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Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  [SJR: 6.883]   [H-I: 604]   [902 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • An evolutionary perspective on nutrition and social decision making
           [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Charles L. Raison; David A. Raichlen
      Abstract: We were intrigued by findings reported by Strang et al. (1) that the balance of carbohydrate to protein in a breakfast preparation influenced subsequent human social decision making. Specifically, compared with a low-carbohydrate/high-protein breakfast, consumption of a high-carbohydrate/low-protein breakfast increased participants’ tendency to punish violations of social norms, assessed as...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721889115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Reply to Raison and Raichlen: Why does nutrition impact social decision
           making' [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Soyoung Q. Park; Sebastian M. Schmid
      Abstract: In our PNAS article (1), we show how the macronutrient composition of a meal can impact social decision making. Specifically, with a greater protein intake, participants' plasma tyrosine levels were elevated, which resulted in a more tolerant participants’ response toward unfair offers. In other words, with a greater carbohydrate intake,...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722569115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Weighing the evidence for a body mass-regulating gravitostat [Biological
    • Authors: Jens Lund
      Abstract: The intriguing paper by Jansson et al. (1) reports the identification of a body mass-regulating homeostat that operates in rodents independently of leptin. In response to implantation of capsules weighing 15% of body weight the authors observed that ∼80% of this load was offset by a reduction in biological body...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800033115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Reply to Lund: Where does the gravitostat fit in' [Biological
    • Authors: Claes Ohlsson; John-Olov Jansson
      Abstract: We appreciate the thoughtful reflection by Jens Lund (1) on different aspects of our recent article in PNAS (2). Lund is right to point out that results from studies of the effects of hypergravity on body mass and body fat in rodents support the gravitostat hypothesis (2). Hypergravity and increased...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800116115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • On the complex dynamics of savanna landscapes [Applied Mathematics]
    • Authors: Jonathan David Touboul; Ann Carla Staver, Simon Asher Levin
      Abstract: Simple mathematical models can exhibit rich and complex behaviors. Prototypical examples of these drawn from biology and other disciplines have provided insights that extend well beyond the situations that inspired them. Here, we explore a set of simple, yet realistic, models for savanna–forest vegetation dynamics based on minimal ecological assumptions....
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712356115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • RNA force field with accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art protein force
           fields [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Dazhi Tan; Stefano Piana, Robert M. Dirks, David E. Shaw
      Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has become a powerful tool for characterizing at an atomic level of detail the conformational changes undergone by proteins. The application of such simulations to RNA structures, however, has proven more challenging, due in large part to the fact that the physical models (“force fields”) available...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713027115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Landau-Ginzburg theory of cortex dynamics: Scale-free avalanches emerge at
           the edge of synchronization [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Serena di Santo; Pablo Villegas, Raffaella Burioni, Miguel A. Munoz
      Abstract: Understanding the origin, nature, and functional significance of complex patterns of neural activity, as recorded by diverse electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques, is a central challenge in neuroscience. Such patterns include collective oscillations emerging out of neural synchronization as well as highly heterogeneous outbursts of activity interspersed by periods of quiescence,...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712989115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Superresolution imaging of individual replication forks reveals unexpected
           prodrug resistance mechanism [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Therese Triemer; Alessandra Messikommer, Stella M. K. Glasauer, Jawad Alzeer, Miriam H. Paulisch, Nathan W. Luedtke
      Abstract: Many drugs require extensive metabolism en route to their targets. High-resolution visualization of prodrug metabolism should therefore utilize analogs containing a small modification that does not interfere with its metabolism or mode of action. In addition to serving as mechanistic probes, such analogs provide candidates for theranostics when applied in...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714790115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Wireless optoelectronic photometers for monitoring neuronal dynamics in
           the deep brain [Engineering]
    • Authors: Luyao Lu; Philipp Gutruf, Li Xia, Dionnet L. Bhatti, Xinying Wang, Abraham Vazquez-Guardado, Xin Ning, Xinru Shen, Tian Sang, Rongxue Ma, Grace Pakeltis, Gabriel Sobczak, Hao Zhang, Dong-oh Seo, Mantian Xue, Lan Yin, Debashis Chanda, Xing Sheng, Michael R. Bruchas, John A. Rogers
      Abstract: Capabilities for recording neural activity in behaving mammals have greatly expanded our understanding of brain function. Some of the most sophisticated approaches use light delivered by an implanted fiber-optic cable to optically excite genetically encoded calcium indicators and to record the resulting changes in fluorescence. Physical constraints induced by the...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718721115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Auxetic metamaterials from disordered networks [Engineering]
    • Authors: Daniel R. Reid; Nidhi Pashine, Justin M. Wozniak, Heinrich M. Jaeger, Andrea J. Liu, Sidney R. Nagel, Juan J. de Pablo
      Abstract: Recent theoretical work suggests that systematic pruning of disordered networks consisting of nodes connected by springs can lead to materials that exhibit a host of unusual mechanical properties. In particular, global properties such as Poisson’s ratio or local responses related to deformation can be precisely altered. Tunable mechanical responses would...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717442115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Light-enabled reversible self-assembly and tunable optical properties of
           stable hairy nanoparticles [Engineering]
    • Authors: Yihuang Chen; Zewei Wang, Yanjie He, Young Jun Yoon, Jaehan Jung, Guangzhao Zhang, Zhiqun Lin
      Abstract: The ability to dynamically organize functional nanoparticles (NPs) via the use of environmental triggers (temperature, pH, light, or solvent polarity) opens up important perspectives for rapid and convenient construction of a rich variety of complex assemblies and materials with new structures and functionalities. Here, we report an unconventional strategy for...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714748115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • K63 ubiquitylation triggers proteasomal degradation by seeding branched
           ubiquitin chains [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Fumiaki Ohtake; Hikaru Tsuchiya, Yasushi Saeki, Keiji Tanaka
      Abstract: Different polyubiquitin chain linkages direct substrates toward distinct cellular pathways. K63-linked ubiquitylation is known to regulate proteasome-independent events such as signal transduction, but its function in the context of heterogeneous ubiquitin chains remains unclear. Here, we report that K63 ubiquitylation plays a critical role in proteasome-mediated substrate degradation by serving...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716673115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Identification of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) binding sites on
           the branched actin filament nucleator Arp2/3 complex [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Qing Luan; Alex Zelter, Michael J. MacCoss, Trisha N. Davis, Brad J. Nolen
