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Journal Cover Science
  [SJR: 13.217]   [H-I: 915]   [3296 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by AAAS Homepage  [6 journals]
  • Maximizing the right stuff: The trade-off between membrane permeability
           and selectivity
    • Authors: Park, H. B; Kamcev, J, Robeson, L. M, Elimelech, M, Freeman, B. D.
      Abstract: Increasing demands for energy-efficient separations in applications ranging from water purification to petroleum refining, chemicals production, and carbon capture have stimulated a vigorous search for novel, high-performance separation membranes. Synthetic membranes suffer a ubiquitous, pernicious trade-off: highly permeable membranes lack selectivity and vice versa. However, materials with both high permeability and high selectivity are beginning to emerge. For example, design features from biological membranes have been applied to break the permeability-selectivity trade-off. We review the basis for the permeability-selectivity trade-off, state-of-the-art approaches to membrane materials design to overcome the trade-off, and factors other than permeability and selectivity that govern membrane performance and, in turn, influence membrane design.
      Keywords: Engineering, Online Only
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aab0530
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • A site-specific switch for cancer cells
    • Authors: Ferrarelli L. K.
      Pages: 1135
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-i
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Tubular clathrin/AP-2 lattices pinch collagen fibers to support 3D cell
           migration
    • Authors: Elkhatib, N; Bresteau, E, Baschieri, F, Rioja, A. L, van Niel, G, Vassilopoulos, S, Montagnac, G.
      Abstract: Migrating cells often use focal adhesions in order to move. Focal adhesions are less prominent in cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) as compared with 2D environments. We looked for alternative adhesion structures supporting cell migration. We analyzed the dynamics of clathrin-coated pits in cells migrating in a 3D environment of collagen fibers. Both topological cues and local engagement of integrins triggered the accumulation of clathrin-coated structures on fibers. Clathrin/adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) lattices pinched collagen fibers by adopting a tube-like morphology and regulated adhesion to fibers in an endocytosis-independent manner. During migration, tubular clathrin/AP-2 lattices stabilized cellular protrusions by providing anchoring points to collagen fibers. Thus, tubular clathrin/AP-2 lattices promote cell adhesion that, in coordination with focal adhesions, supports cell migration in 3D.
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4713
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Comment on "Xist recruits the X chromosome to the nuclear lamina to enable
           chromosome-wide silencing"
    • Authors: Wang, C.-Y; Froberg, J. E, Blum, R, Jeon, Y, Lee, J. T.
      Abstract: Chen et al. (Reports, 28 October 2016, p. 468) proposed that an interaction between Xist RNA and Lamin B receptor (LBR) is necessary and sufficient for Xist spreading during X-chromosome inactivation. We reanalyzed their data and found that reported genotypes of mutants are not supported by the sequencing data. These inconsistencies preclude assessment of the role of LBR in Xist spreading.
      Keywords: Genetics, Online Only
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4976
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Response to Comment on "Xist recruits the X chromosome to the nuclear
           lamina to enable chromosome-wide silencing"
    • Authors: Chen, C.-K; Chow, A, Lai, M, Guttman, M.
      Abstract: Wang et al. question whether Lamin B receptor is required for Xist-mediated silencing because they claim that our cells contain an inversion rather than a deletion. We present evidence that these cells contain a proper deletion and that the confusion is caused by DNA probes used in the experiment. Accordingly, the points raised have no effect on the conclusions in our paper.
