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Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 5497  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Astronomy accelerates tumor imaging

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      Authors: Nusinovich Y.
      Pages: 1164
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-i
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • The world of two-dimensional carbides and nitrides (MXenes)

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      Authors: VahidMohammadi, A; Rosen, J, Gogotsi, Y.
      Abstract: A decade after the first report, the family of two-dimensional (2D) carbides and nitrides (MXenes) includes structures with three, five, seven, or nine layers of atoms in an ordered or solid solution form. Dozens of MXene compositions have been produced, resulting in MXenes with mixed surface terminations. MXenes have shown useful and tunable electronic, optical, mechanical, and electrochemical properties, leading to applications ranging from optoelectronics, electromagnetic interference shielding, and wireless antennas to energy storage, catalysis, sensing, and medicine. Here we present a forward-looking review of the field of MXenes. We discuss the challenges to be addressed and outline research directions that will deepen the fundamental understanding of the properties of MXenes and enable their hybridization with other 2D materials in various emerging technologies.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abf1581
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Analysis of multispectral imaging with the AstroPath platform informs
           efficacy of PD-1 blockade

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      Authors: Berry, S; Giraldo, N. A, Green, B. F, Cottrell, T. R, Stein, J. E, Engle, E. L, Xu, H, Ogurtsova, A, Roberts, C, Wang, D, Nguyen, P, Zhu, Q, Soto-Diaz, S, Loyola, J, Sander, I. B, Wong, P. F, Jessel, S, Doyle, J, Signer, D, Wilton, R, Roskes, J. S, Eminizer, M, Park, S, Sunshine, J. C, Jaffee, E. M, Baras, A, De Marzo, A. M, Topalian, S. L, Kluger, H, Cope, L, Lipson, E. J, Danilova, L, Anders, R. A, Rimm, D. L, Pardoll, D. M, Szalay, A. S, Taube, J. M.
      Abstract: Next-generation tissue-based biomarkers for immunotherapy will likely include the simultaneous analysis of multiple cell types and their spatial interactions, as well as distinct expression patterns of immunoregulatory molecules. Here, we introduce a comprehensive platform for multispectral imaging and mapping of multiple parameters in tumor tissue sections with high-fidelity single-cell resolution. Image analysis and data handling components were drawn from the field of astronomy. Using this "AstroPath" whole-slide platform and only six markers, we identified key features in pretreatment melanoma specimens that predicted response to anti–programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)–based therapy, including CD163+PD-L1– myeloid cells and CD8+FoxP3+PD-1low/mid T cells. These features were combined to stratify long-term survival after anti–PD-1 blockade. This signature was validated in an independent cohort of patients with melanoma from a different institution.
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba2609
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Exit time as a measure of ecological resilience

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      Authors: Arani, B. M. S; Carpenter, S. R, Lahti, L, van Nes, E. H, Scheffer, M.
      Abstract: Ecological resilience is the magnitude of the largest perturbation from which a system can still recover to its original state. However, a transition into another state may often be invoked by a series of minor synergistic perturbations rather than a single big one. We show how resilience can be estimated in terms of average life expectancy, accounting for this natural regime of variability. We use time series to fit a model that captures the stochastic as well as the deterministic components. The model is then used to estimate the mean exit time from the basin of attraction. This approach offers a fresh angle to anticipating the chance of a critical transition at a time when high-resolution time series are becoming increasingly available.
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics, Ecology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aay4895
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Time-resolved structured illumination microscopy reveals key principles of
           Xist RNA spreading

