Followed Journals
Journal you Follow: 0
 
Sign Up to follow journals, search in your chosen journals and, optionally, receive Email Alerts when new issues of your Followed Journals are published.
Already have an account? Sign In to see the journals you follow.
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 1327  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • HIF-1{alpha} is a negative regulator of interferon regulatory factors:
           Implications for interferon production by hypoxic monocytes [Immunology
           and Inflammation]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Travis Peng; Shin-Yi Du, Myoungsun Son, Betty Diamond
      Abstract: Patients with severe COVID-19 infection exhibit a low level of oxygen in affected tissue and blood. To understand the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection, it is therefore necessary to understand cell function during hypoxia. We investigated aspects of human monocyte activation under hypoxic conditions. HMGB1 is an alarmin released by stressed...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T11:17:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2106017118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 26 (2021)
       
  • Designing antimalarials that break into cells to lock down parasites
           [Biochemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Svetlana Glushakova; Joshua Zimmerberg
      Abstract: A once in a century new viral outbreak, COVID-19, has caused unfathomable numbers of deaths, toward 4 million. Yet an ancient disease, malaria, endemic to the residents of more than half of Earth, is even more devastating than this pandemic over time: It caused about 12 million deaths in the...
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T11:17:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108103118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 26 (2021)
       
  • Mapping the evolution of bornaviruses across geological timescales
           [Microbiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Robert J. Gifford
      Abstract: It has always seemed likely that viruses originated early in the history of life. However, until the identification of endogenous viral elements (EVEs), there was little if any direct evidence for most virus groups ever having existed in the distant past (1). EVEs are virus-derived DNA sequences found in the...
      Keywords: Microbiology, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:52:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108123118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 26 (2021)
       
  • Temperature and population density influence SARS-CoV-2 transmission in
           the absence of nonpharmaceutical interventions [Medical Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Thomas P. Smith; Seth Flaxman, Amanda S. Gallinat, Sylvia P. Kinosian, Michael Stemkovski, H. Juliette T. Unwin, Oliver J. Watson, Charles Whittaker, Lorenzo Cattarino, Ilaria Dorigatti, Michael Tristem, William D. Pearse
      Abstract: As COVID-19 continues to spread across the world, it is increasingly important to understand the factors that influence its transmission. Seasonal variation driven by responses to changing environment has been shown to affect the transmission intensity of several coronaviruses. However, the impact of the environment on severe acute respiratory syndrome...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T11:00:53-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019284118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 25 (2021)
       
  • Herded and hunted goat genomes from the dawn of domestication in the
           Zagros Mountains [Anthropology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kevin G. Daly; Valeria Mattiangeli, Andrew J. Hare, Hossein Davoudi, Homa Fathi, Sanaz Beizaee Doost, Sarieh Amiri, Roya Khazaeli, Delphine Decruyenaere, Jebrael Nokandeh, Tobias Richter, Hojjat Darabi, Peder Mortensen, Alexis Pantos, Lisa Yeomans, Pernille Bangsgaard, Marjan Mashkour, Melinda A. Zeder, Daniel G. Bradley
      Abstract: The Aceramic Neolithic (∼9600 to 7000 cal BC) period in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran, provides some of the earliest archaeological evidence of goat (Capra hircus) management and husbandry by circa 8200 cal BC, with detectable morphological change appearing ∼1,000 y later. To examine the genomic imprint of initial management...
      Keywords: Anthropology
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:23-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100901118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 25 (2021)
       
  • Phenotypic and genetic characterization of MERS coronaviruses from Africa
           to understand their zoonotic potential [Microbiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ziqi Zhou; Kenrie P. Y. Hui, Ray T. Y. So, Huibin Lv, Ranawaka A. P. M. Perera, Daniel K. W. Chu, Esayas Gelaye, Harry Oyas, Obadiah Nȷagi, Takele Abayneh, Wilson Kuria, Elias Walelign, Rinah Wanglia, Ihab El Masry, Sophie Von Dobschuetz, Wantanee Kalpravidh, Veronique Chevalier, Eve Miguel, Ouafaa Fassi–Fihri, Amadou Trarore, Weiwen Liang, Yanqun Wang, John M. Nicholls, Jincun Zhao, Michael C. W. Chan, Leo L. M. Poon, Chris Ka Pun Mok, Malik Peiris
      Abstract: Coronaviruses are pathogens of pandemic potential. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a zoonotic respiratory disease of global public health concern, and dromedary camels are the only proven source of zoonotic infection. More than 70% of MERS-CoV–infected dromedaries are found in East, North, and West Africa, but zoonotic MERS...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:23-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2103984118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 25 (2021)
       
  • Overcoming COVID-19 vaccination resistance when alternative policies
           affect the dynamics of conformism, social norms, and crowding out [Social
           Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Katrin Schmelz; Samuel Bowles
      Abstract: What is an effective vaccination policy to end the COVID-19 pandemic' We address this question in a model of the dynamics of policy effectiveness drawing upon the results of a large panel survey implemented in Germany during the first and second waves of the pandemic. We observe increased opposition to...
      Keywords: Social Sciences, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:23-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104912118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 25 (2021)
       
  • Cyanide emerges as an endogenous mammalian gasotransmitter [Pharmacology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Pal Pacher
      Abstract: Poison is in everything, and no thing is without poison. The dosage makes it either a poison or a remedy. Paracelsus (1493−1541), Selected Writings Cyanide (consisting of one atom of carbon connected to one atom of nitrogen by three molecular bonds [C≡N]), first isolated in late 17th century, is a...
      Keywords: Pharmacology, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:23-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108040118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 25 (2021)
       
  • Altered amino acid profile in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection
           [Immunology and Inflammation]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Chris A. Rees; Christina A. Rostad, Grace Mantus, Evan J. Anderson, Ann Chahroudi, Preeti Jaggi, Jens Wrammert, Juan B. Ochoa, Augusto Ochoa, Rajit K. Basu, Stacy Heilman, Frank Harris, Stacey A. Lapp, Laila Hussaini, Miriam B. Vos, Lou Ann Brown, Claudia R. Morris
      Abstract: Low plasma arginine bioavailability has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and immune dysregulation. The role of arginine in COVID-19 is unknown, but could contribute to cellular damage if low. Our objective was to determine arginine bioavailability in adults and children with COVID-19 vs. healthy controls. We hypothesized that arginine bioavailability...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation, Brief Reports, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101708118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 25 (2021)
       
  • N-terminal tail prolines of Gal-3 mediate its oligomerization/phase
           separation [Biochemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dharma Pally; Ramray Bhat
      Abstract: Galectins are a class of proteins that bind to β-galactose–containing glycoconjugates and play critical roles in developmental, homeostatic, and pathological contexts (1, 2). Expressed across animal tissues, galectins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and trafficked to the extracellular milieu via the unconventional secretion pathway, although they may also be localized...
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107023118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 25 (2021)
       
  • The total number and mass of SARS-CoV-2 virions [Systems Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ron Sender; Yinon M. Bar-On, Shmuel Gleizer, Biana Bernshtein, Avi Flamholz, Rob Phillips, Ron Milo
      Abstract: Quantitatively describing the time course of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection within an infected individual is important for understanding the current global pandemic and possible ways to combat it. Here we integrate the best current knowledge about the typical viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in bodily fluids...
      Keywords: Systems Biology, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:10:45-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024815118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 25 (2021)
       
  • Taking turns: The neural control of birdsong duets [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Eliot A. Brenowitz
      Abstract: Why Don’t We Sing This Song All Together' Every animal communication enthusiast has a story about a peak experience. It might be hearing whales sing while snorkeling or seeing fireflies flash synchronously in their thousands. My peak experience was when I first heard wrens sing antiphonal duets. It was my...
      Keywords: Neuroscience, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T11:09:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108043118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 25 (2021)
       
