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Journal Cover Science
  [SJR: 13.217]   [H-I: 915]   [3764 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
   Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Mesoporous metal-organic frameworks
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 173
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-i
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Gene therapy comes of age
    • Authors: Dunbar, C. E; High, K. A, Joung, J. K, Kohn, D. B, Ozawa, K, Sadelain, M.
      Abstract: After almost 30 years of promise tempered by setbacks, gene therapies are rapidly becoming a critical component of the therapeutic armamentarium for a variety of inherited and acquired human diseases. Gene therapies for inherited immune disorders, hemophilia, eye and neurodegenerative disorders, and lymphoid cancers recently progressed to approved drug status in the United States and Europe, or are anticipated to receive approval in the near future. In this Review, we discuss milestones in the development of gene therapies, focusing on direct in vivo administration of viral vectors and adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells or hematopoietic stem cells. We also discuss emerging genome editing technologies that should further advance the scope and efficacy of gene therapy approaches.
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4672
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Fatty acyl recognition and transfer by an integral membrane
           S-acyltransferase
    • Authors: Rana, M. S; Kumar, P, Lee, C.-J, Verardi, R, Rajashankar, K. R, Banerjee, A.
      Abstract: DHHC (Asp-His-His-Cys) palmitoyltransferases are eukaryotic integral membrane enzymes that catalyze protein palmitoylation, which is important in a range of physiological processes, including small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) signaling, cell adhesion, and neuronal receptor scaffolding. We present crystal structures of two DHHC palmitoyltransferases and a covalent intermediate mimic. The active site resides at the membrane-cytosol interface, which allows the enzyme to catalyze thioester-exchange chemistry by using fatty acyl–coenzyme A and explains why membrane-proximal cysteines are candidates for palmitoylation. The acyl chain binds in a cavity formed by the transmembrane domain. We propose a mechanism for acyl chain–length selectivity in DHHC enzymes on the basis of cavity mutants with preferences for shorter and longer acyl chains.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao6326
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Frankenstein lives on
    • Authors: van den Belt H.
      Pages: 137 - 137
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aas9167
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • News at a glance
    • Pages: 138 - 140
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.138
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • DOE pushes for useful quantum computing
    • Authors: Cho A.
      Pages: 141 - 142
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics, Physics, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.141
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • In Pakistan, surveillance for polio reveals a paradox
    • Authors: Roberts L.
      Pages: 142 - 143
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Epidemiology, Medicine, Diseases, Virology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.142
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Earth scientists list top priorities for space missions
    • Authors: Voosen P.
      Pages: 143 - 143
      Keywords: Planetary Science, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.143
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Cuba's 100-year plan for climate change
    • Authors: Stone R.
      Pages: 144 - 145
      Keywords: Oceanography, Science and Policy
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.144
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Cliffs of ice spied on Mars
    • Authors: Voosen P.
      Pages: 145 - 145
      Keywords: Astronomy, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.145
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • The long shadow of Frankenstein
    • Authors: Kupferschmidt K.
      Pages: 146 - 147
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.146
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • How a horror story haunts science
    • Authors: Cohen J.
      Pages: 148 - 150
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Neuroscience, Psychology, Scientific Community, History and Philosophy of Science
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.148
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Creating a modern monster
    • Authors: Shultz D.
      Pages: 151 - 151
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Physiology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.151
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Taming the monsters of tomorrow
    • Authors: Kupferschmidt K.
      Pages: 152 - 155
      Keywords: Computers, Mathematics, Physics, Scientific Community, History and Philosophy of Science
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.152
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • A glossary of Frankenwords
    • Authors: Cohen J.
      Pages: 154 - 154
      Keywords: Genetics, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.154
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Detecting the building blocks of aromatics
    • Authors: Joblin, C; Cernicharo, J.
      Pages: 156 - 157
      Keywords: Astronomy, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4541
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Improbable Big Birds
    • Authors: Wagner C. E.
      Pages: 157 - 159
      Keywords: Evolution, Genetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4796
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Malaria parasite evolution in a test tube
    • Authors: Carlton J. M.
      Pages: 159 - 160
      Keywords: Genetics, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4189
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • TRPM channels come into focus
    • Authors: Bae, C; Jara-Oseguera, A, Swartz, K. J.
