will recover more fully when locally active firms account for a larger share of disaster aid. We test our predictions with a proprietary data set comprising information on every natural disaster and reported aid donation worldwide from 2003 to 2013. Using a novel, quasi-experimental technique known as the “synthetic control method,” our analysis shows that nations benefit greatly from corporate involvement when disaster strikes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0765
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • Networks, Technology, and Entrepreneurship: A Field Quasi-experiment among
           Women in Rural India
    • Authors: Viswanath Venkatesh; Jason D. Shaw, Tracy Ann Sykes, Samuel Fosso Wamba, Mary Macharia
      Pages: 1709 - 1740
      Abstract: We address a grand economic challenge faced by women in rural India. We consider the interplay of women’s social networks (ties to family, to community, and to men in power), information and communication technology (ICT) use, and time in relating to the initiation and success of women’s entrepreneurial ventures. Results from a seven-year field quasi-experiment in 20 rural villages in India support the model. Ties to family and community positively, and to men in power negatively, relate to ICT use, entrepreneurial activity, and entrepreneurial profit. ICT intervention also strongly impacts entrepreneurship, with 160 new businesses in the 10 intervention villages compared to 40 in the controls. Results also demonstrate the dynamic interplay of social networks and ICT use. For ties to family and community, the amplification effect is such that the highest levels of entrepreneurial activity and success are observed among women with high centrality and ICT use—effects that increase over time. For ties to men in power, ICT use is associated with increased entrepreneurial activity only when these ties are low, but these interactive temporary temporal patterns do not emerge for profit. We address implications for the grand challenges of empowering women in less developed countries.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0849
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • The Danger of Not Listening to Firms: Government Responsiveness and the
           Goal of Regulatory Compliance
    • Authors: Edmund Malesky; Markus Taussig
      Pages: 1741 - 1770
      Abstract: Firms in emerging economies exhibit dangerously low rates of compliance with government regulations aimed at protecting society from the negative externalities of their operations. This study builds on individual-level theories from organizational behavior (procedural justice) and political science (deliberative democracy) to develop new firm-level theory on the mechanism by which a firm is more likely to comply with a regulation after participating in its design by government. We hypothesize and find supporting evidence that such participation increases the likelihood of compliance by positively shaping the firm’s view of government legitimacy, but only if the firm views government as responsive to its input. Without this responsiveness, regulatory compliance is even less likely than if the firm did not participate at all. Our empirical work is novel in its focus on the political activities of firms not only within the authoritarian-ruled emerging economy context of Vietnam, but also through study of a highly representative sample dominated by small and medium sized enterprises. We discuss how our work contributes to nonmarket strategy literatures on corporate social responsibility, self-regulation, and corporate political activity, as well as its implications for public policy.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0722
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • High-Stakes Institutional Translation: Establishing North America’s
           First Government-sanctioned Supervised Inȷection Site
    • Authors: Thomas B. Lawrence
      Pages: 1771 - 1800
      Abstract: Around the world, potentially effective responses to serious social problems are left untried because those responses are politically, culturally, or morally problematic in affected communities. I describe the process through which communities import such practices as “high-stakes institutional translation.” Drawing on a study of North America’s first supervised injection site for users of illegal drugs, I propose a process model of high-stakes institutional translation that involves a triggering period of public expressions of intense emotion, followed by waves of translations in which the controversial practice is constructed in discursive and material terms many times over.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0714
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • How does a Grand Challenge Become Displaced' Explaining the Duality of
           Field Mobilization
    • Authors: Stine Grodal; SiobhAn O’Mahony
      Pages: 1801 - 1827
      Abstract: “Grand challenges” are complex problems with far-reaching societal implications that lack a clear solution. To make progress, diverse communities often coalesce around an ambitious field goal. However, many field initiatives fall short of their initial objectives. When fields mobilize for a grand challenge, what inhibits them from realizing their intended ambitions' This is a critical question not only for grand challenges, but also for institutional theory, which tends to focus on field mobilization rather than on how goals are pursued over time. Field scholars often assume stable participants with goals that easily translate into actions, but fields are dynamic and unlikely to comply with these assumptions. With a longitudinal, multimethod study of the nanotechnology field, we examined how five communities mobilized and pursued the grand challenge of creating molecular manufacturing from 1986 to 2005. We identify a key duality of mobilization: the very strategies employed to successfully mobilize diverse participants to support the grand challenge actually helped displace it with less ambitious goals. We develop a grounded theoretical model explaining goal displacement in the context of grand challenges, and, in so doing, contribute a dynamic political understanding of field-level strategic action.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0890