  • A metabolic regulon reveals early and late acting enzymes in neuroactive
           Lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis [Biochemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ryan S. Nett; Yaereen Dho, Yun-Yee Low, Elizabeth S. Sattely
      Abstract: Plants synthesize many diverse small molecules that affect function of the mammalian central nervous system, making them crucial sources of therapeutics for neurological disorders. A notable portion of neuroactive phytochemicals are lysine-derived alkaloids, but the mechanisms by which plants produce these compounds have remained largely unexplored. To better understand how...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T11:29:13-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102949118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Involvement of Scratch2 in GalR1-mediated depression-like behaviors in the
           rat ventral periaqueductal gray [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yutao Yang; Yueting Li, Bo Liu, Chenchen Li, Ziȷin Liu, Jiahui Deng, Hanȷiang Luo, Xiaoxiao Li, Jinȷin Wu, Hui Li, Chuan–Yue Wang, Ming Zhao, Haohao Wu, Francois Lallemend, Per Svenningsson, Tomas G. M. Hokfelt, Zhi–Qing David Xu
      Abstract: Galanin receptor1 (GalR1) transcript levels are elevated in the rat ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) after chronic mild stress (CMS) and are related to depression-like behavior. To explore the mechanisms underlying the elevated GalR1 expression, we carried out molecular biological experiments in vitro and in animal behavioral experiments in vivo. It...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T11:17:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922586118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Fifty million years of beetle evolution along the Antarctic Polar Front
           [Evolution]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Helena P. Baird; Seunggwan Shin, Rolf G. Oberprieler, Maurice Hulle, Philippe Vernon, Katherine L. Moon, Richard H. Adams, Duane D. McKenna, Steven L. Chown
      Abstract: Global cooling and glacial–interglacial cycles since Antarctica’s isolation have been responsible for the diversification of the region’s marine fauna. By contrast, these same Earth system processes are thought to have played little role terrestrially, other than driving widespread extinctions. Here, we show that on islands along the Antarctic Polar Front,...
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T11:17:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017384118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • The intra-S phase checkpoint directly regulates replication elongation to
           preserve the integrity of stalled replisomes [Genetics]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yang Liu; Lu Wang, Xin Xu, Yue Yuan, Bo Zhang, Zeyang Li, Yuchen Xie, Rui Yan, Zeqi Zheng, Jianguo Ji, Johanne M. Murray, Antony M. Carr, Daochun Kong
      Abstract: DNA replication is dramatically slowed down under replication stress. The regulation of replication speed is a conserved response in eukaryotes and, in fission yeast, requires the checkpoint kinases Rad3ATR and Cds1Chk2. However, the underlying mechanism of this checkpoint regulation remains unresolved. Here, we report that the Rad3ATR-Cds1Chk2 checkpoint directly targets...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T11:17:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019183118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Characterizing public perceptions of social and cultural impacts in policy
           decisions [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nathan F. Dieckmann; Robin Gregory, Terre Satterfield, Marcus Mayorga, Paul Slovic
      Abstract: Social scientists and community advocates have expressed concerns that many social and cultural impacts important to citizens are given insufficient weight by decision makers in public policy decision-making. In two large cross-sectional surveys, we examined public perceptions of a range of social, cultural, health, economic, and environmental impacts. Findings suggest...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T11:17:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020491118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Opinion: How to ensure regulations don’t stymie much-needed COVID-19
           point-of-care testing [Chemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Clare Rock; Jonathan Zenilman
      Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raged for more than a year in the United States, upending life as we knew it. Nevertheless, we have seen incredibly rapid advances in vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostic testing technology. There is tremendous need and economic interest in reopening our businesses and schools...
      Keywords: Opinions, Chemistry, Medical Sciences, Front Matter, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T11:17:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2109012118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • The dynamic epigenetic regulation of the inactive X chromosome in healthy
           human B cells is dysregulated in lupus patients [Genetics]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sarah Pyfrom; Bam Paneru, James J. Knox, Michael P. Cancro, Sylvia Posso, Jane H. Buckner, Montserrat C. Anguera
      Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is a female-predominant disease characterized by autoimmune B cells and pathogenic autoantibody production. Individuals with two or more X chromosomes are at increased risk for SLE, suggesting that X-linked genes contribute to the observed sex bias of this disease. To normalize X-linked gene expression between sexes,...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T11:01:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024624118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Language extinction triggers the loss of unique medicinal knowledge
           [Sustainability Science]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rodrigo Camara–Leret; Jordi Bascompte
      Abstract: Over 30% of the 7,400 languages in the world will no longer be spoken by the end of the century. So far, however, our understanding of whether language extinction may result in the loss of linguistically unique knowledge remains limited. Here, we ask to what degree indigenous knowledge of medicinal...
      Keywords: Ecology, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T11:01:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2103683118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Early life stress is associated with earlier emergence of permanent molars
           [Social Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Cassidy L. McDermott; Katherine Hilton, Anne T. Park, Ursula A. Tooley, Austin L. Boroshok, Muralidhar Mupparapu, JoAnna M. Scott, Erin E. Bumann, Allyson P. Mackey
      Abstract: Exposure to adversity can accelerate biological aging. However, existing biomarkers of early aging are either costly and difficult to collect, like epigenetic signatures, or cannot be detected until late childhood, like pubertal onset. We evaluated the hypothesis that early adversity is associated with earlier molar eruption, an easily assessed measure...
      Keywords: Social Sciences, Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T11:01:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2105304118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Selective filtering of excitatory inputs to nucleus accumbens by dopamine
           and serotonin [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel J. Christoffel; Jessica J. Walsh, Paul Hoerbelt, Boris D. Heifets, Pierre Llorach, Ricardo C. Lopez, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Robert C. Malenka
      Abstract: The detailed mechanisms by which dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) act in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to influence motivated behaviors in distinct ways remain largely unknown. Here, we examined whether DA and 5-HT selectively modulate excitatory synaptic transmission in NAc medium spiny neurons in an input-specific manner. DA reduced excitatory...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T11:01:02-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2106648118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Inactivation of common airborne antigens by perfluoroalkyl chemicals
           modulates early life allergic asthma [Environmental Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mengjing Wang; Qianqian Li, Meifang Hou, Louisa L. Y. Chan, Meng Liu, Soo Kai Ter, Ting Dong, Yun Xia, Sanjay H. Chotirmall, Mingliang Fang
      Abstract: Allergic asthma, driven by T helper 2 cell-mediated immune responses to common environmental antigens, remains the most common respiratory disease in children. Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are environmental contaminants of great concern, because of their wide application, persistence in the environment, and bioaccumulation. PFCs associate with immunological disorders including asthma and...
      Keywords: Environmental Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011957118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • The impact of a lack of mathematical education on brain development and
           future attainment [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: George Zacharopoulos; Francesco Sella, Roi Cohen Kadosh
      Abstract: Formal education has a long-term impact on an individual’s life. However, our knowledge of the effect of a specific lack of education, such as in mathematics, is currently poor but is highly relevant given the extant differences between countries in their educational curricula and the differences in opportunities to access...
      Keywords: Neuroscience, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013155118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Homocysteine fibrillar assemblies display cross-talk with Alzheimer’s
           disease {beta}-amyloid polypeptide [Biochemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dorin Sade Yazdi; Dana Laor Bar-Yosef, Hanaa Adsi, Topaz Kreiser, Shahaf Sigal, Santu Bera, Dor Zaguri, Shira Shaham-Niv, Damilola S. Oluwatoba, Davide Levy, Myra Gartner, Thanh D. Do, Dan Frenkel, Ehud Gazit
      Abstract: High levels of homocysteine are reported as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Correspondingly, inborn hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased predisposition to the development of dementia in later stages of life. Yet, the mechanistic link between homocysteine accumulation and the pathological neurodegenerative processes is still elusive. Furthermore, despite...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017575118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Targeting the tetraspanin CD81 reduces cancer invasion and metastasis
           [Medical Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Felipe Vences–Catalan; Ranȷani Raȷapaksa, Chiung–Chi Kuo, Caitlyn L. Miller, Anderson Lee, Vishnu C. Ramani, Stefanie S. Jeffrey, Ronald Levy, Shoshana Levy
      Abstract: Tetraspanins are an evolutionary conserved family of proteins involved in multiple aspects of cell physiology, including proliferation, migration and invasion, protein trafficking, and signal transduction; yet their detailed mechanism of action is unknown. Tetraspanins have no known natural ligands, but their engagement by antibodies has begun to reveal their role...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018961118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Antipsychotic drugs counteract autophagy and mitophagy in multiple
           sclerosis [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Simone Patergnani; Massimo Bonora, Selene Ingusci, Maurizio Previati, Saverio Marchi, Silvia Zucchini, Mariasole Perrone, Mariusz R. Wieckowski, Massimiliano Castellazzi, Maura Pugliatti, Carlotta Giorgi, Michele Simonato, Paolo Pinton
      Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease characterized by myelin damage followed by axonal and ultimately neuronal loss. The etiology and physiopathology of MS are still elusive, and no fully effective therapy is yet available. We investigated the role in MS of autophagy (physiologically, a controlled intracellular pathway...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020078118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Meeting the unmet needs of clinicians from AI systems showcased for
           cardiology with deep-learning-based ECG analysis [Medical Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yonatan Elul; Aviv A. Rosenberg, Assaf Schuster, Alex M. Bronstein, Yael Yaniv
      Abstract: Despite their great promise, artificial intelligence (AI) systems have yet to become ubiquitous in the daily practice of medicine largely due to several crucial unmet needs of healthcare practitioners. These include lack of explanations in clinically meaningful terms, handling the presence of unknown medical conditions, and transparency regarding the system’s...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020620118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Asteroid break-ups and meteorite delivery to Earth the past 500 million
           years [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fredrik Terfelt; Birger Schmitz
      Abstract: The meteoritic material falling on Earth is believed to derive from large break-up or cratering events in the asteroid belt. The flux of extraterrestrial material would then vary in accordance with the timing of such asteroid family-forming events. In order to validate this, we investigated marine sediments representing 15 time-windows...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020977118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Toward achieving persistent behavior change in household water
           conservation [Sustainability Science]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Vivek; Deepak Malghan, Kanchan Mukherjee
      Abstract: Achieving persistence in household behavior modification has been a central but elusive goal of environmental conservation attempts that rely on behavioral interventions. We implemented a habit change intervention, designed to achieve persistent change in household water conservation behavior in an affluent residential community in urban India. We found a 15...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023014118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Cadherin puncta are interdigitated dynamic actin protrusions necessary for
           stable cadherin adhesion [Cell Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: John Xiao He Li; Vivian W. Tang, Kingsley A. Boateng, William M. Brieher
      Abstract: Cadherins harness the actin cytoskeleton to build cohesive sheets of cells using paradoxically weak bonds, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In one popular model, actin organizes cadherins into large, micrometer-sized clusters known as puncta. Myosin is thought to pull on these puncta to generate strong adhesion. Here, however,...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023510118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Measuring social equity in urban energy use and interventions using
           fine-scale data [Sustainability Science]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kangkang Tong; Anu Ramaswami, Corey (Kewei) Xu, Richard Feiock, Patrick Schmitz, Michael Ohlsen
      Abstract: Cities seek nuanced understanding of intraurban inequality in energy use, addressing both income and race, to inform equitable investment in climate actions. However, nationwide energy consumption surveys are limited (
      Keywords: Environmental Sciences, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023554118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Accurate genomic variant detection in single cells with primary
           template-directed amplification [Genetics]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Veronica Gonzalez-Pena; Sivaraman Natarajan, Yuntao Xia, David Klein, Robert Carter, Yakun Pang, Bridget Shaner, Kavya Annu, Daniel Putnam, Wenan Chen, Jon Connelly, Shondra Pruett-Miller, Xiang Chen, John Easton, Charles Gawad
      Abstract: Improvements in whole genome amplification (WGA) would enable new types of basic and applied biomedical research, including studies of intratissue genetic diversity that require more accurate single-cell genotyping. Here, we present primary template-directed amplification (PTA), an isothermal WGA method that reproducibly captures>95% of the genomes of single cells in...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024176118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • CAP1 binds and activates adenylyl cyclase in mammalian cells
           [Biochemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xuefeng Zhang; Alejandro Pizzoni, Kyoungja Hong, Nyla Naim, Chao Qi, Volodymyr Korkhov, Daniel L. Altschuler
      Abstract: CAP1 (Cyclase-Associated Protein 1) is highly conserved in evolution. Originally identified in yeast as a bifunctional protein involved in Ras-adenylyl cyclase and F-actin dynamics regulation, the adenylyl cyclase component seems to be lost in mammalian cells. Prompted by our recent identification of the Ras-like small GTPase Rap1 as a GTP-independent...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024576118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • The balance of giving versus receiving social support and all-cause
           mortality in a US national sample [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Edith Chen; Phoebe H. Lam, Eric D. Finegood, Nicholas A. Turiano, Daniel K. Mroczek, Gregory E. Miller
      Abstract: While numerous studies exist on the benefits of social support (both receiving and giving), little research exists on how the balance between the support that individuals regularly give versus that which they receive from others relates to physical health. In a US national sample of 6,325 adults from the National...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024770118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Eusociality in snapping shrimps is associated with larger genomes and an
           accumulation of transposable elements [Evolution]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Solomon T. C. Chak; Stephen E. Harris, Kristin M. Hultgren, Nicholas W. Jeffery, Dustin R. Rubenstein
      Abstract: Despite progress uncovering the genomic underpinnings of sociality, much less is known about how social living affects the genome. In different insect lineages, for example, eusocial species show both positive and negative associations between genome size and structure, highlighting the dynamic nature of the genome. Here, we explore the relationship...
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025051118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • ALS- and FTD-associated missense mutations in TBK1 differentially disrupt
           mitophagy [Cell Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Olivia Harding; Chantell S. Evans, Junqiang Ye, Jonah Cheung, Tom Maniatis, Erika L. F. Holzbaur
      Abstract: TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is a multifunctional kinase with an essential role in mitophagy, the selective clearance of damaged mitochondria. More than 90 distinct mutations in TBK1 are linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal dementia, including missense mutations that disrupt the abilities of TBK1 to dimerize, associate with...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025053118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Drivers of fatal bird collisions in an urban center [Sustainability
           Science]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Benjamin M. Van Doren; David E. Willard, Mary Hennen, Kyle G. Horton, Erica F. Stuber, Daniel Sheldon, Ashwin H. Sivakumar, Julia Wang, Andrew Farnsworth, Benjamin M. Winger
      Abstract: Millions of nocturnally migrating birds die each year from collisions with built structures, especially brightly illuminated buildings and communication towers. Reducing this source of mortality requires knowledge of important behavioral, meteorological, and anthropogenic factors, yet we lack an understanding of the interacting roles of migration, artificial lighting, and weather conditions...
      Keywords: Ecology, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101666118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • TMK1-based auxin signaling regulates abscisic acid responses via
           phosphorylating ABI1/2 in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jie Yang; Hang He, Yuming He, Qiaozhen Zheng, Qingzhong Li, Xin Feng, Pengcheng Wang, Guocheng Qin, Yangtao Gu, Ping Wu, Chao Peng, Shilei Sun, Yi Zhang, Mingzhang Wen, Rong Chen, Yang Zhao, Tongda Xu
      Abstract: Differential concentrations of phytohormone trigger distinct outputs, which provides a mechanism for the plasticity of plant development and an adaptation strategy among plants to changing environments. However, the underlying mechanisms of the differential responses remain unclear. Here we report that a high concentration of auxin, distinct from the effect of...
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102544118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Radiation-induced neoantigens broaden the immunotherapeutic window of
           cancers with low mutational loads [Immunology and Inflammation]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Danielle M. Lussier; Elise Alspach, Jeffrey P. Ward, Alexander P. Miceli, Daniele Runci, J. Michael White, Cedric Mpoy, Cora D. Arthur, Heather N. Kohlmiller, Tyler Jacks, Maxim N. Artyomov, Buck E. Rogers, Robert D. Schreiber
      Abstract: Immunotherapies are a promising advance in cancer treatment. However, because only a subset of cancer patients benefits from these treatments it is important to find mechanisms that will broaden the responding patient population. Generally, tumors with high mutational burdens have the potential to express greater numbers of mutant neoantigens. As...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102611118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus Spike protein variants
           exhibit geographic differences in virulence [Microbiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Lok-Yin Roy Wong; Jian Zheng, Alan Sariol, Shea Lowery, David K. Meyerholz, Tom Gallagher, Stanley Perlman
      Abstract: Human Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases were detected primarily in the Middle East before a major outbreak occurred in South Korea in 2015. The Korean outbreak was initiated by a single infected individual, allowing studies of virus evolution in the absence of further MERS-CoV introduction into human populations. In...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102983118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Single-cell analyses of renal cell cancers reveal insights into tumor
           

