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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 1313  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Leslie Ungerleider, 1946-2020: Who, what, and where [Retrospectives]
    • Authors: David C. Van Essen; Sabine Kastner, Peter Bandettini
      Abstract: Leslie Ungerleider, a pioneering neuroscientist who profoundly shaped our understanding of the visual system, died unexpectedly but peacefully at her home on December 11, 2020, at the age of 74. She was the Chief of the Laboratory of Brain and Cognition at the National Institute of Mental Health and an...
      Keywords: Retrospectives, Retrospectives
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T11:09:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102784118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 13 (2021)
       
  • Assembly of NFL and desmin intermediate filaments: Headed in the right
           direction [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Maryam Faridounnia; Natasha T. Snider
      Abstract: Intermediate filaments (IFs), together with actin filaments and microtubules, form the cytoskeleton—a critical structural component of all cells. Humans express 73 unique IF proteins that associate as obligate homo- or heterodimers. IF dimers assemble into tetramers, which are the building blocks of the higher-order cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal structures visualized in...
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T11:42:20-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102176118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 13 (2021)
       
  • Learning active nematics one step at a time [Physics]
    • Authors: Anna Frishman; Kinneret Keren
      Abstract: Machine learning, ranging from regression to deep learning by neural networks, is a set of powerful data analysis tools. Deep learning is especially suited for data-rich but model-limited fields of study, where it has indeed proved to be remarkably successful in tasks such as object and speech recognition. In physics,...
      Keywords: Physics, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T11:40:35-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102169118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Watt W. Webb: His measurements of the seemingly inaccessible broadened the
           horizons of biophysics [Retrospectives]
    • Authors: Elliot Elson
      Abstract: Watt W. Webb’s scientific career was a series of triumphs over challenges to make difficult measurements of important physical and biological phenomena: “impossible problems of experimental physiology,” as he described them (1). A common theme was his use of light microscopy in new ways to reveal equilibrium and dynamic properties...
      Keywords: Retrospectives, Retrospectives
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T11:26:36-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101879118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • A safe and highly efficacious measles virus-based vaccine expressing
           SARS-CoV-2 stabilized prefusion spike [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Mijia Lu; Piyush Dravid, Yuexiu Zhang, Sheetal Trivedi, Anzhong Li, Olivia Harder, Mahesh KC, Supranee Chaiwatpongsakorn, Ashley Zani, Adam Kenney, Cong Zeng, Chuanxi Cai, Chengjin Ye, Xueya Liang, Masako Shimamura, Shan-Lu Liu, Asuncion Mejias, Octavio Ramilo, Prosper N. Boyaka, Jianming Qiu, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Jacob S. Yount, Mark E. Peeples, Amit Kapoor, Stefan Niewiesk, Jianrong Li
      Abstract: The current pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights an urgent need to develop a safe, efficacious, and durable vaccine. Using a measles virus (rMeV) vaccine strain as the backbone, we developed a series of recombinant attenuated vaccine candidates expressing various forms of the...
      Keywords: Microbiology, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:11:22-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026153118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • One or two injections of MVA-vectored vaccine shields hACE2 transgenic
           mice from SARS-CoV-2 upper and lower respiratory tract infection
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Ruikang Liu; Jeffrey L. Americo, Catherine A. Cotter, Patricia L. Earl, Noam Erez, Chen Peng, Bernard Moss
      Abstract: Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a replication-restricted smallpox vaccine, and numerous clinical studies of recombinant MVAs (rMVAs) as vectors for prevention of other infectious diseases, including COVID-19, are in progress. Here, we characterize rMVAs expressing the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Modifications of full-length...
      Keywords: Microbiology, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:11:22-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026785118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • JNK signaling prevents biliary cyst formation through a
           CASPASE-8-dependent function of RIPK1 during aging [Immunology and
           Inflammation]
    • Authors: Katrin Muller; Hanna Honcharova–Biletska, Christiane Koppe, Michele Egger, Lap Kwan Chan, Anne T. Schneider, Lena Kusgens, Friederike Bohm, Yannick Boege, Marc E. Healy, Johannes Schmitt, Sarah Comtesse, Mirco Castoldi, Christian Preisinger, Marta Szydlowska, Enrico Focaccia, Nadine T. Gaisa, Sven H. Loosen, Simone Jors, Frank Tacke, Christoph Roderburg, Verena Keitel, Johannes G. Bode, Peter Boor, Roger J. Davis, Thomas Longerich, Fabian Geisler, Mathias Heikenwalder, Achim Weber, Mihael Vucur, Tom Luedde
      Abstract: The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway mediates adaptation to stress signals and has been associated with cell death, cell proliferation, and malignant transformation in the liver. However, up to now, its function was experimentally studied mainly in young mice. By generating mice with combined conditional ablation of Jnk1 and...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:03:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007194118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • A multicountry perspective on gender differences in time use during
           COVID-19 [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Laura M. Giurge; Ashley V. Whillans, Ayse Yemiscigil
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has fundamentally altered how people spend time, with possible consequences for subjective well-being. Using diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, Brazil, and Spain (n = 31,141), following a preregistered analytic plan, and employing both mega- and meta-analyses, we find consistent gender differences in time spent...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:03:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018494118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Higher airborne pollen concentrations correlated with increased SARS-CoV-2
           infection rates, as evidenced from 31 countries across the globe
           [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Athanasios Damialis; Stefanie Gilles, Mikhail Sofiev, Viktoria Sofieva, Franziska Kolek, Daniela Bayr, Maria P. Plaza, Vivien Leier–Wirtz, Sigrid Kaschuba, Lewis H. Ziska, Leonard Bielory, Laszlo Makra, Maria del Mar Trigo, COVID–19/POLLEN study group, Claudia Traidl–Hoffmann
      Abstract: Pollen exposure weakens the immunity against certain seasonal respiratory viruses by diminishing the antiviral interferon response. Here we investigate whether the same applies to the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is sensitive to antiviral interferons, if infection waves coincide with high airborne pollen concentrations. Our original...
      Keywords: Environmental Sciences, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:03:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019034118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Global hydroclimatic response to tropical volcanic eruptions over the last
           millennium [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Ernesto Tejedor; Nathan J. Steiger, Jason E. Smerdon, Roberto Serrano-Notivoli, Mathias Vuille
      Abstract: Large tropical volcanic eruptions can affect the climate of many regions on Earth, yet it is uncertain how the largest eruptions over the past millennium may have altered Earth’s hydroclimate. Here, we analyze the global hydroclimatic response to all the tropical volcanic eruptions over the past millennium that were larger...
      Keywords: Environmental Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:03:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019145118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Historic Yangtze flooding of 2020 tied to extreme Indian Ocean conditions
           [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Zhen-Qiang Zhou; Shang-Ping Xie, Renhe Zhang
      Abstract: Heavy monsoon rainfall ravaged a large swath of East Asia in summer 2020. Severe flooding of the Yangtze River displaced millions of residents in the midst of a historic public health crisis. This extreme rainy season was not anticipated from El Niño conditions. Using observations and model experiments, we show...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:03:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022255118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Reevaluating the timing of Neanderthal disappearance in Northwest Europe
           [Evolution]
    • Authors: Thibaut Deviese; Gregory Abrams, Mateȷa Haȷdinȷak, Stephane Pirson, Isabelle De Groote, Kevin Di Modica, Michel Toussaint, Valentin Fischer, Dan Comeskey, Luke Spindler, Matthias Meyer, Patrick Semal, Tom Higham
      Abstract: Elucidating when Neanderthal populations disappeared from Eurasia is a key question in paleoanthropology, and Belgium is one of the key regions for studying the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Previous radiocarbon dating placed the Spy Neanderthals among the latest surviving Neanderthals in Northwest Europe with reported dates as young as...
      Keywords: Anthropology, Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:03:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022466118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Spatial tuning of electrophysiological responses to multisensory stimuli
           reveals a primitive coding of the body boundaries in newborns
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Irene Ronga; Mattia Galigani, Valentina Bruno, Jean-Paul Noel, Andrea Gazzin, Cristina Perathoner, Andrea Serino, Francesca Garbarini
      Abstract: The ability to identify our own body and its boundaries is crucial for survival. Ideally, the sooner we learn to discriminate external stimuli occurring close to our body from those occurring far from it, the better (and safer) we may interact with the sensory environment. However, when this mechanism emerges...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:03:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024548118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Using artificial intelligence to improve COVID-19 rapid diagnostic test
           result interpretation [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: David–A. Mendels; Laurent Dortet, Cecile Emeraud, Saoussen Oueslati, Delphine Girlich, Jean–Baptiste Ronat, Sandrine Bernabeu, Silvestre Bahi, Gary J. H. Atkinson, Thierry Naas
      Abstract: Serological rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used across pathologies, often providing users a simple, binary result (positive or negative) in as little as 5 to 20 min. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, new RDTs for identifying SARS-CoV-2 have rapidly proliferated. However, these seemingly easy-to-read tests can be...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences, Brief Reports, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T12:22:10-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019893118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Adult specifier E93 takes control of reproductive cyclicity in mosquitoes
           [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: David Martin
      Abstract: The females of adult hematophagous mosquitoes are vectors for deadly viral pathogens that cause devastating human diseases such as dengue, yellow fever, West Nile fever, chikungunya, or Zika. They can also transmit Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. The reason behind this is that the female must feed on vertebrate blood...
      Keywords: Developmental Biology, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T12:22:10-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102059118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Impacts of introducing and lifting nonpharmaceutical interventions on
           COVID-19 daily growth rate and compliance in the United States [Social
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Surya Singh; Mujaheed Shaikh, Katharina Hauck, Marisa Miraldo
      Abstract: We evaluate the impacts of implementing and lifting nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) in US counties on the daily growth rate of COVID-19 cases and compliance, measured through the percentage of devices staying home, and evaluate whether introducing and lifting NPIs protecting selective populations is an effective strategy. We use difference-in-differences methods,...
      Keywords: Social Sciences, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T11:05:33-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021359118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Functional and genetic analysis of viral receptor ACE2 orthologs reveals a
           broad potential host range of SARS-CoV-2 [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Yinghui Liu; Gaowei Hu, Yuyan Wang, Wenlin Ren, Xiaomin Zhao, Fansen Ji, Yunkai Zhu, Fei Feng, Mingli Gong, Xiaohui Ju, Yuanfei Zhu, Xia Cai, Jun Lan, Jianying Guo, Min Xie, Lin Dong, Zihui Zhu, Jie Na, Jianping Wu, Xun Lan, Youhua Xie, Xinquan Wang, Zhenghong Yuan, Rong Zhang, Qiang Ding
      Abstract: The pandemic of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a major global health threat. Epidemiological studies suggest that bats (Rhinolophus affinis) are the natural zoonotic reservoir for SARS-CoV-2. However, the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and intermediate hosts that facilitate its transmission to humans remain unknown. The interaction of coronavirus with its...
      Keywords: Microbiology, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T11:05:33-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025373118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 12 (2021)
       
  • Dlk1 dosage regulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Raquel Montalban–Loro; Glenda Lassi, Anna Lozano–Urena, Ana Perez–Villalba, Esteban Jimenez–Villalba, Marika Charalambous, Giorgio Vallortigara, Alexa E. Horner, Lisa M. Saksida, Timothy J. Bussey, Jose Luis Treȷo, Valter Tucci, Anne C. Ferguson–Smith, Sacri R. Ferron
      Abstract: Neurogenesis in the adult brain gives rise to functional neurons, which integrate into neuronal circuits and modulate neural plasticity. Sustained neurogenesis throughout life occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus and is hypothesized to be involved in behavioral/cognitive processes such as memory and in...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T11:10:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015505118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Zn2+ influx activates ERK and Akt signaling pathways [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Kelsie J. Anson; Giulia A. Corbet, Amy E. Palmer
      Abstract: Zinc (Zn2+) is an essential metal in biology, and its bioavailability is highly regulated. Many cell types exhibit fluctuations in Zn2+ that appear to play an important role in cellular function. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms by which Zn2+ dynamics influence cell physiology remain enigmatic. Here, we use a combination...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T11:10:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015786118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Passion matters but not equally everywhere: Predicting achievement from
           interest, enjoyment, and efficacy in 59 societies [Psychological and
           Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Xingyu Li; Miaozhe Han, Geoffrey L. Cohen, Hazel Rose Markus
      Abstract: How to identify the students and employees most likely to achieve is a challenge in every field. American academic and lay theories alike highlight the importance of passion for strong achievement. Based on a Western independent model of motivation, passionate individuals—those who have a strong interest, demonstrate deep enjoyment, and...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T11:10:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016964118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Protein sequence design by conformational landscape optimization
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Christoffer Norn; Basile I. M. Wicky, David Juergens, Sirui Liu, David Kim, Doug Tischer, Brian Koepnick, Ivan Anishchenko, Foldit Players, David Baker, Sergey Ovchinnikov
      Abstract: The protein design problem is to identify an amino acid sequence that folds to a desired structure. Given Anfinsen’s thermodynamic hypothesis of folding, this can be recast as finding an amino acid sequence for which the desired structure is the lowest energy state. As this calculation involves not only all...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T11:10:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017228118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Identification of earth-abundant materials for selective dehydrogenation
           of light alkanes to olefins [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Tao Wang; Guomin Li, Xinjiang Cui, Frank Abild-Pedersen
      Abstract: Selective ethane dehydrogenation (EDH) is an attractive on-purpose strategy for industrial ethylene production. Design of an effective, stable, and earth-abundant catalyst to replace noble metal Pt is the main obstacle for its large-scale application. Herein, we report an experimentally validated theoretical framework to discover promising catalysts for EDH, which combines...
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T11:10:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024666118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Comparative structural analysis of human Nav1.1 and Nav1.5 reveals
           mutational hotspots for sodium channelopathies [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Xiaojing Pan; Zhangqiang Li, Xueqin Jin, Yanyu Zhao, Gaoxingyu Huang, Xiaoshuang Huang, Zilin Shen, Yong Cao, Mengqiu Dong, Jianlin Lei, Nieng Yan
      Abstract: Among the nine subtypes of human voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels, the brain and cardiac isoforms, Nav1.1 and Nav1.5, each carry more than 400 missense mutations respectively associated with epilepsy and cardiac disorders. High-resolution structures are required for structure–function relationship dissection of the disease variants. We report the cryo-EM structures of...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T11:10:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100066118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Structure of human Nav1.5 reveals the fast inactivation-related segments
           as a mutational hotspot for the long QT syndrome [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Zhangqiang Li; Xueqin Jin, Tong Wu, Xin Zhao, Weipeng Wang, Jianlin Lei, Xiaojing Pan, Nieng Yan
      Abstract: Nav1.5 is the primary voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channel in the heart. Mutations of Nav1.5 are associated with various cardiac disorders exemplified by the type 3 long QT syndrome (LQT3) and Brugada syndrome (BrS). E1784K is a common mutation that has been found in both LQT3 and BrS patients. Here we...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-12T11:10:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100069118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Progesterone receptor isoform B regulates the Oxtr-Plcl2-Trpc3 pathway to
           suppress uterine contractility [Physiology]
    • Authors: Mary C. Peavey; San-Pin Wu, Rong Li, Jian Liu, Olivia M. Emery, Tianyuan Wang, Lecong Zhou, Margeaux Wetendorf, Chandra Yallampalli, William E. Gibbons, John P. Lydon, Francesco J. DeMayo
      Abstract: Uterine contractile dysfunction leads to pregnancy complications such as preterm birth and labor dystocia. In humans, it is hypothesized that progesterone receptor isoform PGR-B promotes a relaxed state of the myometrium, and PGR-A facilitates uterine contraction. This hypothesis was tested in vivo using transgenic mouse models that overexpress PGR-A or...
      Keywords: Physiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T11:41:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011643118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Noninvasive neuromagnetic single-trial analysis of human neocortical
           population spikes [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Gunnar Waterstraat; Rainer Korber, Jan–Hendrik Storm, Gabriel Curio
      Abstract: Neuronal spiking is commonly recorded by invasive sharp microelectrodes, whereas standard noninvasive macroapproaches (e.g., electroencephalography [EEG] and magnetoencephalography [MEG]) predominantly represent mass postsynaptic potentials. A notable exception are low-amplitude high-frequency (∼600 Hz) somatosensory EEG/MEG responses that can represent population spikes when averaged over hundreds of trials to raise the signal-to-noise...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T11:41:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017401118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Limitation of phosphate assimilation maintains cytoplasmic magnesium
           homeostasis [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Roberto E. Bruna; Christopher G. Kendra, Eduardo A. Groisman, Mauricio H. Pontes
      Abstract: Phosphorus (P) is an essential component of core biological molecules. In bacteria, P is acquired mainly as inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) and assimilated into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the cytoplasm. Although P is essential, excess cytosolic Pi hinders growth. We now report that bacteria limit Pi uptake to avoid disruption of...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T11:41:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021370118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Visualizing active viral infection reveals diverse cell fates in
           synchronized algal bloom demise [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Flora Vincent; Uri Sheyn, Ziv Porat, Daniella Schatz, Assaf Vardi
      Abstract: Marine viruses are the most abundant biological entity in the ocean and are considered as major evolutionary drivers of microbial life [C. A. Suttle, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 5, 801–812 (2007)]. Yet, we lack quantitative approaches to assess their impact on the marine ecosystem. Here, we provide quantification of active viral...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T11:41:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021586118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Super-resolution mapping of cellular double-strand break resection
           complexes during homologous recombination [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Donna R. Whelan; Eli Rothenberg
      Abstract: Homologous recombination (HR) is a major pathway for repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The initial step that drives the HR process is resection of DNA at the DSB, during which a multitude of nucleases, mediators, and signaling proteins accumulates at the damage foci in a manner that remains elusive....