      Pages: 160 - 161
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar6205
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Coherent excitations revealed and calculated
    • Authors: Georges A.
      Pages: 162 - 163
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar2325
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Silencing stemness in T cell differentiation
    • Authors: Henning, A. N; Klebanoff, C. A, Restifo, N. P.
      Pages: 163 - 164
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar5541
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Global science for city policy
    • Authors: Acuto M.
      Pages: 165 - 166
      Keywords: Science and Policy, Sociology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao2728
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Revisit a cautionary classic
    • Authors: Greenbaum D.
      Pages: 168 - 168
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar2522
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Our idiosyncracies
    • Authors: Goldman M. A.
      Pages: 169 - 169
      Keywords: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar2401
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • The next generation's Frankenstein films
    • Authors: Nguyen, J; Newton, M. S, Strong, M, Pacesa, M, Cao, B, Winter, K. A, Dutton-Regester, K, Kingsley, L. J.
      Pages: 170 - 171
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aas9105
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • The representation of others in space
    • Authors: Stern P.
      Pages: 172 - 172
      Keywords: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-a
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Neutrons peek into f-electron bands
    • Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 172 - 172
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-b
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Water ice cliffs on Mars
    • Authors: Smith K. T.
      Pages: 172 - 172
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-c
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Rapid hybrid speciation in Darwin's finches
    • Authors: Zahn L. M.
      Pages: 172 - 172
      Keywords: Evolution, Genetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-d
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Phagocytes patrol intestinal fungi
    • Authors: Kelly P. N.
      Pages: 172 - 173
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-e
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Volcanic eruptions in the deep sea
    • Authors: Hodges K.
      Pages: 172 - 173
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-f
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • The many roles of ATM
    • Authors: Ferrarelli L. K.
      Pages: 172 - 173
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-g
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Cholera pathogen zaps competition
    • Authors: Ash C.
      Pages: 172 - 173
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-h
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • The interferon boomerang
    • Authors: Balasubramani A.
      Pages: 172 - 174
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-j
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Architecture of the TRPM subfamily
    • Authors: Mao S.
      Pages: 172 - 174
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-k
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Epigenetic modulation of effector T cells
    • Authors: Scanlon S. T.
      Pages: 172 - 174
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-l
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • A shared history
    • Authors: Smith O. M.
      Pages: 172 - 174
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-m
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • A specific interstellar aromatic molecule
    • Authors: Smith K. T.
      Pages: 172 - 174
      Keywords: Astronomy, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-n
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Dissecting Plasmodium drug resistance
    • Authors: Zahn L. M.
      Pages: 172 - 174
      Keywords: Genetics, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-o
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Fattening up proteins
    • Authors: Funk M. A.
      Pages: 172 - 174
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-p
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Gene therapy: The power of persistence
    • Authors: Kiberstis P. A.
      Pages: 172 - 174
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.172-q
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Seeing the real thing
    • Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 173 - 173
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.173-a
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • A death knell for relapsed leukemia'
    • Authors: Kiberstis P. A.
      Pages: 173 - 174
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.173-b
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Multiple strategies needed to improve agricultural productivity
    • Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 173 - 174
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.173-c
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Labs, lectures, and gender differences
    • Authors: McCartney M.
      Pages: 173 - 174
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.173-d
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • CRISPR corrects deafness in mice
    • Authors: Kelly P. N.
      Pages: 173 - 174
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.173-e
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Make no bones about titanium
    • Authors: Lavine M. S.
      Pages: 173 - 174
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.173-f
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Shifting zwitterion reactivity
    • Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 173 - 174
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.173-g
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • The epigenetic control of stemness in CD8+ T cell fate commitment
    • Authors: Pace, L; Goudot, C, Zueva, E, Gueguen, P, Burgdorf, N, Waterfall, J. J, Quivy, J.-P, Almouzni, G, Amigorena, S.
