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Journal Cover Science
  Journal Prestige (SJR): 13.217
  Citation Impact (citeScore): 915
  Number of Followers: 3919  
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • A spotlight on great ape genomes
    • Authors: Zahn L. M.
      Pages: 1084
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-i
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • High-resolution comparative analysis of great ape genomes
    • Authors: Kronenberg, Z. N; Fiddes, I. T, Gordon, D, Murali, S, Cantsilieris, S, Meyerson, O. S, Underwood, J. G, Nelson, B. J, Chaisson, M. J. P, Dougherty, M. L, Munson, K. M, Hastie, A. R, Diekhans, M, Hormozdiari, F, Lorusso, N, Hoekzema, K, Qiu, R, Clark, K, Raja, A, Welch, A. E, Sorensen, M, Baker, C, Fulton, R. S, Armstrong, J, Graves-Lindsay, T. A, Denli, A. M, Hoppe, E. R, Hsieh, P, Hill, C. M, Pang, A. W. C, Lee, J, Lam, E. T, Dutcher, S. K, Gage, F. H, Warren, W. C, Shendure, J, Haussler, D, Schneider, V. A, Cao, H, Ventura, M, Wilson, R. K, Paten, B, Pollen, A, Eichler, E. E.
      Abstract: Genetic studies of human evolution require high-quality contiguous ape genome assemblies that are not guided by the human reference. We coupled long-read sequence assembly and full-length complementary DNA sequencing with a multiplatform scaffolding approach to produce ab initio chimpanzee and orangutan genome assemblies. By comparing these with two long-read de novo human genome assemblies and a gorilla genome assembly, we characterized lineage-specific and shared great ape genetic variation ranging from single– to mega–base pair–sized variants. We identified ~17,000 fixed human-specific structural variants identifying genic and putative regulatory changes that have emerged in humans since divergence from nonhuman apes. Interestingly, these variants are enriched near genes that are down-regulated in human compared to chimpanzee cerebral organoids, particularly in cells analogous to radial glial neural progenitors.
      Keywords: Genetics, Online Only
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar6343
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells amplify allergic asthma responses
    • Authors: Sui, P; Wiesner, D. L, Xu, J, Zhang, Y, Lee, J, Van Dyken, S, Lashua, A, Yu, C, Klein, B. S, Locksley, R. M, Deutsch, G, Sun, X.
      Abstract: Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are rare airway epithelial cells whose function is poorly understood. Here we show that Ascl1-mutant mice that have no PNECs exhibit severely blunted mucosal type 2 response in models of allergic asthma. PNECs reside in close proximity to group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) near airway branch points. PNECs act through calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to stimulate ILC2s and elicit downstream immune responses. In addition, PNECs act through the neurotransmitter -aminobutyric acid (GABA) to induce goblet cell hyperplasia. The instillation of a mixture of CGRP and GABA in Ascl1-mutant airways restores both immune and goblet cell responses. In accordance, lungs from human asthmatics show increased PNECs. These findings demonstrate that the PNEC-ILC2 neuroimmunological modules function at airway branch points to amplify allergic asthma responses.
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan8546
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Still not ready for Ebola
    • Authors: Frieden T. R.
      Pages: 1049 - 1049
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau3345
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 1050 - 1051
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1050
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • She studied Mexico City. Can she lead it, too'
    • Authors: Wade L.
      Pages: 1052 - 1053
      Keywords: Latin American News, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1052
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • China takes new steps to lure science talent from abroad
    • Authors: Normile D.
      Pages: 1053 - 1054
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1053
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • NASA Curiosity rover hits organic pay dirt on Mars
    • Authors: Voosen P.
      Pages: 1054 - 1055
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1054
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • No bias in NIH reviews'
    • Authors: Kaiser J.
      Pages: 1055 - 1055
      Keywords: Scientific Community, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1055
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Dig seeks site of first English settlement in the New World
    • Authors: Lawler A.
      Pages: 1056 - 1056
      Keywords: Anthropology, Sociology
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1056
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Middleweight black holes found at last
    • Authors: Clery D.
      Pages: 1057 - 1057
      Keywords: Astronomy
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1057
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Beavers, rebooted
    • Authors: Goldfarb B.
