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Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.826
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 141  
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ISSN (Print) 0962-8452 - ISSN (Online) 1471-2954
Published by Royal Society, The Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Urbanization drives genetic differentiation in physiology and structures
           the evolution of pace-of-life syndromes in the water flea Daphnia magna
    • Authors: Brans, K. I; Stoks, R, De Meester, L.
      Pages: 20180169 - 20180169
      Abstract: Natural and human-induced stressors elicit changes in energy metabolism and stress physiology in populations of a wide array of species. Cities are stressful environments that may lead to differential selection on stress-coping mechanisms. Given that city ponds are exposed to the urban heat island effect and receive polluted run-off, organisms inhabiting these ecosystems might show genetic differentiation for physiological traits enabling them to better cope with higher overall stress levels. A common garden study with 62 Daphnia magna genotypes from replicated urban and rural populations revealed that urban Daphnia have significantly higher concentrations of total body fat, proteins and sugars. Baseline activity levels of the antioxidant defence enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were higher in rural compared with city populations, yet urban animals were equally well protected against lipid peroxidation. Our results add to the recent evidence of urbanization-driven changes in stress physiology and energy metabolism in terrestrial organisms. Combining our results with data on urban life history evolution in Daphnia revealed that urban genotypes show a structured pace-of-life syndrome involving both life-history and physiological traits, whereas this is absent in rural populations.
      Keywords: physiology, ecology, evolution
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:09:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0169
      Issue No: Vol. 285, No. 1883 (2018)
  • More than the sum of the parts: annual partitioning within spatial guilds
           underpins community regulation
    • Authors: Magurran, A. E; Henderson, P. A.
      Pages: 20180659 - 20180659
      Abstract: To withstand the pressures of a rapidly changing world, resilient ecosystems should exhibit compensatory dynamics, including uncorrelated temporal shifts in population sizes. The observation that diversity is maintained through time in many systems is evidence that communities are indeed regulated and stabilized, yet empirical observations suggest that positive covariance in species abundances is widespread. This paradox could be resolved if communities are composed of a number of ecologically relevant sub-units in which the members compete for resources, but whose abundances fluctuate independently. Such modular organization could explain community regulation, even when the community as a whole appears synchronized. To test this hypothesis, we quantified temporal synchronicity in annual population abundances within spatial guilds in an estuarine fish assemblage that has been monitored for 36 years. We detected independent fluctuations in annual abundances within guilds. By contrast, the assemblage as a whole exhibited temporal synchronicity—an outcome linked to the dynamics of guild dominants, which were synchronized with each other. These findings underline the importance of modularity in explaining community regulation and highlight the need to protect assemblage composition and structure as well as species richness.
      Keywords: theoretical biology, ecology, environmental science
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:09:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0659
      Issue No: Vol. 285, No. 1883 (2018)
  • Temperature is a poor proxy for synergistic climate forcing of plankton
    • Authors: Brombacher, A; Wilson, P. A, Bailey, I, Ezard, T. H. G.
      Pages: 20180665 - 20180665
      Abstract: Changes in biodiversity at all levels from molecules to ecosystems are often linked to climate change, which is widely represented univariately by temperature. A global environmental driving mechanism of biodiversity dynamics is thus implied by the strong correlation between temperature proxies and diversity patterns in a wide variety of fauna and flora. Yet climate consists of many interacting variables. Species probably respond to the entire climate system as opposed to its individual facets. Here, we examine ecological and morphological traits of 12 633 individuals of two species of planktonic foraminifera with similar ecologies but contrasting evolutionary outcomes. Our results show that morphological and ecological changes are correlated to the interactions between multiple environmental factors. Models including interactions between climate variables explain at least twice as much variation in size, shape and abundance changes as models assuming that climate parameters operate independently. No dominant climatic driver can be identified: temperature alone explains remarkably little variation through our highly resolved temporal sequences, implying that a multivariate approach is required to understand evolutionary response to abiotic forcing. Our results caution against the use of a ‘silver bullet’ environmental parameter to represent global climate while studying evolutionary responses to abiotic change, and show that more comprehensive reconstruction of palaeobiological dynamics requires multiple biotic and abiotic dimensions.
      Keywords: palaeontology, environmental science, evolution
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:09:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0665
      Issue No: Vol. 285, No. 1883 (2018)
  • Gamete-mediated mate choice: towards a more inclusive view of sexual
    • Authors: Kekäläinen, J; Evans, J. P.