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T11:41:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021963118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • The cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus has divergent light-harvesting antennae
           and may have evolved in a low-oxygen ocean [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Osvaldo Ulloa; Carlos Henriquez–Castillo, Salvador Ramirez–Flandes, Alvaro M. Plominsky, Aleȷandro A. Murillo, Connor Morgan–Lang, Steven J. Hallam, Ramunas Stepanauskas
      Abstract: Marine picocyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus are the most abundant photosynthetic organisms in the modern ocean, where they exert a profound influence on elemental cycling and energy flow. The use of transmembrane chlorophyll complexes instead of phycobilisomes as light-harvesting antennae is considered a defining attribute of Prochlorococcus. Its ecology and...
      Keywords: Environmental Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T11:41:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025638118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Role of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in promoting electron flow through
           amino acid and oligopeptide conjugates [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Rafał Orłowski; John A. Clark, James B. Derr, Eli M. Espinoza, Maximilian F. Mayther, Olga Staszewska–Kraȷewska, Jay R. Winkler, Hanna Jędrzeȷewska, Agnieszka Szumna, Harry B. Gray, Valentine I. Vullev, Daniel T. Gryko
      Abstract: Elucidating the factors that control charge transfer rates in relatively flexible conjugates is of importance for understanding energy flows in biology as well as assisting the design and construction of electronic devices. Here, we report ultrafast electron transfer (ET) and hole transfer (HT) between a corrole (Cor) donor linked to...
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T11:41:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026462118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Pandemic response policies’ democratizing effects on online
           learning [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Rene F. Kizilcec; Christos A. Makridis, Katharine C. Sadowski
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed peoples’ lives in unexpected ways, especially how they allocate their time between work and other activities. Demand for online learning has surged during a period of mass layoffs and transition to remote work and schooling. Can this uptake in online learning help close longstanding skills...
      Keywords: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-11T11:41:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026725118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Spatio-temporal heterogeneity in hippocampal metabolism in control and
           epilepsy conditions [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Giulio E. Brancati; Chahinaz Rawas, Antoine Ghestem, Christophe Bernard, Anton I. Ivanov
      Abstract: The hippocampus’s dorsal and ventral parts are involved in different operative circuits, the functions of which vary in time during the night and day cycle. These functions are altered in epilepsy. Since energy production is tailored to function, we hypothesized that energy production would be space- and time-dependent in the...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T11:27:03-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013972118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Zinc finger protein E4F1 cooperates with PARP-1 and BRG1 to promote DNA
           double-strand break repair [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Celine Moison; Jalila Chagraoui, Marie–Christine Caron, Jean–Philippe Gagne, Yan Coulombe, Guy G. Poirier, Jean–Yves Masson, Guy Sauvageau
      Abstract: Zinc finger (ZnF) proteins represent one of the largest families of human proteins, although most remain uncharacterized. Given that numerous ZnF proteins are able to interact with DNA and poly(ADP ribose), there is growing interest in understanding their mechanism of action in the maintenance of genome integrity. We now report...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T11:27:03-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019408118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • S-nitrosylated TDP-43 triggers aggregation, cell-to-cell spread, and
           neurotoxicity in hiPSCs and in vivo models of ALS/FTD [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Elaine Pirie; Chang-ki Oh, Xu Zhang, Xuemei Han, Piotr Cieplak, Henry R. Scott, Amanda K. Deal, Swagata Ghatak, Fernando J. Martinez, Gene W. Yeo, John R. Yates III, Tomohiro Nakamura, Stuart A. Lipton
      Abstract: Rare genetic mutations result in aggregation and spreading of cognate proteins in neurodegenerative disorders; however, in the absence of mutation (i.e., in the vast majority of “sporadic” cases), mechanisms for protein misfolding/aggregation remain largely unknown. Here, we show environmentally induced nitrosative stress triggers protein aggregation and cell-to-cell spread. In patient...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T11:27:03-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021368118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • On a question of Mordell [Mathematics]
    • Authors: Andrew R. Booker; Andrew V. Sutherland
      Abstract: We make several improvements to methods for finding integer solutions to x3+y3+z3=k for small values of k. We implemented these improvements on Charity Engine’s global compute grid of 500,000 volunteer PCs and found new representations for several values of k, including 3 and 42. This completes the search begun by...
      Keywords: Mathematics
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T11:27:03-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022377118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Oligomeric assembly regulating mitochondrial HtrA2 function as examined by
           methyl-TROSY NMR [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Yuki Toyama; Robert W. Harkness, Tim Y. T. Lee, Jason T. Maynes, Lewis E. Kay
      Abstract: Human High temperature requirement A2 (HtrA2) is a mitochondrial protease chaperone that plays an important role in cellular proteostasis and in regulating cell-signaling events, with aberrant HtrA2 function leading to neurodegeneration and parkinsonian phenotypes. Structural studies of the enzyme have established a trimeric architecture, comprising three identical protomers in which...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T11:27:03-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025022118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Opinion: Academic-humanitarian technology partnerships: an unhappy
           marriage' [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Louis Potter; Dikolela Kalubi, Klaus Schonenberger
      Abstract: Working together seems like a good idea—especially when working toward a noble goal. In the hopes of more efficiently and quickly reaching their aims, many humanitarian and development organizations (HDOs)—including nongovernmental organizations, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Doctors Without Borders (MSF), and international organizations...
      Keywords: Opinions, Medical Sciences, Social Sciences, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2021-03-10T11:27:03-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102713118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Molecular switch architecture determines response properties of signaling
           pathways [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: Khem Raj Ghusinga; Roger D. Jones, Alan M. Jones, Timothy C. Elston
      Abstract: Many intracellular signaling pathways are composed of molecular switches, proteins that transition between two states—on and off. Typically, signaling is initiated when an external stimulus activates its cognate receptor that, in turn, causes downstream switches to transition from off to on using one of the following mechanisms: activation, in which...
      Keywords: Systems Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013401118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Membrane bending by protein phase separation [Biophysics and Computational
           Biology]
    • Authors: Feng Yuan; Haleh Alimohamadi, Brandon Bakka, Andrea N. Trementozzi, Kasey J. Day, Nicolas L. Fawzi, Padmini Rangamani, Jeanne C. Stachowiak
      Abstract: Membrane bending is a ubiquitous cellular process that is required for membrane traffic, cell motility, organelle biogenesis, and cell division. Proteins that bind to membranes using specific structural features, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped scaffolds, are thought to be the primary drivers of membrane bending. However, many membrane-binding...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017435118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Archaeal Connectase is a specific and efficient protein ligase related to
           proteasome {beta} subunits [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Adrian C. D. Fuchs; Moritz Ammelburg, Jorg Martin, Ruth A. Schmitz, Marcus D. Hartmann, Andrei N. Lupas
      Abstract: Sequence-specific protein ligations are widely used to produce customized proteins “on demand.” Such chimeric, immobilized, fluorophore-conjugated or segmentally labeled proteins are generated using a range of chemical, (split) intein, split domain, or enzymatic methods. Where short ligation motifs and good chemoselectivity are required, ligase enzymes are often chosen, although they...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017871118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Disruption of neonatal Purkinje cell function underlies injury-related
           learning deficits [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Aaron Sathyanesan; Panagiotis Kratimenos, Vittorio Gallo
      Abstract: It is hypothesized that perinatal cerebellar injury leads to long-term functional deficits due to circuit dysmaturation. Using a novel integration of GCaMP6f fiber photometry with automated measurement of cerebellar behavior using the ErasmusLadder, we causally link cerebellar injury to altered Purkinje cell responses during maladaptive behavior. Chemogenetic inhibition of neonatal...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017876118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Photosynthesis tunes quantum-mechanical mixing of electronic and
           vibrational states to steer exciton energy transfer [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Jacob S. Higgins; Lawson T. Lloyd, Sara H. Sohail, Marco A. Allodi, John P. Otto, Rafael G. Saer, Ryan E. Wood, Sara C. Massey, Po-Chieh Ting, Robert E. Blankenship, Gregory S. Engel
      Abstract: Photosynthetic species evolved to protect their light-harvesting apparatus from photoxidative damage driven by intracellular redox conditions or environmental conditions. The Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) pigment–protein complex from green sulfur bacteria exhibits redox-dependent quenching behavior partially due to two internal cysteine residues. Here, we show evidence that a photosynthetic complex exploits the quantum...
      Keywords: Chemistry, Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018240118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • The mosquito protein AEG12 displays both cytolytic and antiviral
           properties via a common lipid transfer mechanism [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Alexander C. Y. Foo; Peter M. Thompson, Shih-Heng Chen, Ramesh Jadi, Brianna Lupo, Eugene F. DeRose, Simrat Arora, Victoria C. Placentra, Lakshmanane Premkumar, Lalith Perera, Lars C. Pedersen, Negin Martin, Geoffrey A. Mueller
      Abstract: The mosquito protein AEG12 is up-regulated in response to blood meals and flavivirus infection though its function remained elusive. Here, we determine the three-dimensional structure of AEG12 and describe the binding specificity of acyl-chain ligands within its large central hydrophobic cavity. We show that AEG12 displays hemolytic and cytolytic activity...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019251118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • The diversity and evolution of microbial dissimilatory phosphite oxidation
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Sophia D. Ewens; Alexa F. S. Gomberg, Tyler P. Barnum, Mikayla A. Borton, Hans K. Carlson, Kelly C. Wrighton, John D. Coates
      Abstract: Phosphite is the most energetically favorable chemotrophic electron donor known, with a half-cell potential (Eo′) of −650 mV for the PO43−/PO33− couple. Since the discovery of microbial dissimilatory phosphite oxidation (DPO) in 2000, the environmental distribution, evolution, and diversity of DPO microorganisms (DPOMs) have remained enigmatic, as only two species...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020024118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Evidence of a liquid-liquid transition in a glass-forming ionic liquid
           [Physics]
    • Authors: Matthew A. Harris; Thomas Kinsey, Durgesh V. Wagle, Gary A. Baker, Joshua Sangoro
      Abstract: A liquid–liquid transition (LLT) is a transformation from one liquid to another through a first-order transition. The LLT is fundamental to the understanding of the liquid state and has been reported in a few materials such as silicon, phosphorus, triphenyl phosphite, and water. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the...
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020878118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Mesoscale networks and corresponding transitions from self-assembly of
           block copolymers [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Cheng-Yen Chang; Gkreti-Maria Manesi, Chih-Ying Yang, Yu-Chueh Hung, Kai-Chieh Yang, Po-Ting Chiu, Apostolos Avgeropoulos, Rong-Ming Ho
      Abstract: A series of cubic network phases was obtained from the self-assembly of a single-composition lamellae (L)-forming block copolymer (BCP) polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) through solution casting using a PS-selective solvent. An unusual network phase in diblock copolymers, double-primitive phase (DP) with space group of Im3¯m, can be observed. With the reduction of...
      Keywords: Applied Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022275118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Distinct functional developments of surviving and eliminated presynaptic
           terminals [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Mitsuharu Midorikawa; Mariko Miyata
      Abstract: For neuronal circuits in the brain to mature, necessary synapses must be maintained and redundant synapses eliminated through experience-dependent mechanisms. However, the functional differentiation of these synapse types during the refinement process remains elusive. Here, we addressed this issue by distinct labeling and direct recordings of presynaptic terminals fated for...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022423118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Synthetic heparan sulfate standards and machine learning facilitate the
           development of solid-state nanopore analysis [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Ke Xia; James T. Hagan, Li Fu, Brian S. Sheetz, Somdatta Bhattacharya, Fuming Zhang, Jason R. Dwyer, Robert J. Linhardt
      Abstract: The application of solid-state (SS) nanopore devices to single-molecule nucleic acid sequencing has been challenging. Thus, the early successes in applying SS nanopore devices to the more difficult class of biopolymer, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), have been surprising, motivating us to examine the potential use of an SS nanopore to analyze synthetic...
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022806118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Quantification of Brucella abortus population structure in a natural host
           [Agricultural Sciences]
    • Authors: Aretha Fiebig; Catherine E. Vrentas, Thien Le, Marianne Huebner, Paola M. Boggiatto, Steven C. Olsen, Sean Crosson
      Abstract: Cattle are natural hosts of the intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus, which inflicts a significant burden on the health and reproduction of these important livestock. The primary routes of infection in field settings have been described, but it is not known how the bovine host shapes the structure of B. abortus...
      Keywords: Agricultural Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023500118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • QnAs with Naoto Nagaosa [QnAs]
    • Authors: Farooq Ahmed
      Abstract: When we think of electric current, we often envision electrons traveling along a solid medium, such as a copper wire or a circuit board. Quantum mechanics, however, provides a different picture of current, one with no easily imaginable physical analogy. Instead of flowing particles, mathematical wave-functions represent the motion of...
      Keywords: QnAs, QnAs
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102929118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Profile of James H. Hurley [Profiles]
    • Authors: Sandeep Ravindran
      Abstract: James “Jim” Hurley’s first introduction to crystal structures occurred when he was just 8 years old. While living north of Boulder, Colorado, his mother would take him to look for minerals near old mines in the mountains. “I learned the seven crystal systems at that age as part of learning...
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles, Profiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T11:26:14-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2103243118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • CD47 blockade reduces the pathologic features of experimental cerebral
           malaria and promotes survival of hosts with Plasmodium infection
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Laughing Bear Torrez Dulgeroff; Miranda S. Oakley, Michal C. Tal, Ying Ying Yiu, Joy Q. He, Maia Shoham, Victoria Majam, Winter A. Okoth, Pallavi Malla, Sanjai Kumar, Irving L. Weissman
      Abstract: CD47 is an antiphagocytic “don’t eat me” signal that inhibits programmed cell removal of self. As red blood cells (RBCs) age they lose CD47 expression and become susceptible to programmed cell removal by macrophages. CD47−/− mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii, which exhibits an age-based preference for young RBCs, were previously...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1907653118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Revealing lineage-related signals in single-cell gene expression using
           random matrix theory [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Mor Nitzan; Michael P. Brenner
      Abstract: Gene expression profiles of a cellular population, generated by single-cell RNA sequencing, contains rich information about biological state, including cell type, cell cycle phase, gene regulatory patterns, and location within the tissue of origin. A major challenge is to disentangle information about these different biological states from each other, including...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913931118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Quadruple ultrasound, photoacoustic, optical coherence, and fluorescence
           fusion imaging with a transparent ultrasound transducer [Medical Sciences]
           
    • Authors: Jeongwoo Park; Byullee Park, Tae Yeong Kim, Sungjin Jung, Woo June Choi, Joongho Ahn, Dong Hee Yoon, Jeongho Kim, Seungwan Jeon, Donghyun Lee, Uijung Yong, Jinah Jang, Won Jong Kim, Hong Kyun Kim, Unyong Jeong, Hyung Ham Kim, Chulhong Kim
      Abstract: Ultrasound and optical imagers are used widely in a variety of biological and medical applications. In particular, multimodal implementations combining light and sound have been actively investigated to improve imaging quality. However, the integration of optical sensors with opaque ultrasound transducers suffers from low signal-to-noise ratios, high complexity, and bulky...
      Keywords: Engineering, Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920879118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Brassinosteroid signaling integrates multiple pathways to release apical
           dominance in tomato [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Xiaojian Xia; Han Dong, Yanling Yin, Xuewei Song, Xiaohua Gu, Kangqi Sang, Jie Zhou, Kai Shi, Yanhong Zhou, Christine H. Foyer, Jingquan Yu
      Abstract: The control of apical dominance involves auxin, strigolactones (SLs), cytokinins (CKs), and sugars, but the mechanistic controls of this regulatory network are not fully understood. Here, we show that brassinosteroid (BR) promotes bud outgrowth in tomato through the direct transcriptional regulation of BRANCHED1 (BRC1) by the BR signaling component BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1...
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004384118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Cytokine receptor clustering in sensory neurons with an engineered
           cytokine fusion protein triggers unique pain resolution pathways
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Judith Prado; Remco H. S. Westerink, Jelena Popov-Celeketic, Cristine Steen-Louws, Aridaman Pandit, Sabine Versteeg, Wouter van de Worp, Deon H. A. J. Kanters, Kris A. Reedquist, Leo Koenderman, C. Erik Hack, Niels Eijkelkamp
      Abstract: New therapeutic approaches to resolve persistent pain are highly needed. We tested the hypothesis that manipulation of cytokine receptors on sensory neurons by clustering regulatory cytokine receptor pairs with a fusion protein of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 (IL4–10 FP) would redirect signaling pathways to optimally boost pain-resolution pathways. We demonstrate...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2009647118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Type I interferon activation and endothelial dysfunction in caveolin-1
           insufficiency-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension [Immunology and
           Inflammation]
    • Authors: Salina Gairhe; Keytam S. Awad, Edward J. Dougherty, Gabriela A. Ferreyra, Shuibang Wang, Zu-Xi Yu, Kazuyo Takeda, Cumhur Y. Demirkale, Parizad Torabi-Parizi, Eric D. Austin, Jason M. Elinoff, Robert L. Danner
      Abstract: Interferonopathies, interferon (IFN)-α/β therapy, and caveolin-1 (CAV1) loss-of-function have all been associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Here, CAV1-silenced primary human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) were proliferative and hypermigratory, with reduced cytoskeletal stress fibers. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) were...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2010206118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Decidual cell FKBP51-progesterone receptor binding mediates maternal
           stress-induced preterm birth [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Ozlem Guzeloglu-Kayisli; Nihan Semerci, Xiaofang Guo, Kellie Larsen, Asli Ozmen, Sefa Arlier, Duygu Mutluay, Chinedu Nwabuobi, Bradley Sipe, Irina Buhimschi, Catalin Buhimschi, Frederick Schatz, Umit A. Kayisli, Charles J. Lockwood
      Abstract: Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder increase the risk of idiopathic preterm birth (iPTB); however, the exact molecular mechanism is unknown. Depression and stress-related disorders are linked to increased FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) expression levels in the brain and/or FKBP5 gene polymorphisms. Fkbp5-deficient (Fkbp5−/−) mice resist stress-induced depressive and anxiety-like behaviors....
