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Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 5076  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • How the thymus shaped immunology
    • Authors: Kelly; P. N.
      Pages: 521
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-i
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • A human immune system sans MAIT cells
    • Authors: Balasubramani; A.
      Pages: 521
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-v
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • The function of the thymus and its impact on modern medicine
    • Authors: Miller; J. F. A. P.
      Abstract: The lymphoid system is intimately involved in immunological processes. The small lymphocyte that circulates through blood into lymphoid tissues, then through the lymph and back to the blood through the thoracic duct, is able to initiate immune responses after appropriate stimulation by antigen. However, the lymphocytes found in the thymus are deficient in this ability despite the fact that the thymus plays a central role in lymphocyte production and in ensuring the normal development of immunological faculty. During embryogenesis, lymphocytes are present in the thymus before they can be identified in the circulation and in other lymphoid tissues. They become "educated" in the thymus to recognize a great diversity of peptide antigens bound to the body’s own marker antigen, the major histocompatibility complex, but they are purged if they strongly react against their own self-components. Lymphocytes differentiate to become various T cell subsets and then exit through the bloodstream to populate certain areas of the lymphoid system as peripheral T lymphocytes with distinct markers and immune functions.
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba2429
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Structural insights into differences in G protein activation by family A
           and family B GPCRs
    • Authors: Hilger, D; Kumar, K. K, Hu, H, Pedersen, M. F, OBrien, E. S, Giehm, L, Jennings, C, Eskici, G, Inoue, A, Lerch, M, Mathiesen, J. M, Skiniotis, G, Kobilka, B. K.
      Abstract: Family B heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs) play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism. Recent structures of family B GPCR-Gs protein complexes reveal a disruption in the α-helix of transmembrane segment 6 (TM6) not observed in family A GPCRs. To investigate the functional impact of this structural difference, we compared the structure and function of the glucagon receptor (GCGR; family B) with the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR; family A). We determined the structure of the GCGR-Gs complex by means of cryo–electron microscopy at 3.1-angstrom resolution. This structure shows the distinct break in TM6. Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) turnover, guanosine diphosphate release, GTP binding, and G protein dissociation studies revealed much slower rates for G protein activation by the GCGR compared with the β2AR. Fluorescence and double electron-electron resonance studies suggest that this difference is due to the inability of agonist alone to induce a detectable outward movement of the cytoplasmic end of TM6.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba3373
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Erratum for the Report "Global distribution of earthworm diversity" by H.
           R. P. Phillips, C. A. Guerra, M. L. C. Bartz, M. J. I. Briones, G. Brown,
           T. W. Crowther, O. Ferlian, K. B. Gongalsky, J. van den Hoogen, J. Krebs,
           A. Orgiazzi, D. Routh, B. Schwarz, E. M. Bach, J. Bennett, U. Brose, T.
           Decaens, B. Konig-Ries, M. Loreau, J. Mathieu, C. Mulder, W. H. van der
           Putten, K. S. Ramirez, M. C. Rillig, D. Russell, M. Rutgers, M. P. Thakur,
           F. T. de Vries, D. H. Wall, D. A. Wardle, M. Arai, F. O. Ayuke, G. H.
           Baker, R. Beausejour, J. C. Bedano, K. Birkhofer, E. Blanchart, B.
           Blossey, T. Bolger, R. L. Bradley, M. A. Callaham, Y. Capowiez, M. E.
           Caulfield, A. Choi, F. V. Crotty, A. Davalos, D. J. Diaz Cosin, A.
           Dominguez, A. E. Duhour, N. van Eekeren, C. Emmerling, L. B. Falco, R.
           Fernandez, S. J. Fonte, C. Fragoso, A. L. C. Franco, M. Fugere, A. T.
           Fusilero, S. Gholami, M. J. Gundale, M. Gutierrez Lopez, D. K.
           Hackenberger, L. M. Hernandez, T. Hishi, A. R. Holdsworth, M. Holmstrup,
           K. N. Hopfensperger, E. Huerta Lwanga, V. Huhta, T. T. Hurisso, B. V.
           Iannone III, M. Iordache, M. Joschko, N. Kaneko, R. Kanianska, A. M.