      Pages: 1058 - 1061
      Keywords: Ecology, Engineering
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1058
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Summer reading, science style
    • Authors: Thompson; McGuffie, Murray, Casey, Croon, Schultz, Kern, Lerno, Götz, Andrade
      Pages: 1062 - 1067
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau1264
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Organic molecules on Mars
    • Authors: ten Kate I. L.
      Pages: 1068 - 1069
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat2662
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Honey bees zero in on the empty set
    • Authors: Nieder A.
      Pages: 1069 - 1070
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat8958
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Targeting microbial pathogens
    • Authors: Thomma, B. P. H. J; Cook, D. E.
      Pages: 1070 - 1071
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat9343
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • What precipitation is extreme'
    • Authors: Pendergrass A. G.
      Pages: 1072 - 1073
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1871
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • The expanding materials multiverse
    • Authors: Powell B. J.
      Pages: 1073 - 1074
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat7282
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Exploring early human embryo development
    • Authors: Rossant, J; Tam, P. P. L.
      Pages: 1075 - 1076
      Keywords: Development
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aas9302
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Stanley Falkow (1934-2018)
    • Authors: Monack, D; Strauss, E.
      Pages: 1077 - 1077
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau2284
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Genealogy databases and the future of criminal investigation
    • Authors: Ram, N; Guerrini, C. J, McGuire, A. L.
      Pages: 1078 - 1079
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau1083
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Greenland sled dogs at risk of extinction
    • Authors: Sonne, C; Langebaek, R, Dietz, R, Andersen-Ranberg, E, Houser, G, Hansen, A. J, Sinding, M.-H. S, Olsen, M. T, Egevang, C, Gilbert, M. T. P, Meldgaard, M.
      Pages: 1080 - 1080
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat9578
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • The misunderstood sixth mass extinction
    • Authors: Ceballos, G; Ehrlich, P. R.
      Pages: 1080 - 1081
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aau0191
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Injustices of foreign investment in coal
    • Authors: Bashir, S; Niazi, N. K, Watto, M. A.
      Pages: 1081 - 1081
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat9852
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Out of Antarctica
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 1082 - 1082
      Keywords: Evolution, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-a
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Measuring martian organics and methane
    • Authors: Grocholski, B; Smith, K. T.
      Pages: 1082 - 1082
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-b
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Making silicon shine bright
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 1082 - 1082
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-c
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Tipping points in social convention
    • Authors: Jasny B. R.
      Pages: 1082 - 1082
      Keywords: Sociology
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-d
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Toward more predictable birthdays
    • Authors: Kiberstis P. A.
      Pages: 1082 - 1083
      Keywords: Genetics, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-e
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Sterility in rice via toxin and antidote
    • Authors: Zahn L. M.
      Pages: 1082 - 1083
      Keywords: Botany, Genetics
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-f
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Economic rationale for fishing the high seas
    • Authors: Benson P. J.
      Pages: 1082 - 1083
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-g
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • DNA-bound ubiquitin coordinates repair
    • Authors: Ferrarelli L. K.
      Pages: 1082 - 1083
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-h
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Finding a role for PNECs in asthma
    • Authors: Scanlon S. T.
      Pages: 1082 - 1084
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-j
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • A missing link in cholesterol absorption
    • Authors: Kelly P. N.
      Pages: 1082 - 1084
      Keywords: Genetics, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-k
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Quantum dipoles go liquid
    • Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 1082 - 1084
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-l
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Antenna switches partners in the shade
    • Authors: Funk M. A.
      Pages: 1082 - 1084
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Botany
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-m
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Metasurfaces for molecular detection
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 1082 - 1084
      Keywords: Physics, Applied
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-n
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Predicting changes in "extreme" precipitation
    • Authors: Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink J.
      Pages: 1082 - 1084
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-o
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Defense cargo shuttles in vesicles
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 1082 - 1084
      Keywords: Botany, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-p
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Understanding zero
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 1082 - 1084
      Keywords: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-q
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Zika leaves a lasting impact on the brain
    • Authors: Maroso M.
      Pages: 1082 - 1084
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-r
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Modeling embryogenesis
    • Authors: Alderton G.