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      Authors: Rodermund, L; Coker, H, Oldenkamp, R, Wei, G, Bowness, J, Rajkumar, B, Nesterova, T, Susano Pinto, D. M, Schermelleh, L, Brockdorff, N.
      Abstract: X-inactive specific transcript (Xist) RNA directs the process of X chromosome inactivation in mammals by spreading in cis along the chromosome from which it is transcribed and recruiting chromatin modifiers to silence gene transcription. To elucidate mechanisms of Xist RNA cis-confinement, we established a sequential dual-color labeling, super-resolution imaging approach to trace individual Xist RNA molecules over time, which enabled us to define fundamental parameters of spreading. We demonstrate a feedback mechanism linking Xist RNA synthesis and degradation and an unexpected physical coupling between preceding and newly synthesized Xist RNA molecules. Additionally, we find that the protein SPEN, a key factor for Xist-mediated gene silencing, has a distinct function in Xist RNA localization, stability, and coupling behaviors. Our results provide insights toward understanding the distinct dynamic properties of Xist RNA.
      Keywords: Development, Genetics, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abe7500
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • The safety of nuclear's future

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      Authors: Grossi R. M.
      Pages: 1131 - 1131
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abj7150
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • News at a glance

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      Pages: 1132 - 1134
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1132
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • 'Landmark African vaccine trial faces impasse

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      Authors: Cohen J.
      Pages: 1135 - 1136
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1135
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • NASA missions to test idea of a watery past for Venus

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      Authors: Voosen P.
      Pages: 1136 - 1137
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1136
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Mixing vaccines may boost immune responses

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      Authors: Vogel G.
      Pages: 1138 - 1138
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1138
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • DNA test to predict odds of severe COVID-19 draws scrutiny

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      Authors: Kaiser J.
      Pages: 1139 - 1139
      Keywords: Genetics, Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1139
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • New science adviser looks ahead to shaping Biden agenda

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      Authors: Mervis J.
      Pages: 1140 - 1140
      Keywords: Scientific Community, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1140
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Alzheimer's drug approved despite murky results

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      Authors: Servick K.
      Pages: 1141 - 1141
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1141
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • A sense of self

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      Authors: Underwood E.
      Pages: 1142 - 1145
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1142
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Human-food feedback in tropical forests

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      Authors: Flores, B. M; Levis, C.
      Pages: 1146 - 1147
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abh1806
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Supplements to treat prediabetes

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      Authors: Hepler, C; Bass, J.
      Pages: 1147 - 1148
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abj0764
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Is lithium the key for nitrogen electroreduction'

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      Authors: Westhead, O; Jervis, R, Stephens, I. E. L.
      Pages: 1149 - 1150
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abi8329
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Machine-generated theories of human decision-making

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      Authors: Bhatia, S; He, L.
      Pages: 1150 - 1151
      Keywords: Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abi7668
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Expanding gliogenesis

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      Authors: Baldwin, K. T; Silver, D. L.
      Pages: 1151 - 1152
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abj1139
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Giving antibiotics an assist

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      Authors: Mah; T.-F.
      Pages: 1153 - 1153
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abj3062
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Using DNA to reunify separated migrant families

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      Authors: Barnert, E; Katsanis, S. H, Mishori, R, Wagner, J. K, Selden, R. F, Madden, D, Berger, D, Erlich, H, Hampton, K, Kleiser, A, La Vaccara, A, Parsons, T. J, Peccerelli, F. A, Pinero, M. H, Stebbins, M. J, Vasquez, P, Warf, C. W, White, T. J, Stover, E, Svetaz, M. V.
      Pages: 1154 - 1156
      Keywords: Genetics, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abh3979
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Approaching invisible illness

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      Authors: Stark L.
      Pages: 1157 - 1157
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abi6919
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Embracing the relational nature of existence

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      Authors: Frappier M.
      Pages: 1158 - 1158
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abi4665
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Include macrofungi in biodiversity targets

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      Authors: Cao, Y; Wu, G, Yu, D.
      Pages: 1160 - 1160
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abj5479
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Ocean acidification science stands strong

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      Authors: Dupont, S; Gattuso, J.-P, Pörtner, H.-O, Widdicombe, S.
      Pages: 1160 - 1161
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abj4129
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • The risks of solar geoengineering research

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      Authors: Stephens, J. C; Kashwan, P, McLaren, D, Surprise, K.
      Pages: 1161 - 1161
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abj3679
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Revolution in an RNA-packaging capsid