      Abstract: Arp2/3 complex nucleates branched actin filaments important for cellular motility and endocytosis. WASP family proteins are Arp2/3 complex activators that play multiple roles in branching nucleation, but little is known about the structural bases of these WASP functions, owing to an incomplete understanding of how WASP binds Arp2/3 complex. Recent...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716622115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Molecular basis for the recognition of the human AAUAAA polyadenylation
           signal [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yadong Sun; Yixiao Zhang, Keith Hamilton, James L. Manley, Yongsheng Shi, Thomas Walz, Liang Tong
      Abstract: Nearly all eukaryotic messenger RNA precursors must undergo cleavage and polyadenylation at their 3′-end for maturation. A crucial step in this process is the recognition of the AAUAAA polyadenylation signal (PAS), and the molecular mechanism of this recognition has been a long-standing problem. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718723115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • High integrin {alpha}V{beta}6 affinity reached by hybrid domain deletion
           slows ligand-binding on-rate [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Xianchi Dong; Bo Zhao, Fu-Yang Lin, Chafen Lu, Bruce N. Rogers, Timothy A. Springer
      Abstract: The role of the hybrid domain in integrin affinity regulation is unknown, as is whether the kinetics of ligand binding is modulated by integrin affinity state. Here, we compare cell surface and soluble integrin αVβ6 truncation mutants for ligand-binding affinity, kinetics, and thermodynamics. Removal of the integrin transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains or...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718662115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Structures and mechanism of dipeptidyl peptidases 8 and 9, important
           players in cellular homeostasis and cancer [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Breyan Ross; Stephan Krapp, Martin Augustin, Reiner Kierfersauer, Marcelino Arciniega, Ruth Geiss-Friedlander, Robert Huber
      Abstract: Dipeptidyl peptidases 8 and 9 are intracellular N-terminal dipeptidyl peptidases (preferentially postproline) associated with pathophysiological roles in immune response and cancer biology. While the DPP family member DPP4 is extensively characterized in molecular terms as a validated therapeutic target of type II diabetes, experimental 3D structures and ligand-/substrate-binding modes of...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717565115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Mechanism of inhibition of retromer transport by the bacterial effector
           RidL [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Jialin Yao; Fan Yang, Xiaodong Sun, Shen Wang, Ninghai Gan, Qi Liu, Dingdong Liu, Xia Zhang, Dawen Niu, Yuquan Wei, Cong Ma, Zhao-Qing Luo, Qingxiang Sun, Da Jia
      Abstract: Retrograde vesicle trafficking pathways are responsible for returning membrane-associated components from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and they are critical for maintaining organelle identity, lipid homeostasis, and many other cellular functions. The retrograde transport pathway has emerged as an important target for intravacuolar bacterial pathogens....
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717383115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Structure of the fission yeast actomyosin ring during constriction [Cell
    • Authors: Matthew T. Swulius; Lam T. Nguyen, Mark S. Ladinsky, Davi R. Ortega, Samya Aich, Mithilesh Mishra, Grant J. Jensen
      Abstract: Cell division in many eukaryotes is driven by a ring containing actin and myosin. While much is known about the main proteins involved, the precise arrangement of actin filaments within the contractile machinery, and how force is transmitted to the membrane, remains unclear. Here we use cryosectioning and cryofocused ion...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711218115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • LncRNA IDH1-AS1 links the functions of c-Myc and HIF1{alpha} via IDH1 to
           regulate the Warburg effect [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Shaoxun Xiang; Hao Gu, Lei Jin, Rick F. Thorne, Xu Dong Zhang, Mian Wu
      Abstract: The oncoprotein c-Myc plays an important role in regulating glycolysis under normoxia; yet, in cancer cells, HIF1α, which is essential for driving glycolysis under hypoxia, is often up-regulated even in the presence of oxygen. The relationship between these two major regulators of the Warburg effect remains to be fully defined....
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711257115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • RGMb protects against acute kidney injury by inhibiting tubular cell
           necroptosis via an MLKL-dependent mechanism [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Wenjing Liu; Binbin Chen, Yang Wang, Chenling Meng, Huihui Huang, Xiao-Ru Huang, Jinzhong Qin, Shrikant R. Mulay, Hans-Joachim Anders, Andong Qiu, Baoxue Yang, Gordon J. Freeman, Hua Jenny Lu, Herbert Y. Lin, Zhi-Hua Zheng, Hui-Yao Lan, Yu Huang, Yin Xia
      Abstract: Tubular cell necrosis is a key histological feature of acute kidney injury (AKI). Necroptosis is a type of programed necrosis, which is executed by mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) upon its binding to the plasma membrane. Emerging evidence indicates that necroptosis plays a critical role in the development of...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716959115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Arabidopsis mRNA decay landscape arises from specialized RNA decay
           substrates, decapping-mediated feedback, and redundancy [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Reed S. Sorenson; Malia J. Deshotel, Katrina Johnson, Frederick R. Adler, Leslie E. Sieburth
      Abstract: The decay of mRNA plays a vital role in modulating mRNA abundance, which, in turn, influences cellular and organismal processes. In plants and metazoans, three distinct pathways carry out the decay of most cytoplasmic mRNAs: The mRNA decapping complex, which requires the scaffold protein VARICOSE (VCS), removes a protective 5′...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712312115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Effects of rapamycin on growth hormone receptor knockout mice
           [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Yimin Fang; Cristal M. Hill, Justin Darcy, Adriana Reyes–Ordonez, Edwin Arauz, Samuel McFadden, Chi Zhang, Jared Osland, John Gao, Tian Zhang, Stuart J. Frank, Martin A. Javors, Rong Yuan, John J. Kopchick, Liou Y. Sun, Jie Chen, Andrzeȷ Bartke
      Abstract: It is well documented that inhibition of mTORC1 (defined by Raptor), a complex of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), extends life span, but less is known about the mechanisms by which mTORC2 (defined by Rictor) impacts longevity. Here, rapamycin (an inhibitor of mTOR) was used in GHR-KO (growth hormone receptor...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717065115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Farming the mitochondrial ancestor as a model of endosymbiotic
           establishment by natural selection [Evolution]
    • Authors: Istvan Zachar; Andras Szilagyi, Szabolcs Szamado, Eors Szathmary
      Abstract: The origin of mitochondria was a major evolutionary transition leading to eukaryotes, and is a hotly debated issue. It is unknown whether mitochondria were acquired early or late, and whether it was captured via phagocytosis or syntrophic integration. We present dynamical models to directly simulate the emergence of mitochondria in...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718707115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Loss of Capicua alters early T cell development and predisposes mice to T
           cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma [Genetics]
    • Authors: Qiumin Tan; Lorenzo Brunetti, Maxime W. C. Rousseaux, Hsiang-Chih Lu, Ying-Wooi Wan, Jean-Pierre Revelli, Zhandong Liu, Margaret A. Goodell, Huda Y. Zoghbi
      Abstract: Capicua (CIC) regulates a transcriptional network downstream of the RAS/MAPK signaling cascade. In Drosophila, CIC is important for many developmental processes, including embryonic patterning and specification of wing veins. In humans, CIC has been implicated in neurological diseases, including spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) and a neurodevelopmental syndrome. Additionally, we...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716452115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Male-specific IL-33 expression regulates sex-dimorphic EAE susceptibility