      Pages: 1082 - 1084
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-s
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Taking residence to defend
    • Authors: Balasubramani A.
      Pages: 1082 - 1084
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1082-t
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • The San Andreas creeps along the decade
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 1083 - 1083
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1083-a
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • The long and short of RNA export
    • Authors: Mao S.
      Pages: 1083 - 1084
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1083-b
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • An algal transformation in Lake Baikal
    • Authors: Sugden A. M.
      Pages: 1083 - 1084
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1083-c
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Tissue-specific DNA demethylation after birth
    • Authors: Purnell B. A.
      Pages: 1083 - 1084
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1083-d
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Not just a LARK
    • Authors: Vinson V.
      Pages: 1083 - 1084
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1083-e
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Genomic crowdsourcing with privacy
    • Authors: Jasny B. R.
      Pages: 1083 - 1084
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1083-f
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Hurting the most vulnerable
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 1083 - 1084
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1083-g
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • A LIMA1 variant promotes low plasma LDL cholesterol and decreases
           intestinal cholesterol absorption
    • Authors: Zhang, Y.-Y; Fu, Z.-Y, Wei, J, Qi, W, Baituola, G, Luo, J, Meng, Y.-J, Guo, S.-Y, Yin, H, Jiang, S.-Y, Li, Y.-F, Miao, H.-H, Liu, Y, Wang, Y, Li, B.-L, Ma, Y.-T, Song, B.-L.
      Pages: 1087 - 1092
      Abstract: A high concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although LDL-C levels vary among humans and are heritable, the genetic factors affecting LDL-C are not fully characterized. We identified a rare frameshift variant in the LIMA1 (also known as EPLIN or SREBP3) gene from a Chinese family of Kazakh ethnicity with inherited low LDL-C and reduced cholesterol absorption. In a mouse model, LIMA1 was mainly expressed in the small intestine and localized on the brush border membrane. LIMA1 bridged NPC1L1, an essential protein for cholesterol absorption, to a transportation complex containing myosin Vb and facilitated cholesterol uptake. Similar to the human phenotype, Lima1-deficient mice displayed reduced cholesterol absorption and were resistant to diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Through our study of both mice and humans, we identify LIMA1 as a key protein regulating intestinal cholesterol absorption.
      Keywords: Genetics, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao6575
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Background levels of methane in Mars atmosphere show strong seasonal
           variations
    • Authors: Webster, C. R; Mahaffy, P. R, Atreya, S. K, Moores, J. E, Flesch, G. J, Malespin, C, McKay, C. P, Martinez, G, Smith, C. L, Martin-Torres, J, Gomez-Elvira, J, Zorzano, M.-P, Wong, M. H, Trainer, M. G, Steele, A, Archer, D, Sutter, B, Coll, P. J, Freissinet, C, Meslin, P.-Y, Gough, R. V, House, C. H, Pavlov, A, Eigenbrode, J. L, Glavin, D. P, Pearson, J. C, Keymeulen, D, Christensen, L. E, Schwenzer, S. P, Navarro-Gonzalez, R, Pla-Garcia, J, Rafkin, S. C. R, Vicente-Retortillo, A, Kahanpää, H, Viudez-Moreiras, D, Smith, M. D, Harri, A.-M, Genzer, M, Hassler, D. M, Lemmon, M, Crisp, J, Sander, S. P, Zurek, R. W, Vasavada, A. R.
      Pages: 1093 - 1096
      Abstract: Variable levels of methane in the martian atmosphere have eluded explanation partly because the measurements are not repeatable in time or location. We report in situ measurements at Gale crater made over a 5-year period by the Tunable Laser Spectrometer on the Curiosity rover. The background levels of methane have a mean value 0.41 ± 0.16 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (95% confidence interval) and exhibit a strong, repeatable seasonal variation (0.24 to 0.65 ppbv). This variation is greater than that predicted from either ultraviolet degradation of impact-delivered organics on the surface or from the annual surface pressure cycle. The large seasonal variation in the background and occurrences of higher temporary spikes (~7 ppbv) are consistent with small localized sources of methane released from martian surface or subsurface reservoirs.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq0131
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Organic matter preserved in 3-billion-year-old mudstones at Gale crater,
           Mars
    • Authors: Eigenbrode, J. L; Summons, R. E, Steele, A, Freissinet, C, Millan, M, Navarro-Gonzalez, R, Sutter, B, McAdam, A. C, Franz, H. B, Glavin, D. P, Archer, P. D, Mahaffy, P. R, Conrad, P. G, Hurowitz, J. A, Grotzinger, J. P, Gupta, S, Ming, D. W, Sumner, D. Y, Szopa, C, Malespin, C, Buch, A, Coll, P.
