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Journal Cover Science
  [SJR: 13.217]   [H-I: 915]   [3384 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • UBE2O remodels the proteome during terminal erythroid differentiation
    • Authors: Nguyen, A. T; Prado, M. A, Schmidt, P. J, Sendamarai, A. K, Wilson-Grady, J. T, Min, M, Campagna, D. R, Tian, G, Shi, Y, Dederer, V, Kawan, M, Kuehnle, N, Paulo, J. A, Yao, Y, Weiss, M. J, Justice, M. J, Gygi, S. P, Fleming, M. D, Finley, D.
      Abstract: During terminal differentiation, the global protein complement is remodeled, as epitomized by erythrocytes, whose cytosol is ~98% globin. The erythroid proteome undergoes a rapid transition at the reticulocyte stage; however, the mechanisms driving programmed elimination of preexisting cytosolic proteins are unclear. We found that a mutation in the murine Ube2o gene, which encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme induced during erythropoiesis, results in anemia. Proteomic analysis suggested that UBE2O is a broad-spectrum ubiquitinating enzyme that remodels the erythroid proteome. In particular, ribosome elimination, a hallmark of reticulocyte differentiation, was defective in Ube2o–/– mutants. UBE2O recognized ribosomal proteins and other substrates directly, targeting them to proteasomes for degradation. Thus, in reticulocytes, the induction of ubiquitinating factors may drive the transition from a complex to a simple proteome.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan0218
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • The biology of color
    • Authors: Cuthill, I. C; Allen, W. L, Arbuckle, K, Caspers, B, Chaplin, G, Hauber, M. E, Hill, G. E, Jablonski, N. G, Jiggins, C. D, Kelber, A, Mappes, J, Marshall, J, Merrill, R, Osorio, D, Prum, R, Roberts, N. W, Roulin, A, Rowland, H. M, Sherratt, T. N, Skelhorn, J, Speed, M. P, Stevens, M, Stoddard, M. C, Stuart-Fox, D, Talas, L, Tibbetts, E, Caro, T.
      Abstract: Coloration mediates the relationship between an organism and its environment in important ways, including social signaling, antipredator defenses, parasitic exploitation, thermoregulation, and protection from ultraviolet light, microbes, and abrasion. Methodological breakthroughs are accelerating knowledge of the processes underlying both the production of animal coloration and its perception, experiments are advancing understanding of mechanism and function, and measurements of color collected noninvasively and at a global scale are opening windows to evolutionary dynamics more generally. Here we provide a roadmap of these advances and identify hitherto unrecognized challenges for this multi- and interdisciplinary field.
      Keywords: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics, Online Only
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan0221
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Fixing with folate
    • Authors: Czajka; C.
      Pages: 468
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-i
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Scientists can't be silent
    • Authors: Coons; C.
      Pages: 431 - 431
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao4665
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 432 - 433
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.432
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Stealing industrial secrets pays off--at first
    • Authors: Matacic; C.
      Pages: 434 - 435
      Keywords: Economics, European News
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.434
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • China cracks down on fraud
    • Authors: Normile; D.
      Pages: 435 - 435
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.435
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Embryo editing takes another step to clinic
    • Authors: Servick; K.
      Pages: 436 - 437
      Keywords: Development, Medicine, Diseases, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.436
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Cosmic ray catcher will probe supernovae from new perch
    • Authors: Hand; E.
      Pages: 437 - 438
      Keywords: Astronomy, Physics
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.437
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Anthrax cousin wreaks havoc in the rainforest
    • Authors: Kupferschmidt; K.
      Pages: 438 - 439
      Keywords: Ecology, Epidemiology
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.438
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Elderly chimps may get Alzheimer's disease
    • Authors: Cross; R.
      Pages: 440 - 440
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Neuroscience, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.440
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • The stem cell skeptic
    • Authors: Servick; K.
      Pages: 441 - 443
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Pharmacology, Toxicology, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.441
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • House of the sun
    • Authors: Loomis; I.
      Pages: 444 - 447
      Keywords: Astronomy, Scientific Community, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.444
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Helicity--invariant even in a viscous fluid
    • Authors: Moffatt; H. K.
      Pages: 448 - 449
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1428
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • New developments for protein quality control
    • Authors: Hampton, R. Y; Dargemont, C.