      Pages: 177 - 186
      Abstract: After priming, naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes establish specific heritable transcription programs that define progression to long-lasting memory cells or to short-lived effector cells. Although lineage specification is critical for protection, it remains unclear how chromatin dynamics contributes to the control of gene expression programs. We explored the role of gene silencing by the histone methyltransferase Suv39h1. In murine CD8+ T cells activated after Listeria monocytogenes infection, Suv39h1-dependent trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 controls the expression of a set of stem cell–related memory genes. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed a defect in silencing of stem/memory genes selectively in Suv39h1-defective T cell effectors. As a result, Suv39h1-defective CD8+ T cells show sustained survival and increased long-term memory reprogramming capacity. Thus, Suv39h1 plays a critical role in marking chromatin to silence stem/memory genes during CD8+ T effector terminal differentiation.
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aah6499
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Coherent band excitations in CePd3: A comparison of neutron scattering and
           ab initio theory
    • Authors: Goremychkin, E. A; Park, H, Osborn, R, Rosenkranz, S, Castellan, J.-P, Fanelli, V. R, Christianson, A. D, Stone, M. B, Bauer, E. D, McClellan, K. J, Byler, D. D, Lawrence, J. M.
      Pages: 186 - 191
      Abstract: In common with many strongly correlated electron systems, intermediate valence compounds are believed to display a crossover from a high-temperature regime of incoherently fluctuating local moments to a low-temperature regime of coherent hybridized bands. We show that inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the dynamic magnetic susceptibility of CePd3 provides a benchmark for ab initio calculations based on dynamical mean field theory. The magnetic response is strongly momentum dependent thanks to the formation of coherent f-electron bands at low temperature, with an amplitude that is strongly enhanced by local particle-hole interactions. The agreement between experiment and theory shows that we have a robust first-principles understanding of the temperature dependence of f-electron coherence.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan0593
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Mapping the malaria parasite druggable genome by using in vitro evolution
           and chemogenomics
    • Authors: Cowell, A. N; Istvan, E. S, Lukens, A. K, Gomez-Lorenzo, M. G, Vanaerschot, M, Sakata-Kato, T, Flannery, E. L, Magistrado, P, Owen, E, Abraham, M, LaMonte, G, Painter, H. J, Williams, R. M, Franco, V, Linares, M, Arriaga, I, Bopp, S, Corey, V. C, Gnädig, N. F, Coburn-Flynn, O, Reimer, C, Gupta, P, Murithi, J. M, Moura, P. A, Fuchs, O, Sasaki, E, Kim, S. W, Teng, C. H, Wang, L. T, Akidil, A, Adjalley, S, Willis, P. A, Siegel, D, Tanaseichuk, O, Zhong, Y, Zhou, Y, Llinas, M, Ottilie, S, Gamo, F.-J, Lee, M. C. S, Goldberg, D. E, Fidock, D. A, Wirth, D. F, Winzeler, E. A.
      Pages: 191 - 199
      Abstract: Chemogenetic characterization through in vitro evolution combined with whole-genome analysis can identify antimalarial drug targets and drug-resistance genes. We performed a genome analysis of 262 Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to 37 diverse compounds. We found 159 gene amplifications and 148 nonsynonymous changes in 83 genes associated with drug-resistance acquisition, where gene amplifications contributed to one-third of resistance acquisition events. Beyond confirming previously identified multidrug-resistance mechanisms, we discovered hitherto unrecognized drug target–inhibitor pairs, including thymidylate synthase and a benzoquinazolinone, farnesyltransferase and a pyrimidinedione, and a dipeptidylpeptidase and an arylurea. This exploration of the P. falciparum resistome and druggable genome will likely guide drug discovery and structural biology efforts, while also advancing our understanding of resistance mechanisms available to the malaria parasite.
      Keywords: Genetics, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4472
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Exposed subsurface ice sheets in the Martian mid-latitudes
    • Authors: Dundas, C. M; Bramson, A. M, Ojha, L, Wray, J. J, Mellon, M. T, Byrne, S, McEwen, A. S, Putzig, N. E, Viola, D, Sutton, S, Clark, E, Holt, J. W.
      Pages: 199 - 201
      Abstract: Thick deposits cover broad regions of the Martian mid-latitudes with a smooth mantle; erosion in these regions creates scarps that expose the internal structure of the mantle. We investigated eight of these locations and found that they expose deposits of water ice that can be >100 meters thick, extending downward from depths as shallow as 1 to 2 meters below the surface. The scarps are actively retreating because of sublimation of the exposed water ice. The ice deposits likely originated as snowfall during Mars’ high-obliquity periods and have now compacted into massive, fractured, and layered ice. We expect the vertical structure of Martian ice-rich deposits to preserve a record of ice deposition and past climate.