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2010282118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • The evolution of altruism through war is highly sensitive to population
           structure and to civilian and fighter mortality [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Mark Dyble
      Abstract: The importance of warfare in the evolution of human social behavior remains highly debated. One hypothesis is that intense warfare between groups favored altruism within groups, a hypothesis given some support by computational modeling and, in particular, the work of Choi and Bowles [J.-K. Choi, S. Bowles, Science 318, 636–640...
      Keywords: Anthropology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011142118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • A bird-like genome from a frog: Mechanisms of genome size reduction in the
           ornate burrowing frog, Platyplectrum ornatum [Evolution]
    • Authors: Sangeet Lamichhaney; Renee Catullo, J. Scott Keogh, Simon Clulow, Scott V. Edwards, Tariq Ezaz
      Abstract: The diversity of genome sizes across the tree of life is of key interest in evolutionary biology. Various correlates of variation in genome size, such as accumulation of transposable elements (TEs) or rate of DNA gain and loss, are well known, but the underlying molecular mechanisms driving or constraining genome...
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011649118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Screening for gene expression fluctuations reveals latency-promoting
           agents of HIV [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Yiyang Lu; Kathrin Bohn-Wippert, Patrick J. Pazerunas, Jennifer M. Moy, Harpal Singh, Roy D. Dar
      Abstract: Upon treatment removal, spontaneous reactivation of latently infected T cells remains a major barrier toward curing HIV. Therapies that reactivate and clear the latent reservoir are only partially effective, while latency-promoting agents (LPAs) used to suppress reactivation and stabilize latency are understudied and lack diversity in their mechanisms of action....
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012191118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Hexokinase 2 discerns a novel circulating tumor cell population associated
           with poor prognosis in lung cancer patients [Engineering]
    • Authors: Liu Yang; Xiaowei Yan, Jie Chen, Qiong Zhan, Yingqi Hua, Shili Xu, Ziming Li, Zhuo Wang, Yu Dong, Dongqing Zuo, Min Xue, Yin Tang, Harvey R. Herschman, Shun Lu, Qihui Shi, Wei Wei
      Abstract: Unlike other epithelial cancer types, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are less frequently detected in the peripheral blood of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients using epithelial marker–based detection approaches despite the aggressive nature of NSCLC. Here, we demonstrate hexokinase-2 (HK2) as a metabolic function–associated marker for the detection of CTCs....
      Keywords: Applied Biological Sciences, Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012228118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Behavioral responses across a mosaic of ecosystem states restructure a sea
           otter-urchin trophic cascade [Ecology]
    • Authors: Joshua G. Smith; Joseph Tomoleoni, Michelle Staedler, Sophia Lyon, Jessica Fujii, M. Tim Tinker
      Abstract: Consumer and predator foraging behavior can impart profound trait-mediated constraints on community regulation that scale up to influence the structure and stability of ecosystems. Here, we demonstrate how the behavioral response of an apex predator to changes in prey behavior and condition can dramatically alter the role and relative contribution...
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012493118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • A functional screen identifies transcriptional networks that regulate
           HIV-1 and HIV-2 [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Kyle D. Pedro; Luis M. Agosto, Jared A. Sewell, Kimberly A. Eberenz, Xianbao He, Juan I. Fuxman Bass, Andrew J. Henderson
      Abstract: The molecular networks involved in the regulation of HIV replication, transcription, and latency remain incompletely defined. To expand our understanding of these networks, we performed an unbiased high-throughput yeast one-hybrid screen, which identified 42 human transcription factors and 85 total protein–DNA interactions with HIV-1 and HIV-2 long terminal repeats. We...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012835118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Focusing climate negotiations on a uniform common commitment can promote
           cooperation [Economic Sciences]
    • Authors: Klaus M. Schmidt; Axel Ockenfels
      Abstract: International cooperation on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, disarmament, or free trade needs to be negotiated. The success of such negotiations depends on how they are designed. In the context of international climate change policy, it has been proposed [e.g., M. L. Weitzman J. Assoc. Environ. Resour. Econ. 1,...
      Keywords: Economic Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013070118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Primary differentiated respiratory epithelial cells respond to apical
           measles virus infection by shedding multinucleated giant cells
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Wen-Hsuan W. Lin; Annie J. Tsay, Erin N. Lalime, Andrew Pekosz, Diane E. Griffin
      Abstract: Measles virus (MeV) is highly infectious by the respiratory route and remains an important cause of childhood mortality. However, the process by which MeV infection is efficiently established in the respiratory tract is controversial with suggestions that respiratory epithelial cells are not susceptible to infection from the apical mucosal surface....
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013264118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Ancient noeggerathialean reveals the seed plant sister group diversified
           alongside the primary seed plant radiation [Evolution]
    • Authors: Jun Wang; Jason Hilton, Hermann W. Pfefferkorn, Shiȷun Wang, Yi Zhang, Jiri Bek, Josef Pšenička, Leyla J. Seyfullah, David Dilcher
      Abstract: Noeggerathiales are enigmatic plants that existed during Carboniferous and Permian times, ∼323 to 252 Mya. Although their morphology, diversity, and distribution are well known, their systematic affinity remained enigmatic because their anatomy was unknown. Here, we report from a 298-My-old volcanic ash deposit, an in situ, complete, anatomically preserved noeggerathialean....
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013442118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Bots are less central than verified accounts during contentious political
           events [Computer Sciences]
    • Authors: Sandra Gonzalez–Bailon; Manlio De Domenico
      Abstract: Information manipulation is widespread in today’s media environment. Online networks have disrupted the gatekeeping role of traditional media by allowing various actors to influence the public agenda; they have also allowed automated accounts (or bots) to blend with human activity in the flow of information. Here, we assess the impact...
      Keywords: Computer Sciences, Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013443118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Postbiosynthetic modification of a precursor to the nitrogenase
           iron-molybdenum cofactor [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Suppachai Srisantitham; Edward D. Badding, Daniel L. M. Suess
      Abstract: Nitrogenases utilize Fe–S clusters to reduce N2 to NH3. The large number of Fe sites in their catalytic cofactors has hampered spectroscopic investigations into their electronic structures, mechanisms, and biosyntheses. To facilitate their spectroscopic analysis, we are developing methods for incorporating 57Fe into specific sites of nitrogenase cofactors, and we...
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015361118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Time-resolved turbulent dynamo in a laser plasma [Astronomy]
    • Authors: Archie F. A. Bott; Petros Tzeferacos, Laura Chen, Charlotte A. J. Palmer, Alexandra Rigby, Anthony R. Bell, Robert Bingham, Andrew Birkel, Carlo Graziani, Dustin H. Froula, Joseph Katz, Michel Koenig, Matthew W. Kunz, Chikang Li, Jena Meinecke, Francesco Miniati, Richard Petrasso, Hye–Sook Park, Bruce A. Remington, Brian Reville, J. Steven Ross, Dongsu Ryu, Dmitri Ryutov, Fredrick H. Seguin, Thomas G. White, Alexander A. Schekochihin, Donald Q. Lamb, Gianluca Gregori
      Abstract: Understanding magnetic-field generation and amplification in turbulent plasma is essential to account for observations of magnetic fields in the universe. A theoretical framework attributing the origin and sustainment of these fields to the so-called fluctuation dynamo was recently validated by experiments on laser facilities in low-magnetic-Prandtl-number plasmas (Pm
      Keywords: Astronomy
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015729118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Antigenic cartography reveals complexities of genetic determinants that
           lead to antigenic differences among pandemic GII.4 noroviruses
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Joseph A. Kendra; Kentaro Tohma, Lauren A. Ford-Siltz, Cara J. Lepore, Gabriel I. Parra
      Abstract: Noroviruses are the predominant cause of acute gastroenteritis, with a single genotype (GII.4) responsible for the majority of infections. This prevalence is characterized by the periodic emergence of new variants that present substitutions at antigenic sites of the major structural protein (VP1), facilitating escape from herd immunity. Notably, the contribution...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015874118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Long-read assembly of a Great Dane genome highlights the contribution of
           GC-rich sequence and mobile elements to canine genomes [Genetics]
    • Authors: Julia V. Halo; Amanda L. Pendleton, Feichen Shen, Aurelien J. Doucet, Thomas Derrien, Christophe Hitte, Laura E. Kirby, Bridget Myers, Elzbieta Sliwerska, Sarah Emery, John V. Moran, Adam R. Boyko, Jeffrey M. Kidd
      Abstract: Technological advances have allowed improvements in genome reference sequence assemblies. Here, we combined long- and short-read sequence resources to assemble the genome of a female Great Dane dog. This assembly has improved continuity compared to the existing Boxer-derived (CanFam3.1) reference genome. Annotation of the Great Dane assembly identified 22,182 protein-coding...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016274118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • A unique C2 domain at the C terminus of Munc13 promotes synaptic vesicle
           priming [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Murugesh Padmanarayana; Haowen Liu, Francesco Michelassi, Lei Li, Daniel Betensky, Matthew J. Dominguez, R. Bryan Sutton, Zhitao Hu, Jeremy S. Dittman
      Abstract: Neurotransmitter release during synaptic transmission comprises a tightly orchestrated sequence of molecular events, and Munc13-1 is a cornerstone of the fusion machinery. A forward genetic screen for defects in neurotransmitter release in Caenorhabditis elegans identified a mutation in the Munc13-1 ortholog UNC-13 that eliminated its unique and deeply conserved C-terminal...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016276118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • A conserved Ctp1/CtIP C-terminal peptide stimulates Mre11 endonuclease
           activity [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Aleksandar Zdravković; James M. Daley, Ariȷit Dutta, Tatsuya Niwa, Yasuto Murayama, Shuȷi Kanamaru, Kentaro Ito, Takahisa Maki, Bilge Argunhan, Masayuki Takahashi, Hideo Tsubouchi, Patrick Sung, Hiroshi Iwasaki
      Abstract: The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex (MRN) is important for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR). The endonuclease activity of MRN is critical for resecting 5′-ended DNA strands at DSB ends, producing 3′-ended single-strand DNA, a prerequisite for HR. This endonuclease activity is stimulated by Ctp1, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe homolog...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016287118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Expansions of adaptive-like NK cells with a tissue-resident phenotype in
           human lung and blood [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Demi Brownlie; Marlena Scharenberg, Jeff E. Mold, Joanna Hard, Eliisa Kekalainen, Marcus Buggert, Son Nguyen, Jennifer N. Wilson, Mamdoh Al–Ameri, Hans–Gustaf Lȷunggren, Nicole Marquardt, Jakob Michaelsson
      Abstract: Human adaptive-like “memory” CD56dimCD16+ natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood from cytomegalovirus-seropositive individuals have been extensively investigated in recent years and are currently explored as a treatment strategy for hematological cancers. However, treatment of solid tumors remains limited due to insufficient NK cell tumor infiltration, and it is unknown...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016580118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • A class of independently evolved transcriptional repressors in plant RNA
           viruses facilitates viral infection and vector feeding [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Lulu Li; Hehong Zhang, Changhai Chen, Haijian Huang, Xiaoxiang Tan, Zhongyan Wei, Junmin Li, Fei Yan, Chuanxi Zhang, Jianping Chen, Zongtao Sun
      Abstract: Plant viruses employ diverse virulence strategies to achieve successful infection, but there are few known general strategies of viral pathogenicity and transmission used by widely different plant viruses. Here, we report a class of independently evolved virulence factors in different plant RNA viruses which possess active transcriptional repressor activity. Rice...
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016673118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • The pentapeptide-repeat protein, MfpA, interacts with mycobacterial DNA
           gyrase as a DNA T-segment mimic [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Lipeng Feng; Julia E. A. Mundy, Clare E. M. Stevenson, Lesley A. Mitchenall, David M. Lawson, Kaixia Mi, Anthony Maxwell
      Abstract: DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, introduces negative supercoils into DNA using ATP hydrolysis. The highly effective gyrase-targeted drugs, fluoroquinolones (FQs), interrupt gyrase by stabilizing a DNA-cleavage complex, a transient intermediate in the supercoiling cycle, leading to double-stranded DNA breaks. MfpA, a pentapeptide-repeat protein in mycobacteria, protects gyrase from FQs,...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016705118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Enhanced cytarabine-induced killing in OGG1-deficient acute myeloid
           leukemia cells [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Nichole Owen; Irina G. Minko, Samantha A. Moellmer, Sydney K. Cammann, R. Stephen Lloyd, Amanda K. McCullough
      Abstract: Human clinical trials suggest that inhibition of enzymes in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway, such as PARP1 and APE1, can be useful in anticancer strategies when combined with certain DNA-damaging agents or tumor-specific genetic deficiencies. There is also evidence suggesting that inhibition of the BER enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016833118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • {beta}2-adrenoceptor ligand efficacy is tuned by a two-stage interaction
           with the G{alpha}s C terminus [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Keehun Kim; Shayla Paulekas, Fredrik Sadler, Tejas M. Gupte, Michael Ritt, Matthew Dysthe, Nagarajan Vaidehi, Sivaraj Sivaramakrishnan
      Abstract: Classical pharmacological models have incorporated an “intrinsic efficacy” parameter to capture system-independent effects of G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands. However, the nonlinear serial amplification of downstream signaling limits quantitation of ligand intrinsic efficacy. A recent biophysical study has characterized a ligand “molecular efficacy” that quantifies the influence of ligand-dependent receptor...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017201118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Determining the nonequilibrium criticality of a Gardner transition via a
           hybrid study of molecular simulations and machine learning [Physics]
    • Authors: Huaping Li; Yuliang Jin, Ying Jiang, Jeff Z. Y. Chen
      Abstract: Apparent critical phenomena, typically indicated by growing correlation lengths and dynamical slowing down, are ubiquitous in nonequilibrium systems such as supercooled liquids, amorphous solids, active matter, and spin glasses. It is often challenging to determine if such observations are related to a true second-order phase transition as in the equilibrium...
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017392118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Interventions can shift the thermal optimum for parasitic disease
           transmission [Ecology]
    • Authors: Karena H. Nguyen; Philipp H. Boersch-Supan, Rachel B. Hartman, Sandra Y. Mendiola, Valerie J. Harwood, David J. Civitello, Jason R. Rohr
      Abstract: Temperature constrains the transmission of many pathogens. Interventions that target temperature-sensitive life stages, such as vector control measures that kill intermediate hosts, could shift the thermal optimum of transmission, thereby altering seasonal disease dynamics and rendering interventions less effective at certain times of the year and with global climate change....
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017537118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Acetylcholine ameliorates colitis by promoting IL-10 secretion of
           monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells through the nAChR/ERK pathway
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Wanwei Zheng; Huan Song, Zhongguang Luo, Hao Wu, Lin Chen, Yuedi Wang, Haoshu Cui, Yufei Zhang, Bangting Wang, Wenshuai Li, Yao Liu, Jun Zhang, Yiwei Chu, Feifei Luo, Jie Liu
      Abstract: The alteration of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its role in neuroimmune modulation remain obscure in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Here, by using the xCell tool and the latest immunolabeling-enabled three-dimensional (3D) imaging of solvent-cleared organs technique, we found severe pathological damage of the entire ENS...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017762118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Structural and functional dissection of reovirus capsid folding and
           assembly by the prefoldin-TRiC/CCT chaperone network [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Jonathan J. Knowlton; Daniel Gestaut, Boxue Ma, Gwen Taylor, Alpay Burak Seven, Alexander Leitner, Gregory J. Wilson, Sreejesh Shanker, Nathan A. Yates, B. V. Venkataram Prasad, Ruedi Aebersold, Wah Chiu, Judith Frydman, Terence S. Dermody
      Abstract: Intracellular protein homeostasis is maintained by a network of chaperones that function to fold proteins into their native conformation. The eukaryotic TRiC chaperonin (TCP1-ring complex, also called CCT for cytosolic chaperonin containing TCP1) facilitates folding of a subset of proteins with folding constraints such as complex topologies. To better understand...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018127118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Dual-process brain mitochondria isolation preserves function and clarifies
           protein composition [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Maria F. Noterman; Kalyani Chaubey, Kristi Lin-Rahardja, Anjali M. Rajadhyaksha, Andrew A. Pieper, Eric B. Taylor
      Abstract: The brain requires continuously high energy production to maintain ion gradients and normal function. Mitochondria critically undergird brain energetics, and mitochondrial abnormalities feature prominently in neuropsychiatric disease. However, many unique aspects of brain mitochondria composition and function are poorly understood. Developing improved neuroprotective therapeutics thus requires more comprehensively understanding brain...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019046118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • The intracellular environment affects protein-protein interactions
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Shannon L. Speer; Wenwen Zheng, Xin Jiang, I-Te Chu, Alex J. Guseman, Maili Liu, Gary J. Pielak, Conggang Li
      Abstract: Protein–protein interactions are essential for life but rarely thermodynamically quantified in living cells. In vitro efforts show that protein complex stability is modulated by high concentrations of cosolutes, including synthetic polymers, proteins, and cell lysates via a combination of hard-core repulsions and chemical interactions. We quantified the stability of a...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019918118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Neuromechanical wave resonance in jellyfish swimming [Applied Biological
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Alexander P. Hoover; Nicole W. Xu, Brad J. Gemmell, Sean P. Colin, John H. Costello, John O. Dabiri, Laura A. Miller
      Abstract: For organisms to have robust locomotion, their neuromuscular organization must adapt to constantly changing environments. In jellyfish, swimming robustness emerges when marginal pacemakers fire action potentials throughout the bell’s motor nerve net, which signals the musculature to contract. The speed of the muscle activation wave is dictated by the passage...
