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Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 5437  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Lipid presentation by the protein C receptor links coagulation with
           autoimmunity
    • Authors: Müller-Calleja, N; Hollerbach, A, Royce, J, Ritter, S, Pedrosa, D, Madhusudhan, T, Teifel, S, Meineck, M, Häuser, F, Canisius, A, Nguyen, T. S, Braun, J, Bruns, K, Etzold, A, Zechner, U, Strand, S, Radsak, M, Strand, D, Gu, J.-M, Weinmann-Menke, J, Esmon, C. T, Teyton, L, Lackner, K. J, Ruf, W.
      Abstract: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) cause severe autoimmune disease characterized by vascular pathologies and pregnancy complications. Here, we identify endosomal lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) presented by the CD1d-like endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) as a pathogenic cell surface antigen recognized by aPLs for induction of thrombosis and endosomal inflammatory signaling. The engagement of aPLs with EPCR-LBPA expressed on innate immune cells sustains interferon- and toll-like receptor 7–dependent B1a cell expansion and autoantibody production. Specific pharmacological interruption of EPCR-LBPA signaling attenuates major aPL-elicited pathologies and the development of autoimmunity in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus. Thus, aPLs recognize a single cell surface lipid–protein receptor complex to perpetuate a self-amplifying autoimmune signaling loop dependent on the cooperation with the innate immune complement and coagulation pathways.
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc0956
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Building digital twins for infections
    • Authors: Alderton G.
      Pages: 1119
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-i
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Investigating a tsunamigenic megathrust earthquake in the Japan Trench
    • Authors: Kodaira, S; Iinuma, T, Imai, K.
      Abstract: The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake occurred in the Japan Trench 10 years ago, where devastating earthquakes and tsunamis have repeatedly resulted from subduction of the Pacific plate. Densely instrumented seismic, geodetic, and tsunami observation networks precisely recorded the event, including seafloor observations. A large coseismic fault slip that unexpectedly extended to a shallow part of megathrust fault was documented. Strong lateral variations of the coseismic slip near the trench were recorded from marine geophysical studies, along with a possible cause of these variations. The seismic activities in east Japan are still higher than those before the earthquake, and crustal deformation is still occurring. Although the recurrence probability of a great earthquake (magnitude = ~9) in the Japan Trench in the near future is very low, a large normal fault earthquake seaward of the Japan Trench is a concerning possibility.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abe1169
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Noncanonical scaffolding of G{alpha}i and {beta}-arrestin by G
           protein-coupled receptors
    • Authors: Smith, J. S; Pack, T. F, Inoue, A, Lee, C, Zheng, K, Choi, I, Eiger, D. S, Warman, A, Xiong, X, Ma, Z, Viswanathan, G, Levitan, I. M, Rochelle, L. K, Staus, D. P, Snyder, J. C, Kahsai, A. W, Caron, M. G, Rajagopal, S.
      Abstract: Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are common drug targets and canonically couple to specific Gα protein subtypes and β-arrestin adaptor proteins. G protein–mediated signaling and β-arrestin–mediated signaling have been considered separable. We show here that GPCRs promote a direct interaction between Gαi protein subtype family members and β-arrestins regardless of their canonical Gα protein subtype coupling. Gαi:β-arrestin complexes bound extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK), and their disruption impaired both ERK activation and cell migration, which is consistent with β-arrestins requiring a functional interaction with Gαi for certain signaling events. These results introduce a GPCR signaling mechanism distinct from canonical G protein activation in which GPCRs cause the formation of Gαi:β-arrestin signaling complexes.
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay1833
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Genomic, epigenomic, and biophysical cues controlling the emergence of the
           lung alveolus
    • Authors: Zepp, J. A; Morley, M. P, Loebel, C, Kremp, M. M, Chaudhry, F. N, Basil, M. C, Leach, J. P, Liberti, D. C, Niethamer, T. K, Ying, Y, Jayachandran, S, Babu, A, Zhou, S, Frank, D. B, Burdick, J. A, Morrisey, E. E.
