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Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 14.142
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 5673  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0036-8075 - ISSN (Online) 1095-9203
Published by AAAS Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Advances and challenges in time-resolved macromolecular crystallography

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      Authors: Bränden, G; Neutze, R.
      Abstract: Conformational changes within biological macromolecules control a vast array of chemical reactions in living cells. Time-resolved crystallography can reveal time-dependent structural changes that occur within protein crystals, yielding chemical insights in unparalleled detail. Serial crystallography approaches developed at x-ray free-electron lasers are now routinely used for time-resolved diffraction studies of macromolecules. These techniques are increasingly being applied at synchrotron radiation sources and to a growing diversity of macromolecules. Here, we review recent progress in the field, including visualizing ultrafast structural changes that guide the initial trajectories of light-driven reactions as well as capturing biologically important conformational changes on slower time scales, for which bacteriorhodopsin and photosystem II are presented as illustrative case studies.
      Keywords: Molecular Biology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba0954
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Prenatal maternal infection promotes tissue-specific immunity and
           inflammation in offspring

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      Authors: Lim, A. I; McFadden, T, Link, V. M, Han, S.-J, Karlsson, R.-M, Stacy, A, Farley, T. K, Lima-Junior, D. S, Harrison, O. J, Desai, J. V, Lionakis, M. S, Shih, H.-Y, Cameron, H. A, Belkaid, Y.
      Abstract: The immune system has evolved in the face of microbial exposure. How maternal infection experienced at distinct developmental stages shapes the offspring immune system remains poorly understood. Here, we show that during pregnancy, maternally restricted infection can have permanent and tissue-specific impacts on offspring immunity. Mechanistically, maternal interleukin-6 produced in response to infection can directly impose epigenetic changes on fetal intestinal epithelial stem cells, leading to long-lasting impacts on intestinal immune homeostasis. As a result, offspring of previously infected dams develop enhanced protective immunity to gut infection and increased inflammation in the context of colitis. Thus, maternal infection can be coopted by the fetus to promote long-term, tissue-specific fitness, a phenomenon that may come at the cost of predisposition to inflammatory disorders.
      Keywords: Immunology, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abf3002
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Developmental and evolutionary dynamics of cis-regulatory elements in
           mouse cerebellar cells

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      Authors: Sarropoulos, I; Sepp, M, Frömel, R, Leiss, K, Trost, N, Leushkin, E, Okonechnikov, K, Joshi, P, Giere, P, Kutscher, L. M, Cardoso-Moreira, M, Pfister, S. M, Kaessmann, H.
      Abstract: Organ development is orchestrated by cell- and time-specific gene regulatory networks. In this study, we investigated the regulatory basis of mouse cerebellum development from early neurogenesis to adulthood. By acquiring snATAC-seq (single-nucleus assay for transposase accessible chromatin using sequencing) profiles for ~90,000 cells spanning 11 stages, we mapped cerebellar cell types and identified candidate cis-regulatory elements (CREs). We detected extensive spatiotemporal heterogeneity among progenitor cells and a gradual divergence in the regulatory programs of cerebellar neurons during differentiation. Comparisons to vertebrate genomes and snATAC-seq profiles for ~20,000 cerebellar cells from the marsupial opossum revealed a shared decrease in CRE conservation during development and differentiation as well as differences in constraint between cell types. Our work delineates the developmental and evolutionary dynamics of gene regulation in cerebellar cells and provides insights into mammalian organ development.
      Keywords: Development, Evolution, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg4696
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Airborne transmission of respiratory viruses

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      Authors: Wang, C. C; Prather, K. A, Sznitman, J, Jimenez, J. L, Lakdawala, S. S, Tufekci, Z, Marr, L. C.
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed critical knowledge gaps in our understanding of and a need to update the traditional view of transmission pathways for respiratory viruses. The long-standing definitions of droplet and airborne transmission do not account for the mechanisms by which virus-laden respiratory droplets and aerosols travel through the air and lead to infection. In this Review, we discuss current evidence regarding the transmission of respiratory viruses by aerosols—how they are generated, transported, and deposited, as well as the factors affecting the relative contributions of droplet-spray deposition versus aerosol inhalation as modes of transmission. Improved understanding of aerosol transmission brought about by studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection requires a reevaluation of the major transmission pathways for other respiratory viruses, which will allow better-informed controls to reduce airborne transmission.
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Online Only
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abd9149
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • The case for wildlife as the COVID-19 origin