      Pages: 20180836 - 20180836
      Abstract: ‘Sperm competition’—where ejaculates from two or more males compete for fertilization—and ‘cryptic female choice’—where females bias this contest to suit their reproductive interests—are now part of the everyday lexicon of sexual selection. Yet the physiological processes that underlie these post-ejaculatory episodes of sexual selection remain largely enigmatic. In this review, we focus on a range of post-ejaculatory cellular- and molecular-level processes, known to be fundamental for fertilization across most (if not all) sexually reproducing species, and point to their putative role in facilitating sexual selection at the level of the cells and gametes, called ‘gamete-mediated mate choice’ (GMMC). In this way, we collate accumulated evidence for GMMC across different mating systems, and emphasize the evolutionary significance of such non-random interactions among gametes. Our overall aim in this review is to build a more inclusive view of sexual selection by showing that mate choice often acts in more nuanced ways than has traditionally been assumed. We also aim to bridge the conceptual divide between proximal mechanisms of reproduction, and adaptive explanations for patterns of non-random sperm–egg interactions that are emerging across an increasingly diverse array of taxa.
      Keywords: behaviour, ecology, evolution
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:09:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0836
      Issue No: Vol. 285, No. 1883 (2018)
  • Timing of perineuronal net development in the zebra finch song control
           system correlates with developmental song learning
    • Authors: Cornez, G; Jonckers, E, ter Haar, S. M, Van der Linden, A, Cornil, C. A, Balthazart, J.
      Pages: 20180849 - 20180849
      Abstract: The appearance of perineuronal nets (PNNs) represents one of the mechanisms that contribute to the closing of sensitive periods for neural plasticity. This relationship has mostly been studied in the ocular dominance model in rodents. Previous studies also indicated that PNN might control neural plasticity in the song control system of songbirds. To further elucidate this relationship, we quantified PNN expression and their localization around parvalbumin interneurons at key time-points during ontogeny in both male and female zebra finches, and correlated these data with the well-described development of song in this species. We also extended these analyses to the auditory system. The development of PNN during ontogeny correlated with song crystallization although the timing of PNN appearance in the four main telencephalic song control nuclei slightly varied between nuclei in agreement with the established role these nuclei play during song learning. Our data also indicate that very few PNN develop in the secondary auditory forebrain areas even in adult birds, which may allow constant adaptation to a changing acoustic environment by allowing synaptic reorganization during adulthood.
      Keywords: neuroscience, behaviour, developmental biology
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:09:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0849
      Issue No: Vol. 285, No. 1883 (2018)
  • The Palaeozoic colonization of the water column and the rise of global
    • Authors: Whalen, C. D; Briggs, D. E. G.
      Pages: 20180883 - 20180883
      Abstract: The colonization of the water column is among the most important transformations in the evolution of animal life and global ecosystems. The Devonian nekton revolution has been identified as a major macroevolutionary event signifying the rapid occupation of the water column by independent radiations of swimming animals. Using new data, an expanded taxonomic coverage, sample standardization and increased ecological resolution, we analysed patterns of nektonization during the Palaeozoic. We find that nekton and eunekton were well established prior to the Devonian and did not diversify dramatically during any Palaeozoic interval. Relative nektic diversity and occurrences decreased rather than increased during the Devonian. Eunektic diversity and occurrences increased throughout the Palaeozoic, but this rise was protracted and cannot be attributed to any single interval. Our new data indicate that the metazoan colonization of the water column was considerably more complex and gradual than previously understood.
      Keywords: palaeontology, ecology, evolution
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:09:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0883
      Issue No: Vol. 285, No. 1883 (2018)
  • Genomic variation underlying complex life-history traits revealed by
           genome sequencing in Chinook salmon
    • Authors: Narum, S. R; Di Genova, A, Micheletti, S. J, Maass, A.