           Keith, C. A. Kelly, M. L. Kernecker, J. Klaminder, A. W. Kone, Y. Kooch,
           S. T. Kukkonen, H. Lalthanzara, D. R. Lammel, I. M. Lebedev, Y. Li, J. B.
           Jesus Lidon, N. K. Lincoln, S. R. Loss, R. Marichal, R. Matula, J. H.
           Moos, G. Moreno, A. Moron-Rios, B. Muys, J. Neirynck, L. Norgrove, M.
           Novo, V. Nuutinen, V. Nuzzo, M. Rahman P, J. Pansu, S. Paudel, G. Peres,
           L. Perez-Camacho, R. Pineiro, J.-F. Ponge, M. I. Rashid, S. Rebollo, J.
           Rodeiro-Iglesias, M. A. Rodriguez, A. M. Roth, G. X. Rousseau, A. Rozen,
           E. Sayad, L. van Schaik, B. C. Scharenbroch, M. Schirrmann, O. Schmidt, B.
           Schroder, J. Seeber, M. P. Shashkov, J. Singh, S. M. Smith, M.
           Steinwandter, J. A. Talavera, D. Trigo, J. Tsukamoto, A. W. de Valenca, S.
           J. Vanek, I. Virto, A. A. Wackett, M. W. Warren, N. H. Wehr, J. K. Whalen,
           M. B. Wironen, V. Wolters, I. V. Zenkova, W. Zhang, E. K. Cameron, N.
           Eisenhauer
    • PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abd9834
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Cautious optimism
    • Authors: Thorp; H. H.
      Pages: 483 - 483
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abe0359
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 484 - 486
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.484
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Wuhan coronavirus hunter Shi Zhengli speaks out
    • Authors: Cohen; J.
      Pages: 487 - 488
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Epidemiology, Immunology, Virology
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.487
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Global plan seeks to promote vaccine equity, spread risks
    • Authors: Kupferschmidt; K.
      Pages: 489 - 490
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Scientific Community, Virology
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.489
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Hidden predictability in winds could improve climate forecasts
    • Authors: Voosen; P.
      Pages: 490 - 491
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.490
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • How an ancient microbial arms race remodeled human cells
    • Authors: Gibbons; A.
      Pages: 491 - 492
      Keywords: Evolution, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.491
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Mountains and monsoons created Tibetan biodiversity
    • Authors: Stokstad; E.
      Pages: 493 - 493
      Keywords: Evolution, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.493
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • This man can read letters but numbers are a blank
    • Authors: Kean; S.
      Pages: 494 - 494
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.494
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Altered DNA base could play key role in pregnancy
    • Authors: Pennisi; E.
      Pages: 495 - 495
      Keywords: Development, Genetics
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.495
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Lizard man
    • Authors: Pennisi; E.
      Pages: 496 - 499
      Keywords: Evolution, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.496
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19 risks to global food security
    • Authors: Laborde, D; Martin, W, Swinnen, J, Vos, R.
      Pages: 500 - 502
      Keywords: Economics, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc4765
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Mapping the clean air haves and have-nots
    • Authors: Ma; L.
      Pages: 503 - 504
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb0943
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Can we predict solar flares'
    • Authors: Veronig; A. M.
      Pages: 504 - 505
      Keywords: Astronomy, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb6150
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Evolution of the human brain
    • Authors: Dehay, C; Kennedy, H.
      Pages: 506 - 507
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abd1840
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Fine-tuning receptor-G protein activation and signaling
    • Authors: Lebon; G.
      Pages: 507 - 508
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc9291
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Ductile van der Waals materials
    • Authors: Han; X.
      Pages: 509 - 509
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4527
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • How does SARS-CoV-2 cause COVID-19'
    • Authors: Matheson, N. J; Lehner, P. J.
      Pages: 510 - 511
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc6156
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • William C. Dement (1928-2020)
    • Authors: Pelayo, R; Mourrain, P.
      Pages: 512 - 512
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abd6855
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Confronting illness with empathy
    • Authors: Davis; F. R.
      Pages: 513 - 513
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abd0342
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Context is key to olfaction
    • Authors: McGann; J. P.