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      Authors: Alderton G.
      Pages: 979
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-i
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Colleges must require vaccination

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      Authors: McRobbie M. A.
      Pages: 945 - 945
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abl9102
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • News at a glance

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      Pages: 946 - 947
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.946
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Afghan scholars despair after Talibans takeover

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      Authors: Stone R.
      Pages: 948 - 949
      Keywords: Asia/Pacific News, Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.948
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Unethical' Unnecessary' The booster debate intensifies

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      Authors: Vogel G.
      Pages: 949 - 950
      Keywords: Epidemiology, Medicine, Diseases, Virology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.949
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Honesty study was based on fabricated data

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      Authors: OGrady C.
      Pages: 950 - 951
      Keywords: Scientific Community
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.950
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Scaled down, martian model habitat rises again in desert

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      Authors: Price M.
      Pages: 952 - 952
      Keywords: Planetary Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.952
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Looking to the Rockies for clues to water woes

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      Authors: Stokstad E.
      Pages: 953 - 953
      Keywords: Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.953
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Feeling the pressure

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      Authors: Service R. F.
      Pages: 954 - 957
      Keywords: Chemistry, Physics
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.954
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Allow "nonuse rights" to conserve natural resources

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      Authors: Leonard, B; Regan, S, Costello, C, Kerr, S, Parker, D. P, Plantinga, A. J, Salzman, J, Smith, V. K, Stoellinger, T.
      Pages: 958 - 961
      Keywords: Science and Policy, Sociology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abi4573
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Driving multiphase superconductivity

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      Authors: Pourret, A; Knebel, G.
      Pages: 962 - 963
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abj8193
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Pushing low thermal conductivity to the limit

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      Authors: Kim, S. E; Cahill, D. G.
      Pages: 963 - 964
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abk1176
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Piercing the fog of the RNA structure-ome

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      Authors: Weeks K. M.
      Pages: 964 - 965
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abk1971
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • How microbiota improve immunotherapy

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      Authors: Ansaldo, E; Belkaid, Y.
      Pages: 966 - 967
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abl3656
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Immune imprinting in utero

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      Authors: Amir, M; Zeng, M. Y.
      Pages: 967 - 968
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abl3631
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • The animal origin of SARS-CoV-2

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      Authors: Lytras, S; Xia, W, Hughes, J, Jiang, X, Robertson, D. L.
      Pages: 968 - 970
      Keywords: Evolution, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abh0117
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • The spectrum of happiness

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      Authors: Skvortsova V.
      Pages: 971 - 971
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abk3121
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • The unsung players of epidemiology

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      Authors: Seth S.
      Pages: 972 - 972
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abl3828
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Breathing Race into the Machine: The Surprising Career of the Spirometer
           from Plantation to Genetics

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      Pages: 972 - 972
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abl8016
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Feral equids varied effects on ecosystems

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      Authors: Rubin, E. S; Conrad, D, Jones, A. S, Hervert, J. J.
      Pages: 973 - 973
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abl5863
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Feral equids varied effects on ecosystems--Response

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      Authors: Lundgren, E. J; Ramp, D, Wu, J, Sluk, M, Moeller, K. T, Stromberg, J. C, Wallach, A. D.
      Pages: 973 - 974
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abl7466
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Academic bullying: How to be an ally

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      Authors: Mahmoudi M.
      Pages: 974 - 974
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abl7492
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • IF/THEN ambassadors find innovative ways to connect

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      Authors: Ham B.
      Pages: 975 - 976
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.975
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • A broad defense against SARS-like viruses

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      Authors: Vinson V.
      Pages: 977 - 979
      Keywords: Immunology, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-n
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • RNA editing restricts ciliary kinases

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      Authors: Jiang D.
      Pages: 977 - 979
      Keywords: Genetics, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-o
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Not your usual superconductor

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      Authors: Stajic J.
      Pages: 977 - 979
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-p
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Blocking heat in two ways

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      Authors: Grocholski B.
      Pages: 977 - 979
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-q
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • SagA promotes immunotherapy response

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      Authors: Kelly P. N.
      Pages: 977 - 979
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-r
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Machine learning solves RNA puzzles