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yuping Zhang; Sathiya P. Narayanan, Rahul Mannan, Gregory Raskind, Xiaoming Wang, Pankaj Vats, Fengyun Su, Noshad Hosseini, Xuhong Cao, Chandan Kumar-Sinha, Stephanie J. Ellison, Thomas J. Giordano, Todd M. Morgan, Sethuramasundaram Pitchiaya, Ajjai Alva, Rohit Mehra, Marcin Cieslik, Saravana M. Dhanasekaran, Arul M. Chinnaiyan
      Abstract: Diverse subtypes of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) display a wide spectrum of histomorphologies, proteogenomic alterations, immune cell infiltration patterns, and clinical behavior. Delineating the cells of origin for different RCC subtypes will provide mechanistic insights into their diverse pathobiology. Here, we employed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to develop benign and...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2103240118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • STING inhibitors target the cyclic dinucleotide binding pocket [Immunology
           and Inflammation]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ze Hong; Jiahao Mei, Chenhui Li, Guohui Bai, Munire Maimaiti, Haiyang Hu, Wenying Yu, Li Sun, Lele Zhang, Dan Cheng, Yixian Liao, Senlin Li, Yanping You, Hongbin Sun, Jing Huang, Xing Liu, Judy Lieberman, Chen Wang
      Abstract: Cytosolic DNA activates cGAS (cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic AMP-GMP synthase)-STING (stimulator of interferon genes) signaling, which triggers interferon and inflammatory responses that help defend against microbial infection and cancer. However, aberrant cytosolic self-DNA in Aicardi–Goutière’s syndrome and constituently active gain-of-function mutations in STING in STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2105465118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Wang et al., TLR4/MD-2 activation by a synthetic agonist
           with no similarity to LPS [Corrections]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for “TLR4/MD-2 activation by a synthetic agonist with no similarity to LPS,” by Ying Wang, Lijing Su, Matthew D. Morin, Brian T. Jones, Landon R. Whitby, Murali M. R. P. Surakattula, Hua Huang, Hexin Shi, Jin Huk Choi, Kuan-wen Wang, Eva Marie Y. Moresco, Michael Berger,...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation, Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2106360118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Swimming in circles can lead to exotic hyperuniform states of active
           living matter [Physics]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Salvatore Torquato
      Abstract: The study of hyperuniform states of matter is an emerging multidisciplinary field, influencing and linking developments across the physical sciences, mathematics, and biology (1, 2). A hyperuniform many-particle system in d-dimensional Euclidean space is characterized by an anomalous suppression of large-scale density fluctuations relative to those in typical disordered systems,...
      Keywords: Physics, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107276118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Editorial Expression of Concern: New class of transcription factors
           controls flagellar assembly by recruiting RNA polymerase II in
           Chlamydomonas [Editorial Expression of Concern]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: CELL BIOLOGY PNAS is publishing an Editorial Expression of Concern regarding the following article: “New class of transcription factors controls flagellar assembly by recruiting RNA polymerase II in Chlamydomonas,” by Lili Li, Guangmei Tian, Hai Peng, Dan Meng, Liang Wang, Xiao Hu, Cheng Tian, Miao He, Junfei Zhou, Lihong Chen,...
      PubDate: 2021-06-07T12:05:06-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108930118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • How membrane receptors tread the fine balance between symbiosis and
           immunity signaling [Plant Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Chai Hao Chiu; Uta Paszkowski
      Abstract: Throughout their life cycle, plants have to respond appropriately to diverse microorganisms. While living alongside harmless commensals and warding off disease-causing and nutrient-seeking pathogens, plants also engage in intimate endosymbiosis with microorganisms that deliver scarce mineral nutrients. In particular, the mutually beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is prevalent...
      Keywords: Plant Biology, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:10:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2106567118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Exploring the perceptual inabilities of Eurasian jays (Garrulus
           glandarius) using magic effects [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Elias Garcia-Pelegrin; Alexandra K. Schnell, Clive Wilkins, Nicola S. Clayton
      Abstract: In recent years, scientists have begun to use magic effects to investigate the blind spots in our attention and perception [G. Kuhn, Experiencing the Impossible: The Science of Magic (2019); S. Macknik, S. Martinez-Conde, S. Blakeslee, Sleights of Mind: What the Neuroscience of Magic Reveals about Our Everyday Deceptions (2010)]....
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026106118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Intracounty modeling of COVID-19 infection with human mobility: Assessing
           spatial heterogeneity with business traffic, age, and race [Social
           Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xiao Hou; Song Gao, Qin Li, Yuhao Kang, Nan Chen, Kaiping Chen, Jinmeng Rao, Jordan S. Ellenberg, Jonathan A. Patz
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global threat presenting health, economic, and social challenges that continue to escalate. Metapopulation epidemic modeling studies in the susceptible–exposed–infectious–removed (SEIR) style have played important roles in informing public health policy making to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. These models typically rely on a key assumption...
      Keywords: Social Sciences, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-05-28T11:55:05-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020524118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Worldviews, trust, and risk perceptions shape public acceptance of
           COVID-19 public health measures [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Michael Siegrist; Angela Bearth
      Abstract: Because of the outbreak of COVID-19, most countries have implemented measures aimed at reducing the number of infected people. However, these measures only work if they are generally accepted by the public. We conducted a two-wave longitudinal survey in Switzerland (n = 1,223) to study the factors that would influence...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T11:12:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100411118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Translational shutdown and evasion of the innate immune response by
           SARS-CoV-2 NSP14 protein [Microbiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jack Chun-Chieh Hsu; Maudry Laurent-Rolle, Joanna B. Pawlak, Craig B. Wilen, Peter Cresswell
      Abstract: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented global health crisis. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19. Subversion of host protein synthesis is a common strategy that pathogenic viruses use to replicate and propagate in their host. In this study, we show that...
      Keywords: Microbiology, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-05-27T11:12:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101161118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • Faulty ribosome biogenesis underlies the ribosomopathy alopecia,
           neurological defects, endocrinopathy (ANE) syndrome [Medical Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jennifer L. Gerton
      Abstract: Most cells spend the vast majority of their energy making ribosomes, the machines that translate messenger RNA into protein. The ribosome is a tremendously elaborate machine comprising over 80 individual ribosomal proteins and four ribosomal RNAs. The biogenesis of these machines requires an additional 200 different factors. This amazing assembly...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-05-25T11:48:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107030118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • The US Department of Justice stumbles on visual perception [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Thomas D. Albright
      Abstract: A large and highly valuable category of forensic evidence consists of patterned impressions created during the perpetration of a crime. These crime scene artifacts, such as fingerprints or tire tracks, offer visual sensory information that is assessed by trained human observers and compared to sensory experiences elicited by model patterns...
      Keywords: Neuroscience, Social Sciences, Perspectives
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T12:03:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102702118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 24 (2021)
       