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      Authors: Funk M. A.
      Pages: 1162 - 1162
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-a
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Shuttling protons in ammonia synthesis

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      Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 1162 - 1162
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-b
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Imaging polariton dynamics

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      Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 1162 - 1162
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-c
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Cell size set by cell cycle regulation

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      Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 1162 - 1162
      Keywords: Botany, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-d
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Bonding to a quantum corral

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      Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 1162 - 1163
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-e
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Depleting adenine to prime for apoptosis

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      Authors: Ferrarelli L. K.
      Pages: 1162 - 1163
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-f
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Spiral features in the early Universe

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      Authors: Smith K. T.
      Pages: 1162 - 1163
      Keywords: Astronomy
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-g
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Atmospheric ozone and pandemic lockdowns

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      Authors: Abbatt; J. P. D.
      Pages: 1162 - 1163
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-h
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • A family of thin materials

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      Authors: Lavine M. S.
      Pages: 1162 - 1164
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-j
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Visualizing Xist RNA dynamics

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      Authors: Jiang D.
      Pages: 1162 - 1164
      Keywords: Development, Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-k
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Estimating resilience in complex systems

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      Authors: Sugden A. M.
      Pages: 1162 - 1164
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics, Ecology
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-l
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Turning down tolerance

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      Authors: Funk M. A.
      Pages: 1162 - 1164
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-m
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Prethermal time crystal

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      Authors: Osborne I. S.
      Pages: 1162 - 1164
      Keywords: Physics, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-n
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Gliogenesis in the adult mouse brain

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      Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 1162 - 1164
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-o
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • How Hedgehog gets its lipid tail

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      Authors: Funk M. A.
      Pages: 1162 - 1164
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-p
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Anti-aging supplement effects in humans

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      Authors: Ray L. B.
      Pages: 1162 - 1164
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-q
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Discovering better theories

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      Authors: Rai T. S.
      Pages: 1162 - 1164
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics, Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-r
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • A bouncer for bone marrow

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      Authors: Erkes D. A.
      Pages: 1162 - 1164
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-s
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • One shot for Lassa virus

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      Authors: Malo C. S.
      Pages: 1162 - 1164
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1162-t
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • The hard way to produce red

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      Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 1163 - 1163
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1163-a
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Waste management on the go

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      Authors: Jiang D.
      Pages: 1163 - 1164
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1163-b
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Entrapment prevents healing

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      Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 1163 - 1164
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1163-c
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Neuronal activity asleep

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      Authors: Stern P.
      Pages: 1163 - 1164
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1163-d
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Extending interactions

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      Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 1163 - 1164
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1163-e
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • A stable diazoalkene

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      Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 1163 - 1164
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1163-f
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Targeting heme insertion

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      Authors: Funk M. A.
      Pages: 1163 - 1164
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1163-g
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Inhibitors of bacterial H2S biogenesis targeting antibiotic resistance and
           tolerance

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      Authors: Shatalin, K; Nuthanakanti, A, Kaushik, A, Shishov, D, Peselis, A, Shamovsky, I, Pani, B, Lechpammer, M, Vasilyev, N, Shatalina, E, Rebatchouk, D, Mironov, A, Fedichev, P, Serganov, A, Nudler, E.
      Pages: 1169 - 1175
      Abstract: Emergent resistance to all clinical antibiotics calls for the next generation of therapeutics. Here we report an effective antimicrobial strategy targeting the bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S)–mediated defense system. We identified cystathionine -lyase (CSE) as the primary generator of H2S in two major human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and discovered small molecules that inhibit bacterial CSE. These inhibitors potentiate bactericidal antibiotics against both pathogens in vitro and in mouse models of infection. CSE inhibitors also suppress bacterial tolerance, disrupting biofilm formation and substantially reducing the number of persister bacteria that survive antibiotic treatment. Our results establish bacterial H2S as a multifunctional defense factor and CSE as a drug target for versatile antibiotic enhancers.
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abd8377
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Cell size controlled in plants using DNA content as an internal scale