      Keywords: Applied Biological Sciences, Applied Mathematics
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020025118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Genetic deletion of Nox4 enhances cancerogen-induced formation of solid
           tumors [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Valeska Helfinger; Florian Freiherr von Gall, Nina Henke, Michael M. Kunze, Tobias Schmid, Flavia Rezende, Juliana Heidler, Ilka Wittig, Heinfried H. Radeke, Viola Marschall, Karen Anderson, Aȷay M. Shah, Simone Fulda, Bernhard Brune, Ralf P. Brandes, Katrin Schroder
      Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause cellular damage and promote cancer development. Besides such harmful consequences of overproduction of ROS, all cells utilize ROS for signaling purposes and stabilization of cell homeostasis. In particular, the latter is supported by the NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) that constitutively produces low amounts of...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020152118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • DNMT1 maintains metabolic fitness of adipocytes through acting as an
           epigenetic safeguard of mitochondrial dynamics [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Yoon Jeong Park; Sangseon Lee, Sangsoo Lim, Hahn Nahmgoong, Yul Ji, Jin Young Huh, Assim A. Alfadda, Sun Kim, Jae Bum Kim
      Abstract: White adipose tissue (WAT) is a key regulator of systemic energy metabolism, and impaired WAT plasticity characterized by enlargement of preexisting adipocytes associates with WAT dysfunction, obesity, and metabolic complications. However, the mechanisms that retain proper adipose tissue plasticity required for metabolic fitness are unclear. Here, we comprehensively showed that...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021073118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Cryo-EM structure and kinetics reveal electron transfer by 2D diffusion of
           cytochrome c in the yeast III-IV respiratory supercomplex [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Agnes Moe; Justin Di Trani, John L. Rubinstein, Peter Brzezinski
      Abstract: Energy conversion in aerobic organisms involves an electron current from low-potential donors, such as NADH and succinate, to dioxygen through the membrane-bound respiratory chain. Electron transfer is coupled to transmembrane proton transport, which maintains the electrochemical proton gradient used to produce ATP and drive other cellular processes. Electrons are transferred...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021157118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Improved photosynthetic capacity and photosystem I oxidation via
           heterologous metabolism engineering in cyanobacteria [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Maria Santos–Merino; Aleȷandro Torrado, Geoffry A. Davis, Annika Rottig, Thomas S. Bibby, David M. Kramer, Daniel C. Ducat
      Abstract: Cyanobacteria must prevent imbalances between absorbed light energy (source) and the metabolic capacity (sink) to utilize it to protect their photosynthetic apparatus against damage. A number of photoprotective mechanisms assist in dissipating excess absorbed energy, including respiratory terminal oxidases and flavodiiron proteins, but inherently reduce photosynthetic efficiency. Recently, it has...
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021523118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Involvement of cytotoxic Eomes-expressing CD4+ T cells in secondary
           progressive multiple sclerosis [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Ben J. E. Raveney; Wakiro Sato, Daiki Takewaki, Chenyang Zhang, Tomomi Kanazawa, Youwei Lin, Tomoko Okamoto, Manabu Araki, Yukio Kimura, Noriko Sato, Terunori Sano, Yuko Saito, Shinji Oki, Takashi Yamamura
      Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS), a putative autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), commonly presents as relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), characterized by recurrent episodes of peripheral disabling symptoms resulting from inflammatory CNS damage. Many RRMS patients transition to a chronic disease course with progressive neurological dysfunctions (secondary progressive MS, SPMS), with...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021818118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Kinetic analysis reveals that independent nucleation events determine the
           progression of polyglutamine aggregation in C. elegans [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Tessa Sinnige; Georg Meisl, Thomas C. T. Michaels, Michele Vendruscolo, Tuomas P. J. Knowles, Richard I. Morimoto
      Abstract: Protein aggregation is associated with a wide range of degenerative human diseases with devastating consequences, as exemplified by Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. In vitro kinetic studies have provided a mechanistic understanding of the aggregation process at the molecular level. However, it has so far remained largely unclear to what...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021888118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Legume-microbiome interactions unlock mineral nutrients in regrowing
           tropical forests [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Dimitar Z. Epihov; Kristin Saltonstall, Sarah A. Batterman, Lars O. Hedin, Jefferson S. Hall, Michiel van Breugel, Jonathan R. Leake, David J. Beerling
      Abstract: Legume trees form an abundant and functionally important component of tropical forests worldwide with N2-fixing symbioses linked to enhanced growth and recruitment in early secondary succession. However, it remains unclear how N2-fixers meet the high demands for inorganic nutrients imposed by rapid biomass accumulation on nutrient-poor tropical soils. Here, we...
      Keywords: Ecology, Environmental Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022241118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Thrombomodulin is essential for maintaining quiescence in vascular
           endothelial cells [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Hemant Giri; Sumith R. Panicker, Xiaofeng Cai, Indranil Biswas, Hartmut Weiler, Alireza R. Rezaie
      Abstract: Thrombomodulin (TM) is a thrombin receptor on endothelial cells that is involved in promoting activation of the anticoagulant protein C pathway during blood coagulation. TM also exerts protective anti-inflammatory properties through a poorly understood mechanism. In this study, we investigated the importance of TM signaling to cellular functions by deleting...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022248118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Nonlinear elasticity of biological basement membrane revealed by rapid
           inflation and deflation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Hui Li; Yue Zheng, Yu Long Han, Shengqiang Cai, Ming Guo
      Abstract: Basement membrane (BM) is a thin layer of extracellular matrix that surrounds most animal tissues, serving as a physical barrier while allowing nutrient exchange. Although they have important roles in tissue structural integrity, physical properties of BMs remain largely uncharacterized, which limits our understanding of their mechanical functions. Here, we...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022422118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Archaeomagnetic results from Cambodia in Southeast Asia: Evidence for
           possible low-latitude flux expulsion [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Shuhui Cai; Rashida Doctor, Lisa Tauxe, Mitch Hendrickson, Quan Hua, Stephanie Leroy, Kaseka Phon
      Abstract: Extensive spatial and temporal distribution of high-quality data are essential for understanding regional and global behaviors of the geomagnetic field. We carried out chronological and archaeomagnetic studies at the Angkor-era iron-smelting site of Tonle Bak in Cambodia in Southeast Asia, an area with no data available to date. We recovered...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022490118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Therapeutic targeting of FOS in mutant TERT cancers through removing TERT
           suppression of apoptosis via regulating survivin and TRAIL-R2 [Medical
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Rengyun Liu; Jie Tan, Xiaopei Shen, Ke Jiang, Chaoqun Wang, Guangwu Zhu, Mingzhao Xing
      Abstract: The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has long been pursued as a direct therapeutic target in human cancer, which is currently hindered by the lack of effective specific inhibitors of TERT. The FOS/GABPB/(mutant) TERT cascade plays a critical role in the regulation of mutant TERT, in which FOS acts as a...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022779118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Ultrafast nanometric imaging of energy flow within and between single
           carbon dots [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Huy A. Nguyen; Indrajit Srivastava, Dipanjan Pan, Martin Gruebele
      Abstract: Time- and space-resolved excited states at the individual nanoparticle level provide fundamental insights into heterogeneous energy, electron, and heat flow dynamics. Here, we optically excite carbon dots to image electron–phonon dynamics within single dots and nanoscale thermal transport between two dots. We use a scanning tunneling microscope tip as a...
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023083118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Early fMRI responses to somatosensory and optogenetic stimulation reflect
           neural information flow [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Won Beom Jung; Geun Ho Im, Haiyan Jiang, Seong-Gi Kim
      Abstract: Blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to localize brain functions. To further advance understanding of brain functions, it is critical to understand the direction of information flow, such as thalamocortical versus corticothalamic projections. For this work, we performed ultrahigh spatiotemporal resolution fMRI at...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023265118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • A specific RIP3+ subpopulation of microglia promotes retinopathy through a
           hypoxia-triggered necroptotic mechanism [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Chang He; Yan Liu, Zijing Huang, Ziqi Yang, Tian Zhou, Sheng Liu, Zhaozhe Hao, Jing Wang, Qiumin Feng, Yizhi Liu, Yihai Cao, Xialin Liu
      Abstract: Retinal neovascularization is a leading cause of severe visual loss in humans, and molecular mechanisms of microglial activation-driven angiogenesis remain unknown. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we identified a subpopulation of microglia named sMG2, which highly expressed necroptosis-related genes Rip3 and Mlkl. Genetic and pharmacological loss of function demonstrated that hypoxia-induced...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023290118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Therapy for Argentine hemorrhagic fever in nonhuman primates with a
           humanized monoclonal antibody [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Larry Zeitlin; Robert W. Cross, Joan B. Geisbert, Viktoriya Borisevich, Krystle N. Agans, Abhishek N. Prasad, Sven Enterlein, M. Javad Aman, Zachary A. Bornholdt, Miles B. Brennan, Lioudmila Campbell, Do Kim, Neil Mlakar, Crystal L. Moyer, Michael H. Pauly, William Shestowsky, Kevin J. Whaley, Karla A. Fenton, Thomas W. Geisbert
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has reemphasized the need to identify safe and scalable therapeutics to slow or reverse symptoms of disease caused by newly emerging and reemerging viral pathogens. Recent clinical successes of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapy for viral infections demonstrate that mAbs offer a solution for these emerging biothreats....
      Keywords: Applied Biological Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023332118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Biochemical cartilage changes based on MRI-defined T2 relaxation times do
           not equal OA detection [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Frank W. Roemer; Ali Guermazi
      Abstract: We read, with great interest, the recent PNAS publication by Kundu et al. (1). We wish to comment on several aspects of this research. The abstract states that subjects included were free of symptoms. However, figure 7 in ref. 1 shows that the inclusion definition was a total Western Ontario...
      Keywords: Computer Sciences, Letters, Medical Sciences, Letters and Replies
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023833118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is essential for the pathogenesis of pulmonary
           arterial hypertension [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Takeshi Masaki; Makoto Okazawa, Ryotaro Asano, Tadakatsu Inagaki, Tomohiko Ishibashi, Akiko Yamagishi, Saori Umeki-Mizushima, Manami Nishimura, Yusuke Manabe, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Manabu Shirai, Hirotsugu Tsuchimochi, James T Pearson, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Yasushi Sakata, Takeshi Ogo, Tadamitsu Kishimoto, Yoshikazu Nakaoka
      Abstract: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by arteriopathy in the small to medium-sized distal pulmonary arteries, often accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a nuclear receptor/transcription factor, detoxifies xenobiotics and regulates the differentiation and function of various immune cells. However, the role of...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023899118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Clutch mechanism of chemomechanical coupling in a DNA resecting motor
           nuclease [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Mihaela-Carmen Unciuleac; Aviv Meir, Chaoyou Xue, Garrett M. Warren, Eric C. Greene, Stewart Shuman
      Abstract: Mycobacterial AdnAB is a heterodimeric helicase–nuclease that initiates homologous recombination by resecting DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The N-terminal motor domain of the AdnB subunit hydrolyzes ATP to drive rapid and processive 3′ to 5′ translocation of AdnAB on the tracking DNA strand. ATP hydrolysis is mechanically productive when oscillating protein...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023955118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Structure of Arabidopsis CESA3 catalytic domain with its substrate
           UDP-glucose provides insight into the mechanism of cellulose synthesis
           [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Zhu Qiao; Edwin R. Lampugnani, Xin–Fu Yan, Ghazanfar Abbas Khan, Wuan Geok Saw, Patrick Hannah, Feng Qian, Jacob Calabria, Yansong Miao, Gerhard Gruber, Staffan Persson, Yong–Gui Gao
      Abstract: Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthases (CESAs) from the glycosyltransferase GT-2 family. In plants, the CESAs form a six-lobed rosette-shaped CESA complex (CSC). Here we report crystal structures of the catalytic domain of Arabidopsis thaliana CESA3 (AtCESA3CatD) in both apo and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose (UDP-Glc)–bound forms. AtCESA3CatD has an overall...
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024015118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Photoinduced hole hopping through tryptophans in proteins [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Stanislav Zališ; Jan Heyda, Filip Šebesta, Jay R. Winkler, Harry B. Gray, Antonin Vlček
      Abstract: Hole hopping through tryptophan/tyrosine chains enables rapid unidirectional charge transport over long distances. We have elucidated structural and dynamical factors controlling hopping speed and efficiency in two modified azurin constructs that include a rhenium(I) sensitizer, Re(His)(CO)3(dmp)+, and one or two tryptophans (W1, W2). Experimental kinetics investigations showed that the two...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024627118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Reply to Roemer and Guermazi: Early biochemical changes on MRI can predict
           risk of symptomatic progression [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Shinjini Kundu; Beth G. Ashinsky, Mustapha Bouhrara, Erik B. Dam, Shadpour Demehri, M. Shifat-E-Rabbi, Richard G. Spencer, Kenneth L. Urish, Gustavo K. Rohde
      Abstract: We thank Roemer and Guermazi for their Letter, “Biochemical cartilage changes based on MRI-defined T2 relaxation times do not equal OA detection” (1). In their comments on our paper (2), the authors (1) raise questions about osteoarthritis (OA) incidence, visual signs of disease on the images, MRI-based scoring systems, and...
      Keywords: Computer Sciences, Letters, Medical Sciences, Letters and Replies
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024679118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Unveiling the “invisible” druggable conformations of GDP-bound
           inactive Ras [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Dan Liu; Yunyun Mao, Xue Gu, Yang Zhou, Dong Long
      Abstract: The prevalent view on whether Ras is druggable has gradually changed in the recent decade with the discovery of effective inhibitors binding to cryptic sites unseen in the native structures. Despite the promising advances, therapeutics development toward higher potency and specificity is challenged by the elusive nature of these binding...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024725118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Life expectancy in adulthood is falling for those without a BA degree, but
           as educational gaps have widened, racial gaps have narrowed [Social
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Anne Case; Angus Deaton
      Abstract: A 4-y college degree is increasingly the key to good jobs and, ultimately, to good lives in an ever-more meritocratic and unequal society. The bachelor’s degree (BA) is increasingly dividing Americans; the one-third with a BA or more live longer and more prosperous lives, while the two-thirds without face rising...
      Keywords: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024777118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • A 4,565-My-old andesite from an extinct chondritic protoplanet [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Jean-Alix Barrat; Marc Chaussidon, Akira Yamaguchi, Pierre Beck, Johan Villeneuve, David J. Byrne, Michael W. Broadley, Bernard Marty
      Abstract: The age of iron meteorites implies that accretion of protoplanets began during the first millions of years of the solar system. Due to the heat generated by 26Al decay, many early protoplanets were fully differentiated with an igneous crust produced during the cooling of a magma ocean and the segregation...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026129118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Modeling programmable drug delivery in bioelectronics with electrochemical
           actuation [Engineering]
    • Authors: Raudel Avila; Chenhang Li, Yeguang Xue, John A. Rogers, Yonggang Huang
      Abstract: Drug delivery systems featuring electrochemical actuation represent an emerging class of biomedical technology with programmable volume/flowrate capabilities for localized delivery. Recent work establishes applications in neuroscience experiments involving small animals in the context of pharmacological response. However, for programmable delivery, the available flowrate control and delivery time models fail to...
      Keywords: Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026405118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Rapidly deployable and morphable 3D mesostructures with applications in
           multimodal biomedical devices [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Fan Zhang; Shupeng Li, Zhangming Shen, Xu Cheng, Zhaoguo Xue, Hang Zhang, Honglie Song, Ke Bai, Dongjia Yan, Heling Wang, Yihui Zhang, Yonggang Huang
      Abstract: Structures that significantly and rapidly change their shapes and sizes upon external stimuli have widespread applications in a diversity of areas. The ability to miniaturize these deployable and morphable structures is essential for applications in fields that require high-spatial resolution or minimal invasiveness, such as biomechanics sensing, surgery, and biopsy....
      Keywords: Applied Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026414118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • A synthetic 5,3-cross-link in the cell wall of rod-shaped Gram-positive
           bacteria [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: David A. Dik; Nan Zhang, Emily J. Sturgell, Brittany B. Sanchez, Jason S. Chen, Bill Webb, Kimberly G. Vanderpool, Peter G. Schultz
      Abstract: Gram-positive bacteria assemble a multilayered cell wall that provides tensile strength to the cell. The cell wall is composed of glycan strands cross-linked by nonribosomally synthesized peptide stems. Herein, we modify the peptide stems of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis with noncanonical electrophilic d-amino acids, which when in proximity to...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100137118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Loss of expression of both miR-15/16 loci in CML transition to blast
           crisis [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Francesca Lovat; Pierluigi Gasparini, Giovanni Nigita, Karilyn Larkin, John C. Byrd, Mark D. Minden, Michael Andreeff, Bing Z. Carter, Carlo M. Croce
      Abstract: Despite advances that have improved the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients in chronic phase, the mechanisms of the transition from chronic phase CML to blast crisis (BC) are not fully understood. Considering the key role of miR-15/16 loci in the pathogenesis of myeloid and lymphocytic leukemia, here we...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101566118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Finlay et al., The hygiene hypothesis, the COVID pandemic,
           and consequences for the human microbiome [Corrections]
    • Abstract: MICROBIOLOGY Correction for “The hygiene hypothesis, the COVID pandemic, and consequences for the human microbiome,” by B. Brett Finlay, Katherine R. Amato, Meghan Azad, Martin J. Blaser, Thomas C. G. Bosch, Hiutung Chu, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Stanislav Dusko Ehrlich, Eran Elinav, Naama Geva-Zatorsky, Philippe Gros, Karen Guillemin, Frédéric Keck, Tal...
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102333118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Jensen et al., Multiple cannabinoid signaling cascades
           
    • Abstract: NEUROSCIENCE Correction for “Multiple cannabinoid signaling cascades powerfully suppress recurrent excitation in the hippocampus,” by Kyle R. Jensen, Coralie Berthoux, Kaoutsar Nasrallah, and Pablo E. Castillo, which published January 19, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2017590118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2017590118). The authors note that Fig. 1 appeared incorrectly. Symbols in Fig....