      Pages: 514 - 514
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc6831
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • China and India: Toward a sustainable world
    • Authors: Bawa, K. S; Goodale, E, Mtemi, W, Chen, Y.-F, Barthakur, R, Goodale, U. M, Liu, J, Jiang, A, Mammides, C, Meegaskumbura, M, Pandit, M. K, Cao, K.-F.
      Pages: 515 - 515
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4723
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Conservation needs a COVID-19 bailout
    • Authors: McCleery, R. A; Fletcher, R. J, Kruger, L. M, Govender, D, Ferreira, S. M.
      Pages: 515 - 516
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abd2854
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Extinct-in-the-wild species' last stand
    • Authors: Trask, A; Canessa, S, Moehrenschlager, A, Newland, S, Medina, S, Ewen, J.
      Pages: 516 - 516
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4560
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Bonds between AAAS and Hubble span three decades
    • Authors: Cohen; A. D.
      Pages: 517 - 518
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.517
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Source of Stonehenge's sarsens
    • Authors: Aldenderfer; M.
      Pages: 519 - 519
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-a
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • This is the brain on probiotics
    • Authors: VanHook; A. M.
      Pages: 519 - 519
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-b
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Simple swaps of CO2
    • Authors: Yeston; J.
      Pages: 519 - 519
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-c
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Origins of an alpine flora
    • Authors: Sugden; A. M.
      Pages: 519 - 519
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-d
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • The development of microglia
    • Authors: Zahn; L. M.
      Pages: 519 - 520
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-e
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Integrative in-cell structural biology
    • Authors: Hurtley; S. M.
      Pages: 519 - 520
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-f
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Secrets of a fast base editor
    • Authors: Vinson; V.
      Pages: 519 - 520
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-g
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Lowering the entropy
    • Authors: Stajic; J.
      Pages: 519 - 520
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-h
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • How does COVID-19 develop'
    • Authors: Alderton; G.
      Pages: 519 - 521
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-j
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Revealing family differences
    • Authors: Vinson; V.
      Pages: 519 - 521
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-k
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Deadenylating RNA molecules
    • Authors: Purnell; B. A.
      Pages: 519 - 521
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-l
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Effects of allele-specific open chromatin
    • Authors: Zahn; L. M.
      Pages: 519 - 521
      Keywords: Genetics, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-m
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Neocortex in the fetal brain
    • Authors: Hines; P. J.
      Pages: 519 - 521
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-n
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Reactions give solvents a kick
    • Authors: Szuromi; P.
      Pages: 519 - 521
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-o
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Graphene nanoribbons made on oxides
    • Authors: Szuromi; P.
      Pages: 519 - 521
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-p
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Deformable semiconductors
    • Authors: Grocholski; B.
      Pages: 519 - 521
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-q
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Cleaner skies
    • Authors: Smith; H. J.
      Pages: 519 - 521
      Keywords: Economics, Sociology
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-r
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Epidemic in Northern California
    • Authors: Ash; C.
      Pages: 519 - 521
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Virology
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-s
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Predicting large solar flares
    • Authors: Smith; K. T.
      Pages: 519 - 521
      Keywords: Astronomy, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-t
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Lovastatin for cardiolaminopathy
    • Authors: Czajka; C.
      Pages: 519 - 521
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.519-u
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Shrubification of peatlands
    • Authors: Sugden; A. M.
      Pages: 520 - 521
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.520-a
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • A switch in time saves ligand
    • Authors: Yeston; J.
      Pages: 520 - 520
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.520-b
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Too much of a good thing
    • Authors: Hurtley; S. M.
      Pages: 520 - 520
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.520-c
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Inside the Paleolithic mind
    • Authors: Ash; C.
      Pages: 520 - 521
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.520-d
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Autobiographical subnetworks
    • Authors: Stern; P.
      Pages: 520 - 521
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.520-e
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • From my hand to your ears
    • Authors: Lavine; M. S.
      Pages: 520 - 521
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.520-f
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Dimming Tucson's street lighting
    • Authors: Smith; K. T.
      Pages: 520 - 521
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.520-g
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • ANGEL2 is a member of the CCR4 family of deadenylases with 2',3'-cyclic
           phosphatase activity
    • Authors: Pinto, P. H; Kroupova, A, Schleiffer, A, Mechtler, K, Jinek, M, Weitzer, S, Martinez, J.