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Abigail E. Russi; Mark E. Ebel, Yuchen Yang, Melissa A. Brown
      Abstract: The cellular and molecular basis of sex-dimorphic autoimmune diseases, such as the CNS demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS), remains unclear. Our studies in the SJL mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), reveal that sex-determined differences in Il33 expression by innate immune cells in response to myelin peptide immunization...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710401115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • OLT1177, a {beta}-sulfonyl nitrile compound, safe in humans, inhibits the
           NLRP3 inflammasome and reverses the metabolic cost of inflammation
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Carlo Marchetti; Benȷamin Swartzwelter, Fabia Gamboni, Charles P. Neff, Katrin Richter, Tania Azam, Sonia Carta, Isak Tengesdal, Travis Nemkov, Angelo D’Alessandro, Curtis Henry, Gerald S. Jones, Scott A. Goodrich, Joseph P. St. Laurent, Terry M. Jones, Curtis L. Scribner, Robert B. Barrow, Roy D. Altman, Damaris B. Skouras, Marco Gattorno, Veronika Grau, Sabina Janciauskiene, Anna Rubartelli, Leo A. B. Joosten, Charles A. Dinarello
      Abstract: Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome induces maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, both validated targets for treating acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrate that OLT1177, an orally active β-sulfonyl nitrile molecule, inhibits activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In vitro, nanomolar concentrations of OLT1177 reduced IL-1β and IL-18 release following...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716095115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA-4 efficacy in melanoma brain metastases depends on
           extracranial disease and augmentation of CD8+ T cell trafficking
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: David Taggart; Tereza Andreou, Karen J. Scott, Jennifer Williams, Nora Rippaus, Rebecca J. Brownlie, Elizabeth J. Ilett, Robert J. Salmond, Alan Melcher, Mihaela Lorger
      Abstract: Inhibition of immune checkpoints programmed death 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) on T cells results in durable antitumor activity in melanoma patients. Despite high frequency of melanoma brain metastases (BrM) and associated poor prognosis, the activity and mechanisms of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in metastatic tumors...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714089115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Platelets release pathogenic serotonin and return to circulation after
           immune complex-mediated sequestration [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Nathalie Cloutier; Isabelle Allaeys, Genevieve Marcoux, Kellie R. Machlus, Benoit Mailhot, Anne Zufferey, Tania Levesque, Yann Becker, Nicolas Tessandier, Imene Melki, Huiying Zhi, Guy Poirier, Matthew T. Rondina, Joseph E. Italiano, Louis Flamand, Steven E. McKenzie, Francine Cote, Bernhard Nieswandt, Waliul I. Khan, Matthew J. Flick, Peter J. Newman, Steve Lacroix, Paul R. Fortin, Eric Boilard
      Abstract: There is a growing appreciation for the contribution of platelets to immunity; however, our knowledge mostly relies on platelet functions associated with vascular injury and the prevention of bleeding. Circulating immune complexes (ICs) contribute to both chronic and acute inflammation in a multitude of clinical conditions. Herein, we scrutinized platelet...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720553115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • E-cigarette smoke damages DNA and reduces repair activity in mouse lung,
           heart, and bladder as well as in human lung and bladder cells [Medical
    • Authors: Hyun-Wook Lee; Sung-Hyun Park, Mao-wen Weng, Hsiang-Tsui Wang, William C. Huang, Herbert Lepor, Xue-Ru Wu, Lung-Chi Chen, Moon-shong Tang
      Abstract: E-cigarette smoke delivers stimulant nicotine as aerosol without tobacco or the burning process. It contains neither carcinogenic incomplete combustion byproducts nor tobacco nitrosamines, the nicotine nitrosation products. E-cigarettes are promoted as safe and have gained significant popularity. In this study, instead of detecting nitrosamines, we directly measured DNA damage induced...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718185115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Disruption of the anaphase-promoting complex confers resistance to TTK
           inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: K. L. Thu; J. Silvester, M. J. Elliott, W. Ba-alawi, M. H. Duncan, A. C. Elia, A. S. Mer, P. Smirnov, Z. Safikhani, B. Haibe-Kains, T. W. Mak, D. W. Cescon
      Abstract: TTK protein kinase (TTK), also known as Monopolar spindle 1 (MPS1), is a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which functions to maintain genomic integrity. TTK has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in human cancers, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Several TTK inhibitors (TTKis) are being evaluated...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719577115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Pyruvate cycle increases aminoglycoside efficacy and provides respiratory
           energy in bacteria [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Yu-bin Su; Bo Peng, Hui Li, Zhi-xue Cheng, Tian-tuo Zhang, Jia-xin Zhu, Dan Li, Min-yi Li, Jin-zhou Ye, Chao-chao Du, Song Zhang, Xian-liang Zhao, Man-jun Yang, Xuan-xian Peng
      Abstract: The emergence and ongoing spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria puts humans and other species at risk for potentially lethal infections. Thus, novel antibiotics or alternative approaches are needed to target drug-resistant bacteria, and metabolic modulation has been documented to improve antibiotic efficacy, but the relevant metabolic mechanisms require more studies. Here,...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714645115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Superior colliculus neuronal ensemble activity signals optimal rather than
           subjective confidence [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Brian Odegaard; Piercesare Grimaldi, Seong Hah Cho, Megan A. K. Peters, Hakwan Lau, Michele A. Basso
      Abstract: Recent studies suggest that neurons in sensorimotor circuits involved in perceptual decision-making also play a role in decision confidence. In these studies, confidence is often considered to be an optimal readout of the probability that a decision is correct. However, the information leading to decision accuracy and the report of...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711628115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Heterogeneity within the frontoparietal control network and its
           relationship to the default and dorsal attention networks [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Matthew L. Dixon; Alejandro De La Vega, Caitlin Mills, Jessica Andrews-Hanna, R. Nathan Spreng, Michael W. Cole, Kalina Christoff
      Abstract: The frontoparietal control network (FPCN) plays a central role in executive control. It has been predominantly viewed as a unitary domain general system. Here, we examined patterns of FPCN functional connectivity (FC) across multiple conditions of varying cognitive demands, to test for FPCN heterogeneity. We identified two distinct subsystems within...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715766115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Effects of the ecto-ATPase apyrase on microglial ramification and
           surveillance reflect cell depolarization, not ATP depletion [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Christian Madry; I. Lorena Arancibia–Carcamo, Vasiliki Kyrargyri, Victor T. T. Chan, Nicola B. Hamilton, David Attwell
      Abstract: Microglia, the brain’s innate immune cells, have highly motile processes which constantly survey the brain to detect infection, remove dying cells, and prune synapses during brain development. ATP released by tissue damage is known to attract microglial processes, but it is controversial whether an ambient level of ATP is needed...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715354115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Restoring GABAergic inhibition rescues memory deficits in a Huntington’s
           disease mouse model [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Zahra Dargaei; Jee Yoon Bang, Vivek Mahadevan, C. Sahara Khademullah, Simon Bedard, Gustavo Morrone Parfitt, Jun Chul Kim, Melanie A. Woodin
      Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD) is classically characterized as a movement disorder, however cognitive impairments precede the motor symptoms by ∼15 y. Based on proteomic and bioinformatic data linking the Huntingtin protein (Htt) and KCC2, which is required for hyperpolarizing GABAergic inhibition, and the important role of inhibition in learning and memory,...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716871115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Entorhinal fast-spiking speed cells project to the hippocampus
    • Authors: Jing Ye; Menno P. Witter, May-Britt Moser, Edvard I. Moser
      Abstract: The mammalian positioning system contains a variety of functionally specialized cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the hippocampus. In order for cells in these systems to dynamically update representations in a way that reflects ongoing movement in the environment, they must be able to read out the current...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720855115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Path integration in place cells of developing rats [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Tale L. Bjerknes; Nenitha C. Dagslott, Edvard I. Moser, May-Britt Moser
      Abstract: Place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex rely on self-motion information and path integration for spatially confined firing. Place cells can be observed in young rats as soon as they leave their nest at around 2.5 wk of postnatal life. In contrast, the regularly...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719054115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Brain-state dependent astrocytic Ca2+ signals are coupled to both positive
           and negative BOLD-fMRI signals [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Maosen Wang; Yi He, Terrence J. Sejnowski, Xin Yu
      Abstract: Astrocytic Ca2+-mediated gliovascular interactions regulate the neurovascular network in situ and in vivo. However, it is difficult to measure directly both the astrocytic activity and fMRI to relate the various forms of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signaling to brain states under normal and pathological conditions. In this study, fMRI and GCaMP-mediated Ca2+...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711692115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • TRPV1 channels and the progesterone receptor Sig-1R interact to regulate
           pain [Pharmacology]
    • Authors: Miguel Ortiz–Renteria; Rebeca Juarez–Contreras, Ricardo Gonzalez–Ramirez, Leon D. Islas, Felix Sierra–Ramirez, Itzel Llorente, Sidney A. Simon, Marcia Hiriart, Tamara Rosenbaum, Sara L. Morales–Lazaro
      Abstract: The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is expressed in nociceptors where, when activated by chemical or thermal stimuli, it functions as an important transducer of painful and itch-related stimuli. Although the interaction of TRPV1 with proteins that regulate its function has been previously explored, their modulation by...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715972115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Phosphatidylinositol-(4, 5)-bisphosphate regulates calcium gating of
           small-conductance cation channel TMEM16F [Physiology]
    • Authors: Wenlei Ye; Tina W. Han, Layla M. Nassar, Mario Zubia, Yuh Nung Jan, Lily Yeh Jan
      Abstract: TMEM16F, which is activated by elevation of intracellular calcium to trigger phospholipid scrambling and the collapse of lipid bilayer asymmetry to mediate important cellular functions such as blood coagulation, also generates a small-conductance calcium-activated cation current. How TMEM16F activation may be regulated is an open question. By recording TMEM16F Ca2+-activated...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718728115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • AtCAP2 is crucial for lytic vacuole biogenesis during germination by
           positively regulating vacuolar protein trafficking [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Yun Kwon; Jinbo Shen, Myoung Hui Lee, Kyoung Rok Geem, Liwen Jiang, Inhwan Hwang
      Abstract: Protein trafficking is a fundamental mechanism of subcellular organization and contributes to organellar biogenesis. AtCAP2 is an Arabidopsis homolog of the Mesembryanthemum crystallinum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 adaptor protein 2 (McCAP2), a member of the syntaxin superfamily. Here, we show that AtCAP2 plays an important role in the conversion to...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717204115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Proȷecting one’s own spatial bias onto others during a theory-of-mind
           task [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Branden J. Bio; Taylor W. Webb, Michael S. A. Graziano
      Abstract: Many people show a left-right bias in visual processing. We measured spatial bias in neurotypical participants using a variant of the line bisection task. In the same participants, we measured performance in a social cognition task. This theory-of-mind task measured whether each participant had a processing-speed bias toward the right...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718493115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Stimulus generalization as a mechanism for learning to trust
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Oriel FeldmanHall; Joseph E. Dunsmoor, Alexa Tompary, Lindsay E. Hunter, Alexander Todorov, Elizabeth A. Phelps
      Abstract: How do humans learn to trust unfamiliar others' Decisions in the absence of direct knowledge rely on our ability to generalize from past experiences and are often shaped by the degree of similarity between prior experience and novel situations. Here, we leverage a stimulus generalization framework to examine how perceptual...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715227115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Correction for Murari et al., Climate change and agricultural suicides in
           India [Correction]
    • Abstract: LETTER Correction for “Climate change and agricultural suicides in India,” by Kamal Kumar Murari, T. Jayaraman, and Madhura Swaminathan, which was first published December 29, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1714747115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:E115). The editors note that, in the first paragraph, lines 5–6, “an increase in 1 °C temperature in...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801217115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Correction for Das, Unfounded assumptions in linking crop-damaging
           temperature and suicide in India [Correction]
    • Abstract: LETTER Correction for “Unfounded assumptions in linking crop-damaging temperature and suicide in India,” by Saudamini Das, which was first published December 29, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1715331115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:E116). The editors note that, in the first paragraph, line 2, “suicides during 1987–2013” should instead appear as “suicides during 1980–2013.”...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801218115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Correction for Sanderman et al., Soil carbon debt of 12,000 years of human
           land use [Correction]
    • Abstract: SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction for “Soil carbon debt of 12,000 years of human land use,” by Jonathan Sanderman, Tomislav Hengl, and Gregory J. Fiske, which was first published August 21, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1706103114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:9575–9580). The authors would like to note the following: “We regret that two small...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800925115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 1395 - 1396
      Abstract: How centipedes slay giant prey Golden head centipede attacks a mouse. Centipedes are known to subdue large prey by using potent, broad-acting venom. However, venom synthesis requires substantial metabolic investment, and the mechanisms of action of centipede venoms remain unclear. Lei Luo et al. (pp. 1646–1651) report that a golden...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti0718115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Inner Workings: How the butterfly got its spots (and why it matters)
           [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Viviane Callier
      Pages: 1397 - 1399
      Abstract: The colorful canvas of the butterfly wing is an exceptional example of evolutionary innovation and adaptation. Compared with their forebears, whose wings wore patterns of black, brown, and gray, the Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) evolved a more varied palette of pigmentation. With the capacity for complex color patterns, such as...