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY A. percula in Kimbe Bay. Image credit: Tane Sinclair-Taylor (photographer). How clownfish gain their stripes Charismatic denizens of coral reefs, clownfish are easily spotted by the sinuous white bars that lend their streamlined bodies a striped appearance. The white bars develop during metamorphosis, but the driving factors remain...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T08:55:32-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti2321118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • A reverse stroke characterizes the force generation of cardiac
           myofilaments, leading to an understanding of heart function [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yongtae Hwang; Takumi Washio, Toshiaki Hisada, Hideo Higuchi, Motoshi Kaya
      Abstract: Changes in the molecular properties of cardiac myosin strongly affect the interactions of myosin with actin that result in cardiac contraction and relaxation. However, it remains unclear how myosin molecules work together in cardiac myofilaments and which properties of the individual myosin molecules impact force production to drive cardiac contractility....
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011659118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Persistent polyamorphism in the chiton tooth: From a new biomineral to
           inks for additive manufacturing [Chemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Linus Stegbauer; Paul J. M. Smeets, Robert Free, Shay G. Wallace, Mark C. Hersam, Esen E. Alp, Derk Joester
      Abstract: Engineering structures that bridge between elements with disparate mechanical properties are a significant challenge. Organisms reap synergy by creating complex shapes that are intricately graded. For instance, the wear-resistant cusp of the chiton radula tooth works in concert with progressively softer microarchitectural units as the mollusk grazes on and erodes...
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020160118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Molecular basis of the dual role of the Mlh1-Mlh3 endonuclease in MMR and
           in meiotic crossover formation [Biochemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jingqi Dai; Aurore Sanchez, Celine Adam, Lepakshi Ranȷha, Giordano Reginato, Pierre Chervy, Carine Tellier–Lebegue, Jessica Andreani, Raphael Guerois, Virginie Ropars, Marie–Helene Le Du, Laurent Maloisel, Emmanuelle Martini, Pierre Legrand, Aurelien Thureau, Petr Ceȷka, Valerie Borde, Jean–Baptiste Charbonnier
      Abstract: In budding yeast, the MutL homolog heterodimer Mlh1-Mlh3 (MutLγ) plays a central role in the formation of meiotic crossovers. It is also involved in the repair of a subset of mismatches besides the main mismatch repair (MMR) endonuclease Mlh1-Pms1 (MutLα). The heterodimer interface and endonuclease sites of MutLγ and MutLα...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022704118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Self-adaptive and efficient propulsion of Ray sperms at different
           viscosities enabled by heterogeneous dual helixes [Engineering]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Panbing Wang; M. A. R. Al Azad, Xiong Yang, Paolo R. Martelli, Kam Yan Cheung, Jiahai Shi, Yajing Shen
      Abstract: We disclose a peculiar rotational propulsion mechanism of Ray sperms enabled by its unusual heterogeneous dual helixes with a rigid spiral head and a soft tail, named Heterogeneous Dual Helixes (HDH) model for short. Different from the conventional beating propulsion of sperm, the propulsion of Ray sperms is from both...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024329118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • TP53 missense mutations in PDAC are associated with enhanced fibrosis and
           an immunosuppressive microenvironment [Immunology and Inflammation]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Martino Maddalena; Giuseppe Mallel, Nishanth Belugali Nataraj, Michal Shreberk-Shaked, Ori Hassin, Saptaparna Mukherjee, Sharathchandra Arandkar, Ron Rotkopf, Abby Kapsack, Giuseppina Lambiase, Bianca Pellegrino, Eyal Ben-Isaac, Ofra Golani, Yoseph Addadi, Emma Hajaj, Raya Eilam, Ravid Straussman, Yosef Yarden, Michal Lotem, Moshe Oren
      Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal cancer, which is refractory to all currently available treatments and bears dismal prognosis. About 70% of all PDAC cases harbor mutations in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. Many of those are missense mutations, resulting in abundant production of mutant p53 (mutp53) protein...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025631118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Converging evidence for greater male variability in time, risk, and social
           preferences [Economic Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Christian Thoni; Stefan Volk
      Abstract: Gender differences in time, risk, and social preferences are important determinants of differential choices of men and women, with broad implications for gender-specific social and economic outcomes. To better understand the shape and form of gender differences in preferences, researchers have traditionally examined the mean differences between the two genders....
      Keywords: Economic Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026112118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Conformation and dynamics of the kinase domain drive subcellular location
           and activation of LRRK2 [Biochemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sven H. Schmidt; Jui-Hung Weng, Phillip C. Aoto, Daniela Boassa, Sebastian Mathea, Steve Silletti, Junru Hu, Maximilian Wallbott, Elizabeth A. Komives, Stefan Knapp, Friedrich W. Herberg, Susan S. Taylor
      Abstract: To explore how pathogenic mutations of the multidomain leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) hijack its finely tuned activation process and drive Parkinson’s disease (PD), we used a multitiered approach. Most mutations mimic Rab-mediated activation by “unleashing” kinase activity, and many, like the kinase inhibitor MLi-2, trap LRRK2 onto microtubules. Here...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100844118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Visualization of {beta}-adrenergic receptor dynamics and differential
           localization in cardiomyocytes [Pharmacology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Marc Bathe–Peters; Philipp Gmach, Horst–Holger Boltz, Jurgen Einsiedel, Michael Gotthardt, Harald Hubner, Peter Gmeiner, Martin J. Lohse, Paolo Annibale
      Abstract: A key question in receptor signaling is how specificity is realized, particularly when different receptors trigger the same biochemical pathway(s). A notable case is the two β‐adrenergic receptor (β‐AR) subtypes, β1 and β2, in cardiomyocytes. They are both coupled to stimulatory Gs proteins, mediate an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate...
      Keywords: Pharmacology
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101119118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • The relationship between birth timing, circuit wiring, and physiological
           response properties of cerebellar granule cells [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: S. Andrew Shuster; Mark J. Wagner, Nathan Pan-Doh, Jing Ren, Sophie M. Grutzner, Kevin T. Beier, Tony Hyun Kim, Mark J. Schnitzer, Liqun Luo
      Abstract: Cerebellar granule cells (GrCs) are usually regarded as a uniform cell type that collectively expands the coding space of the cerebellum by integrating diverse combinations of mossy fiber inputs. Accordingly, stable molecularly or physiologically defined GrC subtypes within a single cerebellar region have not been reported. The only known cellular...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101826118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Reactivation-induced motor skill learning [Psychological and Cognitive
           Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jasmine Herszage; Haggai Sharon, Nitzan Censor
      Abstract: Learning motor skills commonly requires repeated execution to achieve gains in performance. Motivated by memory reactivation frameworks predominantly originating from fear-conditioning studies in rodents, which have extended to humans, we asked the following: Could motor skill learning be achieved by brief memory reactivations' To address this question, we had participants...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102242118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Phosphate Elimination and Recovery Lightweight (PEARL) membrane: A
           sustainable environmental remediation approach [Sustainability Science]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Stephanie M. Ribet; Benjamin Shindel, Roberto dos Reis, Vikas Nandwana, Vinayak P. Dravid
      Abstract: Aqueous phosphate pollution can dramatically impact ecosystems, introducing a variety of environmental, economic, and public health problems. While novel remediation tactics based on nanoparticle binding have shown considerable promise in nutrient recovery from water, they are challenging to deploy at scale. To bridge the gap between the laboratory-scale nature of...
      Keywords: Engineering, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102583118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Periodic bouncing of a plasmonic bubble in a binary liquid by competing
           solutal and thermal Marangoni forces [Applied Physical Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Binglin Zeng; Kai Leong Chong, Yuliang Wang, Christian Diddens, Xiaolai Li, Marvin Detert, Harold J. W. Zandvliet, Detlef Lohse
      Abstract: The physicochemical hydrodynamics of bubbles and droplets out of equilibrium, in particular with phase transitions, display surprisingly rich and often counterintuitive phenomena. Here we experimentally and theoretically study the nucleation and early evolution of plasmonic bubbles in a binary liquid consisting of water and ethanol. Remarkably, the submillimeter plasmonic bubble...
      Keywords: Applied Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2103215118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Critical role of the CD44lowCD62Llow CD8+ T cell subset in restoring
           antitumor immunity in aged mice [Immunology and Inflammation]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yuka Nakajima; Kenji Chamoto, Takuma Oura, Tasuku Honjo
      Abstract: CD8+ T cells play a central role in antitumor immune responses that kill cancer cells directly. In aged individuals, CD8+ T cell immunity is strongly suppressed, which is associated with cancer and other age-related diseases. The mechanism underlying this age-related decrease in immune function remains largely unknown. This study investigated...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2103730118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Multiple deprotonation paths of the nucleophile 3'-OH in the DNA synthesis
           reaction [Biochemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mark T. Gregory; Yang Gao, Qiang Cui, Wei Yang
      Abstract: DNA synthesis by polymerases is essential for life. Deprotonation of the nucleophile 3′-OH is thought to be the obligatory first step in the DNA synthesis reaction. We have examined each entity surrounding the nucleophile 3′-OH in the reaction catalyzed by human DNA polymerase (Pol) η and delineated the deprotonation process...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2103990118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Sequence of the supernumerary B chromosome of maize provides insight into
           its drive mechanism and evolution [Genetics]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nicolas Blavet; Hua Yang, Handong Su, Pavel Solansky, Ryan N. Douglas, Miroslava Karafiatova, Lucie Šimkova, Jing Zhang, Yalin Liu, Jie Hou, Xiaowen Shi, Chen Chen, Mohamed El–Walid, Morgan E. McCaw, Patrice S. Albert, Zhi Gao, Changzeng Zhao, Gil Ben–Zvi, Lior Glick, Guy Kol, Jinghua Shi, Jan Vrana, Hana Šimkova, Jonathan C. Lamb, Kathleen Newton, R. Kelly Dawe, Jaroslav Doležel, Tieming Ji, Kobi Baruch, Jianlin Cheng, Fangpu Han, James A. Birchler, Jan Bartoš
      Abstract: B chromosomes are enigmatic elements in thousands of plant and animal genomes that persist in populations despite being nonessential. They circumvent the laws of Mendelian inheritance but the molecular mechanisms underlying this behavior remain unknown. Here we present the sequence, annotation, and analysis of the maize B chromosome providing insight...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104254118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis by the RNA binding protein
           FAM195A [Cell Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jessica Cannavino; Mengle Shao, Yu A. An, Svetlana Bezprozvannaya, Shiuhwei Chen, Jiwoong Kim, Lin Xu, John R. McAnally, Philipp E. Scherer, Ning Liu, Rana K. Gupta, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N. Olson
      Abstract: Homeothermic vertebrates produce heat in cold environments through thermogenesis, in which brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases mitochondrial oxidation along with uncoupling of the electron transport chain and activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Although the transcription factors regulating the expression of UCP1 and nutrient oxidation genes have been extensively studied,...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104650118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • AP-1 is a temporally regulated dual gatekeeper of reprogramming to
           pluripotency [Cell Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Glenn J. Markov; Thach Mai, Surag Nair, Anna Shcherbina, Yu Xin Wang, David M. Burns, Anshul Kundaje, Helen M. Blau
      Abstract: Somatic cell transcription factors are critical to maintaining cellular identity and constitute a barrier to human somatic cell reprogramming; yet a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of action is lacking. To gain insight, we examined epigenome remodeling at the onset of human nuclear reprogramming by profiling human fibroblasts after fusion...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-04T11:50:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104841118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • CO2 reduction on pure Cu produces only H2 after subsurface O is depleted:
           Theory and experiment [Sustainability Science]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Guiji Liu; Michelle Lee, Soonho Kwon, Guosong Zeng, Johanna Eichhorn, Aya K. Buckley, F. Dean Toste, William A. Goddard III, Francesca M. Toma
      Abstract: We elucidate the role of subsurface oxygen on the production of C2 products from CO2 reduction over Cu electrocatalysts using the newly developed grand canonical potential kinetics density functional theory method, which predicts that the rate of C2 production on pure Cu with no O is ∼500 times slower than...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012649118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Developmental influence on evolutionary rates and the origin of placental
           mammal tooth complexity [Evolution]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Aidan M. C. Couzens; Karen E. Sears, Martin Rucklin
      Abstract: Development has often been viewed as a constraining force on morphological adaptation, but its precise influence, especially on evolutionary rates, is poorly understood. Placental mammals provide a classic example of adaptive radiation, but the debate around rate and drivers of early placental evolution remains contentious. A hallmark of early dental...