      Pages: 524 - 530
      Abstract: RNA molecules are frequently modified with a terminal 2',3'-cyclic phosphate group as a result of endonuclease cleavage, exonuclease trimming, or de novo synthesis. During pre-transfer RNA (tRNA) and unconventional messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, 2',3'-cyclic phosphates are substrates of the tRNA ligase complex, and their removal is critical for recycling of tRNAs upon ribosome stalling. We identified the predicted deadenylase angel homolog 2 (ANGEL2) as a human phosphatase that converts 2',3'-cyclic phosphates into 2',3'-OH nucleotides. We analyzed ANGEL2’s substrate preference, structure, and reaction mechanism. Perturbing ANGEL2 expression affected the efficiency of pre-tRNA processing, X-box–binding protein 1 (XBP1) mRNA splicing during the unfolded protein response, and tRNA nucleotidyltransferase 1 (TRNT1)–mediated CCA addition onto tRNAs. Our results indicate that ANGEL2 is involved in RNA pathways that rely on the ligation or hydrolysis of 2',3'-cyclic phosphates.
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba9763
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Human fetal microglia acquire homeostatic immune-sensing properties early
           in development
    • Authors: Kracht, L; Borggrewe, M, Eskandar, S, Brouwer, N, Chuva de Sousa Lopes, S. M, Laman, J. D, Scherjon, S. A, Prins, J. R, Kooistra, S. M, Eggen, B. J. L.
      Pages: 530 - 537
      Abstract: Microglia, immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are important for tissue development and maintenance and are implicated in CNS disease, but we lack understanding of human fetal microglia development. Single-cell gene expression and bulk chromatin profiles of microglia at 9 to 18 gestational weeks (GWs) of human fetal development were generated. Microglia were heterogeneous at all studied GWs. Microglia start to mature during this developmental period and increasingly resemble adult microglia with CNS-surveilling properties. Chromatin accessibility increases during development with associated transcriptional networks reflective of adult microglia. Thus, during early fetal development, microglia progress toward a more mature, immune-sensing competent phenotype, and this might render the developing human CNS vulnerable to environmental perturbations during early pregnancy.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba5906
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Boosted molecular mobility during common chemical reactions
    • Authors: Wang, H; Park, M, Dong, R, Kim, J, Cho, Y.-K, Tlusty, T, Granick, S.
      Pages: 537 - 541
      Abstract: Mobility of reactants and nearby solvent is more rapid than Brownian diffusion during several common chemical reactions when the energy release rate exceeds a threshold. Screening a family of 15 organic chemical reactions, we demonstrate the largest boost for catalyzed bimolecular reactions, click chemistry, ring-opening metathesis polymerization, and Sonogashira coupling. Boosted diffusion is also observed but to lesser extent for the uncatalyzed Diels-Alder reaction, but not for substitution reactions SN1 and SN2 within instrumental resolution. Diffusion coefficient increases as measured by pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, whereas in microfluidics experiments, molecules in reaction gradients migrate "uphill" in the direction of lesser diffusivity. This microscopic consumption of energy by chemical reactions transduced into mechanical motion presents a form of active matter.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba8425
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Exceptional plasticity in the bulk single-crystalline van der Waals
           semiconductor InSe
    • Authors: Wei, T.-R; Jin, M, Wang, Y, Chen, H, Gao, Z, Zhao, K, Qiu, P, Shan, Z, Jiang, J, Li, R, Chen, L, He, J, Shi, X.
      Pages: 542 - 545
      Abstract: Inorganic semiconductors are vital for a number of critical applications but are almost universally brittle. Here, we report the superplastic deformability of indium selenide (InSe). Bulk single-crystalline InSe can be compressed by orders of magnitude and morphed into a Möbius strip or a simple origami at room temperature. The exceptional plasticity of this two-dimensional van der Waals inorganic semiconductor is attributed to the interlayer gliding and cross-layer dislocation slip that are mediated by the long-range In-Se Coulomb interaction across the van der Waals gap and soft intralayer In-Se bonding. We propose a combinatory deformability indicator () to prescreen candidate bulk semiconductors for use in next-generation deformable or flexible electronics.