      Keywords: Inner Workings, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722410115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Profile of Steve Granick [Profiles]
    • Authors: Sandeep Ravindran
      Pages: 1400 - 1402
      Abstract: Steve Granick says a simple underlying principle—the desire for an interesting life with meaningful human relations—has guided his career. During undergraduate study at Princeton University, Granick majored in sociology, mainly because he was interested in literature, humanities, and social sciences. He took just one obligatory science class—introductory physics—and found it...
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800048115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Resolving single-actin filaments within the contractile ring of fission
           yeast [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Caroline Laplante
      Pages: 1403 - 1405
      Abstract: Cell division is an essential step in the life of all cells. Fungi, amoeboid, and mammalian cells divide by the assembly and constriction of a contractile ring of actin, myosin, and other highly conserved proteins (1). The mechanism of cytokinesis is best understood in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Combined...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722624115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Tobacco smoking, E-cigarettes, and nicotine harm [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Curtis C. Harris
      Pages: 1406 - 1407
      Abstract: Tobacco smoking has caused more than 20 million premature American deaths in the 50 y after the first US Surgeon General Report of Smoking and Health (1). The recognition of this major health hazard has led to efforts to both prevent the initiation of smoking and aid smokers in quitting,...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722636115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Conceptualizing degrees of theory of mind [Psychological and Cognitive
    • Authors: Jane Rebecca Conway; Geoffrey Bird
      Pages: 1408 - 1410
      Abstract: Successful navigation of the social world requires making accurate inferences about the contents of other people’s minds, being able to represent in one’s own mind the thoughts, beliefs, and intentions of another. This “theory of mind” (ToM) ability allows us to explain and predict others’ behavior in terms of their...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722396115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Unique parasite aDNA in moa coprolites from New Zealand suggests mass
           parasite extinctions followed human-induced megafauna extinctions
    • Authors: Kevin D. Lafferty; Skylar R. Hopkins
      Pages: 1411 - 1413
      Abstract: Having split early from Gondwana, Zealandia (now modern New Zealand) escaped discovery until the late 13th century, and therefore remains an important glimpse into a human-free world. Without humans or other land mammals, diverse and peculiar birds evolved in isolation, including several flightless moa species, the giant pouakai eagle (Harpagornis...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722598115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Adaptive value of novel MHC immune gene variants [Evolution]
    • Authors: Tobias L. Lenz
      Pages: 1414 - 1416
      Abstract: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a core component of the vertebrate immune system and has puzzled immunologists, geneticists, and evolutionary biologists for more than half a century. The so-called classical MHC genes (in humans also called HLA) code for cell surface molecules that present antigens to immune effector cells...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1722600115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Iterative near-term ecological forecasting: Needs, opportunities, and
           challenges [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Michael C. Dietze; Andrew Fox, Lindsay M. Beck-Johnson, Julio L. Betancourt, Mevin B. Hooten, Catherine S. Jarnevich, Timothy H. Keitt, Melissa A. Kenney, Christine M. Laney, Laurel G. Larsen, Henry W. Loescher, Claire K. Lunch, Bryan C. Pijanowski, James T. Randerson, Emily K. Read, Andrew T. Tredennick, Rodrigo Vargas, Kathleen C. Weathers, Ethan P. White
      Pages: 1424 - 1432
      Abstract: Two foundational questions about sustainability are “How are ecosystems and the services they provide going to change in the future'” and “How do human decisions affect these trajectories'” Answering these questions requires an ability to forecast ecological processes. Unfortunately, most ecological forecasts focus on centennial-scale climate responses, therefore neither meeting...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710231115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Automated monitoring of behavior reveals bursty interaction patterns and
           rapid spreading dynamics in honeybee social networks [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: Tim Gernat; Vikyath D. Rao, Martin Middendorf, Harry Dankowicz, Nigel Goldenfeld, Gene E. Robinson
      Pages: 1433 - 1438
      Abstract: Social networks mediate the spread of information and disease. The dynamics of spreading depends, among other factors, on the distribution of times between successive contacts in the network. Heavy-tailed (bursty) time distributions are characteristic of human communication networks, including face-to-face contacts and electronic communication via mobile phone calls, email, and...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713568115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Relevance of packing to colloidal self-assembly [Applied Physical
    • Authors: Rose K. Cersonsky; Greg van Anders, Paul M. Dodd, Sharon C. Glotzer
      Pages: 1439 - 1444
      Abstract: Since the 1920s, packing arguments have been used to rationalize crystal structures in systems ranging from atomic mixtures to colloidal crystals. Packing arguments have recently been applied to complex nanoparticle structures, where they often, but not always, work. We examine when, if ever, packing is a causal mechanism in hard...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720139115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Nature and evolution of incommensurate charge order in manganites
           visualized with cryogenic scanning transmission electron microscopy
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Ismail El Baggari; Benjamin H. Savitzky, Alemayehu S. Admasu, Jaewook Kim, Sang-Wook Cheong, Robert Hovden, Lena F. Kourkoutis
      Pages: 1445 - 1450
      Abstract: Incommensurate charge order in hole-doped oxides is intertwined with exotic phenomena such as colossal magnetoresistance, high-temperature superconductivity, and electronic nematicity. Here, we map, at atomic resolution, the nature of incommensurate charge–lattice order in a manganite using scanning transmission electron microscopy at room temperature and cryogenic temperature (∼93 K). In diffraction,...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714901115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Multidimensional photon correlation spectroscopy of cavity polaritons
    • Authors: Konstantin E. Dorfman; Shaul Mukamel
      Pages: 1451 - 1456
      Abstract: The strong coupling of atoms and molecules to radiation field modes in optical cavities creates dressed matter/field states known as polaritons with controllable dynamical and energy transfer properties. We propose a multidimensional optical spectroscopy technique for monitoring polariton dynamics. The response of a two-level atom to the time-dependent coupling to...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719443115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Efficiency of quantum vs. classical annealing in nonconvex learning
           problems [Computer Sciences]
    • Authors: Carlo Baldassi; Riccardo Zecchina
      Pages: 1457 - 1462
      Abstract: Quantum annealers aim at solving nonconvex optimization problems by exploiting cooperative tunneling effects to escape local minima. The underlying idea consists of designing a classical energy function whose ground states are the sought optimal solutions of the original optimization problem and add a controllable quantum transverse field to generate tunneling...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711456115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Field migration rates of tidal meanders recapitulate fluvial
           morphodynamics [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Alvise Finotello; Stefano Lanzoni, Massimiliano Ghinassi, Marco Marani, Andrea Rinaldo, Andrea D’Alpaos
      Pages: 1463 - 1468