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-03-08T12:04:09-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102334118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • POLArIS, a versatile probe for molecular orientation, revealed actin
           filaments associated with microtubule asters in early embryos [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Ayana Sugizaki; Keisuke Sato, Kazuyoshi Chiba, Kenta Saito, Masahiko Kawagishi, Yuri Tomabechi, Shalin B. Mehta, Hirokazu Ishii, Naoki Sakai, Mikako Shirouzu, Tomomi Tani, Sumio Terada
      Abstract: Biomolecular assemblies govern the physiology of cells. Their function often depends on the changes in molecular arrangements of constituents, both in the positions and orientations. While recent advancements of fluorescence microscopy including super-resolution microscopy have enabled us to determine the positions of fluorophores with unprecedented accuracy, monitoring the orientation of...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T12:21:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019071118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Genome wide association study of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical
           spastic paraparesis in the Japanese population [Genetics]
    • Authors: Marina Penova; Shuji Kawaguchi, Jun-ichirou Yasunaga, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Tomoo Sato, Meiko Takahashi, Masakazu Shimizu, Mineki Saito, Kunihiro Tsukasaki, Masanori Nakagawa, Norihiro Takenouchi, Hideo Hara, Eiji Matsuura, Satoshi Nozuma, Hiroshi Takashima, Shuji Izumo, Toshiki Watanabe, Kaoru Uchimaru, Masako Iwanaga, Atae Utsunomiya, Yasuharu Tabara, Richard Paul, Yoshihisa Yamano, Masao Matsuoka, Fumihiko Matsuda
      Abstract: HTLV-1–associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP) is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. The aim of our study was to identify genetic determinants related to the onset of HAM/TSP in the Japanese population. We conducted a genome-wide association study comprising 753 HAM/TSP patients and 899 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers....
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:04:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004199118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • From driverless dilemmas to more practical commonsense tests for automated
           vehicles [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Julian De Freitas; Andrea Censi, Bryant Walker Smith, Luigi Di Lillo, Sam E. Anthony, Emilio Frazzoli
      Abstract: For the first time in history, automated vehicles (AVs) are being deployed in populated environments. This unprecedented transformation of our everyday lives demands a significant undertaking: endowing complex autonomous systems with ethically acceptable behavior. We outline how one prominent, ethically relevant component of AVs—driving behavior—is inextricably linked to stakeholders in...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Perspectives
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:04:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2010202118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Unique molecular characteristics and microglial origin of Kv1.3
           channel-positive brain myeloid cells in Alzheimer’s disease
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Supriya Ramesha; Sruti Rayaprolu, Christine A. Bowen, Cynthia R. Giver, Sara Bitarafan, Hai M. Nguyen, Tianwen Gao, Michael J. Chen, Ngozi Nwabueze, Eric B. Dammer, Amanda K. Engstrom, Hailian Xiao, Andrea Pennati, Nicholas T. Seyfried, David J. Katz, Jacques Galipeau, Heike Wulff, Edmund K. Waller, Levi B. Wood, Allan I. Levey, Srikant Rangaraju
      Abstract: Kv1.3 potassium channels, expressed by proinflammatory central nervous system mononuclear phagocytes (CNS-MPs), are promising therapeutic targets for modulating neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The molecular characteristics of Kv1.3-high CNS-MPs and their cellular origin from microglia or CNS-infiltrating monocytes are unclear. While Kv1.3 blockade reduces amyloid beta (Aβ) burden in mouse...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:04:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013545118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Zaki et al., Time-reversal symmetry breaking in the
           Fe-chalcogenide superconductors [Corrections]
    • Abstract: APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Time-reversal symmetry breaking in the Fe-chalcogenide superconductors,” by Nader Zaki, Genda Gu, Alexei Tsvelik, Congjun Wu, and Peter D. Johnson, which was first published January 12, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2007241118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2007241118). The authors note that the Acknowledgements section should have appeared...
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:04:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102165118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Kerelsky et al., Moireless correlations in ABCA graphene
           [Corrections]
    • Abstract: APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Moiréless correlations in ABCA graphene,” by Alexander Kerelsky, Carmen Rubio-Verdú, Lede Xian, Dante M. Kennes, Dorri Halbertal, Nathan Finney, Larry Song, Simon Turkel, Lei Wang, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, James Hone, Cory Dean, Dmitri N. Basov, Angel Rubio, and Abhay N. Pasupathy, which first published...
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:04:31-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102335118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Retail store customer flow and COVID-19 transmission [Applied Biological
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Robert A. Shumsky; Laurens Debo, Rebecca M. Lebeaux, Quang P. Nguyen, Anne G. Hoen
      Abstract: We examine how operational changes in customer flows in retail stores affect the rate of COVID-19 transmission. We combine a model of customer movement with two models of disease transmission: direct exposure when two customers are in close proximity and wake exposure when one customer is in the airflow behind...
      Keywords: Applied Biological Sciences, Applied Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-02-26T11:49:29-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019225118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via fomite, especially cold chain, should not
           be ignored [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Weilong Ji; Xue Li, Si Chen, Linzhu Ren
      Abstract: In PNAS, Taylor et al. (1) show that livestock-processing plants are closely associated with local community transmission of COVID-19. Moreover, Pastorino et al. (2), as well as reports from China recently, demonstrated that fomite transmission, especially cold-chain products contaminated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), acts as vectors...
      Keywords: Economic Sciences, Letters, Letters and Replies, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-02-26T11:49:29-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026093118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Vaccinating the oldest against COVID-19 saves both the most lives and most
           years of life [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Joshua R. Goldstein; Thomas Cassidy, Kenneth W. Wachter
      Abstract: Many competing criteria are under consideration for prioritizing COVID-19 vaccination. Two criteria based on age are demographic: lives saved and years of future life saved. Vaccinating the very old against COVID-19 saves the most lives, but, since older age is accompanied by falling life expectancy, it is widely supposed that...
      Keywords: Social Sciences, Brief Reports, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-02-25T11:07:12-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026322118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Berni Julian Alder, theoretical physicist and inventor of molecular
           dynamics, 1925-2020 [Retrospectives]
    • Authors: David M. Ceperley; Stephen B. Libby
      Abstract: Berni Julian Alder, one of the leading figures in the invention of molecular dynamics simulations used for a wide array of problems in physics and chemistry, died on September 7, 2020. His career, spanning more than 65 years, transformed statistical mechanics, many body physics, the study of chemistry, and the...
      Keywords: Retrospectives, Retrospectives
      PubDate: 2021-02-23T08:26:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024252118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Unifying chemical and biological perspectives of carbon accumulation in
           the environment [Ecology]
    • Authors: Daniel J. Repeta
      Abstract: Heterotrophic microorganisms are fiendishly clever at degrading all shapes and sizes of organic compounds to extract the energy they need to build biomass. Every year marine phytoplankton fix ∼50 billion tons of carbon dioxide into organic matter, and every year marine heterotrophs respire nearly all of this organic matter back...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Ecology, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-02-23T08:26:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100935118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Linking human behaviors and infectious diseases [Population Biology]
    • Authors: Nita Bharti
      Abstract: Human behaviors determine outbreak trajectories of infectious diseases. This fundamental relationship underlies why broad behavioral interventions (BIs) are effective tools in outbreak management. BIs target an overall reduction in contacts and behaviors that enable pathogen transmission as a nonspecific solution for preventing new infections. Despite that, there is a lot...
      Keywords: Population Biology, Commentaries, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-02-23T08:26:05-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101345118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Targeting RNA polymerase II Mediator subunits in cancer therapy [Cell
           Biology]
    • Authors: Harinder Singh
      Abstract: Targeting Transcription Factors in Cancer Human cancers undergo an extremely diverse range of DNA mutations and rearrangements to generate oncogenes and to inactivate tumor suppressors in the process of their malignant transformation. As a consequence, decades of research have focused on the genes and the molecular pathways as well as...
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T11:27:06-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100115118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • Biodiversity and community structure [Ecology]
    • Authors: Gyorgy Barabas
      Abstract: In natural plant communities, one finds ample examples of both competitive and facilitative interactions. The effect of a species A on another species B is said to be competitive (facilitative) if an increase in A’s population size reduces (enhances) the population growth rate of B. Competition may arise if two...
      Keywords: Ecology, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T11:27:06-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101176118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 11 (2021)
       
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Abstract: ANTHROPOLOGY Wine trade in medieval Islamic Sicily An amphora produced in Palermo between 900 and 1100 CE. Wine was a popular good traded amid the Roman Empire. However, it is unclear whether wine trade in Sicily continued during the Byzantine–Islamic transition. To distinguish remnants of grapevine products from other fruit-based...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2021-03-09T09:50:33-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti1021118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • How the growth of ice depends on the fluid dynamics underneath
           [Engineering]
    • Authors: Ziqi Wang; Enrico Calzavarini, Chao Sun, Federico Toschi
      Abstract: Convective flows coupled with solidification or melting in water bodies play a major role in shaping geophysical landscapes. Particularly in relation to the global climate warming scenario, it is essential to be able to accurately quantify how water-body environments dynamically interplay with ice formation or melting process. Previous studies have...
      Keywords: Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T12:21:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012870118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Complexity and graded regulation of neuronal cell-type-specific
           alternative splicing revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing [Neuroscience]
           
    • Authors: Huijuan Feng; Daniel F. Moakley, Shuonan Chen, Melissa G. McKenzie, Vilas Menon, Chaolin Zhang
      Abstract: The enormous cellular diversity in the mammalian brain, which is highly prototypical and organized in a hierarchical manner, is dictated by cell-type–specific gene-regulatory programs at the molecular level. Although prevalent in the brain, the contribution of alternative splicing (AS) to the molecular diversity across neuronal cell types is just starting...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T12:21:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013056118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus is associated with osteosarcoma in
           Xinȷiang populations [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Qian Chen; Jiangtao Chen, Yuqing Li, Dawei Liu, Yan Zeng, Zheng Tian, Akbar Yunus, Yong Yang, Jie Lu, Xinghua Song, Yan Yuan
      Abstract: Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant tumor of bone predominately affecting adolescents and young adults. Based on animal studies, a viral etiology of osteosarcoma was proposed more than a half-century ago, but no viral association with human osteosarcoma has been found. The Uyghur ethnic population in Xinjiang, China, has an...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T12:21:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016653118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Seipin accumulates and traps diacylglycerols and triglycerides in its
           ring-like structure [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Valeria Zoni; Rasha Khaddaj, Ivan Lukmantara, Wataru Shinoda, Hongyuan Yang, Roger Schneiter, Stefano Vanni
      Abstract: Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles responsible for lipid storage, and they emerge from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) upon the accumulation of neutral lipids, mostly triglycerides (TG), between the two leaflets of the ER membrane. LD biogenesis takes place at ER sites that are marked by the protein seipin, which...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T12:21:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017205118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Volitional learning promotes theta phase coding in the human hippocampus
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Daniel Pacheco Estefan; Riccardo Zucca, Xerxes Arsiwalla, Alessandro Principe, Hui Zhang, Rodrigo Rocamora, Nikolai Axmacher, Paul F. M. J. Verschure
      Abstract: Electrophysiological studies in rodents show that active navigation enhances hippocampal theta oscillations (4–12 Hz), providing a temporal framework for stimulus-related neural codes. Here we show that active learning promotes a similar phase coding regime in humans, although in a lower frequency range (3–8 Hz). We analyzed intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) from...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T12:21:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021238118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Charting the sequence-activity landscape of peptide inhibitors of
           translation termination [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Chetana Baliga; Tyler J. Brown, Tanȷa Florin, Sarah Colon, Vallari Shah, Kornelia J. Skowron, Amira Kefi, Teresa Szal, Dorota Klepacki, Terry W. Moore, Nora Vazquez–Laslop, Alexander S. Mankin
      Abstract: Apidaecin (Api), an unmodified 18-amino-acid-long proline-rich antibacterial peptide produced by bees, has been recently described as a specific inhibitor of translation termination. It invades the nascent peptide exit tunnel of the postrelease ribosome and traps the release factors preventing their recycling. Api binds in the exit tunnel in an extended...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T12:21:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026465118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Collagen’s enigmatic, highly conserved N-glycan has an essential
           proteostatic function [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Rasia C. Li; Madeline Y. Wong, Andrew S. DiChiara, Azade S. Hosseini, Matthew D. Shoulders
      Abstract: Intracellular procollagen folding begins at the protein’s C-terminal propeptide (C-Pro) domain, which initiates triple-helix assembly and defines the composition and chain register of fibrillar collagen trimers. The C-Pro domain is later proteolytically cleaved and excreted from the body, while the mature triple helix is incorporated into the extracellular matrix. The...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-05T12:21:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026608118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Negative regulation of plastidial isoprenoid pathway by herbivore-induced
           {beta}-cyclocitral in Arabidopsis thaliana [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Sirsha Mitra; Roger Estrada-Tejedor, Daniel C. Volke, Michael A. Phillips, Jonathan Gershenzon, Louwrance P. Wright
      Abstract: Insect damage to plants is known to up-regulate defense and down-regulate growth processes. While there are frequent reports about up-regulation of defense signaling and production of defense metabolites in response to herbivory, much less is understood about the mechanisms by which growth and carbon assimilation are down-regulated. Here we demonstrate...
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T11:22:49-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008747118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Homozygous IL37 mutation associated with infantile inflammatory bowel
           disease [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Zinan Z. Zhang; Yu Zhang, Tingyan He, Colin L. Sweeney, Safa Baris, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Yikun Yao, Deniz Ertem, Helen F. Matthews, Claudia Gonzaga-Jauregui, Harry L. Malech, Helen C. Su, Ahmet Ozen, Kenneth G. C. Smith, Michael J. Lenardo
      Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-37, an antiinflammatory IL-1 family cytokine, is a key suppressor of innate immunity. IL-37 signaling requires the heterodimeric IL-18R1 and IL-1R8 receptor, which is abundantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we report a 4-mo-old male from a consanguineous family with a homozygous loss-of-function IL37 mutation. The patient presented...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation, Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T11:22:49-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2009217118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Computational studies of anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutations reveal
           common mechanisms of oncogenic activation [Biophysics and Computational
           Biology]
    • Authors: Keshav Patil; Earl Joseph Jordan, Jin H. Park, Krishna Suresh, Courtney M. Smith, Abigail A. Lemmon, Yael P. Mosse, Mark A. Lemmon, Ravi Radhakrishnan
      Abstract: Kinases play important roles in diverse cellular processes, including signaling, differentiation, proliferation, and metabolism. They are frequently mutated in cancer and are the targets of a large number of specific inhibitors. Surveys of cancer genome atlases reveal that kinase domains, which consist of 300 amino acids, can harbor numerous (150...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T11:22:49-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019132118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A multiplier peroxiporin signal transduction pathway powers piscine
           spermatozoa [Physiology]
    • Authors: Francois Chauvigne; Carla Ducat, Alba Ferre, Tom Hansen, Montserrat Carrascal, Joaquin Abian, Roderick Nigel Finn, Joan Cerda
      Abstract: The primary task of a spermatozoon is to deliver its nuclear payload to the egg to form the next-generation zygote. With polyandry repeatedly evolving in the animal kingdom, however, sperm competition has become widespread, with the highest known intensities occurring in fish. Yet, the molecular controls regulating spermatozoon swimming performance...
      Keywords: Physiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T11:22:49-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019346118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Superoxide is promoted by sucrose and affects amplitude of circadian
           rhythms in the evening [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Angela Roman; Xiang Li, Dongȷing Deng, John W. Davey, Sally James, Ian A. Graham, Michael J. Haydon
      Abstract: Plants must coordinate photosynthetic metabolism with the daily environment and adapt rhythmic physiology and development to match carbon availability. Circadian clocks drive biological rhythms which adjust to environmental cues. Products of photosynthetic metabolism, including sugars and reactive oxygen species (ROS), are closely associated with the plant circadian clock, and sugars...
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-04T11:22:49-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020646118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Excitatory cholecystokinin neurons of the midbrain integrate diverse
           temporal responses and drive auditory thalamic subdomains [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Lauren J. Kreeger; Catherine J. Connelly, Preeti Mehta, Boris V. Zemelman, Nace L. Golding
      Abstract: The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) integrates information about different features of sound and then distributes this information to thalamocortical circuits. However, the lack of clear definitions of circuit elements in the ICC has limited our understanding of the nature of these circuit transformations. Here, we combine virus-based...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007724118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A narrow ear canal reduces sound velocity to create additional acoustic
           inputs in a microscale insect ear [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Daniel Veitch; Emine Celiker, Sarah Aldridge, Christian Pulver, Carl D. Soulsbury, Thorin Jonsson, Charlie Woodrow, Fernando Montealegre-Z
      Abstract: Located in the forelegs, katydid ears are unique among arthropods in having outer, middle, and inner components, analogous to the mammalian ear. Unlike mammals, sound is received externally via two tympanic membranes in each ear and internally via a narrow ear canal (EC) derived from the respiratory tracheal system. Inside...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017281118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Chloride-dependent conformational changes in the GlyT1 glycine transporter
           [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yuan-Wei Zhang; Stacy Uchendu, Vanessa Leone, Richard T. Bradshaw, Ntumba Sangwa, Lucy R. Forrest, Gary Rudnick
      Abstract: The human GlyT1 glycine transporter requires chloride for its function. However, the mechanism by which Cl− exerts its influence is unknown. To examine the role that Cl− plays in the transport cycle, we measured the effect of Cl− on both glycine binding and conformational changes. The ability of glycine to...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017431118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Anomalous nanoparticle surface diffusion in LCTEM is revealed by deep
           learning-assisted analysis [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Vida Jamali; Cory Hargus, Assaf Ben-Moshe, Amirali Aghazadeh, Hyun Dong Ha, Kranthi K. Mandadapu, A. Paul Alivisatos
      Abstract: The motion of nanoparticles near surfaces is of fundamental importance in physics, biology, and chemistry. Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) is a promising technique for studying motion of nanoparticles with high spatial resolution. Yet, the lack of understanding of how the electron beam of the microscope affects the particle...
