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Psychological Bulletin
Journal Prestige (SJR): 8.793
Citation Impact (citeScore): 16
Number of Followers: 220  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0033-2909
Published by APA Homepage  [74 journals]
  • Perceived crisis and reforms: Issues, explanations, and remedies.
    • Abstract: An overview and discussion is made of the perceived replication crisis in terms of end problems, explanations, and remedies. Following a discussion of a published large-scale replication study and a review of the meta-analysis literature, we come to the conclusion that many effects are small and that on average the variance of the effects is roughly 10% to 25% of the population variance, most likely because of context dependencies. The proposed explanations such as questionable and suboptimal research practices (low power, poor measurement quality, and the use of NHST) are discussed, as well as more distal explanatory factors such as journals, funding agencies, and institutions. Special attention is given to a third kind of explanatory factor that is situated in a psychological reality that comprises small and varying effect sizes. These factors may cause problems even in the absence of researcher-controlled factors. The proposed remedies for proximal problems insist on more power, more replications, more meta-analysis, higher reliability coefficients, and alternatives for NHST. Based on a discussion we formulate critical and less critical remarks regarding these recommendations. We believe there should be room for a diversity of perspectives and approaches. Small and varying effects attributable to complexity and context dependency of human behavior are considered to be great challenges and may lead to an adjustment of research and analysis methods. Finally, open questions are formulated regarding psychological data and data analysis, followed by seven conditional recommendations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Thu, 17 May 2018 04:00:00 GMT
  • A meta-analytic investigation of the relation between interpersonal
           attraction and enacted behavior.
    • Abstract: We present a meta-analysis that investigated the relation between self-reported interpersonal attraction and enacted behavior. Our synthesis focused on (a) identifying the behaviors related to attraction; (b) evaluating the efficacy of models of the relation between attraction and behavior; (c) testing the impact of several moderators, including evaluative threat salience, cognitive appraisal salience, and the sex composition of the social interaction; and (d) investigating the degree of agreement between the meta-analytic findings and an ethnographic analysis. Using a multilevel modeling approach, an analysis of 309 effect sizes (N = 5,422) revealed a significant association (z = .20) between self-reported attraction and enacted behavior. Key findings include: (a) that the specific behaviors associated with attraction (e.g., eye contact, smiling, laughter, mimicry) are those behaviors research has linked to the development of trust/rapport; (b) direct behaviors (e.g., physical proximity, talking to), compared with indirect behaviors (e.g., eye contact, smiling, mimicry), were more strongly related to self-reported attraction; and (c) evaluative threat salience (e.g., fear of rejection) reduced the magnitude of the relation between direct behavior and affective attraction. Moreover, an ethnographic analysis revealed consistency between the behaviors identified by the meta-analysis and those behaviors identified by ethnographers as predictive of attraction. We discuss the implications of our findings for models of the relation between attraction and behavior, for the behavioral expressions of emotions, and for how attraction is measured and conceptualized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 07 May 2018 04:00:00 GMT
  • Transfer of test-enhanced learning: Meta-analytic review and synthesis.
    • Abstract: Attempting recall of information from memory, as occurs when taking a practice test, is one of the most potent training techniques known to learning science. However, does testing yield learning that transfers to different contexts' In the present article, we report the findings of the first comprehensive meta-analytic review into that question. Our review encompassed 192 transfer effect sizes extracted from 122 experiments and 67 published and unpublished articles (N = 10,382) that together comprise more than 40 years of research. A random-effects model revealed that testing can yield transferrable learning as measured relative to a nontesting reexposure control condition (d = 0.40, 95% CI [0.31, 0.50]). That transfer of learning is greatest across test formats, to application and inference questions, to problems involving medical diagnoses, and to mediator and related word cues; it is weakest to rearranged stimulus-response items, to untested materials seen during initial study, and to problems involving worked examples. Moderator analyses further indicated that response congruency and elaborated retrieval practice, as well as initial test performance, strongly influence the likelihood of positive transfer. In two assessments for publication bias using PET-PEESE and various selection methods, the moderator effect sizes were minimally affected. However, the intercept predictions were substantially reduced, often indicating no positive transfer when none of the aforementioned moderators are present. Overall, our results motivate a three-factor framework for transfer of test-enhanced learning and have practical implications for the effective use of practice testing in educational and other training contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 07 May 2018 04:00:00 GMT
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