      Abstract: The majority of tidal channels display marked meandering features. Despite their importance in oil-reservoir formation and tidal landscape morphology, questions remain on whether tidal-meander dynamics could be understood in terms of fluvial processes and theory. Key differences suggest otherwise, like the periodic reversal of landscape-forming tidal flows and the widely...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711330115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • In vivo wireless photonic photodynamic therapy [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Akshaya Bansal; Fengyuan Yang, Tian Xi, Yong Zhang, John S. Ho
      Pages: 1469 - 1474
      Abstract: An emerging class of targeted therapy relies on light as a spatially and temporally precise stimulus. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical example in which optical illumination selectively activates light-sensitive drugs, termed photosensitizers, destroying malignant cells without the side effects associated with systemic treatments such as chemotherapy. Effective clinical application...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717552115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Polaronic behavior in a weak-coupling superconductor [Physics]
    • Authors: Adrian G. Swartz; Hisashi Inoue, Tyler A. Merz, Yasuyuki Hikita, Srinivas Raghu, Thomas P. Devereaux, Steven Johnston, Harold Y. Hwang
      Pages: 1475 - 1480
      Abstract: The nature of superconductivity in the dilute semiconductor SrTiO3 has remained an open question for more than 50 y. The extremely low carrier densities (1018–1020 cm−3) at which superconductivity occurs suggest an unconventional origin of superconductivity outside of the adiabatic limit on which the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) and Migdal–Eliashberg (ME) theories...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713916115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Statistical tests and identifiability conditions for pooling and analyzing
           multisite datasets [Statistics]
    • Authors: Hao Henry Zhou; Vikas Singh, Sterling C. Johnson, Grace Wahba, the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
      Pages: 1481 - 1486
      Abstract: When sample sizes are small, the ability to identify weak (but scientifically interesting) associations between a set of predictors and a response may be enhanced by pooling existing datasets. However, variations in acquisition methods and the distribution of participants or observations between datasets, especially due to the distributional shifts in...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719747115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Child first language and adult second language are both tied to
           general-purpose learning systems [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Phillip Hamrick; Jarrad A. G. Lum, Michael T. Ullman
      Pages: 1487 - 1492
      Abstract: Do the mechanisms underlying language in fact serve general-purpose functions that preexist this uniquely human capacity' To address this contentious and empirically challenging issue, we systematically tested the predictions of a well-studied neurocognitive theory of language motivated by evolutionary principles. Multiple metaanalyses were performed to examine predicted links between language...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713975115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase 1 destabilizes fibrillar A{beta} by
           multiple endoproteolytic cleavages within the {beta}-sheet domain
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Santiago Sole–Domenech; Ana V. Roȷas, Gia G. Maisuradze, Harold A. Scheraga, Peter Lobel, Frederick R. Maxfield
      Pages: 1493 - 1498
      Abstract: Accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ), which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease, can be caused by excess production or insufficient clearance. Because of its β-sheet structure, fibrillar Aβ is resistant to proteolysis, which would contribute to slow degradation of Aβ plaques in vivo. Fibrillar Aβ can be internalized by microglia, which are...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719808115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Assembly mechanism of the CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1-TRAF6 signalosome [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Liron David; Yang Li, Jun Ma, Ethan Garner, Xinzheng Zhang, Hao Wu
      Pages: 1499 - 1504
      Abstract: The CARMA1–BCL10–MALT1 (CBM) signalosome is a central mediator of T cell receptor and B cell receptor-induced NF-κB signaling that regulates multiple lymphocyte functions. While caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein 1 (CARMA1) nucleates B cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10) filament formation through interactions between CARDs, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721967115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Method to generate highly stable D-amino acid analogs of bioactive helical
           peptides using a mirror image of the entire PDB [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Michael Garton; Satra Nim, Tracy A. Stone, Kyle Ethan Wang, Charles M. Deber, Philip M. Kim
      Pages: 1505 - 1510
      Abstract: Biologics are a rapidly growing class of therapeutics with many advantages over traditional small molecule drugs. A major obstacle to their development is that proteins and peptides are easily destroyed by proteases and, thus, typically have prohibitively short half-lives in human gut, plasma, and cells. One of the most effective...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711837115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • High-resolution structure prediction of {beta}-barrel membrane proteins
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Wei Tian; Meishan Lin, Ke Tang, Jie Liang, Hammad Naveed
      Pages: 1511 - 1516
      Abstract: β-Barrel membrane proteins (βMPs) play important roles, but knowledge of their structures is limited. We have developed a method to predict their 3D structures. We predict strand registers and construct transmembrane (TM) domains of βMPs accurately, including proteins for which no prediction has been attempted before. Our method also accurately...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716817115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Disease-causing mutation in {alpha}-actinin-4 promotes podocyte detachment
           through maladaptation to periodic stretch [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Di Feng; Jacob Notbohm, Ava Benjamin, Shijie He, Minxian Wang, Lay-Hong Ang, Minaspi Bantawa, Mehdi Bouzid, Emanuela Del Gado, Ramaswamy Krishnan, Martin R. Pollak
      Pages: 1517 - 1522
      Abstract: α-Actinin-4 (ACTN4) bundles and cross-links actin filaments to confer mechanical resilience to the reconstituted actin network. How this resilience is built and dynamically regulated in the podocyte, and the cause of its failure in ACTN4 mutation-associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), remains poorly defined. Using primary podocytes isolated from wild-type (WT)...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717870115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • ATR-Chk1 activation mitigates replication stress caused by mismatch
           repair-dependent processing of DNA damage [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Dipika Gupta; Bo Lin, Ann Cowan, Christopher D. Heinen
      Pages: 1523 - 1528
      Abstract: The mismatch repair pathway (MMR) is essential for removing DNA polymerase errors, thereby maintaining genomic stability. Loss of MMR function increases mutation frequency and is associated with tumorigenesis. However, how MMR is executed at active DNA replication forks is unclear. This has important implications for understanding how MMR repairs O6-methylguanine/thymidine...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720355115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Family with sequence similarity 13, member A modulates adipocyte insulin
           signaling and preserves systemic metabolic homeostasis [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Donytra Arby Wardhana; Koji Ikeda, Agian Jeffilano Barinda, Dhite Bayu Nugroho, Kikid Rucira Qurania, Keiko Yagi, Keishi Miyata, Yuichi Oike, Ken-ichi Hirata, Noriaki Emoto
      Pages: 1529 - 1534
      Abstract: Adipose tissue dysfunction is causally implicated in the impaired metabolic homeostasis associated with obesity; however, detailed mechanisms underlying dysregulated adipocyte functions in obesity remain to be elucidated. Here we searched for genes that provide a previously unknown mechanism in adipocyte metabolic functions and identified family with sequence similarity 13, member...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720475115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Endocrine regulation of airway clearance in Drosophila [Developmental