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1619
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Detection of the aromatic molecule benzonitrile (c-C6H5CN) in the
           interstellar medium
    • Authors: McGuire, B. A; Burkhardt, A. M, Kalenskii, S, Shingledecker, C. N, Remijan, A. J, Herbst, E, McCarthy, M. C.
      Pages: 202 - 205
      Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles are thought to be widespread throughout the universe, because these classes of molecules are probably responsible for the unidentified infrared bands, a set of emission features seen in numerous Galactic and extragalactic sources. Despite their expected ubiquity, astronomical identification of specific aromatic molecules has proven elusive. We present the discovery of benzonitrile (c-C6H5CN), one of the simplest nitrogen-bearing aromatic molecules, in the interstellar medium. We observed hyperfine-resolved transitions of benzonitrile in emission from the molecular cloud TMC-1. Simple aromatic molecules such as benzonitrile may be precursors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation, providing a chemical link to the carriers of the unidentified infrared bands.
      Keywords: Astronomy, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao4890
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals
    • Authors: Shen, K; Zhang, L, Chen, X, Liu, L, Zhang, D, Han, Y, Chen, J, Long, J, Luque, R, Li, Y, Chen, B.
      Pages: 206 - 210
      Abstract: We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional–ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent–induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao3403
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Antagonism toward the intestinal microbiota and its effect on Vibrio
           cholerae virulence
    • Authors: Zhao, W; Caro, F, Robins, W, Mekalanos, J. J.
      Pages: 210 - 213
      Abstract: The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a nanomachine that delivers toxic effector proteins into target cells, killing them. In mice, we found that the Vibrio cholerae T6SS attacks members of the host commensal microbiota in vivo, facilitating the pathogen’s colonization of the gut. This microbial antagonistic interaction drives measurable changes in the pathogenicity of V. cholerae through enhanced intestinal colonization, expression of bacterial virulence genes, and activation of host innate immune genes. Because ablation of mouse commensals by this enteric pathogen correlated with more severe diarrheal symptoms, we conclude that antagonism toward the gut microbiota could improve the fitness of V. cholerae as a pathogen by elevating its transmission to new susceptible hosts.
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aap8775
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Spatial representations of self and other in the hippocampus
    • Authors: Danjo, T; Toyoizumi, T, Fujisawa, S.
      Pages: 213 - 218
      Abstract: An animal’s awareness of its location in space depends on the activity of place cells in the hippocampus. How the brain encodes the spatial position of others has not yet been identified. We investigated neuronal representations of other animals’ locations in the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus with an observational T-maze task in which one rat was required to observe another rat’s trajectory to successfully retrieve a reward. Information reflecting the spatial location of both the self and the other was jointly and discretely encoded by CA1 pyramidal cells in the observer rat. A subset of CA1 pyramidal cells exhibited spatial receptive fields that were identical for the self and the other. These findings demonstrate that hippocampal spatial representations include dimensions for both self and nonself.
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao3898
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Social place-cells in the bat hippocampus
    • Authors: Omer, D. B; Maimon, S. R, Las, L, Ulanovsky, N.
      Pages: 218 - 224
      Abstract: Social animals have to know the spatial positions of conspecifics. However, it is unknown how the position of others is represented in the brain. We designed a spatial observational-learning task, in which an observer bat mimicked a demonstrator bat while we recorded hippocampal dorsal-CA1 neurons from the observer bat. A neuronal subpopulation represented the position of the other bat, in allocentric coordinates. About half of these "social place-cells" represented also the observer’s own position—that is, were place cells. The representation of the demonstrator bat did not reflect self-movement or trajectory planning by the observer. Some neurons represented also the position of inanimate moving objects; however, their representation differed from the representation of the demonstrator bat. This suggests a role for hippocampal CA1 neurons in social-spatial cognition.
      Keywords: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao3474
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Rapid hybrid speciation in Darwins finches
    • Authors: Lamichhaney, S; Han, F, Webster, M. T, Andersson, L, Grant, B. R, Grant, P. R.