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • Unpacking the CEO-Board Relationship: How Strategy Making Happens in
           Entrepreneurial Firms
    • Authors: Sam Garg; Kathleen M. Eisenhardt
      Pages: 1828 - 1858
      Abstract: We examine how venture CEOs effectively engage their boards in the strategy-making process. Using the inductive multiple-case study approach, we track CEO–board interactions inside and outside the boardroom in depth and over time through rare observations of board meetings and rich interview access to CEOs and their boards of directors. Our primary theoretical contributions are to the resource dependence perspective. We clarify the resource versus power tradeoff as a fundamental tension in venture CEO–board relationships. Further, we add a much-needed process framework to resource dependence by highlighting how venture CEOs use four behaviors to resolve this tradeoff in an effective strategy-making process. Finally, we contribute a fresh view of the venture CEO–board relationship—i.e., spotlighting the CEO (not board) and boards as CEO–director dyads (not groups). We conclude by noting implications for other key corporate governance perspectives, and indicating boundary conditions for our framework. Overall, we deepen the conversation at the nexus of resource dependence theory and venture governance.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2014.0599
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • Self-reliance: A Gender Perspective on its Relationship to Communality and
           Leadership Evaluations
    • Authors: Rebecca L. Schaumberg; Francis J. Flynn
      Pages: 1859 - 1881
      Abstract: We posit a female advantage in the relationship between self-reliance and leadership evaluations. We test this prediction in four studies. First, using multi-rater evaluations of young managers, we find that self-reliance relates positively to leadership evaluations for women, but not for men. Next, in each of three experiments, we manipulate the gender of a leader and the agentic trait he or she displays (e.g., self-reliance, dominance, no discrete agentic trait). We find that self-reliant female leaders are evaluated as better leaders than self-reliant male leaders are. In contrast, we find a male advantage or no gender advantage for dominant leaders or leaders who are described positively, but not in terms of any discrete agentic trait. Consistent with expectancy violation theory, the female advantage in the relationship between self-reliance and leadership evaluations emerges because self-reliant female leaders are seen as similarly competent, but more communal, than self-reliant male leaders are. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the effects of self-reliance, gender stereotypes, and stereotype violations on leadership evaluations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0018
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • Red Queen Competitive Imitation in the U.K. Mobile Phone Industry
    • Authors: Claudio Giachetti; Joseph Lampel, Stefano Li Pira
      Pages: 1882 - 1914
      Abstract: This paper uses Red Queen competition theory to examine competitive imitation. We conceptualize imitative actions by a focal firm and its rivals along two dimensions: imitation scope, which describes the extent to which a firm imitates a wide range (as opposed to a narrow range) of new product technologies introduced by rivals; and imitation speed, namely the pace at which it imitates these technologies. We argue that focal firm imitation scope and imitation speed drive performance, as well as imitation scope and speed decisions by rivals, which in turn influence focal firm performance. We also argue that the impact of this self-reinforcing Red Queen process on firms’ actions and performance is contingent on levels of product technology heterogeneity—defined as the extent to which the industry has multiple designs, resulting in product variety. We test our hypotheses using imitative actions by mobile phone vendors and their sales performance in the U.K. from 1997 to 2008.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0295
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • When Can Humble Top Executives Retain Middle Managers' The Moderating
           Role of Top Management Team Faultlines
    • Authors: Amy Y. Ou; Jungmin (Jamie) Seo, Dongwon Choi, Peter W. Hom
      Pages: 1915 - 1931
      Abstract: Top management in organizations must effectively retain middle managers (MMs)—who are central linking pins in strategy processes—as loss of their human and social capital can threaten strategy implementation. While long envisioning how leaders motivate subordinates to stay, management scholars have largely neglected how teams in which leaders belong (e.g., top management teams [TMT]) constitute an organizational context that moderates their ability to retain subordinates. Building on recent theory and research that a leader’s humility discourages subordinates from voluntarily departing by increasing their job satisfaction, we propose that faultlines in TMTs can exert cross-level effects attenuating how humble executives sustain MMs’ job satisfaction, and how MMs’ job dissatisfaction drives their voluntary turnover. We verify these effects with a multisource, multiphase dataset of 43 TMTs, 313 top executives, and 502 MMs. Our study thus bridges the macro and micro divide to offer a multilevel inquiry into contextual influences on voluntary turnover, identifies a boundary condition for leader humility effects, and clarifies how TMT faultlines represent a contextual constraint on how top executives induce MM subordinates to stay.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.1072
