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Journal Cover Academy of Management Journal
  [SJR: 10.317]   [H-I: 227]   [301 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0001-4273 - ISSN (Online) 1948-0989
   Published by Academy of Management Homepage  [6 journals]
  • The Suitability of Simulations and Meta-Analyses for Submissions to
           Academy of Management Journal
    • Authors: Jason D. Shaw; Gokhan Ertug
      Pages: 2045 - 2049
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2017.4006
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • Pliable Guidance: A Multilevel Model of Curiosity, Feedback Seeking, and
           Feedback Giving in Creative Work
    • Authors: Spencer H. Harrison; Karyn Dossinger
      Pages: 2051 - 2072
      Abstract: We propose and test a multilevel model that positions trait curiosity as a key individual difference during the revision and evaluation stages of the creative process. Using a sample of T-shirt designers, their creative drafts, and the questions and comments that feedback seekers and providers posted to an online workshop, we find curiosity acts as a bridge connecting creative workers with their feedback providers in novel ways. We advance pliable guidance as a theoretical umbrella to describe how feedback seekers and providers in creative work find a balance between the direction that makes feedback informative and the freedom to explore that infuses new ideas in their work. Our findings show that more curious individuals seek feedback by asking more open questions, which allows them to obtain more feedback. We also find that ambivalent feedback is more likely to lead to feedback acceptance and design revision. Finally, our results suggest that curiosity is an important moderator of how creative workers respond to ambivalent feedback. Our research highlights the pivotal role curiosity plays in drawing individuals into a collaborative process when developing their creative ideas, one that is guided and inspired by the social environment.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0247
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • Language and Competition: Communication Vagueness, Interpretation
           Difficulties, and Market Entry
    • Authors: Wei Guo; Tieying Yu, Javier Gimeno
      Pages: 2073 - 2098
      Abstract: Firms have a lot to lose from the entry of competitors into their markets. Grounded in the research on interfirm rivalry and strategic communication, we proposed and tested hypotheses suggesting that, when the managers of incumbent firms perceive a high threat of entry, they are more likely to use vagueness in their corporate communications to make their strategies and actions harder to discern. This lessened interpretation results in fewer competitive entries by potential entrants. We used computerized content analysis to quantify the use of vague language in incumbent firms’ annual reports and empirically tested our hypotheses through data from the U.S. domestic airline industry. We found robust support for our hypotheses. By revealing that strategic use of language shapes competitive interactions, our research sheds new light on the process through which information is delivered, received, and interpreted by rivals. This process is at the heart of competitive dynamics and strategy research.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2014.1150
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • The Value of Voice to Managers: Employee Identification and the Content of
    • Authors: Ethan R. Burris; Kevin W. Rockmann, Yurianna S. Kimmons
      Pages: 2099 - 2125
      Abstract: Previous research on employee voice has aimed to understand the antecedents and outcomes of the frequency of speaking up. Yet, how these antecedents translate into outcomes may depend on what employees speak up about and its implications for implementation. We engage in three studies to explore what individuals speak up about, why they speak up about those things, and the consequences of voicing such content. First, through a qualitative field study, we find evidence for three dimensions of voice content: the importance of initiating change, the required resources to enact the desired change, and the interdependencies involved in implementing the desired change. Further, specific targets of identification—either one’s local work unit or one’s broader profession—shape whether the issues individuals raise take into account barriers related to resources and interdependencies. Next, in a quantitative field study, we find that voicing on issues related to one’s work unit or profession mediates the relationship between employee identification and managers’ valuation of voice. Finally, in an experiment, we manipulate importance, resources, and interdependencies of implementation and find these dimensions of voice content influence managerial value of voice. These results offer meaningful theoretical implications for the literatures on employee voice and identification.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2014.0320
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • Design Performances: How Organizations Inscribe Artifacts to Change
    • Authors: Vern L. Glaser
      Pages: 2126 - 2154