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      Authors: Jiang D.
      Pages: 977 - 979
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Computers, Mathematics
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-s
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Taking a BiTE out of tumors

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      Authors: Malo C. S.
      Pages: 977 - 979
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-t
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • TCR-like antibodies tackle celiac disease

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      Authors: Williams I.
      Pages: 977 - 979
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-u
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Cooling threshold

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      Authors: Smith H. J.
      Pages: 977 - 977
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-a
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Safeguarding protein complex assembly

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      Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 977 - 977
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-b
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Thin, sensitive skin electronics

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      Authors: Lavine M. S.
      Pages: 977 - 977
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-c
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Shuffling nitrogen with a light push

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      Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 977 - 978
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-d
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • More species in warm waters

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      Authors: Vignieri S.
      Pages: 977 - 978
      Keywords: Ecology, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-e
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Gauging the spectrum of human mutations

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      Authors: Zahn L. M.
      Pages: 977 - 978
      Keywords: Evolution, Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-f
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Division of labor for vaccine responses

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      Authors: Ferrarelli L. K.
      Pages: 977 - 978
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-g
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Insights into the Roman diet from Herculaneum

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      Authors: Aldenderfer M.
      Pages: 977 - 978
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-h
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Bright future ahead for crystallography

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      Authors: Funk M. A.
      Pages: 977 - 979
      Keywords: Molecular Biology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-j
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Mechanisms of airborne transmission

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      Authors: Alderton G.
      Pages: 977 - 979
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-k
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Moms IL-6 rewires babys gut immunity

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      Authors: Scanlon S. T.
      Pages: 977 - 979
      Keywords: Immunology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-l
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • The cerebellum reveals its genetic programs

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      Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 977 - 979
      Keywords: Development, Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:17-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.977-m
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Separating the stages of germination

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      Authors: Hines P. J.
      Pages: 978 - 979
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.978-a
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Selective pruning of synapses

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      Authors: Hurtley S. M.
      Pages: 978 - 978
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.978-b
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Visibly controlling bond breaking

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      Authors: Szuromi P.
      Pages: 978 - 979
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.978-c
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • A trio of pyrroles

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      Authors: Yeston J.
      Pages: 978 - 979
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.978-d
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Growing importance of genetics

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      Authors: Nusinovich Y.
      Pages: 978 - 979
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.978-e
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • pH-universal OER electrocatalyst

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      Authors: Suleymanov Y.
      Pages: 978 - 979
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.978-f
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Mirror image DNA

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      Authors: Jiang D.
      Pages: 978 - 979
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.978-g
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • RNA editing restricts hyperactive ciliary kinases

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      Authors: Li, D; Liu, Y, Yi, P, Zhu, Z, Li, W, Zhang, Q. C, Li, J. B, Ou, G.
      Pages: 984 - 991
      Abstract: Protein kinase activity must be precisely regulated, but how a cell governs hyperactive kinases remains unclear. In this study, we generated a constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase DYF-5 (DYF-5CA) in Caenorhabditis elegans that disrupted sensory cilia. Genetic suppressor screens identified that mutations of ADR-2, an RNA adenosine deaminase, rescued ciliary phenotypes of dyf-5CA. We found that dyf-5CA animals abnormally transcribed antisense RNAs that pair with dyf-5CA messenger RNA (mRNA) to form double-stranded RNA, recruiting ADR-2 to edit the region ectopically. RNA editing impaired dyf-5CA mRNA splicing, and the resultant intron retentions blocked DYF-5CA protein translation and activated nonsense-mediated dyf-5CA mRNA decay. The kinase RNA editing requires kinase hyperactivity. The similar RNA editing–dependent feedback regulation restricted the other ciliary kinases NEKL-4/NEK10 and DYF-18/CCRK, which suggests a widespread mechanism that underlies kinase regulation.
      Keywords: Genetics, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abd8971
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Chimeric spike mRNA vaccines protect against Sarbecovirus challenge in
           mice