      Pages: 1096 - 1101
      Abstract: Establishing the presence and state of organic matter, including its possible biosignatures, in martian materials has been an elusive quest, despite limited reports of the existence of organic matter on Mars. We report the in situ detection of organic matter preserved in lacustrine mudstones at the base of the ~3.5-billion-year-old Murray formation at Pahrump Hills, Gale crater, by the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite onboard the Curiosity rover. Diverse pyrolysis products, including thiophenic, aromatic, and aliphatic compounds released at high temperatures (500° to 820°C), were directly detected by evolved gas analysis. Thiophenes were also observed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Their presence suggests that sulfurization aided organic matter preservation. At least 50 nanomoles of organic carbon persists, probably as macromolecules containing 5% carbon as organic sulfur molecules.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aas9185
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Evidence for a quantum dipole liquid state in an organic
           quasi-two-dimensional material
    • Authors: Hassan, N; Cunningham, S, Mourigal, M, Zhilyaeva, E. I, Torunova, S. A, Lyubovskaya, R. N, Schlueter, J. A, Drichko, N.
      Pages: 1101 - 1104
      Abstract: Mott insulators are commonly pictured with electrons localized on lattice sites, with their low-energy degrees of freedom involving spins only. Here, we observe emergent charge degrees of freedom in a molecule-based Mott insulator -(BEDT-TTF)2Hg(SCN)2Br, resulting in a quantum dipole liquid state. Electrons localized on molecular dimer lattice sites form electric dipoles that do not order at low temperatures and fluctuate with frequency detected experimentally in our Raman spectroscopy experiments. The heat capacity and Raman scattering response are consistent with a scenario in which the composite spin and electric dipole degrees of freedom remain fluctuating down to the lowest measured temperatures.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6286
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Imaging-based molecular barcoding with pixelated dielectric metasurfaces
    • Authors: Tittl, A; Leitis, A, Liu, M, Yesilkoy, F, Choi, D.-Y, Neshev, D. N, Kivshar, Y. S, Altug, H.
      Pages: 1105 - 1109
      Abstract: Metasurfaces provide opportunities for wavefront control, flat optics, and subwavelength light focusing. We developed an imaging-based nanophotonic method for detecting mid-infrared molecular fingerprints and implemented it for the chemical identification and compositional analysis of surface-bound analytes. Our technique features a two-dimensional pixelated dielectric metasurface with a range of ultrasharp resonances, each tuned to a discrete frequency; this enables molecular absorption signatures to be read out at multiple spectral points, and the resulting information is then translated into a barcode-like spatial absorption map for imaging. The signatures of biological, polymer, and pesticide molecules can be detected with high sensitivity, covering applications such as biosensing and environmental monitoring. Our chemically specific technique can resolve absorption fingerprints without the need for spectrometry, frequency scanning, or moving mechanical parts, thereby paving the way toward sensitive and versatile miniaturized mid-infrared spectroscopy devices.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aas9768
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Structure of the maize photosystem I supercomplex with light-harvesting
           complexes I and II
    • Authors: Pan, X; Ma, J, Su, X, Cao, P, Chang, W, Liu, Z, Zhang, X, Li, M.