      Abstract: Organizations often create and employ artifacts in order to change their routines, but little is known about how artifacts can be designed to intentionally influence routine dynamics. In this paper, I present findings from an inductive, ethnographic study of how a law enforcement agency fabricated a game-theoretic artifact to modify its patrolling routine. Based on my in-depth analysis of the actions associated with creating this game-theoretic artifact, I develop a theoretical model that shows how organizational actors iteratively engage in a series of design performances to envision new sociomaterial assemblages of actors, artifacts, theories, and practices. These design performances influence routine dynamics by both eliciting mechanisms of abstracting grammars of action, exposing assumptions, distributing agency, and appraising outcomes, and by creating new assemblages that can be deployed in future routine performances. By revealing the generativity of design performances and sociomaterial assemblages, this empirical study contributes to our understanding of routine dynamics, performativity, and strategy tools.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2014.0842
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • Pay-for-performance, Sometimes: An Interdisciplinary Approach to
           Integrating Economic Rationality with Psychological Emotion to Predict
           Individual Performance
    • Authors: Mark A. Maltarich; Anthony J. Nyberg, Greg Reilly, Dhuha “Dee” Abdulsalam, Melissa Martin
      Pages: 2155 - 2174
      Abstract: This interdisciplinary study integrates economics- and psychology-based explanations to promote a clearer understanding of how employees respond to the pay-for-performance (PFP) system. By examining the combined performance predictions in the common, but rarely studied, situation in which employees do not meet expectations, we can more clearly view how economic rationality and psychological factors combine to explain employee behaviors in response to PFP. We test our hypotheses using unique longitudinal data from the health care industry. The theoretical insights contribute to a PFP theory that explains how and why PFP functions, and in doing so reconciles prior research inconsistencies.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0737
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • How Organizations Move from Stigma to Legitimacy: The Case of Cook’s
           Travel Agency in Victorian Britain
    • Authors: Christian E. Hampel; Paul Tracey
      Pages: 2175 - 2207
      Abstract: Based on an in-depth historical study of how Thomas Cook’s travel agency moved from stigmatization to legitimacy among the elite of Victorian Britain, we develop a model of organizational destigmatization. We find that audiences stigmatize an organization because they fear that it threatens a particular moral order, which leads them to mount sustained attacks designed to weaken or eradicate the organization. Our model suggests that an organization that experiences this form of profound disapproval can nonetheless purge its stigma and become legitimate through a two-step process: first the organization engages in stigma reduction work designed to minimize overt hostility among audiences by showing that it does not pose a risk to them. Second it engages in stigma elimination work designed to gain support from stigmatizers by showing that it plays a positive role in society. Our study therefore reorients organizational stigma research from a focus on how organizations can cope with the effects of stigma, and considers instead how they can eradicate the stigma altogether. We also shed light on much neglected audience-level dynamics by examining the process through which audiences construct stigma and why these constructions may change.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0365
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • Discordant vs. Harmonious Selves: The Effects of Identity Conflict and
           Enhancement on Sales Performance in Employee-Customer Interactions
    • Authors: Lakshmi Ramarajan; Nancy P. Rothbard, Steffanie L. Wilk
      Pages: 2208 - 2238
      Abstract: Across multiple studies, we examine how identity conflict and enhancement within people affect performance in tasks that involve interactions between people. We also examine two mechanisms: role-immersion, operationalized as intrinsic motivation, and role-taking, operationalized as perspective-taking. In Study 1, a longitudinal field study of customer service representatives (n = 763) who simultaneously identify with multiple brands they represent to customers, we examine the relationships between identity conflict and enhancement, on the one hand, and objective sales performance, on the other. We find independent effects for identity conflict and enhancement on intrinsic motivation, perspective-taking and performance, such that identity conflict negatively and enhancement positively affects all three variables above and beyond average identification. Intrinsic motivation further mediates the relationships between identity conflict and enhancement on sales in a direction consistent with our theorizing. However, while significant, perspective-taking does not mediate these relationships in the expected direction, because it has a negative effect on sales. In Studies 2a and 2b, we strengthen causal inference using an experimental moderation-of-process approach to constructively replicate and extend our findings. The paper demonstrates how multiple identities within people can have consequences for performance in tasks that involve interactions between people.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2014.1142
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • Compromise on the Board: Investigating the Antecedents and Consequences of
           Lead Independent Director Appointment
    • Authors: Ryan Krause; Michael C. Withers, Matthew Semadeni
      Pages: 2239 - 2265