      Pages: 450 - 451
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1896
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Evolution, climate change, and extreme events
    • Authors: Grant; P. R.
      Pages: 451 - 452
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao2067
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • A low-loss origami plasmonic waveguide
    • Authors: Vetrone, F; Rosei, F.
      Pages: 452 - 453
      Keywords: Physics, Applied
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan6488
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Amphibians on the brink
    • Authors: Bower, D. S; Lips, K. R, Schwarzkopf, L, Georges, A, Clulow, S.
      Pages: 454 - 455
      Keywords: Ecology, Epidemiology
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao0500
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Targeting an energy sensor to treat diabetes
    • Authors: Hardie; D. G.
      Pages: 455 - 456
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1913
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Estimating the health benefits of environmental regulations
    • Authors: McGartland, A; Revesz, R, Axelrad, D. A, Dockins, C, Sutton, P, Woodruff, T. J.
      Pages: 457 - 458
      Keywords: Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8204
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • The perils of permanence
    • Authors: Shablovsky; S.
      Pages: 459 - 459
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao0427
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Postmodern Prometheus
    • Authors: Hirsh; H.
      Pages: 460 - 460
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan8674
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Elemental haiku
    • Authors: Lee; M. S.
      Pages: 461 - 463
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan2999
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Toward a targeted treatment for addiction
    • Authors: Creed; M. C.
      Pages: 464 - 465
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1197
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Neuromodulation with nanoparticles
    • Authors: Airan; R.
      Pages: 465 - 465
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1200
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Estimating temperate adaptation in ancient maize
    • Authors: Zahn; L. M.
      Pages: 467 - 467
      Keywords: Evolution, Genetics
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-a
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Forcing polymers to be semiconductors
    • Authors: Yeston; J.
      Pages: 467 - 467
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-b
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Fragmented by diabetic stress
    • Authors: Wong; W.
      Pages: 467 - 467
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-c
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Eat more plants for influenza resilience
    • Authors: Ash; C.
      Pages: 467 - 467
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-d
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Hitting a dozen enzymes with one drug
    • Authors: Kiberstis; P. A.
      Pages: 467 - 468
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-e
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Linking fluids as they twist and writhe
    • Authors: Grocholski; B.
      Pages: 467 - 468
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-f
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Extreme events bring rapid change
    • Authors: Vignieri; S.
      Pages: 467 - 468
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-g
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Spin-charge separation in atomic chains
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 467 - 468
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-h
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Containing fungal threats to amphibians
    • Authors: Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink; J.
      Pages: 467 - 469
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-j
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Accumulating evidence for the Zundel motif
    • Authors: Yeston; J.
      Pages: 467 - 469
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-k
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • DREADD not the designer compound
    • Authors: Stern; P.
      Pages: 467 - 469
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-l
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Removing orphan proteins from the system
    • Authors: Hurtley; S. M.
      Pages: 467 - 469
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-m
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Replacing platinum in air-fed fuel cells
    • Authors: Szuromi; P.
      Pages: 467 - 469
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-n
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Messaging with RNAs
    • Authors: Balasubramani; A.
      Pages: 467 - 469
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-o
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • In living color
    • Authors: Vignieri; S.
      Pages: 467 - 469
      Keywords: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-p
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Cas9 endonuclease and off-target activity
    • Authors: Shilatifard; A.
      Pages: 467 - 469
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.467-q
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • New flier glides into the Pacific
    • Authors: Vignieri; S.
      Pages: 468 - 468
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.468-a
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Electing the best and the broadest
    • Authors: Wible; B.
      Pages: 468 - 469
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.468-b
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Changing ecosystems in cow stomachs
    • Authors: Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink; J.
      Pages: 468 - 469
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.468-c
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Globalization is not recent
    • Authors: Ash; C.
      Pages: 468 - 469
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.468-d
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Mysterious Mediator multiprotein
    • Authors: Mao; S.
      Pages: 468 - 469
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.468-e
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Bacterial signals promote mosquito development
    • Authors: Ray; L. B.
      Pages: 468 - 469
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.468-f
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Removing the rainbow from diffractive optics
    • Authors: Osborne; I. S.