      Pages: 1109 - 1113
      Abstract: Plants regulate photosynthetic light harvesting to maintain balanced energy flux into photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII). Under light conditions favoring PSII excitation, the PSII antenna, light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), is phosphorylated and forms a supercomplex with PSI core and the PSI antenna, light-harvesting complex I (LHCI). Both LHCI and LHCII then transfer excitation energy to the PSI core. We report the structure of maize PSI-LHCI-LHCII solved by cryo–electron microscopy, revealing the recognition site between LHCII and PSI. The PSI subunits PsaN and PsaO are observed at the PSI-LHCI interface and the PSI-LHCII interface, respectively. Each subunit relays excitation to PSI core through a pair of chlorophyll molecules, thus revealing previously unseen paths for energy transfer between the antennas and the PSI core.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Botany
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aat1156
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • A silicon Brillouin laser
    • Authors: Otterstrom, N. T; Behunin, R. O, Kittlaus, E. A, Wang, Z, Rakich, P. T.
      Pages: 1113 - 1116
      Abstract: Brillouin laser oscillators offer powerful and flexible dynamics as the basis for mode-locked lasers, microwave oscillators, and optical gyroscopes in a variety of optical systems. However, Brillouin interactions are markedly weak in conventional silicon photonic waveguides, stifling progress toward silicon-based Brillouin lasers. The recent advent of hybrid photonic-phononic waveguides has revealed Brillouin interactions to be one of the strongest and most tailorable nonlinearities in silicon. In this study, we have harnessed these engineered nonlinearities to demonstrate Brillouin lasing in silicon. Moreover, we show that this silicon-based Brillouin laser enters a regime of dynamics in which optical self-oscillation produces phonon linewidth narrowing. Our results provide a platform to develop a range of applications for monolithic integration within silicon photonic circuits.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar6113
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Experimental evidence for tipping points in social convention
    • Authors: Centola, D; Becker, J, Brackbill, D, Baronchelli, A.
      Pages: 1116 - 1119
      Abstract: Theoretical models of critical mass have shown how minority groups can initiate social change dynamics in the emergence of new social conventions. Here, we study an artificial system of social conventions in which human subjects interact to establish a new coordination equilibrium. The findings provide direct empirical demonstration of the existence of a tipping point in the dynamics of changing social conventions. When minority groups reached the critical mass—that is, the critical group size for initiating social change—they were consistently able to overturn the established behavior. The size of the required critical mass is expected to vary based on theoretically identifiable features of a social setting. Our results show that the theoretically predicted dynamics of critical mass do in fact emerge as expected within an empirical system of social coordination.
      Keywords: Sociology
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aas8827
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • A tetrapod fauna from within the Devonian Antarctic Circle
    • Authors: Gess, R; Ahlberg, P. E.
      Pages: 1120 - 1124
      Abstract: Until now, all known fossils of tetrapods (limbed vertebrates with digits) and near-tetrapods (such as Elpistostege, Tiktaalik, and Panderichthys) from the Devonian period have come from localities in tropical to subtropical paleolatitudes. Most are from Laurussia, a continent incorporating Europe, Greenland, and North America, with only one body fossil and one footprint locality from Australia representing the southern supercontinent Gondwana. Here we describe two previously unknown tetrapods from the Late Devonian (late Famennian) Gondwana locality of Waterloo Farm in South Africa, then located within the Antarctic Circle, which demonstrate that Devonian tetrapods were not restricted to warm environments and suggest that they may have been global in distribution.
      Keywords: Evolution, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq1645
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Numerical ordering of zero in honey bees
    • Authors: Howard, S. R; Avargues-Weber, A, Garcia, J. E, Greentree, A. D, Dyer, A. G.
      Pages: 1124 - 1126
      Abstract: Some vertebrates demonstrate complex numerosity concepts—including addition, sequential ordering of numbers, or even the concept of zero—but whether an insect can develop an understanding for such concepts remains unknown. We trained individual honey bees to the numerical concepts of "greater than" or "less than" using stimuli containing one to six elemental features. Bees could subsequently extrapolate the concept of less than to order zero numerosity at the lower end of the numerical continuum. Bees demonstrated an understanding that parallels animals such as the African grey parrot, nonhuman primates, and even preschool children.
      Keywords: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4975
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Plants send small RNAs in extracellular vesicles to fungal pathogen to
           silence virulence genes
    • Authors: Cai, Q; Qiao, L, Wang, M, He, B, Lin, F.-M, Palmquist, J, Huang, S.-D, Jin, H.