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019294118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Genomics-informed models reveal extensive stretches of coastline under
           threat by an ecologically dominant invasive species [Evolution]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jamie Hudson; Juan Carlos Castilla, Peter R. Teske, Luciano B. Beheregaray, Ivan D. Haigh, Christopher D. McQuaid, Marc Rius
      Abstract: Explaining why some species are widespread, while others are not, is fundamental to biogeography, ecology, and evolutionary biology. A unique way to study evolutionary and ecological mechanisms that either limit species’ spread or facilitate range expansions is to conduct research on species that have restricted distributions. Nonindigenous species, particularly those...
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022169118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • A catalog of tens of thousands of viruses from human metagenomes reveals
           hidden associations with chronic diseases [Microbiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Michael J. Tisza; Christopher B. Buck
      Abstract: Despite remarkable strides in microbiome research, the viral component of the microbiome has generally presented a more challenging target than the bacteriome. This gap persists, even though many thousands of shotgun sequencing runs from human metagenomic samples exist in public databases, and all of them encompass large amounts of viral...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023202118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Dopaminergic neuromodulation of prefrontal cortex activity requires the
           NMDA receptor coagonist d-serine [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Glenn Dallerac; Xia Li, Pierre Lecouflet, Nadege Morisot, Silvia Sacchi, Rachel Asselot, Thu Ha Pham, Brigitte Potier, David J. G. Watson, Staffan Schmidt, Gregoire Levasseur, Pascal Fossat, Andrey Besedin, Jean–Michel Rivet, Joseph T. Coyle, Ginetta Collo, Loredano Pollegioni, Jan Kehr, Micaela Galante, Kevin C. Fone, Alain M. Gardier, Thomas Freret, Angelo Contarino, Mark J. Millan, Jean–Pierre Mothet
      Abstract: Prefrontal control of cognitive functions critically depends upon glutamatergic transmission and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, the activity of which is regulated by dopamine. Yet whether the NMDA receptor coagonist d-serine is implicated in the dopamine–glutamate dialogue in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and other brain areas remains unexplored. Here, using electrophysiological...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023750118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • The Rhox gene cluster suppresses germline LINE1 transposition [Genetics]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kun Tan; Matthew E. Kim, Hye-Won Song, David Skarbrevik, Eric Babajanian, Tracy A. Bedrosian, Fred H. Gage, Miles F. Wilkinson
      Abstract: Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile sequences that engender widespread mutations and thus are a major hazard that must be silenced. The most abundant active class of TEs in mammalian genomes is long interspersed element class 1 (LINE1). Here, we report that LINE1 transposition is suppressed in the male germline by...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024785118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • LRRC8A-containing chloride channel is crucial for cell volume recovery and
           survival under hypertonic conditions [Physiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Selma A. Serra; Predrag Stoȷakovic, Ramon Amat, Fanny Rubio–Moscardo, Pablo Latorre, Gerhard Seisenbacher, David Canadell, Rene Bottcher, Michael Aregger, Jason Moffat, Eulalia de Nadal, Miguel A. Valverde, Francesc Posas
      Abstract: Regulation of cell volume is essential for tissue homeostasis and cell viability. In response to hypertonic stress, cells need rapid electrolyte influx to compensate water loss and to prevent cell death in a process known as regulatory volume increase (RVI). However, the molecular component able to trigger such a process...
      Keywords: Physiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025013118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Monitoring war destruction from space using machine learning [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hannes Mueller; Andre Groeger, Jonathan Hersh, Andrea Matranga, Joan Serrat
      Abstract: Existing data on building destruction in conflict zones rely on eyewitness reports or manual detection, which makes it generally scarce, incomplete, and potentially biased. This lack of reliable data imposes severe limitations for media reporting, humanitarian relief efforts, human-rights monitoring, reconstruction initiatives, and academic studies of violent conflict. This article...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Political Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025400118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • A combination of Class-I fumarases and metabolites ({alpha}-ketoglutarate
           and fumarate) signal the DNA damage response in Escherichia coli
           [Microbiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yardena Silas; Esti Singer, Koyeli Das, Norbert Lehming, Ophry Pines
      Abstract: Class-II fumarases (fumarate hydratase, FH) are dual-targeted enzymes occurring in the mitochondria and cytosol of all eukaryotes. They are essential components in the DNA damage response (DDR) and, more specifically, protect cells from DNA double-strand breaks. Similarly, the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis class-II fumarase, in addition to its role in...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026595118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Structure and function at the lipid-protein interface of a pentameric
           ligand-gated ion channel [Physiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Pramod Kumar; Gisela D. Cymes, Claudio Grosman
      Abstract: Although it has long been proposed that membrane proteins may contain tightly bound lipids, their identity, the structure of their binding sites, and their functional and structural relevance have remained elusive. To some extent, this is because tightly bound lipids are often located at the periphery of proteins, where the...
      Keywords: Physiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100164118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Spatial distribution of LTi-like cells in intestinal mucosa regulates type
           3 innate immunity [Immunology and Inflammation]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Cristiane Secca; Jennifer K. Bando, Jose L. Fachi, Susan Gilfillan, Vincent Peng, Blanda Di Luccia, Marina Cella, Keely G. McDonald, Rodney D. Newberry, Marco Colonna
      Abstract: Lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi)-like cells are tissue resident innate lymphocytes that rapidly secrete cytokines that promote gut epithelial integrity and protect against extracellular bacterial infections.Here, we report that the retention of LTi-like cells in conventional solitary intestinal lymphoid tissue (SILT) is essential for controlling LTi-like cell function and is maintained...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101668118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Temporal integration of inductive cues on the way to gastrulation
           [Developmental Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sarah McFann; Sayantan Dutta, Jared E. Toettcher, Stanislav Y. Shvartsman
      Abstract: Markers for the endoderm and mesoderm germ layers are commonly expressed together in the early embryo, potentially reflecting cells’ ability to explore potential fates before fully committing. It remains unclear when commitment to a single-germ layer is reached and how it is impacted by external signals. Here, we address this...
      Keywords: Developmental Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102691118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Coevolutionary phage training leads to greater bacterial suppression and
           delays the evolution of phage resistance [Evolution]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Joshua M. Borin; Sarit Avrani, Jeffrey E. Barrick, Katherine L. Petrie, Justin R. Meyer
      Abstract: The evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria threatens to become the leading cause of worldwide mortality. This crisis has renewed interest in the practice of phage therapy. Yet, bacteria’s capacity to evolve resistance may debilitate this therapy as well. To combat the evolution of phage resistance and improve treatment outcomes, many suggest...
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104592118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Knowledge extraction and transfer in data-driven fracture mechanics
           [Engineering]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xing Liu; Christos E. Athanasiou, Nitin P. Padture, Brian W. Sheldon, Huajian Gao
      Abstract: Data-driven approaches promise to usher in a new phase of development in fracture mechanics, but very little is currently known about how data-driven knowledge extraction and transfer can be accomplished in this field. As in many other fields, data scarcity presents a major challenge for knowledge extraction, and knowledge transfer...
      Keywords: Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104765118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • QnAs with Clare M. Waterman [QnAs]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sandeep Ravindran
      Abstract: The directional movement of cells is important in many physiological processes, and dysregulation of this process can result in metastatic cancer as well as vascular and immune diseases. Clare M. Waterman has spent her career elucidating the cytoskeletal dynamics mediating the process of cell migration. Among other contributions to the...
      Keywords: QnAs, QnAs
      PubDate: 2021-06-03T11:11:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107569118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Glia-derived temporal signals orchestrate neurogenesis in the Drosophila
           mushroom body [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Mengying Yang; Honglei Wang, Changyan Chen, Shiping Zhang, Mengxiao Wang, Bhagyashree Senapati, Shuhua Li, Shuanglong Yi, Linfang Wang, Min Zhang, Shuai Yin, Yijing He, Lei Xue, Suewei Lin, Margaret S. Ho
      Abstract: Intrinsic mechanisms such as temporal series of transcription factors orchestrate neurogenesis from a limited number of neural progenitors in the brain. Extrinsic regulations, however, remain largely unexplored. Here we describe a two-step glia-derived signal that regulates neurogenesis in the Drosophila mushroom body (MB). In a temporal manner, glial-specific ubiquitin ligase...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T11:09:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020098118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Tumors overcome the action of the wasting factor ImpL2 by locally
           elevating Wnt/Wingless [Developmental Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jiae Lee; Katelyn G.-L. Ng, Kenneth M. Dombek, Dae Seok Eom, Young V. Kwon
      Abstract: Tumors often secrete wasting factors associated with atrophy and the degeneration of host tissues. If tumors were to be affected by the wasting factors, mechanisms allowing tumors to evade the adverse effects of the wasting factors must exist, and impairing such mechanisms may attenuate tumors. We use Drosophila midgut tumor...
      Keywords: Developmental Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T11:09:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020120118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Elite rhetoric can undermine democratic norms [Political Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Katherine Clayton; Nicholas T. Davis, Brendan Nyhan, Ethan Porter, Timothy J. Ryan, Thomas J. Wood
      Abstract: Democratic stability depends on citizens on the losing side accepting election outcomes. Can rhetoric by political leaders undermine this norm' Using a panel survey experiment, we evaluate the effects of exposure to multiple statements from former president Donald Trump attacking the legitimacy of the 2020 US presidential election. Although exposure...
      Keywords: Political Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T11:09:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024125118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Mitochondria-dependent synthetic small-molecule vaccine adjuvants for
           influenza virus infection [Immunology and Inflammation]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fumi Sato-Kaneko; Shiyin Yao, Fitzgerald S. Lao, Jason Nan, Jonathan Shpigelman, Annette Cheng, Tetsuya Saito, Karen Messer, Minya Pu, Nikunj M. Shukla, Howard B. Cottam, Michael Chan, Anthony J. Molina, Maripat Corr, Tomoko Hayashi, Dennis A. Carson
      Abstract: Vaccine adjuvants enhance and prolong pathogen-specific protective immune responses. Recent reports indicate that host factors—such as aging, pregnancy, and genetic polymorphisms—influence efficacies of vaccines adjuvanted with Toll-like receptor (TLR) or known pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) agonists. Although PRR independent adjuvants (e.g., oil-in-water emulsion and saponin) are emerging, these adjuvants induce some...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T11:09:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025718118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • High-throughput developability assays enable library-scale identification
           of producible protein scaffold variants [Applied Biological Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Alexander W. Golinski; Katelynn M. Mischler, Sidharth Laxminarayan, Nicole L. Neurock, Matthew Fossing, Hannah Pichman, Stefano Martiniani, Benjamin J. Hackel
      Abstract: Proteins require high developability—quantified by expression, solubility, and stability—for robust utility as therapeutics, diagnostics, and in other biotechnological applications. Measuring traditional developability metrics is low throughput in nature, often slowing the developmental pipeline. We evaluated the ability of 10 variations of three high-throughput developability assays to predict the bacterial recombinant...
      Keywords: Applied Biological Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T11:09:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026658118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • News Feature: Keeping Black students in STEM [Social Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Melissa Suran
      Abstract: For years, STEM programs have tried to attract Black grads and undergrads. There’s a new push to retain these students—and emulate the university program that seems to have had the most success. The science curriculum at Akeema Onalaja’s high school in South Los Angeles, CA, ended with biology. Yet she...
      Keywords: News Features, Medical Sciences, Social Sciences, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2021-06-02T11:09:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108401118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Temporal regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits supports
           central cholinergic synapse development in Drosophila [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Justin S. Rosenthal; Jun Yin, Jingce Lei, Anupama Sathyamurthy, Jacob Short, Caixia Long, Emma Spillman, Chengyu Sheng, Quan Yuan