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      Authors: DArio, M; Tavares, R, Schiessl, K, Desvoyes, B, Gutierrez, C, Howard, M, Sablowski, R.
      Pages: 1176 - 1181
      Abstract: How eukaryotic cells assess and maintain sizes specific for their species and cell type remains unclear. We show that in the Arabidopsis shoot stem cell niche, cell size variability caused by asymmetric divisions is corrected by adjusting the growth period before DNA synthesis. KIP-related protein 4 (KRP4) inhibits progression to DNA synthesis and associates with mitotic chromosomes. The F BOX-LIKE 17 (FBL17) protein removes excess KRP4. Consequently, daughter cells are born with comparable amounts of KRP4. Inhibitor dilution models predicted that KRP4 inherited through chromatin would robustly regulate size, whereas inheritance of excess free KRP4 would disrupt size homeostasis, as confirmed by mutant analyses. We propose that a cell cycle regulator, stabilized by association with mitotic chromosomes, reads DNA content as a cell size–independent scale.
      Keywords: Botany, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abb4348
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Spatiotemporal imaging of 2D polariton wave packet dynamics using free
           electrons

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      Authors: Kurman, Y; Dahan, R, Sheinfux, H. H, Wang, K, Yannai, M, Adiv, Y, Reinhardt, O, Tizei, L. H. G, Woo, S. Y, Li, J, Edgar, J. H, Kociak, M, Koppens, F. H. L, Kaminer, I.
      Pages: 1181 - 1186
      Abstract: Coherent optical excitations in two-dimensional (2D) materials, 2D polaritons, can generate a plethora of optical phenomena that arise from the extraordinary dispersion relations that do not exist in regular materials. Probing of the dynamical phenomena of 2D polaritons requires simultaneous spatial and temporal imaging capabilities and could reveal unknown coherent optical phenomena in 2D materials. Here, we present a spatiotemporal measurement of 2D wave packet dynamics, from its formation to its decay, using an ultrafast transmission electron microscope driven by femtosecond midinfrared pulses. The ability to coherently excite phonon-polariton wave packets and probe their evolution in a nondestructive manner reveals intriguing dispersion-dependent dynamics that includes splitting of multibranch wave packets and, unexpectedly, wave packet deceleration and acceleration. Having access to the full spatiotemporal dynamics of 2D wave packets can be used to illuminate puzzles in topological polaritons and discover exotic nonlinear optical phenomena in 2D materials.
      Keywords: Physics, Applied, Physics
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg9015
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Nitrogen reduction to ammonia at high efficiency and rates based on a
           phosphonium proton shuttle

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      Authors: Suryanto, B. H. R; Matuszek, K, Choi, J, Hodgetts, R. Y, Du, H.-L, Bakker, J. M, Kang, C. S. M, Cherepanov, P. V, Simonov, A. N, MacFarlane, D. R.
      Pages: 1187 - 1191
      Abstract: Ammonia (NH3) is a globally important commodity for fertilizer production, but its synthesis by the Haber-Bosch process causes substantial emissions of carbon dioxide. Alternative, zero-carbon emission NH3 synthesis methods being explored include the promising electrochemical lithium-mediated nitrogen reduction reaction, which has nonetheless required sacrificial sources of protons. In this study, a phosphonium salt is introduced as a proton shuttle to help resolve this limitation. The salt also provides additional ionic conductivity, enabling high NH3 production rates of 53 ± 1 nanomoles per second per square centimeter at 69 ± 1% faradaic efficiency in 20-hour experiments under 0.5-bar hydrogen and 19.5-bar nitrogen. Continuous operation for more than 3 days is demonstrated.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg2371
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Observation of a prethermal discrete time crystal