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • When Does Corporate Social Responsibility Reduce Employee Turnover'
           Evidence from Attorneys Before and After 9/11
    • Authors: Seth Carnahan; David Kryscynski, Daniel Olson
      Pages: 1932 - 1962
      Abstract: This study places important boundary conditions on the generally accepted notion that CSR will reduce turnover. Our primary argument is that CSR will be most effective at reducing turnover that is motivated by a preference for more meaningfulness at work. We find empirical support for this idea using microdata on attorneys employed by large law firms. We find that firms with higher levels of CSR have moderately lower rates of turnover to startup law firms and turnover through occupation changes, moves which are more likely to be motivated by a preference for meaningfulness than moves to nonstartup law firms. Strikingly, the retention benefits of CSR are much stronger after attorneys experience mortality-related shocks that likely cause them to reevaluate their jobs (i.e., for New York City-born attorneys following the 9/11 terror attacks). To our surprise, we also find that firms with higher levels of CSR experience higher turnover rates to nonstartup law firms. In addition to our arguments about the importance of meaningfulness, the study provides two important extensions to work examining CSR and turnover: (1) it may be useful to view the CSR-turnover relationship through a risk-management lens, and (2) investments in CSR may increase employee departures from organizations under certain conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0032
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • Shady Characters: The Implications of Illicit Organizational Roles for
           Resilient Team Performance
    • Authors: H. Colleen Stuart; Celia Moore
      Pages: 1963 - 1985
      Abstract: In this paper we theorize about illicit roles and explore their effects on resilient team performance. We define an illicit role as one whose occupants specialize in activity forbidden by the law, regulatory bodies, or professional societies, in the belief that doing so provides a competitive advantage. Using longitudinal data on professional hockey teams, we examine the enforcer—a player who specializes in the prohibited activity of fighting. We find that team performance is more disrupted by the injury of an enforcer than by the injury of occupants of other formal roles on the team. In addition, team performance recovers more slowly after this setback to the extent the team tries to replace an enforcer, and the performance disruptions associated with his exit are magnified as a function of his experience with his team. We use these findings to develop new theory about organizational roles that operate outside official channels and formal structures. We suggest that such role occupants are more difficult to replace than their formal counterparts, in part because to enact these roles effectively requires experience in the local social context.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2014.0512
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • Knowledge Dependence and the Formation of Director Interlocks
    • Authors: Michael D. Howard; Michael C. Withers, Laszlo Tihanyi
      Pages: 1986 - 2013
      Abstract: In this study, we examine knowledge dependence, a unique form of external dependence firms face when they pursue new technologies. Our focus is on the formation of interorganizational ties as a means to manage the firm’s knowledge dependence. Studying the board interlock ties of 717 technology-based firms in 2002–2006, we find that tie formation is more likely when an external counterpart is more closely aligned with the global trajectory of the focal firm’s core technology and when the counterpart is more active in defending its intellectual property in this area. As a result of the interlock, the firm is more likely to gain access to the counterpart firm’s knowledge resources through research and development alliances and forestall litigation barriers in the use of core technologies. Our findings provide important theoretical implications for the unique role of knowledge resources in interorganizational dependence and tie formation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0499
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
  • Male Immorality: An Evolutionary Account of Sex Differences in Unethical
           Negotiation Behavior
    • Authors: Margaret Lee; Marko Pitesa, Madan M. Pillutla, Stefan Thau
      Pages: 2014 - 2044
      Abstract: Past research has found that men negotiate more unethically than women, although many studies report comparable rates of unethical negotiation behaviors. Based on evolutionary psychology, we predict conditions under which sex differences in unethical negotiation behavior are more versus less pronounced. We theorize that greater levels of unethical behavior among men occur because of greater male intrasexual competition for mates. This suggests that more male unethical negotiation behavior should primarily emerge in situations associated with intrasexual competition. Using a two-wave survey design, Study 1 found a positive relationship between mating motivation and unethical negotiation behavior for male, but not female, employees. Study 2 was a controlled experiment, replicating this effect and showing that the gender difference was most pronounced when negotiating with same-sex, attractive opponents. Study 3 used a similar experimental design and found support for another implication of evolutionary theory—that mating motivation would prompt unethical behavior in both men and women when the behavior constitutes a less severe norm violation. We discuss contributions to the literature on unethical behavior at work, negotiations, and the role of attractiveness in organizations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19T13:05:22-07:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0461
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 5 (2017)
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