      Pages: 224 - 228
      Abstract: Homoploid hybrid speciation in animals has been inferred frequently from patterns of variation, but few examples have withstood critical scrutiny. Here we report a directly documented example, from its origin to reproductive isolation. An immigrant Darwin’s finch to Daphne Major in the Galápagos archipelago initiated a new genetic lineage by breeding with a resident finch (Geospiza fortis). Genome sequencing of the immigrant identified it as a G. conirostris male that originated on Española >100 kilometers from Daphne Major. From the second generation onward, the lineage bred endogamously and, despite intense inbreeding, was ecologically successful and showed transgressive segregation of bill morphology. This example shows that reproductive isolation, which typically develops over hundreds of generations, can be established in only three.
      Keywords: Evolution, Genetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao4593
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Structure of the human TRPM4 ion channel in a lipid nanodisc
    • Authors: Autzen, H. E; Myasnikov, A. G, Campbell, M. G, Asarnow, D, Julius, D, Cheng, Y.
      Pages: 228 - 232
      Abstract: Transient receptor potential (TRP) melastatin 4 (TRPM4) is a widely expressed cation channel associated with a variety of cardiovascular disorders. TRPM4 is activated by increased intracellular calcium in a voltage-dependent manner but, unlike many other TRP channels, is permeable to monovalent cations only. Here we present two structures of full-length human TRPM4 embedded in lipid nanodiscs at ~3-angstrom resolution, as determined by single-particle cryo–electron microscopy. These structures, with and without calcium bound, reveal a general architecture for this major subfamily of TRP channels and a well-defined calcium-binding site within the intracellular side of the S1-S4 domain. The structures correspond to two distinct closed states. Calcium binding induces conformational changes that likely prime the channel for voltage-dependent opening.
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4510
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes control immunity to intestinal fungi
    • Authors: Leonardi, I; Li, X, Semon, A, Li, D, Doron, I, Putzel, G, Bar, A, Prieto, D, Rescigno, M, McGovern, D. P. B, Pla, J, Iliev, I. D.
      Pages: 232 - 236
      Abstract: Intestinal fungi are an important component of the microbiota, and recent studies have unveiled their potential in modulating host immune homeostasis and inflammatory disease. Nonetheless, the mechanisms governing immunity to gut fungal communities (mycobiota) remain unknown. We identified CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs) as being essential for the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses to intestinal fungi. CX3CR1+ MNPs express antifungal receptors and activate antifungal responses in a Syk-dependent manner. Genetic ablation of CX3CR1+ MNPs in mice led to changes in gut fungal communities and to severe colitis that was rescued by antifungal treatment. In Crohn’s disease patients, a missense mutation in the gene encoding CX3CR1 was identified and found to be associated with impaired antifungal responses. These results unravel a role of CX3CR1+ MNPs in mediating interactions between intestinal mycobiota and host immunity at steady state and during inflammatory disease.
      Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1503
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • Structure of the cold- and menthol-sensing ion channel TRPM8
    • Authors: Yin, Y; Wu, M, Zubcevic, L, Borschel, W. F, Lander, G. C, Lee, S.-Y.
      Pages: 237 - 241
      Abstract: Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) cation channels are polymodal sensors that are involved in a variety of physiological processes. Within the TRPM family, member 8 (TRPM8) is the primary cold and menthol sensor in humans. We determined the cryo–electron microscopy structure of the full-length TRPM8 from the collared flycatcher at an overall resolution of ~4.1 ångstroms. Our TRPM8 structure reveals a three-layered architecture. The amino-terminal domain with a fold distinct among known TRP structures, together with the carboxyl-terminal region, forms a large two-layered cytosolic ring that extensively interacts with the transmembrane channel layer. The structure suggests that the menthol-binding site is located within the voltage-sensor–like domain and thus provides a structural glimpse of the design principle of the molecular transducer for cold and menthol sensation.
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4325
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • New Products
    • Pages: 242 - 242
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.242
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
  • My second life as a teacher
    • Authors: Waller W. H.
      Pages: 246 - 246
      PubDate: 2018-01-11T10:18:37-08:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.359.6372.246
      Issue No: Vol. 359, No. 6372 (2018)
       
 
 
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