    • Authors: Do-Hyoung Kim; Young-Joon Kim, Michael E. Adams
      Pages: 1535 - 1540
      Abstract: Fluid clearance from the respiratory system during developmental transitions is critically important for achieving optimal gas exchange in animals. During insect development from embryo to adult, airway clearance occurs episodically each time the molt is completed by performance of the ecdysis sequence, coordinated by a peptide-signaling cascade initiated by ecdysis-triggering...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717257115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Alarm calls evoke a visual search image of a predator in birds
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Toshitaka N. Suzuki
      Pages: 1541 - 1545
      Abstract: One of the core features of human speech is that words cause listeners to retrieve corresponding visual mental images. However, whether vocalizations similarly evoke mental images in animal communication systems is surprisingly unknown. Japanese tits (Parus minor) produce specific alarm calls when and only when encountering a predatory snake. Here,...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718884115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Coprolites reveal ecological interactions lost with the extinction of New
           Zealand birds [Ecology]
    • Authors: Alexander P. Boast; Laura S. Weyrich, Jamie R. Wood, Jessica L. Metcalf, Rob Knight, Alan Cooper
      Pages: 1546 - 1551
      Abstract: Over the past 50,000 y, biotic extinctions and declines have left a legacy of vacant niches and broken ecological interactions across global terrestrial ecosystems. Reconstructing the natural, unmodified ecosystems that preceded these events relies on high-resolution analyses of paleoecological deposits. Coprolites are a source of uniquely detailed information about trophic...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712337115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Immunogenetic novelty confers a selective advantage in host-pathogen
           coevolution [Evolution]
    • Authors: Karl P. Phillips; Joanne Cable, Ryan S. Mohammed, Magdalena Herdegen–Radwan, Jarosław Raubic, Karolina J. Przesmycka, Cock van Oosterhout, Jacek Radwan
      Pages: 1552 - 1557
      Abstract: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is crucial to the adaptive immune response of vertebrates and is among the most polymorphic gene families known. Its high diversity is usually attributed to selection imposed by fast-evolving pathogens. Pathogens are thought to evolve to escape recognition by common immune alleles, and, hence, novel...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708597115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • De novo mutation in RING1 with epigenetic effects on neurodevelopment
    • Authors: Sarah B. Pierce; Mikaela D. Stewart, Suleyman Gulsuner, Tom Walsh, Abhinav Dhall, Jon M. McClellan, Rachel E. Klevit, Mary-Claire King
      Pages: 1558 - 1563
      Abstract: RING1 is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that is involved in epigenetic control of transcription during development. It is a component of the polycomb repressive complex 1, and its role in that complex is to ubiquitylate histone H2A. In a 13-year-old girl with syndromic neurodevelopmental disabilities, we identified a de novo mutation,...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721290115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Sirt4 is a mitochondrial regulator of metabolism and lifespan in
           Drosophila melanogaster [Genetics]
    • Authors: Jason G. Wood; Bjoern Schwer, Priyan C. Wickremesinghe, Davis A. Hartnett, Lucas Burhenn, Meyrolin Garcia, Michael Li, Eric Verdin, Stephen L. Helfand
      Pages: 1564 - 1569
      Abstract: Sirtuins are an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD+-dependent deacylases that control metabolism, stress response, genomic stability, and longevity. Here, we show the sole mitochondrial sirtuin in Drosophila melanogaster, Sirt4, regulates energy homeostasis and longevity. Sirt4 knockout flies have a short lifespan, with increased sensitivity to starvation and decreased fertility and...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720673115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Disruption of the ciliary GTPase Arl13b suppresses Sonic hedgehog
           overactivation and inhibits medulloblastoma formation [Genetics]
    • Authors: Sarah N. Bay; Alyssa B. Long, Tamara Caspary
      Pages: 1570 - 1575
      Abstract: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor, and overactivation of the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway, which requires the primary cilium, causes 30% of MBs. Current treatments have known negative side effects or resistance mechanisms, so new treatments are necessary. Shh signaling mutations, like those that remove...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706977115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Holo-lipocalin-2-derived siderophores increase mitochondrial ROS and
           impair oxidative phosphorylation in rat cardiomyocytes [Immunology and
    • Authors: Erfei Song; Sofhia V. Ramos, Xiaojing Huang, Ying Liu, Amy Botta, Hye Kyoung Sung, Patrick C. Turnbull, Michael B. Wheeler, Thorsten Berger, Derek J. Wilson, Christopher G. R. Perry, Tak W. Mak, Gary Sweeney
      Pages: 1576 - 1581
      Abstract: Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2), a critical component of the innate immune response which binds siderophores and limits bacterial iron acquisition, can elicit spillover adverse proinflammatory effects. Here we show that holo-Lcn2 (Lcn2–siderophore–iron, 1:3:1) increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and attenuates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in adult rat primary cardiomyocytes in a...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720570115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Targeting JAK2 reduces GVHD and xenograft rejection through regulation of
           T cell differentiation [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Brian C. Betts; David Bastian, Supinya Iamsawat, Hung Nguyen, Jessica L. Heinrichs, Yongxia Wu, Anusara Daenthanasanmak, Anandharaman Veerapathran, Alison O’Mahony, Kelly Walton, Jordan Reff, Pedro Horna, Elizabeth M. Sagatys, Marie C. Lee, Jack Singer, Ying–Jun Chang, Chen Liu, Joseph Pidala, Claudio Anasetti, Xue–Zhong Yu
      Pages: 1582 - 1587
      Abstract: Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) signal transduction is a critical mediator of the immune response. JAK2 is implicated in the onset of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which is a significant cause of transplant-related mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Transfer of JAK2−/− donor T cells to allogeneic recipients leads to attenuated...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712452115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Mast cells promote small bowel cancer in a tumor stage-specific and
           cytokine-dependent manner [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Abdulrahman M. Saadalla; Abu Osman, Michael F. Gurish, Kristen L. Dennis, Nichole R. Blatner, Abdulmohammad Pezeshki, Kelly M. McNagny, Hilde Cheroutre, Fotini Gounari, Khashayarsha Khazaie
      Pages: 1588 - 1592
      Abstract: Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident sentinels that mature and orchestrate inflammation in response to infection and allergy. While they are also frequently observed in tumors, the contribution of MCs to carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that sequential oncogenic events in gut epithelia expand different types of MCs in...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716804115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Insecurity, polio vaccination rates, and polio incidence in northwest
           Pakistan [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Amol A. Verma; Marcia P. Jimenez, Rudolf H. Tangermann, S. V. Subramanian, Fahad Razak
      Pages: 1593 - 1598
      Abstract: Pakistan is one of three countries in which endemic transmission of poliovirus has never been stopped. Insecurity is often cited but poorly studied as a barrier to eradicating polio. We analyzed routinely collected health data from 32 districts of northwest Pakistan and constructed an index of insecurity based on journalistic...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711923115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Plasticity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis NADH dehydrogenases and their
           role in virulence [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Catherine Vilcheze; Brian Weinrick, Lawrence W. Leung, William R. Jacobs Jr.