      Pages: 468 - 469
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.468-g
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • UBE2O is a quality control factor for orphans of multiprotein complexes
    • Authors: Yanagitani, K; Juszkiewicz, S, Hegde, R. S.
      Pages: 472 - 475
      Abstract: Many nascent proteins are assembled into multiprotein complexes of defined stoichiometry. Imbalances in the synthesis of individual subunits result in orphans. How orphans are selectively eliminated to maintain protein homeostasis is poorly understood. Here, we found that the conserved ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2O directly recognized juxtaposed basic and hydrophobic patches on unassembled proteins to mediate ubiquitination without a separate ubiquitin ligase. In reticulocytes, where UBE2O is highly up-regulated, unassembled α-globin molecules that failed to assemble with β-globin were selectively ubiquitinated by UBE2O. In nonreticulocytes, ribosomal proteins that did not engage nuclear import factors were targets for UBE2O. Thus, UBE2O is a self-contained quality control factor that comprises substrate recognition and ubiquitin transfer activities within a single protein to efficiently target orphans of multiprotein complexes for degradation.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan0178
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Mechanochemical unzipping of insulating polyladderene to semiconducting
           polyacetylene
    • Authors: Chen, Z; Mercer, J. A. M, Zhu, X, Romaniuk, J. A. H, Pfattner, R, Cegelski, L, Martinez, T. J, Burns, N. Z, Xia, Y.
      Pages: 475 - 479
      Abstract: Biological systems sense and respond to mechanical stimuli in a complex manner. In an effort to develop synthetic materials that transduce mechanical force into multifold changes in their intrinsic properties, we report on a mechanochemically responsive nonconjugated polymer that converts to a conjugated polymer via an extensive rearrangement of the macromolecular structure in response to force. Our design is based on the facile mechanochemical unzipping of polyladderene, a polymer inspired by a lipid natural product structure and prepared via direct metathesis polymerization. The resultant polyacetylene block copolymers exhibit long conjugation length and uniform trans-configuration and self-assemble into semiconducting nanowires. Calculations support a tandem unzipping mechanism of the ladderene units.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan2797
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Direct atomic-level insight into the active sites of a high-performance
           PGM-free ORR catalyst
    • Authors: Chung, H. T; Cullen, D. A, Higgins, D, Sneed, B. T, Holby, E. F, More, K. L, Zelenay, P.
      Pages: 479 - 484
      Abstract: Platinum group metal–free (PGM-free) metal-nitrogen-carbon catalysts have emerged as a promising alternative to their costly platinum (Pt)–based counterparts in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) but still face some major challenges, including (i) the identification of the most relevant catalytic site for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and (ii) demonstration of competitive PEFC performance under automotive-application conditions in the hydrogen (H2)–air fuel cell. Herein, we demonstrate H2-air performance gains achieved with an iron-nitrogen-carbon catalyst synthesized with two nitrogen precursors that developed hierarchical porosity. Current densities recorded in the kinetic region of cathode operation, at fuel cell voltages greater than ~0.75 V, were the same as those obtained with a Pt cathode at a loading of 0.1 milligram of Pt per centimeter squared. The proposed catalytic active site, carbon-embedded nitrogen-coordinated iron (FeN4), was directly visualized with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, and the contributions of these active sites associated with specific lattice-level carbon structures were explored computationally.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan2255
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Revealing hidden antiferromagnetic correlations in doped Hubbard chains
           via string correlators
    • Authors: Hilker, T. A; Salomon, G, Grusdt, F, Omran, A, Boll, M, Demler, E, Bloch, I, Gross, C.
      Pages: 484 - 487
      Abstract: Topological phases, like the Haldane phase in spin-1 chains, defy characterization through local order parameters. Instead, nonlocal string order parameters can be employed to reveal their hidden order. Similar diluted magnetic correlations appear in doped one-dimensional lattice systems owing to the phenomenon of spin-charge separation. Here we report on the direct observation of such hidden magnetic correlations via quantum gas microscopy of hole-doped ultracold Fermi-Hubbard chains. The measurement of nonlocal spin-density correlation functions reveals a hidden finite-range antiferromagnetic order, a direct consequence of spin-charge separation. Our technique, which measures nonlocal order directly, can be readily extended to higher dimensions to study the complex interplay between magnetic order and density fluctuations.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8990
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Complete measurement of helicity and its dynamics in vortex tubes
    • Authors: Scheeler, M. W; van Rees, W. M, Kedia, H, Kleckner, D, Irvine, W. T. M.