      Abstract: The lung alveolus is the functional unit of the respiratory system required for gas exchange. During the transition to air breathing at birth, biophysical forces are thought to shape the emerging tissue niche. However, the intercellular signaling that drives these processes remains poorly understood. Applying a multimodal approach, we identified alveolar type 1 (AT1) epithelial cells as a distinct signaling hub. Lineage tracing demonstrates that AT1 progenitors align with receptive, force-exerting myofibroblasts in a spatial and temporal manner. Through single-cell chromatin accessibility and pathway expression (SCAPE) analysis, we demonstrate that AT1-restricted ligands are required for myofibroblasts and alveolar formation. These studies show that the alignment of cell fates, mediated by biophysical and AT1-derived paracrine signals, drives the extensive tissue remodeling required for postnatal respiration.
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Development, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc3172
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Type III secretion system effectors form robust and flexible intracellular
           virulence networks
    • Authors: Ruano-Gallego, D; Sanchez-Garrido, J, Kozik, Z, Nunez-Berrueco, E, Cepeda-Molero, M, Mullineaux-Sanders, C, Naemi-Baghshomali Clark, J, Slater, S. L, Wagner, N, Glegola-Madejska, I, Roumeliotis, T. I, Pupko, T, Fernandez, L. A, Rodriguez-Paton, A, Choudhary, J. S, Frankel, G.
      Abstract: Infections with many Gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia, rely on type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors. We hypothesized that while hijacking processes within mammalian cells, the effectors operate as a robust network that can tolerate substantial contractions. This was tested in vivo using the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (encoding 31 effectors). Sequential gene deletions showed that effector essentiality for infection was context dependent and that the network could tolerate 60% contraction while maintaining pathogenicity. Despite inducing very different colonic cytokine profiles (e.g., interleukin-22, interleukin-17, interferon-, or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), different networks induced protective immunity. Using data from >100 distinct mutant combinations, we built and trained a machine learning model able to predict colonization outcomes, which were confirmed experimentally. Furthermore, reproducing the human-restricted enteropathogenic E. coli effector repertoire in C. rodentium was not sufficient for efficient colonization, which implicates effector networks in host adaptation. These results unveil the extreme robustness of both T3SS effector networks and host responses.
      Keywords: Engineering, Microbiology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc9531
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • COVID-19 lessons for research
    • Authors: Collins F. S.
      Pages: 1081 - 1081
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abh3996
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 1082 - 1084
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1082
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Coronavirus sequence trove sparks frustration
    • Authors: Wadman M.
      Pages: 1086 - 1087
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1086
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • As vaccine surpluses loom, donation plans urged
    • Authors: Cohen, J; Kupferschmidt, K.
      Pages: 1087 - 1088
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Medicine, Diseases, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1087
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Ancient Earth was a water world
    • Authors: Voosen P.
      Pages: 1088 - 1089
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Oceanography
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1088
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Giant detectors could hear murmurs from across universe
    • Authors: Cho A.
      Pages: 1089 - 1090
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Astronomy, Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1089
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Magnet tests kick off bid for net fusion energy
    • Authors: Clery D.
      Pages: 1091 - 1091
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1091
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • A call to arms
    • Authors: Service R. F.
      Pages: 1092 - 1095
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1092
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Who is stirring the waters'
    • Authors: Hall, J; Perdigao, R. A. P.
      Pages: 1096 - 1097
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg6514
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Magic, symmetry, and twisted matter
    • Authors: Yazdani A.
      Pages: 1098 - 1099
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg5641
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • "Birth" of the modern ocean twilight zone
    • Authors: Bopp L.
      Pages: 1099 - 1100
      Keywords: Oceanography
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg5994
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Linking clotting and autoimmunity
    • Authors: Kaplan M. J.
      Pages: 1100 - 1101
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg6449
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Fungi prevent intestinal healing
    • Authors: Chiaro, T; Round, J. L.
      Pages: 1102 - 1103
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg6017
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern
    • Authors: Altmann, D. M; Boyton, R. J, Beale, R.