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba9778
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Human-specific ARHGAP11B increases size and folding of primate neocortex
           in the fetal marmoset
    • Authors: Heide, M; Haffner, C, Murayama, A, Kurotaki, Y, Shinohara, H, Okano, H, Sasaki, E, Huttner, W. B.
      Pages: 546 - 550
      Abstract: The neocortex has expanded during mammalian evolution. Overexpression studies in developing mouse and ferret neocortex have implicated the human-specific gene ARHGAP11B in neocortical expansion, but the relevance for primate evolution has been unclear. Here, we provide functional evidence that ARHGAP11B causes expansion of the primate neocortex. ARHGAP11B expressed in fetal neocortex of the common marmoset under control of the gene’s own (human) promoter increased the numbers of basal radial glia progenitors in the marmoset outer subventricular zone, increased the numbers of upper-layer neurons, enlarged the neocortex, and induced its folding. Thus, the human-specific ARHGAP11B drives changes in development in the nonhuman primate marmoset that reflect the changes in evolution that characterize human neocortical development.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb2401
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Cooling and entangling ultracold atoms in optical lattices
    • Authors: Yang, B; Sun, H, Huang, C.-J, Wang, H.-Y, Deng, Y, Dai, H.-N, Yuan, Z.-S, Pan, J.-W.
      Pages: 550 - 553
      Abstract: Scalable, coherent many-body systems can enable the realization of previously unexplored quantum phases and have the potential to exponentially speed up information processing. Thermal fluctuations are negligible and quantum effects govern the behavior of such systems with extremely low temperature. We report the cooling of a quantum simulator with 10,000 atoms and mass production of high-fidelity entangled pairs. In a two-dimensional plane, we cool Mott insulator samples by immersing them into removable superfluid reservoirs, achieving an entropy per particle of . The atoms are then rearranged into a two-dimensional lattice free of defects. We further demonstrate a two-qubit gate with a fidelity of 0.993 ± 0.001 for entangling 1250 atom pairs. Our results offer a setting for exploring low-energy many-body phases and may enable the creation of large-scale entanglement.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz6801
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • In-cell architecture of an actively transcribing-translating expressome
    • Authors: OReilly, F. J; Xue, L, Graziadei, A, Sinn, L, Lenz, S, Tegunov, D, Blötz, C, Singh, N, Hagen, W. J. H, Cramer, P, Stülke, J, Mahamid, J, Rappsilber, J.
      Pages: 554 - 557
      Abstract: Structural biology studies performed inside cells can capture molecular machines in action within their native context. In this work, we developed an integrative in-cell structural approach using the genome-reduced human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae. We combined whole-cell cross-linking mass spectrometry, cellular cryo–electron tomography, and integrative modeling to determine an in-cell architecture of a transcribing and translating expressome at subnanometer resolution. The expressome comprises RNA polymerase (RNAP), the ribosome, and the transcription elongation factors NusG and NusA. We pinpointed NusA at the interface between a NusG-bound elongating RNAP and the ribosome and propose that it can mediate transcription-translation coupling. Translation inhibition dissociated the expressome, whereas transcription inhibition stalled and rearranged it. Thus, the active expressome architecture requires both translation and transcription elongation within the cell.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb3758
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Direct reversible decarboxylation from stable organic acids in
           dimethylformamide solution
    • Authors: Kong, D; Moon, P. J, Lui, E. K. J, Bsharat, O, Lundgren, R. J.
      Pages: 557 - 561
      Abstract: Many classical and emerging methodologies in organic chemistry rely on carbon dioxide (CO2) extrusion to generate reactive intermediates for bond-forming events. Synthetic reactions that involve the microscopic reverse—the carboxylation of reactive intermediates—have conventionally been undertaken using very different conditions. We report that chemically stable C(sp3) carboxylates, such as arylacetic acids and malonate half-esters, undergo uncatalyzed reversible decarboxylation in dimethylformamide solution. Decarboxylation-carboxylation occurs with substrates resistant to protodecarboxylation by Brønsted acids under otherwise identical conditions. Isotopically labeled carboxylic acids can be prepared in high chemical and isotopic yield by simply supplying an atmosphere of 13CO2 to carboxylate salts in polar aprotic solvents. An understanding of carboxylate reactivity in solution enables conditions for the trapping of aldehydes, ketones, and α,β-unsaturated esters.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb4129
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Allele-specific open chromatin in human iPSC neurons elucidates functional
           disease variants
    • Authors: Zhang, S; Zhang, H, Zhou, Y, Qiao, M, Zhao, S, Kozlova, A, Shi, J, Sanders, A. R, Wang, G, Luo, K, Sengupta, S, West, S, Qian, S, Streit, M, Avramopoulos, D, Cowan, C. A, Chen, M, Pang, Z. P, Gejman, P. V, He, X, Duan, J.