      Pages: 1126 - 1129
      Abstract: Some pathogens and pests deliver small RNAs (sRNAs) into host cells to suppress host immunity. Conversely, hosts also transfer sRNAs into pathogens and pests to inhibit their virulence. Although sRNA trafficking has been observed in a wide variety of interactions, how sRNAs are transferred, especially from hosts to pathogens and pests, is still unknown. Here, we show that host Arabidopsis cells secrete exosome-like extracellular vesicles to deliver sRNAs into fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. These sRNA-containing vesicles accumulate at the infection sites and are taken up by the fungal cells. Transferred host sRNAs induce silencing of fungal genes critical for pathogenicity. Thus, Arabidopsis has adapted exosome-mediated cross-kingdom RNA interference as part of its immune responses during the evolutionary arms race with the pathogen.
      Keywords: Botany, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4142
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • A selfish genetic element confers non-Mendelian inheritance in rice
    • Authors: Yu, X; Zhao, Z, Zheng, X, Zhou, J, Kong, W, Wang, P, Bai, W, Zheng, H, Zhang, H, Li, J, Liu, J, Wang, Q, Zhang, L, Liu, K, Yu, Y, Guo, X, Wang, J, Lin, Q, Wu, F, Ren, Y, Zhu, S, Zhang, X, Cheng, Z, Lei, C, Liu, S, Liu, X, Tian, Y, Jiang, L, Ge, S, Wu, C, Tao, D, Wang, H, Wan, J.
      Pages: 1130 - 1132
      Abstract: Selfish genetic elements are pervasive in eukaryote genomes, but their role remains controversial. We show that qHMS7, a major quantitative genetic locus for hybrid male sterility between wild rice (Oryza meridionalis) and Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), contains two tightly linked genes [Open Reading Frame 2 (ORF2) and ORF3]. ORF2 encodes a toxic genetic element that aborts pollen in a sporophytic manner, whereas ORF3 encodes an antidote that protects pollen in a gametophytic manner. Pollens lacking ORF3 are selectively eliminated, leading to segregation distortion in the progeny. Analysis of the genetic sequence suggests that ORF3 arose first, followed by gradual functionalization of ORF2. Furthermore, this toxin-antidote system may have promoted the differentiation and/or maintained the genome stability of wild and cultivated rice.
      Keywords: Botany, Genetics
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4279
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Noninvasive blood tests for fetal development predict gestational age and
           preterm delivery
    • Authors: Ngo, T. T. M; Moufarrej, M. N, Rasmussen, M.-L. H, Camunas-Soler, J, Pan, W, Okamoto, J, Neff, N. F, Liu, K, Wong, R. J, Downes, K, Tibshirani, R, Shaw, G. M, Skotte, L, Stevenson, D. K, Biggio, J. R, Elovitz, M. A, Melbye, M, Quake, S. R.
      Pages: 1133 - 1136
      Abstract: Noninvasive blood tests that provide information about fetal development and gestational age could potentially improve prenatal care. Ultrasound, the current gold standard, is not always affordable in low-resource settings and does not predict spontaneous preterm birth, a leading cause of infant death. In a pilot study of 31 healthy pregnant women, we found that measurement of nine cell-free RNA (cfRNA) transcripts in maternal blood predicted gestational age with comparable accuracy to ultrasound but at substantially lower cost. In a related study of 38 women (25 full-term and 13 preterm deliveries), all at elevated risk of delivering preterm, we identified seven cfRNA transcripts that accurately classified women who delivered preterm up to 2 months in advance of labor. These tests hold promise for prenatal care in both the developed and developing worlds, although they require validation in larger, blinded clinical trials.
      Keywords: Genetics, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar3819
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 1138 - 1138
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1138-a
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • Sponsored Collection 90 Years of Scientific Advances at the Shanghai
           Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, CAS
    • Pages: 1138 - 1138
      Keywords: Botany, Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases, Neuroscience, Pharmacology, Toxicology
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1138-b
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
  • The power of persistence
    • Authors: Dowtin, A. L; Levia, D. F.
      Pages: 1142 - 1142
      PubDate: 2018-06-07T11:37:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.360.6393.1142
      Issue No: Vol. 360, No. 6393 (2018)
       
 
 
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