      Keywords: Genetics, Online Only
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam5439
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Resistance to malaria through structural variation of red blood cell
           invasion receptors
    • Authors: Leffler, E. M; Band, G, Busby, G. B. J, Kivinen, K, Le, Q. S, Clarke, G. M, Bojang, K. A, Conway, D. J, Jallow, M, Sisay-Joof, F, Bougouma, E. C, Mangano, V. D, Modiano, D, Sirima, S. B, Achidi, E, Apinjoh, T. O, Marsh, K, Ndila, C. M, Peshu, N, Williams, T. N, Drakeley, C, Manjurano, A, Reyburn, H, Riley, E, Kachala, D, Molyneux, M, Nyirongo, V, Taylor, T, Thornton, N, Tilley, L, Grimsley, S, Drury, E, Stalker, J, Cornelius, V, Hubbart, C, Jeffreys, A. E, Rowlands, K, Rockett, K. A, Spencer, C. C. A, Kwiatkowski, D. P, Malaria Genomic Epidemiology Network
      Abstract: The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum invades human red blood cells by a series of interactions between host and parasite surface proteins. By analyzing genome sequence data from human populations, including 1269 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa, we identify a diverse array of large copy-number variants affecting the host invasion receptor genes GYPA and GYPB. We find that a nearby association with severe malaria is explained by a complex structural rearrangement involving the loss of GYPB and gain of two GYPB-A hybrid genes, which encode a serologically distinct blood group antigen known as Dantu. This variant reduces the risk of severe malaria by 40% and has recently increased in frequency in parts of Kenya, yet it appears to be absent from west Africa. These findings link structural variation of red blood cell invasion receptors with natural resistance to severe malaria.
      Keywords: Genetics, Online Only
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam6393
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Pittsburgh myth, Paris reality
    • Authors: Gallagher P.
      Pages: 1103 - 1103
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao0172
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 1104 - 1106
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1104
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Designers squabble over giant Chinese scope
    • Authors: Normile D.
      Pages: 1107 - 1108
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Astronomy
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1107
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • NIH abandons grant cap, offers new help to younger scientists
    • Authors: Kaiser J.
      Pages: 1108 - 1108
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1108
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Mini-livers reveal fine details of organ development
    • Authors: Pennisi E.
      Pages: 1109 - 1109
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Development, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1109
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Spooky action achieved at record distance
    • Authors: Popkin G.
      Pages: 1110 - 1111
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1110
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • In a major shift, cancer drugs go 'tissue-agnostic
    • Authors: Garber K.
      Pages: 1111 - 1112
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Pharmacology, Toxicology
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1111
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Supply of promising T cell therapy is strained
    • Authors: Couzin-Frankel J.
      Pages: 1112 - 1113
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Pharmacology, Toxicology
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1112
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Chimps in waiting
    • Authors: Grimm D.
      Pages: 1114 - 1117
      Keywords: Ecology, Scientific Community, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1114
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • A composite window into human history
    • Authors: Johannsen, N. N; Larson, G, Meltzer, D. J, Vander Linden, M.
      Pages: 1118 - 1120
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan0737
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Growing anisotropic crystals at the nanoscale
    • Authors: Liz-Marzan, L. M; Grzelczak, M.
      Pages: 1120 - 1121
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8774
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Glycophorin alleles link to malaria protection
    • Authors: Winzeler E. A.
      Pages: 1122 - 1123
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4184
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Deciphering microglial diversity in Alzheimer's disease
    • Authors: Brown, G. C; St George-Hyslop, P. H.
      Pages: 1123 - 1124
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan7893
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Scaling pain threshold with microRNAs
    • Authors: Cassels, L; Barde, Y.-A.
      Pages: 1124 - 1125
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6784
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Tracking the dynamics of electron expulsion
    • Authors: Vozzi C.
      Pages: 1126 - 1126
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan5213
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Linking job loss, inequality, mental health, and education
    • Authors: Ananat, E. O; Gassman-Pines, A, Francis, D. V, Gibson-Davis, C. M.
      Pages: 1127 - 1128
      Keywords: Economics, Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam5347
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • There's more to a meal
    • Authors: Ubbink J.
      Pages: 1129 - 1129
      Keywords: Psychology
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4039
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Unlikely allies
    • Authors: Schar D.
      Pages: 1130 - 1130
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan3832
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Invest in insects
    • Authors: Pina, S; Hochkirch, A.