      Pages: 561 - 565
      Abstract: Most neuropsychiatric disease risk variants are in noncoding sequences and lack functional interpretation. Because regulatory sequences often reside in open chromatin, we reasoned that neuropsychiatric disease risk variants may affect chromatin accessibility during neurodevelopment. Using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)–derived neurons that model developing brains, we identified thousands of genetic variants exhibiting allele-specific open chromatin (ASoC). These neuronal ASoCs were partially driven by altered transcription factor binding, overrepresented in brain gene enhancers and expression quantitative trait loci, and frequently associated with distal genes through chromatin contacts. ASoCs were enriched for genetic variants associated with brain disorders, enabling identification of functional schizophrenia risk variants and their cis-target genes. This study highlights ASoC as a functional mechanism of noncoding neuropsychiatric risk variants, providing a powerful framework for identifying disease causal variants and genes.
      Keywords: Genetics, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay3983
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • DNA capture by a CRISPR-Cas9-guided adenine base editor
    • Authors: Lapinaite, A; Knott, G. J, Palumbo, C. M, Lin-Shiao, E, Richter, M. F, Zhao, K. T, Beal, P. A, Liu, D. R, Doudna, J. A.
      Pages: 566 - 571
      Abstract: CRISPR-Cas–guided base editors convert A•T to G•C, or C•G to T•A, in cellular DNA for precision genome editing. To understand the molecular basis for DNA adenosine deamination by adenine base editors (ABEs), we determined a 3.2-angstrom resolution cryo–electron microscopy structure of ABE8e in a substrate-bound state in which the deaminase domain engages DNA exposed within the CRISPR-Cas9 R-loop complex. Kinetic and structural data suggest that ABE8e catalyzes DNA deamination up to ~1100-fold faster than earlier ABEs because of mutations that stabilize DNA substrates in a constrained, transfer RNA–like conformation. Furthermore, ABE8e’s accelerated DNA deamination suggests a previously unobserved transient DNA melting that may occur during double-stranded DNA surveillance by CRISPR-Cas9. These results explain ABE8e-mediated base-editing outcomes and inform the future design of base editors.
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb1390
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Rational synthesis of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons directly on
           metal oxide surfaces
    • Authors: Kolmer, M; Steiner, A.-K, Izydorczyk, I, Ko, W, Engelund, M, Szymonski, M, Li, A.-P, Amsharov, K.
      Pages: 571 - 575
      Abstract: Atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) attract great interest because of their highly tunable electronic, optical, and transport properties. However, on-surface synthesis of GNRs is typically based on metal surface–assisted chemical reactions, where metallic substrates strongly screen their designer electronic properties and limit further applications. Here, we present an on-surface synthesis approach to forming atomically precise GNRs directly on semiconducting metal oxide surfaces. The thermally triggered multistep transformations preprogrammed in our precursors’ design rely on highly selective and sequential activations of carbon-bromine (C-Br) and carbon-fluorine (C-F) bonds and cyclodehydrogenation. The formation of planar armchair GNRs terminated by well-defined zigzag ends is confirmed by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, which also reveal weak interaction between GNRs and the rutile titanium dioxide substrate.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb8880
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Disparities in PM2.5 air pollution in the United States
    • Authors: Colmer, J; Hardman, I, Shimshack, J, Voorheis, J.