      Pages: 1599 - 1604
      Abstract: Worldwide control of the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic has not been achieved, and the latest statistics show that the TB problem might be more endemic than previously thought. Although drugs and a TB vaccine are available, TB eradication faces the challenges of increasing occurrences of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721545115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Adaptation of commensal proliferating Escherichia coli to the intestinal
           tract of young children with cystic fibrosis [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Susana Matamouros; Hillary S. Hayden, Kyle R. Hager, Mitchell J. Brittnacher, Kristina Lachance, Eli J. Weiss, Christopher E. Pope, Anne-Flore Imhaus, Colin P. McNally, Elhanan Borenstein, Lucas R. Hoffman, Samuel I. Miller
      Pages: 1605 - 1610
      Abstract: The mature human gut microbiota is established during the first years of life, and altered intestinal microbiomes have been associated with several human health disorders. Escherichia coli usually represents less than 1% of the human intestinal microbiome, whereas in cystic fibrosis (CF), greater than 50% relative abundance is common and...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714373115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Hippocampal expression of a virus-derived protein impairs memory in mice
    • Authors: Alexandre Betourne; Marion Szelechowski, Anne Thouard, Erika Abrial, Arnaud Jean, Falek Zaidi, Charlotte Foret, Emilie M. Bonnaud, Caroline M. Charlier, Elsa Suberbielle, Cecile E. Malnou, Sylvie Granon, Claire Rampon, Daniel Gonzalez–Dunia
      Pages: 1611 - 1616
      Abstract: The analysis of the biology of neurotropic viruses, notably of their interference with cellular signaling, provides a useful tool to get further insight into the role of specific pathways in the control of behavioral functions. Here, we exploited the natural property of a viral protein identified as a major effector...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711977115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Myopic (HD-PTP, PTPN23) selectively regulates synaptic neuropeptide
           release [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Dinara Bulgari; Anupma Jha, David L. Deitcher, Edwin S. Levitan
      Pages: 1617 - 1622
      Abstract: Neurotransmission is mediated by synaptic exocytosis of neuropeptide-containing dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and small-molecule transmitter-containing small synaptic vesicles (SSVs). Exocytosis of both vesicle types depends on Ca2+ and shared secretory proteins. Here, we show that increasing or decreasing expression of Myopic (mop, HD-PTP, PTPN23), a Bro1 domain-containing pseudophosphatase implicated in neuronal...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:54-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716801115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Neuronal control of astrocytic respiration through a variant of the
           Crabtree effect [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Ignacio Fernandez–Moncada; Ivan Ruminot, Daniel Robles–Maldonado, Karin Alegria, Joachim W. Deitmer, L. Felipe Barros
      Pages: 1623 - 1628
      Abstract: Aerobic glycolysis is a phenomenon that in the long term contributes to synaptic formation and growth, is reduced by normal aging, and correlates with amyloid beta deposition. Aerobic glycolysis starts within seconds of neural activity and it is not obvious why energetic efficiency should be compromised precisely when energy demand...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716469115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • DJ-1 deficiency impairs synaptic vesicle endocytosis and reavailability at
           nerve terminals [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Jae Won Kyung; Jin-Mo Kim, Wongyoung Lee, Tae-Young Ha, Seon-Heui Cha, Kyung-Hwun Chung, Dong-Joo Choi, Ilo Jou, Woo Keun Song, Eun-Hye Joe, Sung Hyun Kim, Sang Myun Park
      Pages: 1629 - 1634
      Abstract: Mutations in DJ-1 (PARK7) are a known cause of early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease (PD). Accumulating evidence indicates that abnormalities of synaptic vesicle trafficking underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of PD. In the present study, we explored whether DJ-1 is involved in CNS synaptic function. DJ-1 deficiency impaired synaptic vesicle endocytosis...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708754115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Robust kinase- and age-dependent dopaminergic and norepinephrine
           neurodegeneration in LRRK2 G2019S transgenic mice [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Yulan Xiong; Stewart Neifert, Senthilkumar S. Karuppagounder, Qinfang Liu, Jeannette N. Stankowski, Byoung Dae Lee, Han Seok Ko, Yunjong Lee, Jonathan C. Grima, Xiaobo Mao, Haisong Jiang, Sung-Ung Kang, Deborah A. Swing, Lorraine Iacovitti, Lino Tessarollo, Ted M. Dawson, Valina L. Dawson
      Pages: 1635 - 1640
      Abstract: Mutations in LRRK2 are known to be the most common genetic cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson’s disease (PD). Multiple lines of LRRK2 transgenic or knockin mice have been developed, yet none exhibit substantial dopamine (DA)-neuron degeneration. Here we develop human tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter-controlled tetracycline-sensitive LRRK2 G2019S (GS) and...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712648115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Evidence that asymmetry of the membrane/cytoskeletal complex in human red
           blood cell ghosts is responsible for their biconcave shape [Physiology]
    • Authors: Joseph F. Hoffman
      Pages: 1641 - 1645
      Abstract: The main conclusion of the results reported in this article is that during centrifugation, sphered red blood cell ghosts become oriented in their attachment to a coverslip such that a dense band within the ghosts lies parallel to the centrifugal field. The result of the orientation of this dense band...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721463115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Centipedes subdue giant prey by blocking KCNQ channels [Physiology]
    • Authors: Lei Luo; Bowen Li, Sheng Wang, Fangming Wu, Xiaochen Wang, Ping Liang, Rose Ombati, Junji Chen, Xiancui Lu, Jianmin Cui, Qiumin Lu, Longhua Zhang, Ming Zhou, Changlin Tian, Shilong Yang, Ren Lai
      Pages: 1646 - 1651
      Abstract: Centipedes can subdue giant prey by using venom, which is metabolically expensive to synthesize and thus used frugally through efficiently disrupting essential physiological systems. Here, we show that a centipede (Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, ∼3 g) can subdue a mouse (∼45 g) within 30 seconds. We found that this observation is...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714760115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum acyltransferase with prokaryotic substrate
           preference contributes to triacylglycerol assembly in Chlamydomonas [Plant
    • Authors: Yeongho Kim; Ee Leng Terng, Wayne R. Riekhof, Edgar B. Cahoon, Heriberto Cerutti
      Pages: 1652 - 1657
      Abstract: Understanding the unique features of triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in microalgae may be necessary to realize the full potential of these organisms for biofuel and biomaterial production. In the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii a chloroplastic (prokaryotic) pathway has been proposed to play a major role in TAG precursor biosynthesis. However,...
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715922115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
  • Economic value of ecological information in ecosystem-based natural
           resource management depends on exploitation history [Sustainability
    • Authors: Timothy E. Essington; James N. Sanchirico, Marissa L. Baskett
      Pages: 1658 - 1663
      Abstract: Ecosystem approaches to natural resource management are seen as a way to provide better outcomes for ecosystems and for people, yet the nature and strength of interactions among ecosystem components is usually unknown. Here we characterize the economic benefits of ecological knowledge through a simple model of fisheries that target...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2018-02-13T09:51:55-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716858115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 7 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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