      Pages: 1131 - 1131
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6650
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Chile unprepared for Ph.D. influx
    • Authors: Morales, N. S; Fernandez, I. C.
      Pages: 1131 - 1132
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan5376
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • NIH's ineffective funding policies
    • Authors: Wahls W. P.
      Pages: 1132 - 1133
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6504
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Food for fungi
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 1134 - 1134
      Keywords: Botany, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-a
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Go with the flow in drug manufacturing
    • Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 1134 - 1134
      Keywords: Chemistry, Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-b
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Bigger and badder
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 1134 - 1134
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-c
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Saving earthquakes for the wet season
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 1134 - 1134
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-d
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Space calling Earth, on the quantum line
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 1134 - 1135
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-e
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Early life stress in depression susceptibility
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 1134 - 1135
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-f
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Preparing for the feast during the fast
    • Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 1134 - 1135
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-g
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Engaging local stakeholders
    • Authors: Krogman N.
      Pages: 1134 - 1135
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-h
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Filtering through to what's important
    • Authors: Lavine M. S.
      Pages: 1134 - 1136
      Keywords: Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-j
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Silently taking up the slack
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 1134 - 1136
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-k
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Pathogens select for genomic variants
    • Authors: Zahn L. M.
      Pages: 1134 - 1136
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-l
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Helping a cell to migrate in 3D space
    • Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 1134 - 1136
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-m
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Two different combs from a single source
    • Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 1134 - 1136
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-n
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Quick eruption after a long bake
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 1134 - 1136
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-o
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • A detailed look at an electron's exit
    • Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 1134 - 1136
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-p
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • The vegetation-climate loop
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 1134 - 1136
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-q
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • MicroRNAs in functional and dysfunctional pain
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 1134 - 1136
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-r
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Joined-up research brings rewards
    • Authors: Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink J.
      Pages: 1134 - 1136
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-s
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • An antisensible approach to target KRAS
    • Authors: Nusinovich Y.
      Pages: 1134 - 1136
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-t
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Selecting against cis conformers
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 1134 - 1136
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1134-u
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Finding foreshocks in the damage zone
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 1135 - 1135
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1135-a
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Immune control of hair growth
    • Authors: Chong L. D.
      Pages: 1135 - 1136
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1135-b
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Thinking about what others believe is hard work
    • Authors: Chin G.
      Pages: 1135 - 1136
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1135-c
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • TET function in development
    • Authors: Purnell B. A.
      Pages: 1135 - 1136
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1135-d
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • I know what you know
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 1135 - 1136
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1135-e
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Revealing the hidden movers
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 1135 - 1136
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1135-f
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Bipolar light-emitting junctions
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 1135 - 1136
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1135-g
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Satellite-based entanglement distribution over 1200 kilometers
    • Authors: Yin, J; Cao, Y, Li, Y.-H, Liao, S.-K, Zhang, L, Ren, J.-G, Cai, W.-Q, Liu, W.-Y, Li, B, Dai, H, Li, G.-B, Lu, Q.-M, Gong, Y.-H, Xu, Y, Li, S.-L, Li, F.-Z, Yin, Y.-Y, Jiang, Z.-Q, Li, M, Jia, J.-J, Ren, G, He, D, Zhou, Y.-L, Zhang, X.-X, Wang, N, Chang, X, Zhu, Z.-C, Liu, N.-L, Chen, Y.-A, Lu, C.-Y, Shu, R, Peng, C.-Z, Wang, J.-Y, Pan, J.-W.