      Pages: 487 - 491
      Abstract: Helicity, a topological measure of the intertwining of vortices in a fluid flow, is a conserved quantity in inviscid fluids but can be dissipated by viscosity in real flows. Despite its relevance across a range of flows, helicity in real fluids remains poorly understood because the entire quantity is challenging to measure. We measured the total helicity of thin-core vortex tubes in water. For helical vortices that are stretched or compressed by a second vortex, we found conservation of total helicity. For an isolated helical vortex, we observed evolution toward and maintenance of a constant helicity state after the dissipation of twist helicity by viscosity. Our results show that helicity can remain constant even in a viscous fluid and provide an improved basis for understanding and manipulating helicity in real flows.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam6897
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Large-amplitude transfer motion of hydrated excess protons mapped by
           ultrafast 2D IR spectroscopy
    • Authors: Dahms, F; Fingerhut, B. P, Nibbering, E. T. J, Pines, E, Elsaesser, T.
      Pages: 491 - 495
      Abstract: Solvation and transport of excess protons in aqueous systems play a fundamental role in acid-base chemistry and biochemical processes. We mapped ultrafast proton excursions along the proton transfer coordinate by means of two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, both in bulk water and in a Zundel cation (H5O2)+ motif selectively prepared in acetonitrile. Electric fields from the environment and stochastic hydrogen bond motions induce fluctuations of the proton double-minimum potential. Within the lifetime of a particular hydration geometry, the proton explores a multitude of positions on a sub-100-femtosecond time scale. The proton transfer vibration is strongly damped by its 20- to 40-femtosecond population decay. Our results suggest a central role of Zundel-like geometries in aqueous proton solvation and transport.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan5144
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Winter storms drive rapid phenotypic, regulatory, and genomic shifts in
           the green anole lizard
    • Authors: Campbell-Staton, S. C; Cheviron, Z. A, Rochette, N, Catchen, J, Losos, J. B, Edwards, S. V.
      Pages: 495 - 498
      Abstract: Extreme environmental perturbations offer opportunities to observe the effects of natural selection in wild populations. During the winter of 2013–2014, the southeastern United States endured an extreme cold event. We used thermal performance, transcriptomics, and genome scans to measure responses of lizard populations to storm-induced selection. We found significant increases in cold tolerance at the species’ southern limit. Gene expression in southern survivors shifted toward patterns characteristic of northern populations. Comparing samples before and after the extreme winter, 14 genomic regions were differentiated in the surviving southern population; four also exhibited signatures of local adaptation across the latitudinal gradient and implicate genes involved in nervous system function. Together, our results suggest that extreme winter events can rapidly produce strong selection on natural populations at multiple biological levels that recapitulate geographic patterns of local adaptation.
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam5512
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • The microbial metabolite desaminotyrosine protects from influenza through
           type I interferon
    • Authors: Steed, A. L; Christophi, G. P, Kaiko, G. E, Sun, L, Goodwin, V. M, Jain, U, Esaulova, E, Artyomov, M. N, Morales, D. J, Holtzman, M. J, Boon, A. C. M, Lenschow, D. J, Stappenbeck, T. S.
      Pages: 498 - 502
      Abstract: The microbiota is known to modulate the host response to influenza infection through as-yet-unclear mechanisms. We hypothesized that components of the microbiota exert effects through type I interferon (IFN), a hypothesis supported by analysis of influenza in a gain-of-function genetic mouse model. Here we show that a microbially associated metabolite, desaminotyrosine (DAT), protects from influenza through augmentation of type I IFN signaling and diminution of lung immunopathology. A specific human-associated gut microbe, Clostridium orbiscindens, produced DAT and rescued antibiotic-treated influenza-infected mice. DAT protected the host by priming the amplification loop of type I IFN signaling. These findings show that specific components of the enteric microbiota have distal effects on responses to lethal infections through modulation of type I IFN.
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam5336
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Chemogenetics revealed: DREADD occupancy and activation via converted
           clozapine
    • Authors: Gomez, J. L; Bonaventura, J, Lesniak, W, Mathews, W. B, Sysa-Shah, P, Rodriguez, L. A, Ellis, R. J, Richie, C. T, Harvey, B. K, Dannals, R. F, Pomper, M. G, Bonci, A, Michaelides, M.