      Pages: 20180935 - 20180935
      Abstract: A broad portfolio of phenotypic diversity in natural organisms can buffer against exploitation and increase species persistence in disturbed ecosystems. The study of genomic variation that accounts for ecological and evolutionary adaptation can represent a powerful approach to extend understanding of phenotypic variation in nature. Here we present a chromosome-level reference genome assembly for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; 2.36 Gb) that enabled association mapping of life-history variation and phenotypic traits for this species. Whole-genome re-sequencing of populations with distinct life-history traits provided evidence that divergent selection was extensive throughout the genome within and among phylogenetic lineages, indicating that a broad portfolio of phenotypic diversity exists in this species that is related to local adaptation and life-history variation. Association mapping with millions of genome-wide SNPs revealed that a genomic region of major effect on chromosome 28 was associated with phenotypes for premature and mature arrival to spawning grounds and was consistent across three distinct phylogenetic lineages. Our results demonstrate how genomic resources can enlighten the genetic basis of known phenotypes in exploited species and assist in clarifying phenotypic variation that may be difficult to observe in naturally occurring organisms.
      Keywords: genomics, ecology, evolution
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:09:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0935
      Issue No: Vol. 285, No. 1883 (2018)
  • Proteomic evidence of dietary sources in ancient dental calculus
    • Authors: Hendy, J; Warinner, C, Bouwman, A, Collins, M. J, Fiddyment, S, Fischer, R, Hagan, R, Hofman, C. A, Holst, M, Chaves, E, Klaus, L, Larson, G, Mackie, M, McGrath, K, Mundorff, A. Z, Radini, A, Rao, H, Trachsel, C, Velsko, I. M, Speller, C. F.
      Pages: 20180977 - 20180977
      Abstract: Archaeological dental calculus has emerged as a rich source of ancient biomolecules, including proteins. Previous analyses of proteins extracted from ancient dental calculus revealed the presence of the dietary milk protein β-lactoglobulin, providing direct evidence of dairy consumption in the archaeological record. However, the potential for calculus to preserve other food-related proteins has not yet been systematically explored. Here we analyse shotgun metaproteomic data from 100 archaeological dental calculus samples ranging from the Iron Age to the post-medieval period (eighth century BC to nineteenth century AD) in England, as well as 14 dental calculus samples from contemporary dental patients and recently deceased individuals, to characterize the range and extent of dietary proteins preserved in dental calculus. In addition to milk proteins, we detect proteomic evidence of foodstuffs such as cereals and plant products, as well as the digestive enzyme salivary amylase. We discuss the importance of optimized protein extraction methods, data analysis approaches and authentication strategies in the identification of dietary proteins from archaeological dental calculus. This study demonstrates that proteomic approaches can robustly identify foodstuffs in the archaeological record that are typically under-represented due to their poor macroscopic preservation.
      Keywords: molecular biology, palaeontology
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:09:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0977
      Issue No: Vol. 285, No. 1883 (2018)
  • Sustained effects of prior red light on pupil diameter and vigilance
           during subsequent darkness
    • Authors: van der Meijden, W. P; te Lindert, B. H. W, Ramautar, J. R, Wei, Y, Coppens, J. E, Kamermans, M, Cajochen, C, Bourgin, P, Van Someren, E. J. W.
      Pages: 20180989 - 20180989
      Abstract: Environmental light can exert potent effects on physiology and behaviour, including pupil size, vigilance and sleep. Previous work showed that these non-image forming effects can last long beyond discontinuation of short-wavelength light exposure. The possible functional effects after switching off long-wavelength light, however, have been insufficiently characterized. In a series of controlled experiments in healthy adult volunteers, we evaluated the effects of five minutes of intense red light on physiology and performance during subsequent darkness. As compared to prior darkness, prior red light induced a subsequent sustained pupil dilation. Prior red light also increased subsequent heart rate and heart rate variability when subjects were asked to perform a sustained vigilance task during the dark exposure. While these changes suggest an increase in the mental effort required for the task, it could not prevent a post-red slowing of response speed. The suggestion that exposure to intense red light affects vigilance during subsequent darkness, was confirmed in a controlled polysomnographic study that indeed showed a post-red facilitation of sleep onset. Our findings suggest the possibility of using red light as a nightcap.
      Keywords: neuroscience, cognition
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:09:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0989
      Issue No: Vol. 285, No. 1883 (2018)
  • Contrasting the effects of natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow
           on urban evolution in white clover (Trifolium repens)
    • Authors: Johnson, M. T. J; Prashad, C. M, Lavoignat, M, Saini, H. S.