      Pages: 1140 - 1144
      Abstract: Long-distance entanglement distribution is essential for both foundational tests of quantum physics and scalable quantum networks. Owing to channel loss, however, the previously achieved distance was limited to ~100 kilometers. Here we demonstrate satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs to two locations separated by 1203 kilometers on Earth, through two satellite-to-ground downlinks with a summed length varying from 1600 to 2400 kilometers. We observed a survival of two-photon entanglement and a violation of Bell inequality by 2.37 ± 0.09 under strict Einstein locality conditions. The obtained effective link efficiency is orders of magnitude higher than that of the direct bidirectional transmission of the two photons through telecommunication fibers.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan3211
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Kilogram-scale prexasertib monolactate monohydrate synthesis under
           continuous-flow CGMP conditions
    • Authors: Cole, K. P; Groh, J. M, Johnson, M. D, Burcham, C. L, Campbell, B. M, Diseroad, W. D, Heller, M. R, Howell, J. R, Kallman, N. J, Koenig, T. M, May, S. A, Miller, R. D, Mitchell, D, Myers, D. P, Myers, S. S, Phillips, J. L, Polster, C. S, White, T. D, Cashman, J, Hurley, D, Moylan, R, Sheehan, P, Spencer, R. D, Desmond, K, Desmond, P, Gowran, O.
      Pages: 1144 - 1150
      Abstract: Advances in drug potency and tailored therapeutics are promoting pharmaceutical manufacturing to transition from a traditional batch paradigm to more flexible continuous processing. Here we report the development of a multistep continuous-flow CGMP (current good manufacturing practices) process that produced 24 kilograms of prexasertib monolactate monohydrate suitable for use in human clinical trials. Eight continuous unit operations were conducted to produce the target at roughly 3 kilograms per day using small continuous reactors, extractors, evaporators, crystallizers, and filters in laboratory fume hoods. Success was enabled by advances in chemistry, engineering, analytical science, process modeling, and equipment design. Substantial technical and business drivers were identified, which merited the continuous process. The continuous process afforded improved performance and safety relative to batch processes and also improved containment of a highly potent compound.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Engineering
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan0745
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Coherent imaging of an attosecond electron wave packet
    • Authors: Villeneuve, D. M; Hockett, P, Vrakking, M. J. J, Niikura, H.
      Pages: 1150 - 1153
      Abstract: Electrons detached from atoms or molecules by photoionization carry information about the quantum state from which they originate, as well as the continuum states into which they are released. Generally, the photoelectron momentum distribution is composed of a coherent sum of angular momentum components, each with an amplitude and phase. Here we show, by using photoionization of neon, that a train of attosecond pulses synchronized with an infrared laser field can be used to disentangle these angular momentum components. Two-color, two-photon ionization via a Stark-shifted intermediate state creates an almost pure f-wave with a magnetic quantum number of zero. Interference of the f-wave with a spherically symmetric s-wave provides a holographic reference that enables phase-resolved imaging of the f-wave.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8393
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Rapid cooling and cold storage in a silicic magma reservoir recorded in
           individual crystals
    • Authors: Rubin, A. E; Cooper, K. M, Till, C. B, Kent, A. J. R, Costa, F, Bose, M, Gravley, D, Deering, C, Cole, J.