      Pages: 1103 - 1104
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg7404
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Using digital twins in viral infection
    • Authors: Laubenbacher, R; Sluka, J. P, Glazier, J. A.
      Pages: 1105 - 1106
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abf3370
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Market design to accelerate COVID-19 vaccine supply
    • Authors: Castillo, J. C; Ahuja, A, Athey, S, Baker, A, Budish, E, Chipty, T, Glennerster, R, Kominers, S. D, Kremer, M, Larson, G, Lee, J, Prendergast, C, Snyder, C. M, Tabarrok, A, Tan, B. J, Wiecek, W.
      Pages: 1107 - 1109
      Keywords: Economics
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg0889
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Pandora's pandemic
    • Authors: Campos L. A.
      Pages: 1111 - 1112
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg0479
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Dispatches from life's blurry boundaries
    • Authors: Dunn R.
      Pages: 1113 - 1113
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg4672
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Australia faces environmental crisis
    • Authors: Ward, M; Barmand, S, Watson, J, Williams, B.
      Pages: 1115 - 1116
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg9225
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Vaccine efficacy probable against COVID-19 variants
    • Authors: Luchsinger, L. L; Hillyer, C. D.
      Pages: 1116 - 1116
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg9461
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • China needs better postdoctoral policy
    • Authors: Yang; G.-Q.
      Pages: 1116 - 1116
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg6881
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • NETs are a GAS for macrophages
    • Authors: Foley J. F.
      Pages: 1117 - 1117
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-a
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Spin injection sans magnetism
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 1117 - 1117
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-b
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • A supersolid rotation
    • Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 1117 - 1117
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-c
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Eluding detection
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 1117 - 1118
      Keywords: Virology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-d
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Diabodies see the unseeable
    • Authors: Erkes D. A.
      Pages: 1117 - 1118
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-e
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Designing smarter anticancer T cells
    • Authors: Ray L. B.
      Pages: 1117 - 1118
      Keywords: Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-f
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Hydrogenating borophene
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 1117 - 1118
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-g
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Calcium catches dinitrogen
    • Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 1117 - 1118
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-h
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • The legacy of Tohoku-oki
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 1117 - 1119
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-j
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • A lipid-protein autoimmunity target
    • Authors: Scanlon S. T.
      Pages: 1117 - 1119
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-k
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Decrypting pathogen effector networks
    • Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 1117 - 1119
      Keywords: Engineering, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-l
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Another way for GPCRs to signal
    • Authors: Ray L. B.
      Pages: 1117 - 1119
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-m
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Transitioning lung for postnatal life
    • Authors: Purnell B. A.
      Pages: 1117 - 1119
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Development
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-n
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Vaccine protects against B1.1.7 variant
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 1117 - 1119
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-o
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • A twisty trilayer
    • Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 1117 - 1119
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-p
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Getting more pumped
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 1117 - 1119
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-q
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Change of flow
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 1117 - 1119
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-r
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Fungal aggravation
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 1117 - 1119
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-s
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Golden opportunity to treat glioblastoma
    • Authors: Norton M.
      Pages: 1117 - 1119
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1117-t
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Rays of communication
    • Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 1118 - 1119
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1118-a
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Photonic crystals with a touch of topology
    • Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 1118 - 1118
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1118-b
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • A tight squeeze'
    • Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 1118 - 1119
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1118-c
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Catching the action on the cell
    • Authors: Vinson V.
      Pages: 1118 - 1119
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1118-d
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • A way to shrink RAM
    • Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 1118 - 1119
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1118-e
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Shedding light on TCR activation
    • Authors: Scanlon S. T.
      Pages: 1118 - 1119
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1118-f
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Better predictions with water isotopes
    • Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 1118 - 1119
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1118-g
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Dinitrogen complexation and reduction at low-valent calcium
    • Authors: Rösch, B; Gentner, T. X, Langer, J, Färber, C, Eyselein, J, Zhao, L, Ding, C, Frenking, G, Harder, S.