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017616118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Sialoglycan recognition is a common connection linking acidosis, zinc, and
           HMGB1 in sepsis [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Shoib S. Siddiqui; Chirag Dhar, Venkatasubramaniam Sundaramurthy, Aniruddha Sasmal, Hai Yu, Esther Bandala-Sanchez, Miaomiao Li, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Xi Chen, Leonard C. Harrison, Ding Xu, Ajit Varki
      Abstract: Blood pH is tightly maintained between 7.35 and 7.45, and acidosis (pH
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018090118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Emergence of dynamic vortex glasses in disordered polar active fluids
           [Physics]
    • Authors: Amelie Chardac; Suraȷ Shankar, M. Cristina Marchetti, Denis Bartolo
      Abstract: In equilibrium, disorder conspires with topological defects to redefine the ordered states of matter in systems as diverse as crystals, superconductors, and liquid crystals. Far from equilibrium, however, the consequences of quenched disorder on active condensed matter remain virtually uncharted. Here, we reveal a state of strongly disordered active matter...
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018218118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Phytophthora sojae effector Avr1d functions as an E2 competitor and
           inhibits ubiquitination activity of GmPUB13 to facilitate infection
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Yachun Lin; Qinli Hu, Jia Zhou, Weixiao Yin, Deqiang Yao, Yuanyuan Shao, Yao Zhao, Baodian Guo, Yeqiang Xia, Qian Chen, Yan Wang, Wenwu Ye, Qi Xie, Brett M. Tyler, Weiman Xing, Yuanchao Wang
      Abstract: Oomycete pathogens such as Phytophthora secrete a repertoire of effectors into host cells to manipulate host immunity and benefit infection. In this study, we found that an RxLR effector, Avr1d, promoted Phytophthora sojae infection in soybean hairy roots. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the soybean E3 ubiquitin ligase...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018312118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Architecturally complex O-glycopeptidases are customized for mucin
           recognition and hydrolysis [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Benjamin Pluvinage; Elizabeth Ficko-Blean, Ilit Noach, Christopher Stuart, Nicole Thompson, Hayden McClure, Nakita Buenbrazo, Warren Wakarchuk, Alisdair B. Boraston
      Abstract: A challenge faced by peptidases is the recognition of highly diverse substrates. A feature of some peptidase families is the capacity to specifically use post-translationally added glycans present on their protein substrates as a recognition determinant. This is ultimately critical to enabling peptide bond hydrolysis. This class of enzyme is...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019220118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Dynamics of hydraulic and contractile wave-mediated fluid transport during
           Drosophila oogenesis [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Jasmin Imran Alsous; Nicolas Romeo, Jonathan A. Jackson, Frank M. Mason, Jorn Dunkel, Adam C. Martin
      Abstract: From insects to mice, oocytes develop within cysts alongside nurse-like sister germ cells. Prior to fertilization, the nurse cells’ cytoplasmic contents are transported into the oocyte, which grows as its sister cells regress and die. Although critical for fertility, the biological and physical mechanisms underlying this transport process are poorly...
      Keywords: Developmental Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019749118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Drosophila clock cells use multiple mechanisms to transmit time-of-day
           signals in the brain [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Annika F. Barber; Shi Yi Fong, Anna Kolesnik, Michael Fetchko, Amita Sehgal
      Abstract: Regulation of circadian behavior and physiology by the Drosophila brain clock requires communication from central clock neurons to downstream output regions, but the mechanism by which clock cells regulate downstream targets is not known. We show here that the pars intercerebralis (PI), previously identified as a target of the morning...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019826118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Cadherin cis and trans interactions are mutually cooperative [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Connor J. Thompson; Vinh H. Vu, Deborah E. Leckband, Daniel K. Schwartz
      Abstract: Cadherin transmembrane proteins are responsible for intercellular adhesion in all biological tissues and modulate tissue morphogenesis, cell motility, force transduction, and macromolecular transport. The protein-mediated adhesions consist of adhesive trans interactions and lateral cis interactions. Although theory suggests cooperativity between cis and trans bonds, direct experimental evidence of such cooperativity...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019845118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Shape changes and cooperativity in the folding of the central domain of
           the 16S ribosomal RNA [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Naoto Hori; Natalia A. Denesyuk, D. Thirumalai
      Abstract: Both the small and large subunits of the ribosome, the molecular machine that synthesizes proteins, are complexes of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and a number of proteins. In bacteria, the small subunit has a single 16S rRNA whose folding is the first step in its assembly. The central domain of the...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020837118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Monocyte markers correlate with immune and neuronal brain changes in REM
           sleep behavior disorder [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Kristine Farmen; Sara K. Nissen, Morten G. Stokholm, Alex Iranzo, Karen Ostergaard, Monica Serradell, Marit Otto, Kristina B. Svendsen, Alicia Garrido, Dolores Vilas, Per Borghammer, Joan Santamaria, Arne Moller, Carles Gaig, David J. Brooks, Eduardo Tolosa, Nicola Pavese, Marina Romero–Ramos
      Abstract: Synucleinopathies are neurodegenerative diseases with both central and peripheral immune responses. However, whether the peripheral immune changes occur early in disease and their relation to brain events is yet unclear. Isolated rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) can precede synucleinopathy-related parkinsonism and provides a prodromal phenotype to study early Parkinson's...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020858118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Primary sex determination in birds depends on DMRT1 dosage, but gonadal
           sex does not determine adult secondary sex characteristics [Developmental
           Biology]
    • Authors: Jason Ioannidis; Gunes Taylor, Debiao Zhao, Long Liu, Alewo Idoko-Akoh, Daoqing Gong, Robin Lovell-Badge, Silvana Guioli, Mike J. McGrew, Michael Clinton
      Abstract: In birds, males are the homogametic sex (ZZ) and females the heterogametic sex (ZW). Primary sex determination is thought to depend on a sex chromosome gene dosage mechanism, and the most likely sex determinant is the Z chromosome gene Doublesex and Mab-3–Related Transcription factor 1 (DMRT1). To clarify this issue,...
      Keywords: Developmental Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020909118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Structural basis for recognition of distinct deaminated DNA lesions by
           endonuclease Q [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Ke Shi; Nicholas H. Moeller, Surajit Banerjee, Jennifer L. McCann, Michael A. Carpenter, Lulu Yin, Ramkumar Moorthy, Kayo Orellana, Daniel A. Harki, Reuben S. Harris, Hideki Aihara
      Abstract: Spontaneous deamination of DNA cytosine and adenine into uracil and hypoxanthine, respectively, causes C to T and A to G transition mutations if left unrepaired. Endonuclease Q (EndoQ) initiates the repair of these premutagenic DNA lesions in prokaryotes by cleaving the phosphodiester backbone 5′ of either uracil or hypoxanthine bases...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021120118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Discordant clinical features of identical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
           twins [Genetics]
    • Authors: Giuliana G. Repetti; Yuri Kim, Alexandre C. Pereira, Jodie Ingles, Mark W. Russell, Neal K. Lakdawala, Carolyn Y. Ho, Sharlene Day, Christopher Semsarian, Barbara McDonough, Steven R. DePalma, Daniel Quiat, Eric M. Green, Christine E. Seidman, J. G. Seidman
      Abstract: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease of heart muscle, which affects ∼1 in 500 individuals and is characterized by increased left ventricular wall thickness. While HCM is caused by pathogenic variants in any one of eight sarcomere protein genes, clinical expression varies considerably, even among patients with the same pathogenic...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021717118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • {Gamma} valley transition metal dichalcogenide moire bands [Physics]
    • Authors: Mattia Angeli; Allan H. MacDonald
      Abstract: The valence band maxima of most group VI transition metal dichalcogenide thin films remain at the Γ point all of the way from bulk to bilayer. In this paper, we develop a continuum theory of the moiré minibands that are formed in the valence bands of Γ-valley homobilayers by a...
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021826118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • The imprinted lncRNA Peg13 regulates sexual preference and the
           sex-specific brain transcriptome in mice [Genetics]
    • Authors: Maryam Keshavarz; Diethard Tautz
      Abstract: Mammalian genomes include many maternally and paternally imprinted genes. Most of these are also expressed in the brain, and several have been implicated in regulating specific behavioral traits. Here, we have used a knockout approach to study the function of Peg13, a gene that codes for a fast-evolving lncRNA (long...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022172118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Emergent robustness of bacterial quorum sensing in fluid flow [Systems
           Biology]
    • Authors: Mohit P. Dalwadi; Philip Pearce
      Abstract: Bacteria use intercellular signaling, or quorum sensing (QS), to share information and respond collectively to aspects of their surroundings. The autoinducers that carry this information are exposed to the external environment; consequently, they are affected by factors such as removal through fluid flow, a ubiquitous feature of bacterial habitats ranging...
      Keywords: Systems Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022312118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Cas9-expressing chickens and pigs as resources for genome editing in
           livestock [Agricultural Sciences]
    • Authors: Beate Rieblinger; Hicham Sid, Denise Duda, Tarik Bozoglu, Romina Klinger, Antonina Schlickenrieder, Kamila Lengyel, Krzysztof Flisikowski, Tatiana Flisikowska, Nina Simm, Alessandro Grodziecki, Carolin Perleberg, Andrea Bahr, Lucie Carrier, Mayuko Kurome, Valeri Zakhartchenko, Barbara Kessler, Eckhard Wolf, Lutz Kettler, Harald Luksch, Ibrahim T. Hagag, Daniel Wise, Jim Kaufman, Benedikt B. Kaufer, Christian Kupatt, Angelika Schnieke, Benȷamin Schusser
      Abstract: Genetically modified animals continue to provide important insights into the molecular basis of health and disease. Research has focused mostly on genetically modified mice, although other species like pigs resemble the human physiology more closely. In addition, cross-species comparisons with phylogenetically distant species such as chickens provide powerful insights into...
      Keywords: Agricultural Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022562118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Structural insights into membrane remodeling by SNX1 [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Yan Zhang; Xiaoyun Pang, Jian Li, Jiashu Xu, Victor W. Hsu, Fei Sun
      Abstract: The sorting nexin (SNX) family of proteins deform the membrane to generate transport carriers in endosomal pathways. Here, we elucidate how a prototypic member, SNX1, acts in this process. Performing cryoelectron microscopy, we find that SNX1 assembles into a protein lattice that consists of helical rows of SNX1 dimers wrapped...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022614118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Aggression heuristics underlie animal dominance hierarchies and provide
           evidence of group-level social information [Psychological and Cognitive
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Hobson; Dan Monster, Simon DeDeo
      Abstract: Members of a social species need to make appropriate decisions about who, how, and when to interact with others in their group. However, it has been difficult for researchers to detect the inputs to these decisions and, in particular, how much information individuals actually have about their social context. We...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022912118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Theory of bulk photovoltaic effect in Anderson insulator [Applied Physical
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Hiroaki Ishizuka; Naoto Nagaosa
      Abstract: The localization of wavefunction by disorder makes a conductive material an insulator with vanishing conductivity at zero temperature. A similar outcome is expected for the photocurrent in semiconductor p-n junctions because the photoexcited carriers cannot drift through the device. In contrast, we here show numerically that the bulk photovoltaic effect—the...
      Keywords: Inaugural Articles, Applied Physical Sciences, Inaugural Articles
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023642118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Integration and transfer learning of single-cell transcriptomes via cFIT
           [Statistics]
    • Authors: Minshi Peng; Yue Li, Brie Wamsley, Yuting Wei, Kathryn Roeder
      Abstract: Large, comprehensive collections of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets have been generated that allow for the full transcriptional characterization of cell types across a wide variety of biological and clinical conditions. As new methods arise to measure distinct cellular modalities, a key analytical challenge is to integrate these datasets or...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Statistics
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024383118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Non-line-of-sight imaging over 1.43 km [Physics]
    • Authors: Cheng Wu; Jianjiang Liu, Xin Huang, Zheng-Ping Li, Chao Yu, Jun-Tian Ye, Jun Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Xiankang Dou, Vivek K. Goyal, Feihu Xu, Jian-Wei Pan
      Abstract: Non–line-of-sight (NLOS) imaging has the ability to reconstruct hidden objects from indirect light paths that scatter multiple times in the surrounding environment, which is of considerable interest in a wide range of applications. Whereas conventional imaging involves direct line-of-sight light transport to recover the visible objects, NLOS imaging aims to...
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024468118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • The mechanics and dynamics of cancer cells sensing noisy 3D contact
           guidance [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Jihan Kim; Yuansheng Cao, Christopher Eddy, Youyuan Deng, Herbert Levine, Wouter-Jan Rappel, Bo Sun
      Abstract: Contact guidance is a major physical cue that modulates cancer cell morphology and motility, and is directly linked to the prognosis of cancer patients. Under physiological conditions, particularly in the three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM), the disordered assembly of fibers presents a complex directional bias to the cells. It is...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024780118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Elevated cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels in tuberculous meningitis
           predict survival in response to dexamethasone [Statistics]
    • Authors: Laura J. Whitworth; Raȷan Troll, Antonio J. Pagan, Francisco J. Roca, Paul H. Edelstein, Mark Troll, David M. Tobin, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Duc Bang, Guy E. Thwaites, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Roger F. Sewell, Lalita Ramakrishnan
      Abstract: Adjunctive treatment with antiinflammatory corticosteroids like dexamethasone increases survival in tuberculosis meningitis. Dexamethasone responsiveness associates with a C/T variant in Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase (LTA4H), which regulates expression of the proinflammatory mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4). TT homozygotes, with increased expression of LTA4H, have the highest survival when treated with dexamethasone and...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences, Statistics
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024852118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • An in vivo method for diversifying the functions of therapeutic antibodies
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Ming Tian; Hwei-Ling Cheng, Michael T. Kimble, Kelly McGovern, Peyton Waddicor, Yiwei Chen, Elizabeth Cantor, Mengting Qiu, Marie-Elen Tuchel, Mai Dao, Frederick W. Alt
      Abstract: V(D)J recombination generates mature B cells that express huge repertoires of primary antibodies as diverse immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (IgH) and light chain (IgL) of their B cell antigen receptors (BCRs). Cognate antigen binding to BCR variable region domains activates B cells into the germinal center (GC) reaction in which...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025596118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Predicting transcriptional responses to cold stress across plant species
           [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Xiaoxi Meng; Zhikai Liang, Xiuru Dai, Yang Zhang, Samira Mahboub, Daniel W. Ngu, Rebecca L. Roston, James C. Schnable
      Abstract: Although genome-sequence assemblies are available for a growing number of plant species, gene-expression responses to stimuli have been cataloged for only a subset of these species. Many genes show altered transcription patterns in response to abiotic stresses. However, orthologous genes in related species often exhibit different responses to a given...
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026330118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Ki-67 regulates global gene expression and promotes sequential stages of
           carcinogenesis [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Karim Mrouȷ; Nuria Andres–Sanchez, Geronimo Dubra, Priyanka Singh, Michal Sobecki, Dhanvantri Chahar, Emile Al Ghoul, Ana Bella Aznar, Susana Prieto, Nelly Pirot, Florence Bernex, Benoit Bordignon, Cedric Hassen–Khodȷa, Martin Villalba, Liliana Krasinska, Daniel Fisher
      Abstract: Ki-67 is a nuclear protein that is expressed in all proliferating vertebrate cells. Here, we demonstrate that, although Ki-67 is not required for cell proliferation, its genetic ablation inhibits each step of tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. Mice lacking Ki-67 are resistant to chemical or genetic induction of intestinal tumorigenesis....
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026507118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • News Feature: A sea in the Amazon [Ecology]
    • Authors: Amy McDermott
      Abstract: Did the Caribbean sweep into the western Amazon millions of years ago, shaping the region’s rich biodiversity' A tropical shrub called Chrysobalanus icaco pushes up through Brazil’s white sandy beaches. The plant’s leathery oval leaves and tough silver bark give it the distinct appearance of a mangrove species, adapted to...
      Keywords: News Features, Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Ecology, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2021-03-03T15:32:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102396118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Adaptation of pancreatic cancer cells to nutrient deprivation is
           reversible and requires glutamine synthetase stabilization by mTORC1 [Cell
           Biology]
    • Authors: Pei-Yun Tsai; Min-Sik Lee, Unmesh Jadhav, Insia Naqvi, Shariq Madha, Ashley Adler, Meeta Mistry, Sergey Naumenko, Caroline A. Lewis, Daniel S. Hitchcock, Frederick R. Roberts, Peter DelNero, Thomas Hank, Kim C. Honselmann, Vicente Morales Oyarvide, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Clary B. Clish, Ramesh A. Shivdasani, Nada Y. Kalaany
      Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a lethal, therapy-resistant cancer that thrives in a highly desmoplastic, nutrient-deprived microenvironment. Several studies investigated the effects of depriving PDA of either glucose or glutamine alone. However, the consequences on PDA growth and metabolism of limiting both preferred nutrients have remained largely unknown. Here, we...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003014118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Pathogenic LRRK2 regulates ciliation probability upstream of tau tubulin
           kinase 2 via Rab10 and RILPL1 proteins [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Yuriko Sobu; Paulina S. Wawro, Herschel S. Dhekne, Wondwossen M. Yeshaw, Suzanne R. Pfeffer
      Abstract: Mutations that activate LRRK2 protein kinase cause Parkinson's disease. We showed previously that Rab10 phosphorylation by LRRK2 enhances its binding to RILPL1, and together, these proteins block cilia formation in a variety of cell types, including patient derived iPS cells. We have used live-cell fluorescence microscopy to identify, more precisely,...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005894118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Dysregulation of myelin synthesis and actomyosin function underlies
           aberrant myelin in CMT4B1 neuropathy [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Marta Guerrero-Valero; Federica Grandi, Silvia Cipriani, Valeria Alberizzi, Roberta Di Guardo, Gaetan Chicanne, Linda Sawade, Francesca Bianchi, Ubaldo Del Carro, Ivan De Curtis, Davide Pareyson, Yesim Parman, Angelo Schenone, Volker Haucke, Bernard Payrastre, Alessandra Bolino
      Abstract: Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4B1 (CMT4B1) is a severe autosomal recessive demyelinating neuropathy with childhood onset, caused by loss-of-function mutations in the myotubularin-related 2 (MTMR2) gene. MTMR2 is a ubiquitously expressed catalytically active 3-phosphatase, which in vitro dephosphorylates the 3-phosphoinositides PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P2, with a preference for PtdIns(3,5)P2. A hallmark of CMT4B1...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2009469118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Inhibition of neuroinflammatory nitric oxide signaling suppresses
           glycation and prevents neuronal dysfunction in mouse prion disease
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Julie-Myrtille Bourgognon; Jereme G. Spiers, Sue W. Robinson, Hannah Scheiblich, Paul Glynn, Catharine Ortori, Sophie J. Bradley, Andrew B. Tobin, Joern R. Steinert
      Abstract: Several neurodegenerative diseases associated with protein misfolding (Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease) exhibit oxidative and nitrergic stress following initiation of neuroinflammatory pathways. Associated nitric oxide (NO)-mediated posttranslational modifications impact upon protein functions that can exacerbate pathology. Nonenzymatic and irreversible glycation signaling has been implicated as an underlying pathway that promotes protein...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2009579118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Boronic acid with high oxidative stability and utility in biological
           contexts [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Brian J. Graham; Ian W. Windsor, Brian Gold, Ronald T. Raines
      Abstract: Despite their desirable attributes, boronic acids have had a minimal impact in biological contexts. A significant problem has been their oxidative instability. At physiological pH, phenylboronic acid and its boronate esters are oxidized by reactive oxygen species at rates comparable to those of thiols. After considering the mechanism and kinetics...