      Pages: 503 - 507
      Abstract: The chemogenetic technology DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) is widely used for remote manipulation of neuronal activity in freely moving animals. DREADD technology posits the use of "designer receptors," which are exclusively activated by the "designer drug" clozapine N-oxide (CNO). Nevertheless, the in vivo mechanism of action of CNO at DREADDs has never been confirmed. CNO does not enter the brain after systemic drug injections and shows low affinity for DREADDs. Clozapine, to which CNO rapidly converts in vivo, shows high DREADD affinity and potency. Upon systemic CNO injections, converted clozapine readily enters the brain and occupies central nervous system–expressed DREADDs, whereas systemic subthreshold clozapine injections induce preferential DREADD-mediated behaviors.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan2475
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Systemic pan-AMPK activator MK-8722 improves glucose homeostasis but
           induces cardiac hypertrophy
    • Authors: Myers, R. W; Guan, H.-P, Ehrhart, J, Petrov, A, Prahalada, S, Tozzo, E, Yang, X, Kurtz, M. M, Trujillo, M, Gonzalez Trotter, D, Feng, D, Xu, S, Eiermann, G, Holahan, M. A, Rubins, D, Conarello, S, Niu, X, Souza, S. C, Miller, C, Liu, J, Lu, K, Feng, W, Li, Y, Painter, R. E, Milligan, J. A, He, H, Liu, F, Ogawa, A, Wisniewski, D, Rohm, R. J, Wang, L, Bunzel, M, Qian, Y, Zhu, W, Wang, H, Bennet, B, LaFranco Scheuch, L, Fernandez, G. E, Li, C, Klimas, M, Zhou, G, van Heek, M, Biftu, T, Weber, A, Kelley, D. E, Thornberry, N, Erion, M. D, Kemp, D. M, Sebhat, I. K.
      Pages: 507 - 511
      Abstract: 5'-Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of energy homeostasis in eukaryotes. Despite three decades of investigation, the biological roles of AMPK and its potential as a drug target remain incompletely understood, largely because of a lack of optimized pharmacological tools. We developed MK-8722, a potent, direct, allosteric activator of all 12 mammalian AMPK complexes. In rodents and rhesus monkeys, MK-8722–mediated AMPK activation in skeletal muscle induced robust, durable, insulin-independent glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, with resultant improvements in glycemia and no evidence of hypoglycemia. These effects translated across species, including diabetic rhesus monkeys, but manifested with concomitant cardiac hypertrophy and increased cardiac glycogen without apparent functional sequelae.
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5582
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Genomic estimation of complex traits reveals ancient maize adaptation to
           temperate North America
    • Authors: Swarts, K; Gutaker, R. M, Benz, B, Blake, M, Bukowski, R, Holland, J, Kruse-Peeples, M, Lepak, N, Prim, L, Romay, M. C, Ross-Ibarra, J, Sanchez-Gonzalez, J. d. J, Schmidt, C, Schuenemann, V. J, Krause, J, Matson, R. G, Weigel, D, Buckler, E. S, Burbano, H. A.
      Pages: 512 - 515
      Abstract: By 4000 years ago, people had introduced maize to the southwestern United States; full agriculture was established quickly in the lowland deserts but delayed in the temperate highlands for 2000 years. We test if the earliest upland maize was adapted for early flowering, a characteristic of modern temperate maize. We sequenced fifteen 1900-year-old maize cobs from Turkey Pen Shelter in the temperate Southwest. Indirectly validated genomic models predicted that Turkey Pen maize was marginally adapted with respect to flowering, as well as short, tillering, and segregating for yellow kernel color. Temperate adaptation drove modern population differentiation and was selected in situ from ancient standing variation. Validated prediction of polygenic traits improves our understanding of ancient phenotypes and the dynamics of environmental adaptation.
      Keywords: Evolution, Genetics
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aam9425
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 516 - 516
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.516
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
  • Fighting through the darkness
    • Authors: Hoogstraten; C. G.
      Pages: 522 - 522
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T10:26:20-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.357.6350.522
      Issue No: Vol. 357, No. 6350 (2017)
       
 
 
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