      Pages: 1154 - 1156
      Abstract: Silicic volcanic eruptions pose considerable hazards, yet the processes leading to these eruptions remain poorly known. A missing link is knowledge of the thermal history of magma feeding such eruptions, which largely controls crystallinity and therefore eruptability. We have determined the thermal history of individual zircon crystals from an eruption of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Results show that although zircons resided in the magmatic system for 103 to 105 years, they experienced temperatures >650° to 750°C for only years to centuries. This implies near-solidus long-term crystal storage, punctuated by rapid heating and cooling. Reconciling these data with existing models of magma storage requires considering multiple small intrusions and multiple spatial scales, and our approach can help to quantify heat input to and output from magma reservoirs.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8720
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Recurring and triggered slow-slip events near the trench at the Nankai
           Trough subduction megathrust
    • Authors: Araki, E; Saffer, D. M, Kopf, A. J, Wallace, L. M, Kimura, T, Machida, Y, Ide, S, Davis, E, IODP Expedition 365 shipboard scientists, Toczko, Carr, Kinoshita, Kobayashi, Rösner
      Pages: 1157 - 1160
      Abstract: The discovery of slow earthquakes has revolutionized the field of earthquake seismology. Defining the locations of these events and the conditions that favor their occurrence provides important insights into the slip behavior of tectonic faults. We report on a family of recurring slow-slip events (SSEs) on the plate interface immediately seaward of repeated historical moment magnitude (Mw) 8 earthquake rupture areas offshore of Japan. The SSEs continue for days to several weeks, include both spontaneous and triggered slip, recur every 8 to 15 months, and are accompanied by swarms of low-frequency tremors. We can explain the SSEs with 1 to 4 centimeters of slip along the megathrust, centered 25 to 35 kilometers (km) from the trench (4 to 10 km depth). The SSEs accommodate 30 to 55% of the plate motion, indicating frequent release of accumulated strain near the trench.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan3120
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Seasonal water storage, stress modulation, and California seismicity
    • Authors: Johnson, C. W; Fu, Y, Bürgmann, R.
      Pages: 1161 - 1164
      Abstract: Establishing what controls the timing of earthquakes is fundamental to understanding the nature of the earthquake cycle and critical to determining time-dependent earthquake hazard. Seasonal loading provides a natural laboratory to explore the crustal response to a quantifiable transient force. In California, water storage deforms the crust as snow and water accumulates during the wet winter months. We used 9 years of global positioning system (GPS) vertical deformation time series to constrain models of monthly hydrospheric loading and the resulting stress changes on fault planes of small earthquakes. The seasonal loading analysis reveals earthquakes occurring more frequently during stress conditions that favor earthquake rupture. We infer that California seismicity rates are modestly modulated by natural hydrological loading cycles.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aak9547
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor
           disk laser
    • Authors: Link, S. M; Maas, D. J. H. C, Waldburger, D, Keller, U.
      Pages: 1164 - 1168
      Abstract: Dual-comb spectroscopy offers the potential for high accuracy combined with fast data acquisition. Applications are often limited, however, by the complexity of optical comb systems. Here we present dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor using a substantially simplified single-laser system. Very good spectroscopy measurements with fast sampling rates are achieved with a free-running dual-comb mode-locked semiconductor disk laser. The absolute stability of the optical comb modes is characterized both for free-running operation and with simple microwave stabilization. This approach drastically reduces the complexity for dual-comb spectroscopy. Band-gap engineering to tune the center wavelength from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared could optimize frequency combs for specific gas targets, further enabling dual-comb spectroscopy for a wider range of industrial applications.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam7424
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • miR-183 cluster scales mechanical pain sensitivity by regulating basal and
           neuropathic pain genes
    • Authors: Peng, C; Li, L, Zhang, M.-D, Bengtsson Gonzales, C, Parisien, M, Belfer, I, Usoskin, D, Abdo, H, Furlan, A, Häring, M, Lallemend, F, Harkany, T, Diatchenko, L, Hökfelt, T, Hjerling-Leffler, J, Ernfors, P.
      Pages: 1168 - 1171
      Abstract: Nociception is protective and prevents tissue damage but can also facilitate chronic pain. Whether a general principle governs these two types of pain is unknown. Here, we show that both basal mechanical and neuropathic pain are controlled by the microRNA-183 (miR-183) cluster in mice. This single cluster controls more than 80% of neuropathic pain–regulated genes and scales basal mechanical sensitivity and mechanical allodynia by regulating auxiliary voltage-gated calcium channel subunits α2-1 and α2-2. Basal sensitivity is controlled in nociceptors, and allodynia involves TrkB+ light-touch mechanoreceptors. These light-touch–sensitive neurons, which normally do not elicit pain, produce pain during neuropathy that is reversed by gabapentin. Thus, a single microRNA cluster continuously scales acute noxious mechanical sensitivity in nociceptive neurons and suppresses neuropathic pain transduction in a specific, light-touch–sensitive neuronal type recruited during mechanical allodynia.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam7671
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Plants transfer lipids to sustain colonization by mutualistic mycorrhizal
           and parasitic fungi
    • Authors: Jiang, Y; Wang, W, Xie, Q, Liu, N, Liu, L, Wang, D, Zhang, X, Yang, C, Chen, X, Tang, D, Wang, E.