      Abstract: The construction and maturation of the postsynaptic apparatus are crucial for synapse and dendrite development. The fundamental mechanisms underlying these processes are most often studied in glutamatergic central synapses in vertebrates. Whether the same principles apply to excitatory cholinergic synapses, such as those found in the insect central nervous system,...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004685118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Genetic and molecular determinants of polymicrobial interactions in
           Fusobacterium nucleatum [Microbiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Chenggang Wu; Yi-Wei Chen, Matthew Scheible, Chungyu Chang, Manuel Wittchen, Ju Huck Lee, Truc T. Luong, Bethany L. Tiner, Andreas Tauch, Asis Das, Hung Ton-That
      Abstract: A gram-negative colonizer of the oral cavity, Fusobacterium nucleatum not only interacts with many pathogens in the oral microbiome but also has the ability to spread to extraoral sites including placenta and amniotic fluid, promoting preterm birth. To date, however, the molecular mechanism of interspecies interactions—termed coaggregation—by F. nucleatum and...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006482118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • A minimally disruptive method for measuring water potential in planta
           using hydrogel nanoreporters [Physiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Piyush Jain; Weizhen Liu, Siyu Zhu, Christine Yao-Yun Chang, Jeff Melkonian, Fulton E. Rockwell, Duke Pauli, Ying Sun, Warren R. Zipfel, N. Michele Holbrook, Susan Jean Riha, Michael A. Gore, Abraham D. Stroock
      Abstract: Leaf water potential is a critical indicator of plant water status, integrating soil moisture status, plant physiology, and environmental conditions. There are few tools for measuring plant water status (water potential) in situ, presenting a critical barrier for developing appropriate phenotyping (measurement) methods for crop development and modeling efforts aimed...
      Keywords: Engineering, Physiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008276118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • SETD2-mediated H3K14 trimethylation promotes ATR activation and stalled
           replication fork restart in response to DNA replication stress
           [Biochemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Qian Zhu; Qiaoyan Yang, Xiaopeng Lu, Hui Wang, Lili Tong, Zheng Li, Ge Liu, Yantao Bao, Xingzhi Xu, Luo Gu, Jian Yuan, Xiangyu Liu, Wei-Guo Zhu
      Abstract: Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) activation after replication stress involves a cascade of reactions, including replication protein A (RPA) complex loading onto single-stranded DNA and ATR activator loading onto chromatin. The contribution of histone modifications to ATR activation, however, is unclear. Here, we report that H3K14 trimethylation responds to...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011278118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • “Soft” oxidative coupling of methane to ethylene: Mechanistic insights
           from combined experiment and theory [Chemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shanfu Liu; Sagar Udyavara, Chi Zhang, Matthias Peter, Tracy L. Lohr, Vinayak P. Dravid, Matthew Neurock, Tobin J. Marks
      Abstract: The oxidative coupling of methane to ethylene using gaseous disulfur (2CH4 + S2 → C2H4 + 2H2S) as an oxidant (SOCM) proceeds with promising selectivity. Here, we report detailed experimental and theoretical studies that examine the mechanism for the conversion of CH4 to C2H4 over an Fe3O4-derived FeS2 catalyst achieving...
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012666118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Attention bias modification in drug addiction: Enhancing control of
           subsequent habits [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Muhammad A. Parvaz; Pias Malaker, Anna Zilverstand, Scott J. Moeller, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z. Goldstein
      Abstract: A relapse in addiction is often precipitated by heightened attention bias to drug-related cues, underpinned by a subcortically mediated transition to habitual/automatized responding and reduced prefrontal control. Modification of such automatized attention bias is a fundamental, albeit elusive, target for relapse reduction. Here, on a trial-by-trial basis, we used electroencephalography...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012941118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Generation of ordered protein assemblies using rigid three-body fusion
           [Biochemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ivan Vulovic; Qing Yao, Young–Jun Park, Alexis Courbet, Andrew Norris, Florian Busch, Aniruddha Sahasrabuddhe, Hannes Merten, Danny D. Sahtoe, George Ueda, Jorge A. Fallas, Sara J. Weaver, Yang Hsia, Robert A. Langan, Andreas Pluckthun, Vicki H. Wysocki, David Veesler, Grant J. Jensen, David Baker
      Abstract: Protein nanomaterial design is an emerging discipline with applications in medicine and beyond. A long-standing design approach uses genetic fusion to join protein homo-oligomer subunits via α-helical linkers to form more complex symmetric assemblies, but this method is hampered by linker flexibility and a dearth of geometric solutions. Here, we...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015037118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Significant impact of forcing uncertainty in a large ensemble of climate
           model simulations [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: John C. Fyfe; Viatcheslav V. Kharin, Benjamin D. Santer, Jason N. S. Cole, Nathan P. Gillett
      Abstract: Forcing due to solar and volcanic variability, on the natural side, and greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions, on the anthropogenic side, are the main inputs to climate models. Reliable climate model simulations of past and future climate change depend crucially upon them. Here we analyze large ensembles of simulations using...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016549118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • NAD(H)-mediated tetramerization controls the activity of Legionella
           pneumophila phospholipase PlaB [Microbiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Maurice Diwo; Wiebke Michel, Philipp Aurass, Katja Kuhle-Keindorf, Jan Pippel, Joern Krausze, Sabrina Wamp, Christina Lang, Wulf Blankenfeldt, Antje Flieger
      Abstract: The virulence factor PlaB promotes lung colonization, tissue destruction, and intracellular replication of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease. It is a highly active phospholipase exposed at the bacterial surface and shows an extraordinary activation mechanism by tetramer deoligomerization. To unravel the molecular basis for enzyme activation and...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017046118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Neurophysiological coordination of duet singing [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Melissa J. Coleman; Nancy F. Day, Pamela Rivera-Parra, Eric S. Fortune
      Abstract: Coordination of behavior for cooperative performances often relies on linkages mediated by sensory cues exchanged between participants. How neurophysiological responses to sensory information affect motor programs to coordinate behavior between individuals is not known. We investigated how plain-tailed wrens (Pheugopedius euophrys) use acoustic feedback to coordinate extraordinary duet performances in...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018188118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Paleo-ENSO influence on African environments and early modern humans
           [Anthropology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Stefanie Kaboth–Bahr; William D. Gosling, Ralf Vogelsang, Andre Bahr, Eleanor M. L. Scerri, Asfawossen Asrat, Andrew S. Cohen, Walter Dusing, Verena Foerster, Henry F. Lamb, Mark A. Maslin, Helen M. Roberts, Frank Schabitz, Martin H. Trauth
      Abstract: In this study, we synthesize terrestrial and marine proxy records, spanning the past 620 ky, to decipher pan-African climate variability and its drivers and potential linkages to hominin evolution. We find a tight correlation between moisture availability across Africa to El Niño Southern Ocean oscillation (ENSO) variability, a manifestation of...
      Keywords: Anthropology, Environmental Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018277118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Overconfidence in news judgments is associated with false news
           susceptibility [Political Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Benjamin A. Lyons; Jacob M. Montgomery, Andrew M. Guess, Brendan Nyhan, Jason Reifler
      Abstract: We examine the role of overconfidence in news judgment using two large nationally representative survey samples. First, we show that three in four Americans overestimate their relative ability to distinguish between legitimate and false news headlines; respondents place themselves 22 percentiles higher than warranted on average. This overconfidence is, in...
      Keywords: Political Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019527118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Mitochondrial apoptotic priming is a key determinant of cell fate upon p53
           restoration [Cell Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Francisco J. Sanchez–Rivera; Jeremy Ryan, Yadira M. Soto–Feliciano, Mary Clare Beytagh, Lucius Xuan, David M. Feldser, Michael T. Hemann, Jesse Zamudio, Nadya Dimitrova, Anthony Letai, Tyler Jacks
      Abstract: Reactivation of p53 in established tumors typically results in one of two cell fates, cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, but it remains unclear how this cell fate is determined. We hypothesized that high mitochondrial priming prior to p53 reactivation would lead to apoptosis, while low priming would lead to survival...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019740118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Biosynthesis of fosfomycin in pseudomonads reveals an unexpected enzymatic
           activity in the metallohydrolase superfamily [Chemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Max A. Simon; Chayanid Ongpipattanakul, Satish K. Nair, Wilfred A. van der Donk
      Abstract: The epoxide-containing phosphonate natural product fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used in the treatment of cystitis. Fosfomycin is produced by both the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and soil-dwelling streptomycetes. While the streptomycete pathway has recently been fully elucidated, the pseudomonad pathway is still mostly elusive. Through a systematic evaluation of...
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019863118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Tungsten-182 evidence for an ancient kimberlite source [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Nao Nakanishi; Andrea Giuliani, Richard W. Carlson, Mary F. Horan, Jon Woodhead, D. Graham Pearson, Richard J. Walker
      Abstract: Globally distributed kimberlites with broadly chondritic initial 143Nd-176Hf isotopic systematics may be derived from a chemically homogenous, relatively primitive mantle source that remained isolated from the convecting mantle for much of the Earth’s history. To assess whether this putative reservoir may have preserved remnants of an early Earth process, we...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020680118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Neural basis of opioid-induced respiratory depression and its rescue
           [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shijia Liu; Dong-Il Kim, Tae Gyu Oh, Gerald M. Pao, Jong-Hyun Kim, Richard D. Palmiter, Matthew R. Banghart, Kuo-Fen Lee, Ronald M. Evans, Sung Han
      Abstract: Opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) causes death following an opioid overdose, yet the neurobiological mechanisms of this process are not well understood. Here, we show that neurons within the lateral parabrachial nucleus that express the µ-opioid receptor (PBLOprm1 neurons) are involved in OIRD pathogenesis. PBLOprm1 neuronal activity is tightly correlated with...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022134118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Segregation, integration, and balance of large-scale resting brain
           networks configure different cognitive abilities [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rong Wang; Mianxin Liu, Xinhong Cheng, Ying Wu, Andrea Hildebrandt, Changsong Zhou
      Abstract: Diverse cognitive processes set different demands on locally segregated and globally integrated brain activity. However, it remains an open question how resting brains configure their functional organization to balance the demands on network segregation and integration to best serve cognition. Here we use an eigenmode-based approach to identify hierarchical modules...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022288118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Tryptophanemia is controlled by a tryptophan-sensing mechanism
           ubiquitinating tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase [Biochemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Simon Klaessens; Vincent Stroobant, Delia Hoffmann, Mads Gyrd-Hansen, Luc Pilotte, Nathalie Vigneron, Etienne De Plaen, Benoit J. Van den Eynde
      Abstract: Maintaining stable tryptophan levels is required to control neuronal and immune activity. We report that tryptophan homeostasis is largely controlled by the stability of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), the hepatic enzyme responsible for tryptophan catabolism. High tryptophan levels stabilize the active tetrameric conformation of TDO through binding noncatalytic exosites, resulting in...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022447118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • A CO2 greenhouse efficiently warmed the early Earth and decreased seawater
           18O/16O before the onset of plate tectonics [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel Herwartz; Andreas Pack, Thorsten J. Nagel
      Abstract: The low 18O/16O stable isotope ratios (δ18O) of ancient chemical sediments imply ∼70 °C Archean oceans if the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater (sw) was similar to modern values. Models suggesting lower δ18Osw of Archean seawater due to intense continental weathering and/or low degrees of hydrothermal alteration are inconsistent with...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023617118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Sexual fate of murine external genitalia development: Conserved
           transcriptional competency for male-biased genes in both sexes
           [Developmental Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daiki Kajioka; Kentaro Suzuki, Shoko Matsushita, Shinjiro Hino, Tetsuya Sato, Shuji Takada, Kyoichi Isono, Toru Takeo, Mizuki Kajimoto, Naomi Nakagata, Mitsuyoshi Nakao, Mikita Suyama, Tony DeFalco, Shinichi Miyagawa, Gen Yamada
      Abstract: Testicular androgen is a master endocrine factor in the establishment of external genital sex differences. The degree of androgenic exposure during development is well known to determine the fate of external genitalia on a spectrum of female- to male-specific phenotypes. However, the mechanisms of androgenic regulation underlying sex differentiation are...
      Keywords: Developmental Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024067118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Kruppel-like factor 6-mediated loss of BCAA catabolism contributes to
           kidney inȷury in mice and humans [Medical Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Sian E. Piret; Yiqing Guo, Ahmed A. Attallah, Sylvia J. Horne, Amy Zollman, Daniel Owusu, Justina Henein, Viktoriya S. Sidorenko, Monica P. Revelo, Takashi Hato, Avi Ma’ayan, John Ciȷiang He, Sandeep K. Mallipattu