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      Authors: Martinez, D. R; Schäfer, A, Leist, S. R, De la Cruz, G, West, A, Atochina-Vasserman, E. N, Lindesmith, L. C, Pardi, N, Parks, R, Barr, M, Li, D, Yount, B, Saunders, K. O, Weissman, D, Haynes, B. F, Montgomery, S. A, Baric, R. S.
      Pages: 991 - 998
      Abstract: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 highlights the need to develop universal vaccination strategies against the broader Sarbecovirus subgenus. Using chimeric spike designs, we demonstrate protection against challenge from SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351, bat CoV (Bt-CoV) RsSHC014, and a heterologous Bt-CoV WIV-1 in vulnerable aged mice. Chimeric spike messenger RNAs (mRNAs) induced high levels of broadly protective neutralizing antibodies against high-risk Sarbecoviruses. By contrast, SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination not only showed a marked reduction in neutralizing titers against heterologous Sarbecoviruses, but SARS-CoV and WIV-1 challenge in mice resulted in breakthrough infections. Chimeric spike mRNA vaccines efficiently neutralized D614G, mink cluster five, and the UK B.1.1.7 and South African B.1.351 variants of concern. Thus, multiplexed-chimeric spikes can prevent SARS-like zoonotic coronavirus infections with pandemic potential.
      Keywords: Immunology, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abi4506
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Identification of a quality-control factor that monitors failures during
           proteasome assembly

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      Authors: Zavodszky, E; Peak-Chew, S.-Y, Juszkiewicz, S, Narvaez, A. J, Hegde, R. S.
      Pages: 998 - 1004
      Abstract: In eukaryotic cells, half of all proteins function as subunits within multiprotein complexes. Imbalanced synthesis of subunits leads to unassembled intermediates that must be degraded to minimize cellular toxicity. Here, we found that excess PSMC5, a subunit of the proteasome base, was targeted for degradation by the HERC1 ubiquitin ligase in mammalian cells. HERC1 identified unassembled PSMC5 by its cognate assembly chaperone PAAF1. Because PAAF1 only dissociates after assembly, HERC1 could also engage later assembly intermediates such as the PSMC4-PSMC5-PAAF1 complex. A missense mutant of HERC1 that causes neurodegeneration in mice was impaired in the recognition and ubiquitination of the PSMC5-PAAF1 complex. Thus, proteasome assembly factors can serve as adaptors for ubiquitin ligases to facilitate elimination of unassembled intermediates and maintain protein homeostasis.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc6500
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Photomediated ring contraction of saturated heterocycles

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      Authors: Jurczyk, J; Lux, M. C, Adpressa, D, Kim, S. F, Lam, Y.-h, Yeung, C. S, Sarpong, R.
      Pages: 1004 - 1012
      Abstract: Saturated heterocycles are found in numerous therapeutics and bioactive natural products and are abundant in many medicinal and agrochemical compound libraries. To access new chemical space and function, many methods for functionalization on the periphery of these structures have been developed. Comparatively fewer methods are known for restructuring their core framework. Herein, we describe a visible light–mediated ring contraction of α-acylated saturated heterocycles. This unconventional transformation is orthogonal to traditional ring contractions, challenging the paradigm for diversification of heterocycles including piperidine, morpholine, thiane, tetrahydropyran, and tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives. The success of this Norrish type II variant rests on reactivity differences between photoreactive ketone groups in specific chemical environments. This strategy was applied to late-stage remodeling of pharmaceutical derivatives, peptides, and sugars.
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abi7183
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Field-induced transition within the superconducting state of CeRh2As2

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      Authors: Khim, S; Landaeta, J. F, Banda, J, Bannor, N, Brando, M, Brydon, P. M. R, Hafner, D, Küchler, R, Cardoso-Gil, R, Stockert, U, Mackenzie, A. P, Agterberg, D. F, Geibel, C, Hassinger, E.
      Pages: 1012 - 1016
      Abstract: Materials with multiple superconducting phases are rare. Here, we report the discovery of two-phase unconventional superconductivity in CeRh2As2. Using thermodynamic probes, we establish that the superconducting critical field of its high-field phase is as high as 14 tesla, even though the transition temperature is only 0.26 kelvin. Furthermore, a transition between two different superconducting phases is observed in a c axis magnetic field. Local inversion-symmetry breaking at the cerium sites enables Rashba spin-orbit coupling alternating between the cerium sublayers. The staggered Rashba coupling introduces a layer degree of freedom to which the field-induced transition and high critical field seen in experiment are likely related.
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abe7518
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Low thermal conductivity in a modular inorganic material with bonding
           anisotropy and mismatch