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      Authors: Kyprianidis, A; Machado, F, Morong, W, Becker, P, Collins, K. S, Else, D. V, Feng, L, Hess, P. W, Nayak, C, Pagano, G, Yao, N. Y, Monroe, C.
      Pages: 1192 - 1196
      Abstract: Extending the framework of statistical physics to the nonequilibrium setting has led to the discovery of previously unidentified phases of matter, often catalyzed by periodic driving. However, preventing the runaway heating that is associated with driving a strongly interacting quantum system remains a challenge in the investigation of these newly discovered phases. In this work, we utilize a trapped-ion quantum simulator to observe the signatures of a nonequilibrium driven phase without disorder—the prethermal discrete time crystal. Here, the heating problem is circumvented not by disorder-induced many-body localization, but rather by high-frequency driving, which leads to an expansive time window where nonequilibrium phases can emerge. Floquet prethermalization is thus presented as a general strategy for creating, stabilizing, and studying intrinsically out-of-equilibrium phases of matter.
      Keywords: Physics, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg8102
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Very weak bonds to artificial atoms formed by quantum corrals

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      Authors: Stilp, F; Bereczuk, A, Berwanger, J, Mundigl, N, Richter, K, Giessibl, F. J.
      Pages: 1196 - 1200
      Abstract: We explored the bonding properties of the quantum corral (a circle of 48 iron atoms placed on a copper surface) reported by Crommie et al. in 1993, along with variants, as an artificial atom using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The original corral geometry confines 102 electrons to 28 discrete energy states, and we found that these states can form a bond to the front atom of the AFM with an energy of about 5 millielectron volts. The measured forces are about 1/1000 of typical forces in atomically resolved AFM. The confined electrons showed covalent attraction to metal tips and Pauli repulsion to CO-terminated tips. The repulsion at close distance was evident from the response of corral states created by deliberately placing single iron atoms inside the corral. The forces scaled appropriately with a 24-atom corral.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abe2600
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Spiral morphology in an intensely star-forming disk galaxy more than 12
           billion years ago

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      Authors: Tsukui, T; Iguchi, S.
      Pages: 1201 - 1205
      Abstract: Spiral galaxies have distinct internal structures, including a stellar bulge, a disk, and spiral arms. It is unknown when in cosmic history these structures formed. In this study, we analyzed observations of BRI 1335–0417, an intensely star-forming galaxy in the distant Universe, at a redshift of 4.41. The [C ii] gas kinematics shows a steep velocity rise near the galaxy center and has a two-armed spiral morphology, which extends from about 2 to 5 kiloparsecs in radius. We interpret these features as due to a central compact structure such as a bulge, a rotating gas disk, and either spiral arms or tidal tails. These features had formed within 1.4 billion years after the Big Bang, long before the peak of cosmic star formation.
      Keywords: Astronomy
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abe9680
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Release of stem cells from quiescence reveals gliogenic domains in the
           adult mouse brain

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      Authors: Delgado, A. C; Maldonado-Soto, A. R, Silva-Vargas, V, Mizrak, D, von Känel, T, Tan, K. R, Paul, A, Madar, A, Cuervo, H, Kitajewski, J, Lin, C.-S, Doetsch, F.
      Pages: 1205 - 1209
      Abstract: Quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mouse ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) undergo activation to generate neurons and some glia. Here we show that platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) is expressed by adult V-SVZ NSCs that generate olfactory bulb interneurons and glia. Selective deletion of PDGFRβ in adult V-SVZ NSCs leads to their release from quiescence, uncovering gliogenic domains for different glial cell types. These domains are also recruited upon injury. We identify an intraventricular oligodendrocyte progenitor derived from NSCs inside the brain ventricles that contacts supraependymal axons. Together, our findings reveal that the adult V-SVZ contains spatial domains for gliogenesis, in addition to those for neurogenesis. These gliogenic NSC domains tend to be quiescent under homeostasis and may contribute to brain plasticity.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg8467
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Using large-scale experiments and machine learning to discover theories of
           human decision-making