      Abstract: Altered cellular metabolism in kidney proximal tubule (PT) cells plays a critical role in acute kidney injury (AKI). The transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is rapidly and robustly induced early in the PT after AKI. We found that PT-specific Klf6 knockdown (Klf6PTKD) is protective against AKI and kidney fibrosis...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024414118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • ALS-linked PFN1 variants exhibit loss and gain of functions in the context
           of formin-induced actin polymerization [Biophysics and Computational
           Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Eric J. Schmidt; Salome Funes, Jeanne E. McKeon, Brittany R. Morgan, Sivakumar Boopathy, Lauren C. O’Connor, Osman Bilsel, Francesca Massi, Antoine Jegou, Daryl A. Bosco
      Abstract: Profilin-1 (PFN1) plays important roles in modulating actin dynamics through binding both monomeric actin and proteins enriched with polyproline motifs. Mutations in PFN1 have been linked to the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, whether ALS-linked mutations affect PFN1 function has remained unclear. To address this question, we employed...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024605118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Cell-type-specific, multicolor labeling of endogenous proteins with split
           fluorescent protein tags in Drosophila [Cell Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rie Kamiyama; Kota Banzai, Peiwei Liu, Abhijit Marar, Ryo Tamura, Fangchao Jiang, Miyuki A. Fitch, Jin Xie, Daichi Kamiyama
      Abstract: The impact of the Drosophila experimental system on studies of modern biology cannot be understated. The ability to tag endogenously expressed proteins is essential to maximize the use of this model organism. Here, we describe a method for labeling endogenous proteins with self-complementing split fluorescent proteins (split FPs) in a...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024690118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Early Holocene greening of the Sahara requires Mediterranean winter
           rainfall [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Rachid Cheddadi; Matthieu Carre, Maȷda Nourelbait, Louis Francois, Ali Rhouȷȷati, Roger Manay, Diana Ochoa, Enno Schefuss
      Abstract: The greening of the Sahara, associated with the African Humid Period (AHP) between ca. 14,500 and 5,000 y ago, is arguably the largest climate-induced environmental change in the Holocene; it is usually explained by the strengthening and northward expansion of the African monsoon in response to orbital forcing. However, the...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024898118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • High-resolution asymmetric structure of a Fab-virus complex reveals
           overlap with the receptor binding site [Microbiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel J. Goetschius; Samantha R. Hartmann, Lindsey J. Organtini, Heather Callaway, Kai Huang, Carol M. Bator, Robert E. Ashley, Alexander M. Makhov, James F. Conway, Colin R. Parrish, Susan L. Hafenstein
      Abstract: Canine parvovirus is an important pathogen causing severe diseases in dogs, including acute hemorrhagic enteritis, myocarditis, and cerebellar disease. Overlap on the surface of parvovirus capsids between the antigenic epitope and the receptor binding site has contributed to cross-species transmission, giving rise to closely related variants. It has been shown...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025452118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Models of marine protected areas must explicitly address spatial dynamics
           [Biological Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniel Ovando; Owen Liu, Renato Molina, Cody Szuwalski
      Abstract: We agree with three broad points raised by Cabral et al. (1): 1) Marine protected areas (MPAs) can play an important role in conservation and food security, 2) much of the high seas could be closed to fishing without substantially reducing global catch, and 3) much of the potential food...
      Keywords: Ecology, Letters, Letters and Replies, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025958118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • A phage mechanism for selective nicking of dUMP-containing DNA
           [Microbiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tridib Mahata; Shahar Molshanski-Mor, Moran G. Goren, Biswanath Jana, Miriam Kohen-Manor, Ido Yosef, Oren Avram, Tal Pupko, Dor Salomon, Udi Qimron
      Abstract: Bacteriophages (phages) have evolved efficient means to take over the machinery of the bacterial host. The molecular tools at their disposal may be applied to manipulate bacteria and to divert molecular pathways at will. Here, we describe a bacterial growth inhibitor, gene product T5.015, encoded by the T5 phage. High-throughput...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026354118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Iron robbery by intracellular pathogen via bacterial effector-induced
           ferritinophagy [Microbiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Qi Yan; Wenqing Zhang, Mingqun Lin, Omid Teymournejad, Khemraj Budachetri, Jeffrey Lakritz, Yasuko Rikihisa
      Abstract: Iron is essential for survival and proliferation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes an emerging zoonosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis. However, how Ehrlichia acquires iron in the host cells is poorly understood. Here, we found that native and recombinant (cloned into the Ehrlichia genome) Ehrlichia translocated factor-3 (Etf-3),...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026598118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Differential immune imprinting by influenza virus vaccination and
           infection in nonhuman primates [Immunology and Inflammation]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kevin R. McCarthy; Tarra A. Von Holle, Laura L. Sutherland, Thomas H. Oguin III, Gregory D. Sempowski, Stephen C. Harrison, M. Anthony Moody
      Abstract: Immune memory of a first infection with influenza virus establishes a lasting imprint. Recall of that memory dominates the response to later infections or vaccinations by antigenically drifted strains. Early childhood immunization before infection may leave an imprint with different characteristics. We report here a comparison of imprinting by vaccination...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026752118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Optics and neural adaptation jointly limit human stereovision
           [Neuroscience]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Cherlyn J. Ng; Randolph Blake, Martin S. Banks, Duje Tadin, Geunyoung Yoon
      Abstract: Stereovision is the ability to perceive fine depth variations from small differences in the two eyes’ images. Using adaptive optics, we show that even minute optical aberrations that are not clinically correctable, and go unnoticed in everyday vision, can affect stereo acuity. Hence, the human binocular system is capable of...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100126118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Reply to Ovando et al.: How connected are global fisheries'
           [Biological Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Reniel B. Cabral; Darcy Bradley, Juan Mayorga, Whitney Goodell, Alan M. Friedlander, Enric Sala, Christopher Costello, Steven D. Gaines
      Abstract: We agree with Ovando et al. (1) that the spatial structure and connectivity of fish populations will have important implications for the spatial distribution of spillover benefits from marine protected areas (MPAs). The key assumption we made—that populations are well mixed throughout their geographic range—is indeed a heroic one, but...
      Keywords: Ecology, Letters, Letters and Replies, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100364118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis unmasks recessive insecticide
           resistance in the aphid Myzus persicae [Evolution]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Michela Panini; Olga Chiesa, Bartlomiej J. Troczka, Mark Mallott, Gian Carlo Manicardi, Stefano Cassanelli, Filippo Cominelli, Alex Hayward, Emanuele Mazzoni, Chris Bass
      Abstract: The evolution of resistance to insecticides threatens the sustainable control of many of the world’s most damaging insect crop pests and disease vectors. To effectively combat resistance, it is important to understand its underlying genetic architecture, including the type and number of genetic variants affecting resistance and their interactions with...
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100559118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Structures suggest an approach for converting weak self-peptide tumor
           antigens into superagonists for CD8 T cells in cancer [Immunology and
           Inflammation]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Pengcheng Wei; Kimberly R. Jordan, Jonathan D. Buhrman, Jun Lei, Hexiang Deng, Philippa Marrack, Shaodong Dai, John W. Kappler, Jill E. Slansky, Lei Yin
      Abstract: Tumors frequently express unmutated self-tumor–associated antigens (self-TAAs). However, trial results using self-TAAs as vaccine targets against cancer are mixed, often attributed to deletion of T cells with high-affinity receptors (TCRs) for self-TAAs during T cell development. Mutating these weak self-TAAs to produce higher affinity, effective vaccines is challenging, since the...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100588118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Copper binding by a unique family of metalloproteins is dependent on
           kynurenine formation [Biochemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anastasia C. Manesis; Richard J. Jodts, Brian M. Hoffman, Amy C. Rosenzweig
      Abstract: Some methane-oxidizing bacteria use the ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified natural product methanobactin (Mbn) to acquire copper for their primary metabolic enzyme, particulate methane monooxygenase. The operons encoding the machinery to biosynthesize and transport Mbns typically include genes for two proteins, MbnH and MbnP, which are also found as a pair...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100680118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • The effect of mass shootings on daily emotions is limited by time,
           geographic proximity, and political affiliation [Social Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Patrick Sharkey; Yinzhi Shen
      Abstract: Media coverage in the aftermath of mass shootings frequently documents expressions of sadness and outrage shared by millions of Americans. This type of collective emotion can be a powerful force in establishing shared objectives and motivating political actions. Yet, the rise in mass shootings has not translated into widespread legislative...
      Keywords: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100846118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Periscope Proteins are variable-length regulators of bacterial cell
           surface interactions [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Fiona Whelan; Aleix Lafita, James Gilburt, Clement Degut, Samuel C. Griffiths, Huw T. Jenkins, Alexander N. St John, Emanuele Paci, James W. B. Moir, Michael J. Plevin, Christoph G. Baumann, Alex Bateman, Jennifer R. Potts
      Abstract: Changes at the cell surface enable bacteria to survive in dynamic environments, such as diverse niches of the human host. Here, we reveal “Periscope Proteins” as a widespread mechanism of bacterial surface alteration mediated through protein length variation. Tandem arrays of highly similar folded domains can form an elongated rod-like...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101349118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Evolution of single gyroid photonic crystals in bird feathers [Applied
           Physical Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Vinodkumar Saranathan; Suresh Narayanan, Alec Sandy, Eric R. Dufresne, Richard O. Prum
      Abstract: Vivid, saturated structural colors are conspicuous and important features of many animals. A rich diversity of three-dimensional periodic photonic nanostructures is found in the chitinaceous exoskeletons of invertebrates. Three-dimensional photonic nanostructures have been described in bird feathers, but they are typically quasi-ordered. Here, we report bicontinuous single gyroid β-keratin and...
      Keywords: Applied Physical Sciences, Evolution, Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101357118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Petrographic carbon in ancient sediments constrains Proterozoic Era
           atmospheric oxygen levels [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Don E. Canfield; Mark A. van Zuilen, Sami Nabhan, Christian J. Bjerrum, Shuichang Zhang, Huajian Wang, Xiaomei Wang
      Abstract: Oxygen concentration defines the chemical structure of Earth's ecosystems while it also fuels the metabolism of aerobic organisms. As different aerobes have different oxygen requirements, the evolution of oxygen levels through time has likely impacted both environmental chemistry and the history of life. Understanding the relationship between atmospheric oxygen levels,...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101544118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Identifying the origin of local flexibility in a carbohydrate polymer
           [Chemistry]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kelvin Anggara; Yuntao Zhu, Giulio Fittolani, Yang Yu, Theodore Tyrikos-Ergas, Martina Delbianco, Stephan Rauschenbach, Sabine Abb, Peter H. Seeberger, Klaus Kern
      Abstract: Correlating the structures and properties of a polymer to its monomer sequence is key to understanding how its higher hierarchy structures are formed and how its macroscopic material properties emerge. Carbohydrate polymers, such as cellulose and chitin, are the most abundant materials found in nature whose structures and properties have...
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102168118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Characterizing the “fungal shunt”: Parasitic fungi on diatoms affect
           carbon flow and bacterial communities in aquatic microbial food webs
           [Environmental Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Isabell Klawonn; Silke Van den Wyngaert, Alma E. Parada, Nestor Arandia-Gorostidi, Martin J. Whitehouse, Hans-Peter Grossart, Anne E. Dekas
      Abstract: Microbial interactions in aquatic environments profoundly affect global biogeochemical cycles, but the role of microparasites has been largely overlooked. Using a model pathosystem, we studied hitherto cryptic interactions between microparasitic fungi (chytrid Rhizophydiales), their diatom host Asterionella, and cell-associated and free-living bacteria. We analyzed the effect of fungal infections on...
      Keywords: Environmental Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102225118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Turbulence explains the accelerations of an eagle in natural flight
           [Ecology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kasey M. Laurent; Bob Fogg, Tobias Ginsburg, Casey Halverson, Michael J. Lanzone, Tricia A. Miller, David W. Winkler, Gregory P. Bewley
      Abstract: Turbulent winds and gusts fluctuate on a wide range of timescales from milliseconds to minutes and longer, a range that overlaps the timescales of avian flight behavior, yet the importance of turbulence to avian behavior is unclear. By combining wind speed data with the measured accelerations of a golden eagle...