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013691118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Mesoscopic protein-rich clusters host the nucleation of mutant p53 amyloid
           fibrils [Chemistry]
    • Authors: David S. Yang; Arash Saeedi, Aram Davtyan, Mohsen Fathi, Michael B. Sherman, Mohammad S. Safari, Alena Klindziuk, Michelle C. Barton, Navin Varadarajan, Anatoly B. Kolomeisky, Peter G. Vekilov
      Abstract: The protein p53 is a crucial tumor suppressor, often called “the guardian of the genome”; however, mutations transform p53 into a powerful cancer promoter. The oncogenic capacity of mutant p53 has been ascribed to enhanced propensity to fibrillize and recruit other cancer fighting proteins in the fibrils, yet the pathways...
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015618118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • CENP-A chromatin prevents replication stress at centromeres to avoid
           structural aneuploidy [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Simona Giunta; Solene Herve, Ryan R. White, Therese Wilhelm, Marie Dumont, Andrea Scelfo, Riccardo Gamba, Cheng Kit Wong, Giulia Rancati, Agata Smogorzewska, Hironori Funabiki, Daniele Fachinetti
      Abstract: Chromosome segregation relies on centromeres, yet their repetitive DNA is often prone to aberrant rearrangements under pathological conditions. Factors that maintain centromere integrity to prevent centromere-associated chromosome translocations are unknown. Here, we demonstrate the importance of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A in safeguarding DNA replication of alpha-satellite repeats to...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015634118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Raf promotes dimerization of the Ras G-domain with increased allosteric
           connections [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Morgan R. Packer; Jillian A. Parker, Jean K. Chung, Zhenlu Li, Young Kwang Lee, Trinity Cookis, Hugo Guterres, Steven Alvarez, Md Amin Hossain, Daniel P. Donnelly, Jeffrey N. Agar, Lee Makowski, Matthias Buck, Jay T. Groves, Carla Mattos
      Abstract: Ras dimerization is critical for Raf activation. Here we show that the Ras binding domain of Raf (Raf-RBD) induces robust Ras dimerization at low surface densities on supported lipid bilayers and, to a lesser extent, in solution as observed by size exclusion chromatography and confirmed by SAXS. Community network analysis...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015648118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Pericytes regulate vascular immune homeostasis in the CNS [Immunology and
           Inflammation]
    • Authors: Orsolya Torok; Bettina Schreiner, Johanna Schaffenrath, Hsing–Chuan Tsai, Upasana Maheshwari, Sebastian A. Stifter, Christina Welsh, Ana Amorim, Sucheta Sridhar, Sebastian G. Utz, Wiebke Mildenberger, Sina Nassiri, Mauro Delorenzi, Adriano Aguzzi, May H. Han, Melanie Greter, Burkhard Becher, Annika Keller
      Abstract: Pericytes regulate the development of organ-specific characteristics of the brain vasculature such as the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and astrocytic end-feet. Whether pericytes are involved in the control of leukocyte trafficking in the adult central nervous system (CNS), a process tightly regulated by CNS vasculature, remains elusive. Using adult pericyte-deficient mice...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016587118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Machine learning active-nematic hydrodynamics [Physics]
    • Authors: Jonathan Colen; Ming Han, Rui Zhang, Steven A. Redford, Linnea M. Lemma, Link Morgan, Paul V. Ruijgrok, Raymond Adkins, Zev Bryant, Zvonimir Dogic, Margaret L. Gardel, Juan J. de Pablo, Vincenzo Vitelli
      Abstract: Hydrodynamic theories effectively describe many-body systems out of equilibrium in terms of a few macroscopic parameters. However, such parameters are difficult to determine from microscopic information. Seldom is this challenge more apparent than in active matter, where the hydrodynamic parameters are in fact fields that encode the distribution of energy-injecting...
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016708118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Ligand effects on phase separation of multivalent macromolecules
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Kiersten M. Ruff; Furqan Dar, Rohit V. Pappu
      Abstract: Biomolecular condensates enable spatial and temporal control over cellular processes by concentrating biomolecules into nonstoichiometric assemblies. Many condensates form via reversible phase transitions of condensate-specific multivalent macromolecules known as scaffolds. Phase transitions of scaffolds can be regulated by changing the concentrations of ligands, which are defined as nonscaffold molecules that...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017184118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • High-sensitivity heat-capacity measurements on Sr2RuO4 under uniaxial
           pressure [Physics]
    • Authors: You–Sheng Li; Naoki Kikugawa, Dmitry A. Sokolov, Fabian Jerzembeck, Alexandra S. Gibbs, Yoshiteru Maeno, Clifford W. Hicks, Jorg Schmalian, Michael Nicklas, Andrew P. Mackenzie
      Abstract: A key question regarding the unconventional superconductivity of Sr2RuO4 remains whether the order parameter is single- or two-component. Under a hypothesis of two-component superconductivity, uniaxial pressure is expected to lift their degeneracy, resulting in a split transition. The most direct and fundamental probe of a split transition is heat capacity....
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020492118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Transcriptional heterogeneity and tightly regulated changes in gene
           expression during Plasmodium berghei sporozoite development [Microbiology]
           
    • Authors: Haikel N. Bogale; Tales V. Pascini, Sachie Kanatani, Juliana M. Sa, Thomas E. Wellems, Photini Sinnis, Joel Vega–Rodriguez, David Serre
      Abstract: Despite the critical role of Plasmodium sporozoites in malaria transmission, we still know little about the mechanisms underlying their development in mosquitoes. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize the gene expression profiles of 16,038 Plasmodium berghei sporozoites isolated throughout their development from midgut oocysts to salivary glands, and...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023438118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Designing self-assembling kinetics with differentiable statistical physics
           models [Physics]
    • Authors: Carl P. Goodrich; Ella M. King, Samuel S. Schoenholz, Ekin D. Cubuk, Michael P. Brenner
      Abstract: The inverse problem of designing component interactions to target emergent structure is fundamental to numerous applications in biotechnology, materials science, and statistical physics. Equally important is the inverse problem of designing emergent kinetics, but this has received considerably less attention. Using recent advances in automatic differentiation, we show how kinetic...
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024083118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Local induction of bladder Th1 responses to combat urinary tract
           infections [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Jianxuan Wu; Chunjing Bao, R. Lee Reinhardt, Soman N. Abraham
      Abstract: Given the high frequency of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and their recurrence, there is keen interest in developing effective UTI vaccines. Currently, most vaccine studies, including those in humans, involve parenteral vaccination aimed at evoking and sustaining elevated levels of systemic antibody directed at the uropathogens. In view of recent...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-02T11:28:24-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026461118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Evolution of Ycf54-independent chlorophyll biosynthesis in cyanobacteria
           [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Guangyu E. Chen; Andrew Hitchcock, Jan Mareš, Yanhai Gong, Martin Tichy, Jan Pilny, Lucie Kovařova, Barbora Zdvihalova, Jian Xu, C. Neil Hunter, Roman Sobotka
      Abstract: Chlorophylls (Chls) are essential cofactors for photosynthesis. One of the least understood steps of Chl biosynthesis is formation of the fifth (E) ring, where the red substrate, magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester, is converted to the green product, 3,8-divinyl protochlorophyllide a. In oxygenic phototrophs, this reaction is catalyzed by an...
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:08:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024633118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Up-regulation of miR-34b/c by JNK and FOXO3 protects from liver fibrosis
           [Genetics]
    • Authors: Pasquale Piccolo; Rosa Ferriero, Anna Barbato, Sergio Attanasio, Marcello Monti, Claudia Perna, Florie Borel, Patrizia Annunziata, Annamaria Carissimo, Rossella De Cegli, Luca Quagliata, Luigi M. Terracciano, Chantal Housset, Jeffrey H. Teckman, Christian Mueller, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri
      Abstract: α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a common genetic disease presenting with lung and liver diseases. AAT deficiency results from pathogenic variants in the SERPINA1 gene encoding AAT and the common mutant Z allele of SERPINA1 encodes for Z α1-antitrypsin (ATZ), a protein forming hepatotoxic polymers retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:08:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025242118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Chemically controlled pattern formation in self-oscillating elastic shells
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Siyu Li; Daniel A. Matoz-Fernandez, Aaveg Aggarwal, Monica Olvera de la Cruz
      Abstract: Patterns and morphology develop in living systems such as embryos in response to chemical signals. To understand and exploit the interplay of chemical reactions with mechanical transformations, chemomechanical polymer systems have been synthesized by attaching chemicals into hydrogels. In this work, we design autonomous responsive elastic shells that undergo morphological...
      Keywords: Applied Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:08:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025717118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Han et al., Mechanistic approaches for chemically modifying
           the coordination sphere of copper-amyloid-{beta} complexes [Corrections]
    • Abstract: CHEMISTRY, BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for “Mechanistic approaches for chemically modifying the coordination sphere of copper–amyloid-β complexes,” by Jiyeon Han, Hyuck Jin Lee, Kyu Yeon Kim, Geewoo Nam, Junghyun Chae, and Mi Hee Lim, which was first published February 26, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1916944117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 5160–5167). The authors note...
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:08:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101569118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Kessler et al., De novo mutations across 1,465 diverse
           genomes reveal mutational insights and reductions in the Amish founder
           population [Corrections]
    • Abstract: GENETICS Correction for “De novo mutations across 1,465 diverse genomes reveal mutational insights and reductions in the Amish founder population,” by Michael D. Kessler, Douglas P. Loesch, James A. Perry, Nancy L. Heard-Costa, Daniel Taliun, Brian E. Cade, Heming Wang, Michelle Daya, John Ziniti, Soma Datta, Juan C. Celedón, Manuel...
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:08:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102070118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Moser et al., Cryo-SOFI enabling low-dose super-resolution
           correlative light and electron cryo-microscopy [Corrections]
    • Abstract: BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for “Cryo-SOFI enabling low-dose super-resolution correlative light and electron cryo-microscopy,” by Felipe Moser, Vojtěch Pražák, Valerie Mordhorst, Débora M. Andrade, Lindsay A. Baker, Christoph Hagen, Kay Grünewald, and Rainer Kaufmann, which first published February 26, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1810690116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 4804–4809). The...
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:08:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102112118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Profile of Michael Manga [Profiles]
    • Authors: Brian Doctrow
      Abstract: Geology is about more than just rocks and other hard objects. Fluids play a major role in shaping the surface of not just Earth but other planets and moons as well. In fact, according to Michael Manga, a geologist at the University of California, Berkeley, just about everything in Earth...
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles, Profiles
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:08:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102152118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Abas et al., Naphthylphthalamic acid associates with and
           inhibits PIN auxin transporters [Corrections]
    • Abstract: PLANT BIOLOGY Correction for “Naphthylphthalamic acid associates with and inhibits PIN auxin transporters,” by Lindy Abas, Martina Kolb, Johannes Stadlmann, Dorina P. Janacek, Kristina Lukic, Claus Schwechheimer, Leonid A. Sazanov, Lukas Mach, Jiří Friml, and Ulrich Z. Hammes, which first published December 21, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2020857118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A....
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:08:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102232118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Nonequilibrium dynamics and action at a distance in transcriptionally
           driven DNA supercoiling [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Yair A. G. Fosado; Davide Michieletto, Chris A. Brackley, Davide Marenduzzo
      Abstract: We study the effect of transcription on the kinetics of DNA supercoiling in three dimensions by means of Brownian dynamics simulations of a single-nucleotide–resolution coarse-grained model for double-stranded DNA. By explicitly accounting for the action of a transcribing RNA polymerase (RNAP), we characterize the geometry and nonequilibrium dynamics of the...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1905215118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Cell cycle-dependent active stress drives epithelia remodeling [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: John Devany; Daniel M. Sussman, Takaki Yamamoto, M. Lisa Manning, Margaret L. Gardel
      Abstract: Epithelia have distinct cellular architectures which are established in development, reestablished after wounding, and maintained during tissue homeostasis despite cell turnover and mechanical perturbations. In turn, cell shape also controls tissue function as a regulator of cell differentiation, proliferation, and motility. Here, we investigate cell shape changes in a model...
      Keywords: Applied Physical Sciences, Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917853118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Human DNA methylation signatures differentiate persistent from resolving
           MRSA bacteremia [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Yu-Ling Chang; Maura Rossetti, David W. Gjertson, Liudmilla Rubbi, Michael Thompson, Dennis J. Montoya, Marco Morselli, Felicia Ruffin, Alexander Hoffmann, Matteo Pellegrini, Vance G. Fowler Jr, Michael R. Yeaman, Elaine F. Reed, with the MRSA Systems Immunology Group
      Abstract: Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is life threatening and occurs in up to 30% of MRSA bacteremia cases despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Isolates of MRSA that cause antibiotic-persistent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia (APMB) typically have in vitro antibiotic susceptibilities equivalent to those causing antibiotic-resolving methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia (ARMB)....
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000663118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Targeting tumor-derived NLRP3 reduces melanoma progression by limiting
           MDSCs expansion [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Isak W. Tengesdal; Dinoop R. Menon, Douglas G. Osborne, Charles P. Neff, Nicholas E. Powers, Fabia Gamboni, Adolfo G. Mauro, Angelo D’Alessandro, Davide Stefanoni, Morkos A. Henen, Taylor S. Mills, Dennis M. De Graaf, Tania Azam, Beat Vogeli, Brent E. Palmer, Eric M. Pietras, James DeGregori, Aik–Choon Tan, Leo A. B. Joosten, Mayumi Fuȷita, Charles A. Dinarello, Carlo Marchetti
      Abstract: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β)–mediated inflammation suppresses antitumor immunity, leading to the generation of a tumor-permissive environment, tumor growth, and progression. Here, we demonstrate that nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in melanoma is linked to IL-1β production, inflammation, and immunosuppression. Analysis of cancer genome datasets (TCGA and GTEx)...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000915118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • NF-{kappa}B-induced R-loop accumulation and DNA damage select for
           nucleotide excision repair deficiencies in adult T cell leukemia
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Yunlong He; Nagesh Pasupala, Huijun Zhi, Batsuhk Dorjbal, Imran Hussain, Hsiu-Ming Shih, Sharmistha Bhattacharyya, Roopa Biswas, Milos Miljkovic, Oliver John Semmes, Thomas A. Waldmann, Andrew L. Snow, Chou-Zen Giam
      Abstract: Constitutive NF-κB activation (NF-κBCA) confers survival and proliferation advantages to cancer cells and frequently occurs in T/B cell malignancies including adult T cell leukemia (ATL) caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Counterintuitively, NF-κBCA by the HTLV-1 transactivator/oncoprotein Tax induces a senescence response, and HTLV-1 infections in culture...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005568118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Selective constraints on global plankton dispersal [Ecology]
    • Authors: Ben A. Ward; B. B. Cael, Sinead Collins, C. Robert Young
      Abstract: Marine microbial communities are highly interconnected assemblages of organisms shaped by ecological drift, natural selection, and dispersal. The relative strength of these forces determines how ecosystems respond to environmental gradients, how much diversity is resident in a community or population at any given time, and how populations reorganize and evolve...
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007388118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Adaptive evolution of hybrid bacteria by horizontal gene transfer
           [Evolution]
    • Authors: Jeffrey J. Power; Fernanda Pinheiro, Simone Pompei, Viera Kovacova, Melih Yuksel, Isabel Rathmann, Mona Forster, Michael Lassig, Berenike Maier
      Abstract: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important factor in bacterial evolution that can act across species boundaries. Yet, we know little about rate and genomic targets of cross-lineage gene transfer and about its effects on the recipient organism's physiology and fitness. Here, we address these questions in a parallel evolution...
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007873118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Evaluating the potential efficacy and limitations of a phage for joint
           antibiotic and phage therapy of Staphylococcus aureus infections
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Brandon A. Berryhill; Douglas L. Huseby, Ingrid C. McCall, Diarmaid Hughes, Bruce R. Levin
      Abstract: In response to increasing frequencies of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, there has been a resurrection of interest in the use of bacteriophage to treat bacterial infections: phage therapy. Here we explore the potential of a seemingly ideal phage, PYOSa, for combination phage and antibiotic treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. This K-like phage...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008007118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Three-step nucleation of metal-organic framework nanocrystals [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Xiangwen Liu; See Wee Chee, Sanoȷ Raȷ, Michal Sawczyk, Petr Kral, Utkur Mirsaidov
      Abstract: Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline nanoporous materials with great potential for a wide range of industrial applications. Understanding the nucleation and early growth stages of these materials from a solution is critical for their design and synthesis. Despite their importance, the pathways through which MOFs nucleate are largely unknown. Using...