      Pages: 20181019 - 20181019
      Abstract: Urbanization is a global phenomenon with profound effects on the ecology and evolution of organisms. We examined the relative roles of natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow in influencing the evolution of white clover (Trifolium repens), which thrives in urban and rural areas. Trifolium repens exhibits a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), a potent antiherbivore defence. We quantified the relative frequency of HCN in 490 populations sampled along urban–rural transects in 20 cities. We also characterized genetic variation within 120 populations in eight cities using 16 microsatellite loci. HCN frequency increased by 0.6% for every kilometre from an urban centre, and the strength of this relationship did not significantly vary between cities. Populations did not exhibit changes in genetic diversity with increasing urbanization, indicating that genetic drift is unlikely to explain urban–rural clines in HCN frequency. Populations frequently exhibited isolation-by-distance and extensive gene flow along most urban–rural transects, with the exception of a single city that exhibited genetic differentiation between urban and rural populations. Our results show that urbanization repeatedly drives parallel evolution of an ecologically important trait across many cities that vary in size, and this evolution is best explained by urban–rural gradients in natural selection.
      Keywords: ecology, environmental science, evolution
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:09:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.1019
      Issue No: Vol. 285, No. 1883 (2018)
  • Senescence impacts reproduction and maternal investment in bottlenose
    • Authors: Karniski, C; Krzyszczyk, E, Mann, J.
      Pages: 20181123 - 20181123
      Abstract: Reproductive senescence is evident across many mammalian species. An emerging perspective considers components of reproductive senescence as evolutionarily distinct phenomena: fertility senescence and maternal-effect senescence. While fertility senescence is regarded as the ageing of reproductive physiology, maternal-effect senescence pertains to the declining capacity to provision and rear surviving offspring due to age. Both contribute to reproductive failure in utero making it difficult to differentiate between the two prenatally in the wild. We investigated both components in a long-lived mammal with prolonged maternal care through three parameters: calf survival, interbirth interval (IBI) and lactation period. We provide clear evidence for reproductive senescence in a wild population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) using 34+ years of longitudinal data on 229 adult females and 562 calves. Calf survival decreased with maternal age, and calves with older mothers had lower survival than predicted by birth order, suggesting maternal-effect senescence. Both lactation period and IBIs increased with maternal age, and IBIs increased regardless of calf mortality, indicating interactions between fertility and maternal-effect senescence. Of calves that survived to weaning, last-born calves weaned later than earlier-born calves, evidence of terminal investment, a mitigating strategy given reduced reproductive value caused by either components of reproductive senescence.
      Keywords: behaviour, evolution
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:09:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.1123
      Issue No: Vol. 285, No. 1883 (2018)
  • Heaviside's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus heavisidii) relax acoustic crypsis
           to increase communication range
    • Authors: Martin, M. J; Gridley, T, Elwen, S. H, Jensen, F. H.
      Pages: 20181178 - 20181178
      Abstract: The costs of predation may exert significant pressure on the mode of communication used by an animal, and many species balance the benefits of communication (e.g. mate attraction) against the potential risk of predation. Four groups of toothed whales have independently evolved narrowband high-frequency (NBHF) echolocation signals. These signals help NBHF species avoid predation through acoustic crypsis by echolocating and communicating at frequencies inaudible to predators such as mammal-eating killer whales. Heaviside's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus heavisidii) are thought to exclusively produce NBHF echolocation clicks with a centroid frequency around 125 kHz and little to no energy below 100 kHz. To test this, we recorded wild Heaviside's dolphins in a sheltered bay in Namibia. We demonstrate that Heaviside's dolphins produce a second type of click with lower frequency and broader bandwidth in a frequency range that is audible to killer whales. These clicks are used in burst-pulses and occasional click series but not foraging buzzes. We evaluate three different hypotheses and conclude that the most likely benefit of these clicks is to decrease transmission directivity and increase conspecific communication range. The expected increase in active space depends on background noise but ranges from 2.5 (Wenz Sea State 6) to 5 times (Wenz Sea State 1) the active space of NBHF signals. This dual click strategy therefore allows these social dolphins to maintain acoustic crypsis during navigation and foraging, and to selectively relax their crypsis to facilitate communication with conspecifics.
      Keywords: behaviour, ecology, evolution
      PubDate: 2018-07-18T00:09:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.1178
      Issue No: Vol. 285, No. 1883 (2018)
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