      Pages: 1125 - 1128
      Abstract: Here we report that attempted preparation of low-valent CaI complexes in the form of LCa-CaL (where L is a bulky β-diketiminate ligand) under dinitrogen (N2) atmosphere led to isolation of LCa(N2)CaL, which was characterized crystallographically. The N22 anion in this complex reacted in most cases as a very potent two-electron donor. Therefore, LCa(N2)CaL acts as a synthon for the low-valent CaI complex LCa-CaL, which was the target of our studies. The N22 anion could also be protonated to diazene (N2H2) that disproportionated to hydrazine and N2. The role of Ca d orbitals for N2 activation is discussed.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abf2374
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Chiral-induced spin selectivity enables a room-temperature spin
           light-emitting diode
    • Authors: Kim, Y.-H; Zhai, Y, Lu, H, Pan, X, Xiao, C, Gaulding, E. A, Harvey, S. P, Berry, J. J, Vardeny, Z. V, Luther, J. M, Beard, M. C.
      Pages: 1129 - 1133
      Abstract: In traditional optoelectronic approaches, control over spin, charge, and light requires the use of both electrical and magnetic fields. In a spin-polarized light-emitting diode (spin-LED), charges are injected, and circularly polarized light is emitted from spin-polarized carrier pairs. Typically, the injection of carriers occurs with the application of an electric field, whereas spin polarization can be achieved using an applied magnetic field or polarized ferromagnetic contacts. We used chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) to produce spin-polarized carriers and demonstrate a spin-LED that operates at room temperature without magnetic fields or ferromagnetic contacts. The CISS layer consists of oriented, self-assembled small chiral molecules within a layered organic-inorganic metal-halide hybrid semiconductor framework. The spin-LED achieves ±2.6% circularly polarized electroluminescence at room temperature.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abf5291
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Electric field-tunable superconductivity in alternating-twist magic-angle
           trilayer graphene
    • Authors: Hao, Z; Zimmerman, A. M, Ledwith, P, Khalaf, E, Najafabadi, D. H, Watanabe, K, Taniguchi, T, Vishwanath, A, Kim, P.
      Pages: 1133 - 1138
      Abstract: Engineering moiré superlattices by twisting layers in van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures has uncovered a wide array of quantum phenomena. We constructed a vdW heterostructure that consists of three graphene layers stacked with alternating twist angles ±. At the average twist angle ~ 1.56°, a theoretically predicted "magic angle" for the formation of flat electron bands, we observed displacement field–tunable superconductivity with a maximum critical temperature of 2.1 kelvin. By tuning the doping level and displacement field, we found that superconducting regimes occur in conjunction with flavor polarization of moiré bands and are bounded by a van Hove singularity (vHS) at high displacement fields. Our findings display inconsistencies with a weak coupling description, suggesting that the observed moiré superconductivity has an unconventional nature.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg0399
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Recurrent deletions in the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein drive antibody
           escape
    • Authors: McCarthy, K. R; Rennick, L. J, Nambulli, S, Robinson-McCarthy, L. R, Bain, W. G, Haidar, G, Duprex, W. P.
      Pages: 1139 - 1142
      Abstract: Zoonotic pandemics, such as that caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can follow the spillover of animal viruses into highly susceptible human populations. The descendants of these viruses have adapted to the human host and evolved to evade immune pressure. Coronaviruses acquire substitutions more slowly than other RNA viruses. In the spike glycoprotein, we found that recurrent deletions overcome this slow substitution rate. Deletion variants arise in diverse genetic and geographic backgrounds, transmit efficiently, and are present in novel lineages, including those of current global concern. They frequently occupy recurrent deletion regions (RDRs), which map to defined antibody epitopes. Deletions in RDRs confer resistance to neutralizing antibodies. By altering stretches of amino acids, deletions appear to accelerate SARS-CoV-2 antigenic evolution and may, more generally, drive adaptive evolution.
      Keywords: Virology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abf6950
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Synthesis of borophane polymorphs through hydrogenation of borophene
    • Authors: Li, Q; Kolluru, V. S. C, Rahn, M. S, Schwenker, E, Li, S, Hennig, R. G, Darancet, P, Chan, M. K. Y, Hersam, M. C.