      Pages: 575 - 578
      Abstract: Air pollution at any given time is unequally distributed across locations. Average concentrations of fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) have fallen over time. However, we do not know how the spatial distribution of PM2.5 has evolved. Here, we provide early evidence. We combine 36 years of PM2.5 concentrations measured over ~8.6 million grid cells with geographic, economic, and demographic data from ~65,000 U.S. census tracts. We show that differences in PM2.5 between more and less polluted areas declined substantially between 1981 and 2016. However, the most polluted census tracts in 1981 remained the most polluted in 2016. The least polluted census tracts in 1981 remained the least polluted in 2016. The most exposed subpopulations in 1981 remained the most exposed in 2016. Overall, absolute disparities have fallen, but relative disparities persist.
      Keywords: Economics, Sociology
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz9353
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Ancient orogenic and monsoon-driven assembly of the worlds richest
           temperate alpine flora
    • Authors: Ding, W.-N; Ree, R. H, Spicer, R. A, Xing, Y.-W.
      Pages: 578 - 581
      Abstract: Understanding how alpine biotas formed in response to historical environmental change may improve our ability to predict and mitigate the threats to alpine species posed by global warming. In the world’s richest temperate alpine flora, that of the Tibet-Himalaya-Hengduan region, phylogenetic reconstructions of biome and geographic range evolution show that extant lineages emerged by the early Oligocene and diversified first in the Hengduan Mountains. By the early to middle Miocene, accelerated diversification and colonization of adjacent regions were likely driven jointly by mountain building and intensification of the Asian monsoon. The alpine flora of the Hengduan Mountains has continuously existed far longer than any other alpine flora on Earth and illustrates how modern biotas have been shaped by past geological and climatic events.
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb4484
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • Genomic surveillance reveals multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into
           Northern California
    • Authors: Deng, X; Gu, W, Federman, S, du Plessis, L, Pybus, O. G, Faria, N. R, Wang, C, Yu, G, Bushnell, B, Pan, C.-Y, Guevara, H, Sotomayor-Gonzalez, A, Zorn, K, Gopez, A, Servellita, V, Hsu, E, Miller, S, Bedford, T, Greninger, A. L, Roychoudhury, P, Starita, L. M, Famulare, M, Chu, H. Y, Shendure, J, Jerome, K. R, Anderson, C, Gangavarapu, K, Zeller, M, Spencer, E, Andersen, K. G, MacCannell, D, Paden, C. R, Li, Y, Zhang, J, Tong, S, Armstrong, G, Morrow, S, Willis, M, Matyas, B. T, Mase, S, Kasirye, O, Park, M, Masinde, G, Chan, C, Yu, A. T, Chai, S. J, Villarino, E, Bonin, B, Wadford, D. A, Chiu, C. Y.
      Pages: 582 - 587
      Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally, with >365,000 cases in California as of 17 July 2020. We investigated the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Northern California from late January to mid-March 2020, using samples from 36 patients spanning nine counties and the Grand Princess cruise ship. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the cryptic introduction of at least seven different SARS-CoV-2 lineages into California, including epidemic WA1 strains associated with Washington state, with lack of a predominant lineage and limited transmission among communities. Lineages associated with outbreak clusters in two counties were defined by a single base substitution in the viral genome. These findings support contact tracing, social distancing, and travel restrictions to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in California and other states.
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Virology
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb9263
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • A physics-based method that can predict imminent large solar flares
    • Authors: Kusano, K; Iju, T, Bamba, Y, Inoue, S.
      Pages: 587 - 591
      Abstract: Solar flares are highly energetic events in the Sun’s corona that affect Earth’s space weather. The mechanism that drives the onset of solar flares is unknown, hampering efforts to forecast them, which mostly rely on empirical methods. We present the -scheme, a physics-based model to predict large solar flares through a critical condition of magnetohydrodynamic instability, triggered by magnetic reconnection. Analysis of the largest (X-class) flares from 2008 to 2019 (during solar cycle 24) shows that the -scheme predicts most imminent large solar flares, with a small number of exceptions for confined flares. We conclude that magnetic twist flux density, close to a magnetic polarity inversion line on the solar surface, determines when and where solar flares may occur and how large they can be.
      Keywords: Astronomy, Physics
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz2511
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 592 - 592
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.592
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
  • My womb is my business
    • Authors: Lin; W.-J.
      Pages: 594 - 594
      PubDate: 2020-07-30T10:39:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.369.6503.594
      Issue No: Vol. 369, No. 6503 (2020)
       
 
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