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      Authors: Peterson, J. C; Bourgin, D. D, Agrawal, M, Reichman, D, Griffiths, T. L.
      Pages: 1209 - 1214
      Abstract: Predicting and understanding how people make decisions has been a long-standing goal in many fields, with quantitative models of human decision-making informing research in both the social sciences and engineering. We show how progress toward this goal can be accelerated by using large datasets to power machine-learning algorithms that are constrained to produce interpretable psychological theories. Conducting the largest experiment on risky choice to date and analyzing the results using gradient-based optimization of differentiable decision theories implemented through artificial neural networks, we were able to recapitulate historical discoveries, establish that there is room to improve on existing theories, and discover a new, more accurate model of human decision-making in a form that preserves the insights from centuries of research.
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics, Psychology
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abe2629
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Substrate and product complexes reveal mechanisms of Hedgehog acylation by
           HHAT

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      Authors: Jiang, Y; Benz, T. L, Long, S. B.
      Pages: 1215 - 1219
      Abstract: Hedgehog proteins govern crucial developmental steps in animals and drive certain human cancers. Before they can function as signaling molecules, Hedgehog precursor proteins must undergo amino-terminal palmitoylation by Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT). We present cryo–electron microscopy structures of human HHAT in complex with its palmitoyl–coenzyme A substrate and of a product complex with a palmitoylated Hedgehog peptide at resolutions of 2.7 and 3.2 angstroms, respectively. The structures reveal how HHAT overcomes the challenges of bringing together substrates that have different physiochemical properties from opposite sides of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane within a membrane-embedded active site for catalysis. These principles are relevant to related enzymes that catalyze the acylation of Wnt and of the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin. The structural and mechanistic insights may advance the development of inhibitors for cancer.
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg4998
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Evolution of a virus-like architecture and packaging mechanism in a
           repurposed bacterial protein

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      Authors: Tetter, S; Terasaka, N, Steinauer, A, Bingham, R. J, Clark, S, Scott, A. J. P, Patel, N, Leibundgut, M, Wroblewski, E, Ban, N, Stockley, P. G, Twarock, R, Hilvert, D.
      Pages: 1220 - 1224
      Abstract: Viruses are ubiquitous pathogens of global impact. Prompted by the hypothesis that their earliest progenitors recruited host proteins for virion formation, we have used stringent laboratory evolution to convert a bacterial enzyme that lacks affinity for nucleic acids into an artificial nucleocapsid that efficiently packages and protects multiple copies of its own encoding messenger RNA. Revealing remarkable convergence on the molecular hallmarks of natural viruses, the accompanying changes reorganized the protein building blocks into an interlaced 240-subunit icosahedral capsid that is impermeable to nucleases, and emergence of a robust RNA stem-loop packaging cassette ensured high encapsidation yields and specificity. In addition to evincing a plausible evolutionary pathway for primordial viruses, these findings highlight practical strategies for developing nonviral carriers for diverse vaccine and delivery applications.
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg2822
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Nicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in
           prediabetic women

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      Authors: Yoshino, M; Yoshino, J, Kayser, B. D, Patti, G. J, Franczyk, M. P, Mills, K. F, Sindelar, M, Pietka, T, Patterson, B. W, Imai, S.-I, Klein, S.
      Pages: 1224 - 1229
      Abstract: In rodents, obesity and aging impair nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis, which contributes to metabolic dysfunction. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) availability is a rate-limiting factor in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis. We conducted a 10-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to evaluate the effect of NMN supplementation on metabolic function in postmenopausal women with prediabetes who were overweight or obese. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, assessed by using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and skeletal muscle insulin signaling [phosphorylation of protein kinase AKT and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)] increased after NMN supplementation but did not change after placebo treatment. NMN supplementation up-regulated the expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β and other genes related to muscle remodeling. These results demonstrate that NMN increases muscle insulin sensitivity, insulin signaling, and remodeling in women with prediabetes who are overweight or obese (clinicaltrial.gov NCT 03151239).
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abe9985
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Gordon Research Conferences

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      Pages: 1230 - 1233
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1230
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
  • Reclaiming my name

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      Authors: Kejriwal M.
      Pages: 1238 - 1238
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T10:39:57-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.372.6547.1238
      Issue No: Vol. 372, No. 6547 (2021)
       
 
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