      Pages: 1143 - 1148
      Abstract: Synthetic two-dimensional polymorphs of boron, or borophene, have attracted attention because of their anisotropic metallicity, correlated-electron phenomena, and diverse superlattice structures. Although borophene heterostructures have been realized, ordered chemical modification of borophene has not yet been reported. Here, we synthesize "borophane" polymorphs by hydrogenating borophene with atomic hydrogen in ultrahigh vacuum. Through atomic-scale imaging, spectroscopy, and first-principles calculations, the most prevalent borophane polymorph is shown to possess a combination of two-center–two-electron boron-hydrogen and three-center–two-electron boron-hydrogen-boron bonds. Borophane polymorphs are metallic with modified local work functions and can be reversibly returned to pristine borophene through thermal desorption of hydrogen. Hydrogenation also provides chemical passivation because borophane reduces oxidation rates by more than two orders of magnitude after ambient exposure.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg1874
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Temperature controls carbon cycling and biological evolution in the ocean
           twilight zone
    • Authors: Boscolo-Galazzo, F; Crichton, K. A, Ridgwell, A, Mawbey, E. M, Wade, B. S, Pearson, P. N.
      Pages: 1148 - 1152
      Abstract: Theory suggests that the ocean’s biological carbon pump, the process by which organic matter is produced at the surface and transferred to the deep ocean, is sensitive to temperature because temperature controls photosynthesis and respiration rates. We applied a combined data-modeling approach to investigate carbon and nutrient recycling rates across the world ocean over the past 15 million years of global cooling. We found that the efficiency of the biological carbon pump increased with ocean cooling as the result of a temperature-dependent reduction in the rate of remineralization (degradation) of sinking organic matter. Increased food delivery at depth prompted the development of new deep-water niches, triggering deep plankton evolution and the expansion of the mesopelagic "twilight zone" ecosystem.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb6643
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 pseudovirus by BNT162b2
           vaccine-elicited human sera
    • Authors: Muik, A; Wallisch, A.-K, Sänger, B, Swanson, K. A, Mühl, J, Chen, W, Cai, H, Maurus, D, Sarkar, R, Türeci, O, Dormitzer, P. R, Sahin, U.
      Pages: 1152 - 1153
      Abstract: Recently, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage called B.1.1.7 (variant of concern: VOC 202012/01), which is reported to spread more efficiently and faster than other strains, emerged in the United Kingdom. This variant has an unusually large number of mutations, with 10 amino acid changes in the spike (S) protein, raising concerns that its recognition by neutralizing antibodies may be affected. In this study, we tested SARS-CoV-2-S pseudoviruses bearing either the Wuhan reference strain or the B.1.1.7 lineage spike protein with sera of 40 participants who were vaccinated in a previously reported trial with the messenger RNA–based COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2. The immune sera had slightly reduced but overall largely preserved neutralizing titers against the B.1.1.7 lineage pseudovirus. These data indicate that the B.1.1.7 lineage will not escape BNT162b2-mediated protection.
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg6105
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Debaryomyces is enriched in Crohns disease intestinal tissue and impairs
           healing in mice
    • Authors: Jain, U; Ver Heul, A. M, Xiong, S, Gregory, M. H, Demers, E. G, Kern, J. T, Lai, C.-W, Muegge, B. D, Barisas, D. A. G, Leal-Ekman, J. S, Deepak, P, Ciorba, M. A, Liu, T.-C, Hogan, D. A, Debbas, P, Braun, J, McGovern, D. P. B, Underhill, D. M, Stappenbeck, T. S.