      Pages: 1172 - 1175
      Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi facilitate plant uptake of mineral nutrients and draw organic nutrients from the plant. Organic nutrients are thought to be supplied primarily in the form of sugars. Here we show that the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis is a fatty acid auxotroph and that fatty acids synthesized in the host plants are transferred to the fungus to sustain mycorrhizal colonization. The transfer is dependent on RAM2 (REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZATION 2) and the ATP binding cassette transporter–mediated plant lipid export pathway. We further show that plant fatty acids can be transferred to the pathogenic fungus Golovinomyces cichoracerum and are required for colonization by pathogens. We suggest that the mutualistic mycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi similarly recruit the fatty acid biosynthesis program to facilitate host invasion.
      Keywords: Botany, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9970
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Fatty acids in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are synthesized by the host
           plant
    • Authors: Luginbuehl, L. H; Menard, G. N, Kurup, S, Van Erp, H, Radhakrishnan, G. V, Breakspear, A, Oldroyd, G. E. D, Eastmond, P. J.
      Pages: 1175 - 1178
      Abstract: Plants form beneficial associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which facilitate nutrient acquisition from the soil. In return, the fungi receive organic carbon from the plants. The transcription factor RAM1 (REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZATION 1) is crucial for this symbiosis, and we demonstrate that it is required and sufficient for the induction of a lipid biosynthetic pathway that is expressed in plant cells accommodating fungal arbuscules. Lipids are transferred from the plant to mycorrhizal fungi, which are fatty acid auxotrophs, and this lipid export requires the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase RAM2, a direct target of RAM1. Our work shows that in addition to sugars, lipids are a major source of organic carbon delivered to the fungus, and this is necessary for the production of fungal lipids.
      Keywords: Botany, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan0081
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Increase in predator-prey size ratios throughout the Phanerozoic history
           of marine ecosystems
    • Authors: Klompmaker, A. A; Kowalewski, M, Huntley, J. W, Finnegan, S.
      Pages: 1178 - 1180
      Abstract: The escalation hypothesis posits that predation by increasingly powerful and metabolically active carnivores has been a major driver of metazoan evolution. We test a key tenet of this hypothesis by analyzing predatory drill holes in fossil marine shells, which provide a ~500-million-year record of individual predator-prey interactions. We show that drill-hole size is a robust predictor of body size among modern drilling predators and that drill-hole size (and thus inferred predator size and power) rose substantially from the Ordovician to the Quaternary period, whereas the size of drilled prey remained stable. Together, these trends indicate a directional increase in predator-prey size ratios. We hypothesize that increasing predator-prey size ratios reflect increases in prey abundance, prey nutrient content, and predation among predators.
      Keywords: Paleontology
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam7468
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Satellites reveal contrasting responses of regional climate to the
           widespread greening of Earth
    • Authors: Forzieri, G; Alkama, R, Miralles, D. G, Cescatti, A.
      Pages: 1180 - 1184
      Abstract: Changes in vegetation cover associated with the observed greening may affect several biophysical processes, whose net effects on climate are unclear. We analyzed remotely sensed dynamics in leaf area index (LAI) and energy fluxes in order to explore the associated variation in local climate. We show that the increasing trend in LAI contributed to the warming of boreal zones through a reduction of surface albedo and to an evaporation-driven cooling in arid regions. The interplay between LAI and surface biophysics is amplified up to five times under extreme warm-dry and cold-wet years. Altogether, these signals reveal that the recent dynamics in global vegetation have had relevant biophysical impacts on the local climates and should be considered in the design of local mitigation and adaptation plans.