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      Authors: Gibson, Q. D; Zhao, T, Daniels, L. M, Walker, H. C, Daou, R, Hebert, S, Zanella, M, Dyer, M. S, Claridge, J. B, Slater, B, Gaultois, M. W, Cora, F, Alaria, J, Rosseinsky, M. J.
      Pages: 1017 - 1022
      Abstract: The thermal conductivity of crystalline materials cannot be arbitrarily low, as the intrinsic limit depends on the phonon dispersion. We used complementary strategies to suppress the contribution of the longitudinal and transverse phonons to heat transport in layered materials that contain different types of intrinsic chemical interfaces. BiOCl and Bi2O2Se encapsulate these design principles for longitudinal and transverse modes, respectively, and the bulk superlattice material Bi4O4SeCl2 combines these effects by ordering both interface types within its unit cell to reach an extremely low thermal conductivity of 0.1 watts per kelvin per meter at room temperature along its stacking direction. This value comes within a factor of four of the thermal conductivity of air. We demonstrated that chemical control of the spatial arrangement of distinct interfaces can synergically modify vibrational modes to minimize thermal conductivity.
      Keywords: Chemistry, Materials Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abh1619
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Highly conductive and elastic nanomembrane for skin electronics

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      Authors: Jung, D; Lim, C, Shim, H. J, Kim, Y, Park, C, Jung, J, Han, S. I, Sunwoo, S.-H, Cho, K. W, Cha, G. D, Kim, D. C, Koo, J. H, Kim, J. H, Hyeon, T, Kim, D.-H.
      Pages: 1022 - 1026
      Abstract: Skin electronics require stretchable conductors that satisfy metallike conductivity, high stretchability, ultrathin thickness, and facile patternability, but achieving these characteristics simultaneously is challenging. We present a float assembly method to fabricate a nanomembrane that meets all these requirements. The method enables a compact assembly of nanomaterials at the water–oil interface and their partial embedment in an ultrathin elastomer membrane, which can distribute the applied strain in the elastomer membrane and thus lead to a high elasticity even with the high loading of the nanomaterials. Furthermore, the structure allows cold welding and bilayer stacking, resulting in high conductivity. These properties are preserved even after high-resolution patterning by using photolithography. A multifunctional epidermal sensor array can be fabricated with the patterned nanomembranes.
      Keywords: Materials Science
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abh4357
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • A positive relationship between functional redundancy and temperature in
           Cenozoic marine ecosystems

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      Authors: Womack, T. M; Crampton, J. S, Hannah, M. J, Collins, K. S.
      Pages: 1027 - 1029
      Abstract: The long-term effects of climate change on biodiversity and biogeographic patterns are uncertain. There are known relationships between geographic area and both the number of species and the number of ecological functional groups—termed the species-area relationship and the functional diversity–area relationship, respectively. We show that there is a positive relationship between the number of species in an area, the number of ecological functional groups, and oceanic temperature in the shallow-marine fossil record of New Zealand over a time span of ~40 million years. One implication of this relationship is that functional redundancy increases with temperature. This reveals a long-lived and persistent association between the spatial structuring of biodiversity, the temperature-dependence of functional redundancy, and shallow-marine biodiversity in mid-latitudes.
      Keywords: Ecology, Paleontology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abf8732
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Population sequencing data reveal a compendium of mutational processes in
           the human germ line

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      Authors: Seplyarskiy, V. B; Soldatov, R. A, Koch, E, McGinty, R. J, Goldmann, J. M, Hernandez, R. D, Barnes, K, Correa, A, Burchard, E. G, Ellinor, P. T, McGarvey, S. T, Mitchell, B. D, Vasan, R. S, Redline, S, Silverman, E, Weiss, S. T, Arnett, D. K, Blangero, J, Boerwinkle, E, He, J, Montgomery, C, Rao, D. C, Rotter, J. I, Taylor, K. D, Brody, J. A, Chen, Y.-D. I, de las Fuentes, L, Hwu, C.-M, Rich, S. S, Manichaikul, A. W, Mychaleckyj, J. C, Palmer, N. D, Smith, J. A, Kardia, S. L. R, Peyser, P. A, Bielak, L. F, OConnor, T. D, Emery, L. S, NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Consortium, TOPMed Population Genetics Working Group, Gilissen, C, Wong, W. S. W, Kharchenko, P. V, Sunyaev, S.
      Pages: 1030 - 1035
      Abstract: Biological mechanisms underlying human germline mutations remain largely unknown. We statistically decompose variation in the rate and spectra of mutations along the genome using volume-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization. The analysis of a sequencing dataset (TOPMed) reveals nine processes that explain the variation in mutation properties between loci. We provide a biological interpretation for seven of these processes. We associate one process with bulky DNA lesions that are resolved asymmetrically with respect to transcription and replication. Two processes track direction of replication fork and replication timing, respectively. We identify a mutagenic effect of active demethylation primarily acting in regulatory regions and a mutagenic effect of long interspersed nuclear elements. We localize a mutagenic process specific to oocytes from population sequencing data. This process appears transcriptionally asymmetric.
      Keywords: Evolution, Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.aba7408
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Insolation triggered abrupt weakening of Atlantic circulation at the end
           of interglacials