      Pages: 1154 - 1159
      Abstract: Alterations of the mycobiota composition associated with Crohn’s disease (CD) are challenging to link to defining elements of pathophysiology, such as poor injury repair. Using culture-dependent and -independent methods, we discovered that Debaryomyces hansenii preferentially localized to and was abundant within incompletely healed intestinal wounds of mice and inflamed mucosal tissues of CD human subjects. D. hansenii cultures from injured mice and inflamed CD tissues impaired colonic healing when introduced into injured conventionally raised or gnotobiotic mice. We reisolated D. hansenii from injured areas of these mice, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. Mechanistically, D. hansenii impaired mucosal healing through the myeloid cell–specific type 1 interferon–CCL5 axis. Taken together, we have identified a fungus that inhabits inflamed CD tissue and can lead to dysregulated mucosal healing.
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abd0919
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Globally observed trends in mean and extreme river flow attributed to
           climate change
    • Authors: Gudmundsson, L; Boulange, J, Do, H. X, Gosling, S. N, Grillakis, M. G, Koutroulis, A. G, Leonard, M, Liu, J, Müller Schmied, H, Papadimitriou, L, Pokhrel, Y, Seneviratne, S. I, Satoh, Y, Thiery, W, Westra, S, Zhang, X, Zhao, F.
      Pages: 1159 - 1162
      Abstract: Anthropogenic climate change is expected to affect global river flow. Here, we analyze time series of low, mean, and high river flows from 7250 observatories around the world covering the years 1971 to 2010. We identify spatially complex trend patterns, where some regions are drying and others are wetting consistently across low, mean, and high flows. Trends computed from state-of-the-art model simulations are consistent with the observations only if radiative forcing that accounts for anthropogenic climate change is considered. Simulated effects of water and land management do not suffice to reproduce the observed trend pattern. Thus, the analysis provides clear evidence for the role of externally forced climate change as a causal driver of recent trends in mean and extreme river flow at the global scale.
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba3996
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • Evidence of superfluidity in a dipolar supersolid from nonclassical
           rotational inertia
    • Authors: Tanzi, L; Maloberti, J. G, Biagioni, G, Fioretti, A, Gabbanini, C, Modugno, G.
      Pages: 1162 - 1165
      Abstract: A key manifestation of superfluidity in liquids and gases is a reduction of the moment of inertia under slow rotations. Nonclassical rotational effects have also been considered in the context of the elusive supersolid phase of matter, in which superfluidity coexists with a lattice structure. Here, we show that the recently discovered supersolid phase in dipolar quantum gases features a reduced moment of inertia. Using a dipolar gas of dysprosium atoms, we studied a peculiar rotational oscillation mode in a harmonic potential, the scissors mode, previously investigated in ordinary superfluids. From the measured moment of inertia, we deduced a superfluid fraction that is different from zero and of order of unity, providing direct evidence of the superfluid nature of the dipolar supersolid.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba4309
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • T cell circuits that sense antigen density with an ultrasensitive
           threshold
    • Authors: Hernandez-Lopez, R. A; Yu, W, Cabral, K. A, Creasey, O. A, Lopez Pazmino, M. d. P, Tonai, Y, De Guzman, A, Mäkelä, A, Saksela, K, Gartner, Z. J, Lim, W. A.
      Pages: 1166 - 1171
      Abstract: Overexpressed tumor-associated antigens [for example, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)] are attractive targets for therapeutic T cells, but toxic "off-tumor" cross-reaction with normal tissues that express low levels of target antigen can occur with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)–T cells. Inspired by natural ultrasensitive response circuits, we engineered a two-step positive-feedback circuit that allows human cytotoxic T cells to discriminate targets on the basis of a sigmoidal antigen-density threshold. In this circuit, a low-affinity synthetic Notch receptor for HER2 controls the expression of a high-affinity CAR for HER2. Increasing HER2 density thus has cooperative effects on T cells—it increases both CAR expression and activation—leading to a sigmoidal response. T cells with this circuit show sharp discrimination between target cells expressing normal amounts of HER2 and cancer cells expressing 100 times as much HER2, both in vitro and in vivo.
      Keywords: Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc1855
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
  • A mother's plea
    • Authors: Shen M. J.
      Pages: 1174 - 1174
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T10:38:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.371.6534.1174
      Issue No: Vol. 371, No. 6534 (2021)
       
 
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