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aal1727
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Early life stress confers lifelong stress susceptibility in mice via
           ventral tegmental area OTX2
    • Authors: Pena, C. J; Kronman, H. G, Walker, D. M, Cates, H. M, Bagot, R. C, Purushothaman, I, Issler, O, Loh, Y.-H. E, Leong, T, Kiraly, D. D, Goodman, E, Neve, R. L, Shen, L, Nestler, E. J.
      Pages: 1185 - 1188
      Abstract: Early life stress increases risk for depression. Here we establish a "two-hit" stress model in mice wherein stress at a specific postnatal period increases susceptibility to adult social defeat stress and causes long-lasting transcriptional alterations that prime the ventral tegmental area (VTA)—a brain reward region—to be in a depression-like state. We identify a role for the developmental transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 (Otx2) as an upstream mediator of these enduring effects. Transient juvenile—but not adult—knockdown of Otx2 in VTA mimics early life stress by increasing stress susceptibility, whereas its overexpression reverses the effects of early life stress. This work establishes a mechanism by which early life stress encodes lifelong susceptibility to stress via long-lasting transcriptional programming in VTA mediated by Otx2.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4491
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Transcriptional activation of RagD GTPase controls mTORC1 and promotes
           cancer growth
    • Authors: Di Malta, C; Siciliano, D, Calcagni, A, Monfregola, J, Punzi, S, Pastore, N, Eastes, A. N, Davis, O, De Cegli, R, Zampelli, A, Di Giovannantonio, L. G, Nusco, E, Platt, N, Guida, A, Ogmundsdottir, M. H, Lanfrancone, L, Perera, R. M, Zoncu, R, Pelicci, P. G, Settembre, C, Ballabio, A.
      Pages: 1188 - 1192
      Abstract: The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is recruited to the lysosome by Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) and regulates anabolic pathways in response to nutrients. We found that MiT/TFE transcription factors—master regulators of lysosomal and melanosomal biogenesis and autophagy—control mTORC1 lysosomal recruitment and activity by directly regulating the expression of RagD. In mice, this mechanism mediated adaptation to food availability after starvation and physical exercise and played an important role in cancer growth. Up-regulation of MiT/TFE genes in cells and tissues from patients and murine models of renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and melanoma triggered RagD-mediated mTORC1 induction, resulting in cell hyperproliferation and cancer growth. Thus, this transcriptional regulatory mechanism enables cellular adaptation to nutrient availability and supports the energy-demanding metabolism of cancer cells.
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aag2553
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Controlling guest conformation for efficient purification of butadiene
    • Authors: Liao, P.-Q; Huang, N.-Y, Zhang, W.-X, Zhang, J.-P, Chen, X.-M.
      Pages: 1193 - 1196
      Abstract: Conventional adsorbents preferentially adsorb the small, high-polarity, and unsaturated 1,3-butadiene molecule over the other C4 hydrocarbons from which it must be separated. We show from single-crystal x-ray diffraction and computational simulation that a hydrophilic metal-organic framework, [Zn2(btm)2], where H2btm is bis(5-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methane, has quasi-discrete pores that can induce conformational changes in the flexible guest molecules, weakening 1,3-butadiene adsorption through a large bending energy penalty. In a breakthrough operation at ambient temperature and pressure, this guest conformation–controlling adsorbent eluted 1,3-butadiene first, then butane, butene, and isobutene. Thus, 1,3-butadiene can be efficiently purified (≥99.5%) while avoiding high-temperature conditions that can lead to its undesirable polymerization.
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam7232
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
  • Drawing connections
    • Authors: McDermott J.
      Pages: 1202 - 1202
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T10:29:47-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.356.6343.1202
      Issue No: Vol. 356, No. 6343 (2017)
       
 
 
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