      Abstract: Board leadership has always been conceptualized as a tradeoff between two desirable yet mutually exclusive organizational attributes. Classical organization theory prescribes unity of command, achieved by combining the chief executive officer (CEO) and board chair positions; in contrast, agency theory prescribes independent monitoring, achieved by separating the CEO and board chair positions. Extant theory does not acknowledge the possibility that a compromise might exist between these competing theoretical prescriptions, one which might reduce their mutual exclusivity. Such a compromise has emerged in practice, however: the lead independent director. In the present research, we initiate theoretical exploration of this compromise between the prescriptions of agency theory and classical organization theory, addressing the questions of when a board will choose to appoint a lead independent director, who among the independent directors will serve in the position, how lead independent director appointment will impact firm performance, and whether this compromise is a permanent solution or a stepping stone to a more extreme outcome. Analysis of S&P 1500 firms from 2002 to 2012 reveals that lead independent director appointment reflects balanced power on the board, impacts firm performance positively under the right conditions, and generally becomes institutionalized as a permanent governance structure.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0852
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • Those with the Most Find It Hardest to Share: Exploring Leader Resistance
           to the Implementation of Team-based Empowerment
    • Authors: Greg L. Stewart; Stacy L. Astrove, Cody J. Reeves, Eean R. Crawford, Samantha L. Solimeo
      Pages: 2266 - 2293
      Abstract: We use a convergent parallel mixed methods approach to explore barriers to the successful implementation of a team-based empowerment initiative within the Veterans Health Administration. Although previous research has suggested that leaders often actively obstruct empowerment initiatives, little is known about the reasons behind and effects of such hindering. Using a longitudinal quasi-experimental design, we support a hypothesis that higher-status physician leaders are less successful than lower-status nonphysician leaders in implementing team-based empowerment. In parallel, we analyze qualitative data obtained through interviews conducted during early months of the team-based empowerment initiative to identify common themes for why and how leaders facilitated or obstructed implementation. Leader identity work and leader delegation were identified as themes explaining (1) why higher-status leaders struggled with the new empowering role and (2) how specific leader actions either facilitated or inhibited sharing of tasks and leadership. Results suggest that team-based empowerment creates a status threat for high-status leaders who then struggle to protect their old identity as someone with distinct professional capabilities, which in turn leads to improper delegation behavior. Therefore, in order for team-based empowerment to succeed, leaders may need to change their perceptions of who they are before they will change what they do.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.1173
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • Hidden Badge of Honor: How Contextual Distinctiveness Affects Category
           Promotion among Certified B Corporations
    • Authors: Joel Gehman; Matthew Grimes
      Pages: 2294 - 2320
      Abstract: Why would an organization pursue membership in an organizational category, yet forego opportunities to subsequently promote that membership' Drawing on prior research, we develop a theoretical model that distinguishes between basic and subordinate categories and highlights how organizations may differ in their promotion of the same subordinate category. We hypothesize that a subordinate category’s contextual distinctiveness within different basic categories increases promotion, and that these effects are amplified in relatively larger subordinate category peer groups. To test our hypotheses, we developed a proprietary web-based software toolset and gathered textual and graphical data regarding B Corporations’ web-based promotion of their certification. We supplemented our statistical analysis with interviews of Certified B Corporation entrepreneurs and executives. Our findings challenge prior assumptions about the causes of promotional forbearance, while extending our understanding of category distinctiveness within contexts as well as sources of intra-category variation.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0416
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • Constructing a Shared Governance Logic: The Role of Emotions in Enabling
           Dually Embedded Agency
    • Authors: Grace H. Fan; Charlene Zietsma
      Pages: 2321 - 2351
      Abstract: In a longitudinal qualitative study of a water stewardship council, we build theory about how and why actors embedded in disparate logics across multiple fields can overcome the constraints of their home logics to construct a new, shared governance logic together. Our findings suggest a recursive model of new logic construction in which council members mobilize three emotional facilitators (social emotions, moral emotions, and emotional energy) to affect three logic-construction cycles (agreeing on values, shared learning, and enacting shared values). Emotional facilitators work through three agentic mechanisms: enabling actors to become open and reflexive about their home logics and simultaneously increase their commitment to and engagement in constructing a shared governance logic. Ongoing interactions involving emotional facilitators, agentic mechanisms, and logic-construction cycles are essential in sustaining the new logic. The process model foregrounds the role of emotions in enabling dually embedded agency, thereby extending extant theory that has tended to focus narrowly on cognitive dynamics. We discuss implications for our understanding of institutional agency, the role of emotions in new logic construction, and the role of microlevel interactions in the formation of macrolevel structures.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0402