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      Authors: Yin, Q. Z; Wu, Z. P, Berger, A, Goosse, H, Hodell, D.
      Pages: 1035 - 1040
      Abstract: Abrupt cooling is observed at the end of interglacials in many paleoclimate records, but the mechanism responsible remains unclear. Using model simulations, we demonstrate that there exists a threshold in the level of astronomically induced insolation below which abrupt changes at the end of interglacials of the past 800,000 years occur. When decreasing insolation reaches the critical value, it triggers a strong, abrupt weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and a cooler mean climate state accompanied by high-amplitude variations lasting for several thousand years. The mechanism involves sea ice feedbacks in the Nordic and Labrador Seas. The ubiquity of this threshold suggests its fundamental role in terminating the warm climate conditions at the end of interglacials.
      Keywords: Atmospheric Science, Geochemistry, Geophysics
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abg1737
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Enterococcus peptidoglycan remodeling promotes checkpoint inhibitor cancer
           immunotherapy

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      Authors: Griffin, M. E; Espinosa, J, Becker, J. L, Luo, J.-D, Carroll, T. S, Jha, J. K, Fanger, G. R, Hang, H. C.
      Pages: 1040 - 1046
      Abstract: The antitumor efficacy of cancer immunotherapy can correlate with the presence of certain bacterial species within the gut microbiome. However, many of the molecular mechanisms that influence host response to immunotherapy remain elusive. In this study, we show that members of the bacterial genus Enterococcus improve checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy in mouse tumor models. Active enterococci express and secrete orthologs of the NlpC/p60 peptidoglycan hydrolase SagA that generate immune-active muropeptides. Expression of SagA in nonprotective E. faecalis was sufficient to promote immunotherapy response, and its activity required the peptidoglycan sensor NOD2. Notably, SagA-engineered probiotics or synthetic muropeptides also augmented anti–PD-L1 antitumor efficacy. Taken together, our data suggest that microbiota species with specialized peptidoglycan remodeling activity and muropeptide-based therapeutics may enhance cancer immunotherapy and could be leveraged as next-generation adjuvants.
      Keywords: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abc9113
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Geometric deep learning of RNA structure

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      Authors: Townshend, R. J. L; Eismann, S, Watkins, A. M, Rangan, R, Karelina, M, Das, R, Dror, R. O.
      Pages: 1047 - 1051
      Abstract: RNA molecules adopt three-dimensional structures that are critical to their function and of interest in drug discovery. Few RNA structures are known, however, and predicting them computationally has proven challenging. We introduce a machine learning approach that enables identification of accurate structural models without assumptions about their defining characteristics, despite being trained with only 18 known RNA structures. The resulting scoring function, the Atomic Rotationally Equivariant Scorer (ARES), substantially outperforms previous methods and consistently produces the best results in community-wide blind RNA structure prediction challenges. By learning effectively even from a small amount of data, our approach overcomes a major limitation of standard deep neural networks. Because it uses only atomic coordinates as inputs and incorporates no RNA-specific information, this approach is applicable to diverse problems in structural biology, chemistry, materials science, and beyond.
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Computers, Mathematics
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.abe5650
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
  • Waking up to my sleep disorder

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      Authors: Bourke A. M.
      Pages: 1054 - 1054
      PubDate: 2021-08-26T10:43:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1126/science.373.6558.1054
      Issue No: Vol. 373, No. 6558 (2021)
       
 
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