      Keywords: Ecology, Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102588118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Revealing atomic-scale molecular diffusion of a plant-transcription factor
           WRKY domain protein along DNA [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Liqiang Dai; Yongping Xu, Zhenwei Du, Xiao-dong Su, Jin Yu
      Abstract: Transcription factor (TF) target search on genome is highly essential for gene expression and regulation. High-resolution determination of TF diffusion along DNA remains technically challenging. Here, we constructed a TF model system using the plant WRKY domain protein in complex with DNA from crystallography and demonstrated microsecond diffusion dynamics of...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102621118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • On and off controls within dynein-dynactin on native cargoes [Cell
           Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Paulomi Sanghavi; Pankaj Kumar, Ankit Roy, M. S. Madhusudhan, Roop Mallik
      Abstract: The dynein–dynactin nanomachine transports cargoes along microtubules in cells. Why dynactin interacts separately with the dynein motor and also with microtubules is hotly debated. Here we disrupted these interactions in a targeted manner on phagosomes extracted from cells, followed by optical trapping to interrogate native dynein–dynactin teams on single phagosomes....
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2103383118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Genetic basis of variation in cocaine and methamphetamine consumption in
           outbred populations of Drosophila melanogaster [Genetics]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Brandon M. Baker; Mary Anna Carbone, Wen Huang, Robert R. H. Anholt, Trudy F. C. Mackay
      Abstract: We used Drosophila melanogaster to map the genetic basis of naturally occurring variation in voluntary consumption of cocaine and methamphetamine. We derived an outbred advanced intercross population (AIP) from 37 sequenced inbred wild-derived lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), which are maximally genetically divergent, have minimal residual...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104131118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Simulating the directional translocation of a substrate by the AAA+ motor
           in the 26S proteasome [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Arjun Saha; Arieh Warshel
      Abstract: This work explored the molecular origin of substrate translocation by the AAA+ motor of the 26S proteasome. This exploration was performed by combining different simulation approaches including calculations of binding free energies, coarse-grained simulations, and considerations of the ATP hydrolysis energy. The simulations were used to construct the free energy...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104245118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Single-molecule calorimeter and free energy landscape [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yi Wang; Zhuodong Tang, Hong-Yuan Chen, Wei Wang, Nongjian Tao, Hui Wang
      Abstract: The precise measurement of thermodynamic and kinetic properties for biomolecules provides the detailed information for a multitude of applications in biochemistry, biosensing, and health care. However, sensitivity in characterizing the thermodynamic binding affinity down to a single molecule, such as the Gibbs free energy (Gb), enthalpy (Hb), and entropy (Sb),...
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104598118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Interaction hot spots for phase separation revealed by NMR studies of a
           CAPRIN1 condensed phase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tae Hun Kim; Brandon J. Payliss, Michael L. Nosella, Ian T. W. Lee, Yuki Toyama, Julie D. Forman-Kay, Lewis E. Kay
      Abstract: The role of biomolecular condensates in regulating biological function and the importance of dynamic interactions involving intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDRs) in their assembly are increasingly appreciated. While computational and theoretical approaches have provided significant insights into IDR phase behavior, establishing the critical interactions that govern condensation with atomic resolution...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104897118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Liquid crystal display screens as a source for indoor volatile organic
           compounds [Environmental Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Qifan Liu; Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
      Abstract: Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have profoundly shaped the lifestyle of humans. However, despite extensive use, their impacts on indoor air quality are unknown. Here, we perform flow cell experiments on three different LCDs, including a new computer monitor, a used laptop, and a new television, to investigate whether their screens...
      Keywords: Environmental Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2105067118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • cGAS restricts colon cancer development by protecting intestinal barrier
           integrity [Immunology and Inflammation]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Shuiqing Hu; Yan Fang, Xiang Chen, Tianlei Cheng, Miaoqing Zhao, Mingjian Du, Tuo Li, Minghao Li, Zhiqun Zeng, Yonglong Wei, Zhimin Gu, Conggang Zhang, Lijun Sun, Zhijian J. Chen
      Abstract: The DNA-sensing enzyme cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS) regulates inflammation and immune defense against pathogens and malignant cells. Although cGAS has been shown to exert antitumor effects in several mouse models harboring transplanted tumor cell lines, its role in tumors arising from endogenous tissues remains unknown. Here, we show...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2105747118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Liu et al., Abscisic acid regulates secondary cell-wall
           formation and lignin deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana through
           phosphorylation of NST1 [Corrections]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: PLANT BIOLOGY Correction for “Abscisic acid regulates secondary cell-wall formation and lignin deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana through phosphorylation of NST1,” by Chang Liu, Hasi Yu, Xiaolan Rao, Laigeng Li, and Richard A. Dixon, which was first published January 25, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2010911118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2010911118). The authors...
      Keywords: Plant Biology, Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2106367118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Stansfield et al., Biomechanical trade-offs in the pelvic
           floor constrain the evolution of the human birth canal [Corrections]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: ANTHROPOLOGY Correction for “Biomechanical trade-offs in the pelvic floor constrain the evolution of the human birth canal,” by Ekaterina Stansfield, Krishna Kumar, Philipp Mitteroecker, and Nicole D. S. Grunstra, which published April 14, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2022159118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2022159118). The authors note that Fig. 3 appeared incorrectly...
      Keywords: Anthropology, Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108115118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • CRISPR-based targeting of DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana by a
           bacterial CG-specific DNA methyltransferase [Plant Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Basudev Ghoshal; Colette L. Picard, Brandon Vong, Suhua Feng, Steven E. Jacobsen
      Abstract: CRISPR-based targeted modification of epigenetic marks such as DNA cytosine methylation is an important strategy to regulate the expression of genes and their associated phenotypes. Although plants have DNA methylation in all sequence contexts (CG, CHG, CHH, where H = A, T, C), methylation in the symmetric CG context is...
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T12:01:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2125016118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • A chromosome-level genome of a Kordofan melon illuminates the origin of
           domesticated watermelons [Evolution]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Susanne S. Renner; Shan Wu, Oscar A. Perez–Escobar, Martina V. Silber, Zhangȷun Fei, Guillaume Chomicki
      Abstract: Wild relatives or progenitors of crops are important resources for breeding and for understanding domestication. Identifying them, however, is difficult because of extinction, hybridization, and the challenge of distinguishing them from feral forms. Here, we use collection-based systematics, iconography, and resequenced accessions of Citrullus lanatus and other species of Citrullus...
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T12:03:33-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101486118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Thyroid hormones regulate the formation and environmental plasticity of
           white bars in clownfishes [Developmental Biology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Pauline Salis; Natacha Roux, Delai Huang, Anna Marcionetti, Pierick Mouginot, Mathieu Reynaud, Oceane Salles, Nicolas Salamin, Benoit Puȷol, David M. Parichy, Serge Planes, Vincent Laudet
      Abstract: Determining how plasticity of developmental traits responds to environmental conditions is a challenge that must combine evolutionary sciences, ecology, and developmental biology. During metamorphosis, fish alter their morphology and color pattern according to environmental cues. We observed that juvenile clownfish (Amphiprion percula) modulate the developmental timing of their adult white...
      Keywords: Developmental Biology
      PubDate: 2021-05-24T12:03:33-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101634118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • The persistent threat of emerging plant disease pandemics to global food
           security [Agricultural Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jean B. Ristaino; Pamela K. Anderson, Daniel P. Bebber, Kate A. Brauman, Nik J. Cunniffe, Nina V. Fedoroff, Cambria Finegold, Karen A. Garrett, Christopher A. Gilligan, Christopher M. Jones, Michael D. Martin, Graham K. MacDonald, Patricia Neenan, Angela Records, David G. Schmale, Laura Tateosian, Qingshan Wei
      Abstract: Plant disease outbreaks are increasing and threaten food security for the vulnerable in many areas of the world. Now a global human pandemic is threatening the health of millions on our planet. A stable, nutritious food supply will be needed to lift people out of poverty and improve health outcomes....
      Keywords: Agricultural Sciences, Perspectives
      PubDate: 2021-05-21T11:29:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022239118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • The ORF8 protein of SARS-CoV-2 mediates immune evasion through
           down-regulating MHC-I [Microbiology]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yiwen Zhang; Yingshi Chen, Yuzhuang Li, Feng Huang, Baohong Luo, Yaochang Yuan, Baijin Xia, Xiancai Ma, Tao Yang, Fei Yu, Jun Liu, Bingfeng Liu, Zheng Song, Jingliang Chen, Shumei Yan, Liyang Wu, Ting Pan, Xu Zhang, Rong Li, Wenjing Huang, Xin He, Fei Xiao, Junsong Zhang, Hui Zhang
      Abstract: COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic and has claimed over 2 million lives worldwide. Although the genetic sequences of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have high homology, the clinical and pathological characteristics of COVID-19 differ significantly from those of SARS. How and whether...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-05-21T11:29:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024202118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Policy to activate cultural change to amplify policy [Commentaries]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Charles Efferson
      Abstract: If you were driving down the road in Sweden at 04:50 on September 3, 1967, the Swedish government required you to stop. You then had to move from the left to the right side of the road, and at 05:00 you could continue on your way. Although Sweden invested heavily...
      Keywords: Social Sciences, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-05-21T11:29:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2106306118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Collectivism predicts mask use during COVID-19 [Psychological and
           Cognitive Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jackson G. Lu; Peter Jin, Alexander S. English
      Abstract: Since its outbreak, COVID-19 has impacted world regions differentially. Whereas some regions still record tens of thousands of new infections daily, other regions have contained the virus. What explains these striking regional differences' We advance a cultural psychological perspective on mask usage, a precautionary measure vital for curbing the pandemic....
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-05-20T11:46:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021793118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Analyzing the vast coronavirus literature with CoronaCentral [Medical
           Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jake Lever; Russ B. Altman
      Abstract: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused a surge in research exploring all aspects of the virus and its effects on human health. The overwhelming publication rate means that researchers are unable to keep abreast of the literature. To ameliorate this, we present the CoronaCentral resource that uses machine learning to process...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences, Brief Reports, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-05-20T11:46:42-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100766118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Why zebra finches don’t get hypercholesterolemia [Genetics]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Stephanie A. White; Timothy F. Wright
      Abstract: In his 1994 classic, Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, Robert Sapolsky (1) chronicles how the pathological effects of chronic stress commonly seen in humans are much rarer in nonhuman animals. A new paper by Velho et al. (2) in PNAS reports a fascinating discovery that provides an update to this...
      Keywords: Genetics, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T11:10:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107021118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
  • Computational explorations in the space of one-component crystals [Applied
           Physical Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Jonathan P. K. Doye; Eva G. Noya
      Abstract: How complex an ordered assembly can be made using just a single particle type' When the particles are atoms, and the ordered assemblies are limited to periodic crystals, the range of possibilities has been comprehensively mapped out (1). But the particles need not be atoms. Colloids, nanoparticles, proteins, and DNA...
      Keywords: Applied Physical Sciences, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-05-19T11:10:24-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107024118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 23 (2021)
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.235.179.79
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-