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • Moving from Abuse to Reconciliation: A Power-Dependence Perspective on
           When and How a Follower Can Break the Spiral of Abuse
    • Authors: Elijah X. M. Wee; Hui Liao, Dong Liu, Jun Liu
      Pages: 2352 - 2380
      Abstract: Despite the burgeoning research on abusive supervision, the literature lacks an in-depth understanding of how followers can successfully break the spiral of abusive supervision over time and influence their leaders to engage in reconciliatory behaviors following abusive supervision. Using power-dependence theory as our framework, we first examine the specific state of power dependence that predicts abusive supervision. We then theorize balancing operations as coping strategies that the follower can use to address the persistence of abusive supervision over time by changing the power imbalance within the dyad. We hypothesize that through the follower’s approach balancing operations, the leader is more likely to regard the abused follower as someone who is instrumental to his or her pursuit of goals and resources, resulting in a reduction in future abuse and an increase in the leader’s future reconciliation. After developing and validating measures of balancing operations, we test the hypotheses using a three-wave panel design with field data from a real estate company (Study 1). In addition, we strengthen our conclusions by replicating our results through a different field sample in a commercial bank (Study 2). The findings’ theoretical and practical implications for abusive supervision and followership are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0866
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • In The Beginning: Identity Processes and Organizing in Multi-Founder
           Nascent Ventures
    • Authors: E. Erin Powell; Ted Baker
      Pages: 2381 - 2414
      Abstract: We conducted a longitudinal field study of nine nascent ventures attempting to revitalize local municipalities to understand how and why identity processes shape organizing in multi-founder nascent ventures. We develop grounded theory and a process model showing how the patterning of founders’ social and role identities shapes early structuring processes, how this in turn influences the construction of a collective identity prototype and its attempted enforcement by an in-group, and how the overall process influences whether or not founders remain engaged in their joint organizing efforts. In some cases, founders’ identities adjust as they experience periods of pragmatic deference, contestation, and domination by an in-group that moves increasingly toward identity homophily. Our contributions extend the growing entrepreneurship literature on founder identity from an individual focus toward understanding how founding teams work through organizing issues, and from a focus on established organizations to exploring why and whether teams move forward in nascent ventures. We open up a series of important questions for future research about how founders become “who we are.”
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2015.0175
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
  • Is There a Doctor in the House' Expert Product Users, Organizational
           Roles, and Innovation
    • Authors: Riitta Katila; Sruthi Thatchenkery, Michael Q. Christensen, Stefanos Zenios
      Pages: 2415 - 2437
      Abstract: We explore the impact on innovation that domain experts, i.e., professional end users of a product have as inventors, executives, and board members in a young organization. Using a dataset of 231 surgical instrument ventures spanning a 25-year period alongside in-depth qualitative fieldwork, we find that professional physician–users (surgeons) strengthen innovation in some roles but block it in others. These experts are related to an increase in a firm’s innovation when they take a technology role as inventors, and particularly when they take a governance role on a fledgling firm’s board. However, despite their frequent involvement in executive roles, surgeon–executives are less likely to be helpful, and especially likely to block innovation, as chief executives. Our results emphasize expert users as a critical external dependency for a young firm’s innovation, but show that expertise can backfire when there is a mismatch with a particular organizational role. A key finding is that expert users are more helpful in suggesting a broad variety of solutions to a firm’s innovation problems but less helpful in selecting the best ones for the organization to pursue. Our findings have implications for research on the evolutionary perspective of innovation, user experts and their organizational roles in young firms, and entrepreneurial policy.
      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:32:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.5465/amj.2014.1112
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 6 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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