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008880118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Evolutionary relationships between drought-related traits and climate
           shape large hydraulic safety margins in western North American oaks
           [Ecology]
    • Authors: Robert P. Skelton; Leander D. L. Anderegg, Jessica Diaz, Matthew M. Kling, Prahlad Papper, Laurent J. Lamarque, Sylvain Delzon, Todd E. Dawson, David D. Ackerly
      Abstract: Quantitative knowledge of xylem physical tolerance limits to dehydration is essential to understanding plant drought tolerance but is lacking in many long-vessel angiosperms. We examine the hypothesis that a fundamental association between sustained xylem water transport and downstream tissue function should select for xylem that avoids embolism in long-vessel trees...
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008987118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • The store-operated Ca2+ entry complex comprises a small cluster of STIM1
           associated with one Orai1 channel [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Yihan Shen; Nagendra Babu Thillaiappan, Colin W. Taylor
      Abstract: Increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration regulate diverse cellular activities and are usually evoked by opening of Ca2+ channels in intracellular Ca2+ stores and the plasma membrane (PM). For the many signals that evoke formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), IP3 receptors coordinate the contributions of these two Ca2+ sources by mediating...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2010789118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • IDO1 scavenges reactive oxygen species in myeloid-derived suppressor cells
           to prevent graft-versus-host disease [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Ji-Min Ju; Giri Nam, Young-Kwan Lee, Minho Jung, Hanna Chang, Woojin Kim, Woo Jeong Shon, Ji Young Lim, Joo Young Kim, Jun Chang, Chang Ki Min, Dong-Sup Lee, Kyungho Choi, Dong-Mi Shin, Eun Young Choi
      Abstract: Tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) also has an immunological function to suppress T cell activation in inflammatory circumstances, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a fatal complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Although the mononuclear cell expression of IDO1 has been associated with improved outcomes in GVHD, the underlying mechanisms...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011170118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Mutational fitness landscapes reveal genetic and structural improvement
           pathways for a vaccine-elicited HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody
           [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Bharat Madan; Baoshan Zhang, Kai Xu, Cara W. Chao, Siȷy O’Dell, Jacy R. Wolfe, Gwo–Yu Chuang, Ahmed S. Fahad, Hui Geng, Rui Kong, Mark K. Louder, Thuy Duong Nguyen, Reda Rawi, Arne Schon, Zizhang Sheng, Raȷani Nimrania, Yiran Wang, Tongqing Zhou, Bob C. Lin, Nicole A. Doria–Rose, Lawrence Shapiro, Peter D. Kwong, Brandon J. DeKosky
      Abstract: Vaccine-based elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies holds great promise for preventing HIV-1 transmission. However, the key biophysical markers of improved antibody recognition remain uncertain in the diverse landscape of potential antibody mutation pathways, and a more complete understanding of anti–HIV-1 fusion peptide (FP) antibody development will accelerate rational vaccine designs....
      Keywords: Applied Biological Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011653118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Do conversations end when people want them to' [Psychological and
           Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Adam M. Mastroianni; Daniel T. Gilbert, Gus Cooney, Timothy D. Wilson
      Abstract: Do conversations end when people want them to' Surprisingly, behavioral science provides no answer to this fundamental question about the most ubiquitous of all human social activities. In two studies of 932 conversations, we asked conversants to report when they had wanted a conversation to end and to estimate when...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011809118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Stunted upward mobility in a learning environment reduces the academic
           benefits of growth mindsets [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Lile Jia; Chun Hui Lim, Ismaharif Ismail, Yia Chin Tan
      Abstract: Does stunted upward mobility in an educational system impede beneficial psychological processes of learning' We predicted that growth mindsets of intelligence, a well-established psychological stimulant to learning, would be less potent in low-mobility, as compared to high-mobility, learning environments. An analysis of a large cross-national dataset and a longitudinal experiment...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011832118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Structural insights into {alpha}-synuclein monomer-fibril interactions
           [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Pratibha Kumari; Dhiman Ghosh, Agathe Vanas, Yanick Fleischmann, Thomas Wiegand, Gunnar Jeschke, Roland Riek, Cedric Eichmann
      Abstract: Protein aggregation into amyloid fibrils is associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease. Kinetic data and biophysical characterization have shown that the secondary nucleation pathway highly accelerates aggregation via the absorption of monomeric protein on the surface of amyloid fibrils. Here, we used NMR and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012171118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Cysteinyl-specialized proresolving mediators link resolution of infectious
           inflammation and tissue regeneration via TRAF3 activation [Immunology and
           Inflammation]
    • Authors: Nan Chiang; Xavier de la Rosa, Stephania Libreros, Hui Pan, Jonathan M. Dreyfuss, Charles N. Serhan
      Abstract: The recently elucidated proresolving conjugates in tissue regeneration (CTR) maresin-CTR (MCTR), protectin-CTR (PCTR), and resolvin-CTR (RCTR), termed cysteinyl-specialized proresolving mediators (cys-SPMs) each promotes regeneration, controls infection, and accelerates resolution of inflammation. Here, we sought evidence for cys-SPM activation of primordial pathways in planaria (Dugesia japonica) regeneration that might link resolution...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013374118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Nonthermal and reversible control of neuronal signaling and behavior by
           midinfrared stimulation [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Xi Liu; Zhi Qiao, Yuming Chai, Zhi Zhu, Kaijie Wu, Wenliang Ji, Daguang Li, Yujie Xiao, Lanqun Mao, Chao Chang, Quan Wen, Bo Song, Yousheng Shu
      Abstract: Various neuromodulation approaches have been employed to alter neuronal spiking activity and thus regulate brain functions and alleviate neurological disorders. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) could be a potential approach for neuromodulation because it requires no tissue contact and possesses a high spatial resolution. However, the risk of overheating and an...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015685118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Human arrival and landscape dynamics in the northern Bahamas
           [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Patricia L. Fall; Peter J. van Hengstum, Lisa Lavold-Foote, Jeffrey P. Donnelly, Nancy A. Albury, Anne E. Tamalavage
      Abstract: The first Caribbean settlers were Amerindians from South America. Great Abaco and Grand Bahama, the final islands colonized in the northernmost Bahamas, were inhabited by the Lucayans when Europeans arrived. The timing of Lucayan arrival in the northern Bahamas has been uncertain because direct archaeological evidence is limited. We document...
      Keywords: Environmental Sciences, Sustainability Science, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015764118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Ozone pollution in the North China Plain spreading into the late-winter
           haze season [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Ke Li; Daniel J. Jacob, Hong Liao, Yulu Qiu, Lu Shen, Shixian Zhai, Kelvin H. Bates, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Shaojie Song, Xiao Lu, Qiang Zhang, Bo Zheng, Yuli Zhang, Jinqiang Zhang, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk
      Abstract: Surface ozone is a severe air pollution problem in the North China Plain, which is home to 300 million people. Ozone concentrations are highest in summer, driven by fast photochemical production of hydrogen oxide radicals (HOx) that can overcome the radical titration caused by high emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx)...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015797118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A multitaxa assessment of the effectiveness of agri-environmental schemes
           for biodiversity management [Agricultural Sciences]
    • Authors: Fabian A. Boetzl; Jochen Krauss, Jonathan Heinze, Hannes Hoffmann, Jan Juffa, Sebastian Konig, Elena Krimmer, Maren Prante, Emily A. Martin, Andrea Holzschuh, Ingolf Steffan–Dewenter
      Abstract: Agri-environmental schemes (AES) aim to restore biodiversity and biodiversity-mediated ecosystem services in landscapes impoverished by modern agriculture. However, a systematic, empirical evaluation of different AES types across multiple taxa and functional groups is missing. Within one orthogonal design, we studied sown flowering AES types with different temporal continuity, size, and...
      Keywords: Agricultural Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016038118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • ASCL2 reciprocally controls key trophoblast lineage decisions during
           hemochorial placenta development [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Kaela M. Varberg; Khursheed Iqbal, Masanaga Muto, Mikaela E. Simon, Regan L. Scott, Keisuke Kozai, Ruhul H. Choudhury, John D. Aplin, Rebecca Biswell, Margaret Gibson, Hiroaki Okae, Takahiro Arima, Jay L. Vivian, Elin Grundberg, Michael J. Soares
      Abstract: Invasive trophoblast cells are critical to spiral artery remodeling in hemochorial placentation. Insufficient trophoblast cell invasion and vascular remodeling can lead to pregnancy disorders including preeclampsia, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restriction. Previous studies in mice identified achaete-scute homolog 2 (ASCL2) as essential to extraembryonic development. We hypothesized that ASCL2...
      Keywords: Developmental Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016517118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Genome-wide shifts in climate-related variation underpin responses to
           selective breeding in a widespread conifer [Genetics]
    • Authors: Ian R. MacLachlan; Tegan K. McDonald, Brandon M. Lind, Loren H. Rieseberg, Sam Yeaman, Sally N. Aitken
      Abstract: Locally adapted temperate tree populations exhibit genetic trade-offs among climate-related traits that can be exacerbated by selective breeding and are challenging to manage under climate change. To inform climatically adaptive forest management, we investigated the genetic architecture and impacts of selective breeding on four climate-related traits in 105 natural and...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016900118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • TAp73 represses NF-{kappa}B-mediated recruitment of tumor-associated
           macrophages in breast cancer [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Johanna Wolfsberger; Habib A. M. Sakil, Leilei Zhou, Niek van Bree, Elena Baldisseri, Sabrina de Souza Ferreira, Veronica Zubillaga, Marina Stantic, Nicolas Fritz, Johan Hartman, Charlotte Rolny, Margareta T. Wilhelm
      Abstract: Infiltration of tumor-promoting immune cells is a strong driver of tumor progression. Especially the accumulation of macrophages in the tumor microenvironment is known to facilitate tumor growth and to correlate with poor prognosis in many tumor types. TAp73, a member of the p53/p63/p73 family, acts as a tumor suppressor and...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017089118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Simple stochastic model for geomagnetic excursions and reversals
           reproduces the temporal asymmetry of the axial dipole moment [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Alberto Molina–Cardin; Luis Dinis, Maria Luisa Osete
      Abstract: We present a simple model for the axial dipole moment (ADM) of the geomagnetic field based on a stochastic differential equation for two coupled particles in a biquadratic potential, subjected to Gaussian random perturbations. This model generates aperiodic reversals and excursions separated by stable polarity periods. The model reproduces the...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017696118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Lipid droplets in mammalian eggs are utilized during embryonic diapause
           [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Roberta Arena; Simona Bisogno, Łukasz Gąsior, Joanna Rudnicka, Laura Bernhardt, Thomas Haaf, Federica Zacchini, Michał Bochenek, Kinga Fic, Ewelina Bik, Małgorzata Barałska, Anna Bodzoł–Kułakowska, Piotr Suder, Joanna Depciuch, Artur Gurgul, Zbigniew Polałski, Grazyna E. Ptak
      Abstract: Embryonic diapause (ED) is a temporary arrest of an embryo at the blastocyst stage when it waits for the uterine receptivity signal to implant. ED used by over 100 species may also occur in normally “nondiapausing” mammals when the uterine receptivity signal is blocked or delayed. A large number of...
      Keywords: Developmental Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018362118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Host genetic control of natural killer cell diversity revealed in the
           Collaborative Cross [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Magali S. J. Dupont; Vincent Guillemot, Pascal Campagne, Nicolas Serafini, Solenne Marie, Xavier Montagutelli, James P. Di Santo, Christian A. J. Vosshenrich
      Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are innate effectors armed with cytotoxic and cytokine-secreting capacities whose spontaneous antitumor activity is key to numerous immunotherapeutic strategies. However, current mouse models fail to mirror the extensive immune system variation that exists in the human population which may impact on NK cell-based therapies. We performed...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018834118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Progenitor cell diversity in the developing mouse neocortex [Developmental
           Biology]
    • Authors: Xiangbin Ruan; Bowei Kang, Cai Qi, Wenhe Lin, Jingshu Wang, Xiaochang Zhang
      Abstract: In the mammalian neocortex, projection neuron types are sequentially generated by the same pool of neural progenitors. How neuron type specification is related to developmental timing remains unclear. To determine whether temporal gene expression in neural progenitors correlates with neuron type specification, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) analysis of...
      Keywords: Developmental Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018866118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Structural basis for a bacterial Pip system plant effector recognition
           protein [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Shukun Luo; Bruna G. Coutinho, Prikshat Dadhwal, Yasuhiro Oda, Jiahong Ren, Amy L. Schaefer, E. Peter Greenberg, Caroline S. Harwood, Liang Tong
      Abstract: A number of plant-associated proteobacteria have LuxR family transcription factors that we refer to as PipR subfamily members. PipR proteins play roles in interactions between bacteria and their plant hosts, and some are important for bacterial virulence of plants. We identified an ethanolamine derivative, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(2-hydroxyethylamino) acetamide (HEHEAA), as a potent...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019462118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • HIV-1 cores retain their integrity until minutes before uncoating in the
           nucleus [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Chenglei Li; Ryan C. Burdick, Kunio Nagashima, Wei-Shau Hu, Vinay K. Pathak
      Abstract: We recently reported that HIV-1 cores that retained>94% of their capsid (CA) protein entered the nucleus and disassembled (uncoated) near their integration site
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019467118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Source apportionment of methane escaping the subsea permafrost system in
           the outer Eurasian Arctic Shelf [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Julia Steinbach; Henry Holmstrand, Kseniia Shcherbakova, Denis Kosmach, Volker Bruchert, Natalia Shakhova, Anatoly Salyuk, Celia J. Sapart, Denis Chernykh, Riko Noormets, Igor Semiletov, Orȷan Gustafsson
      Abstract: The East Siberian Arctic Shelf holds large amounts of inundated carbon and methane (CH4). Holocene warming by overlying seawater, recently fortified by anthropogenic warming, has caused thawing of the underlying subsea permafrost. Despite extensive observations of elevated seawater CH4 in the past decades, relative contributions from different subsea compartments such...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019672118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A metapopulation model of social group dynamics and disease applied to
           Yellowstone wolves [Population Biology]
    • Authors: Ellen E. Brandell; Andrew P. Dobson, Peter J. Hudson, Paul C. Cross, Douglas W. Smith
      Abstract: The population structure of social species has important consequences for both their demography and transmission of their pathogens. We develop a metapopulation model that tracks two key components of a species’ social system: average group size and number of groups within a population. While the model is general, we parameterize...
      Keywords: Population Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020023118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Metabolic supervision by PPIP5K, an inositol pyrophosphate
           kinase/phosphatase, controls proliferation of the HCT116 tumor cell line
           [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Chunfang Gu; Juan Liu, Xiaojing Liu, Haibo Zhang, Ji Luo, Huanchen Wang, Jason W. Locasale, Stephen B. Shears
      Abstract: Identification of common patterns of cancer metabolic reprogramming could assist the development of new therapeutic strategies. Recent attention in this field has focused on identifying and targeting signal transduction pathways that interface directly with major metabolic control processes. In the current study we demonstrate the importance of signaling by the...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020187118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Lipid nanoparticle-mediated codelivery of Cas9 mRNA and single-guide RNA
           achieves liver-specific in vivo genome editing of Angptl3 [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Min Qiu; Zachary Glass, Jinjin Chen, Mary Haas, Xin Jin, Xuewei Zhao, Xuehui Rui, Zhongfeng Ye, Yamin Li, Feng Zhang, Qiaobing Xu
      Abstract: Loss-of-function mutations in Angiopoietin-like 3 (Angptl3) are associated with lowered blood lipid levels, making Angptl3 an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of human lipoprotein metabolism disorders. In this study, we developed a lipid nanoparticle delivery platform carrying Cas9 messenger RNA (mRNA) and guide RNA for CRISPR-Cas9–based genome editing of...
      Keywords: Applied Biological Sciences, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020401118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Comparative parallel analysis of RNA ends identifies mRNA substrates of a
           tRNA splicing endonuclease-initiated mRNA decay pathway [Genetics]
    • Authors: Jennifer E. Hurtig; Michelle A. Steiger, Vinay K. Nagarajan, Tao Li, Ti-Chun Chao, Kuang-Lei Tsai, Ambro van Hoof
      Abstract: Eukaryotes share a conserved messenger RNA (mRNA) decay pathway in which bulk mRNA is degraded by exoribonucleases. In addition, it has become clear that more specialized mRNA decay pathways are initiated by endonucleolytic cleavage at particular sites. The transfer RNA (tRNA) splicing endonuclease (TSEN) has been studied for its ability...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020429118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Anomalous mechanics of Zn2+-modified fibrin networks [Applied Physical
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Jing Xia; Li-Heng Cai, Huayin Wu, Frederick C. MacKintosh, David A. Weitz
      Abstract: Fibrin is the main component of blood clots. The mechanical properties of fibrin are therefore of critical importance in successful hemostasis. One of the divalent cations released by platelets during hemostasis is Zn2+; however, its effect on the network structure of fibrin gels and on the resultant mechanical properties remains...
      Keywords: Applied Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020541118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Structural basis for IFN antagonism by human respiratory syncytial virus
           nonstructural protein 2 [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Jingjing Pei; Nicole D. Wagner, Angela J. Zou, Srirupa Chatterjee, Dominika Borek, Aidan R. Cole, Preston J. Kim, Christopher F. Basler, Zbyszek Otwinowski, Michael L. Gross, Gaya K. Amarasinghe, Daisy W. Leung
      Abstract: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) inhibits host interferon (IFN) responses stimulated by RSV infection by targeting early steps in the IFN-signaling pathway. But the molecular mechanisms related to how NS2 regulates these processes remain incompletely understood. To address this gap, here we solved the X-ray crystal...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020587118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Dual oxidase enables insect gut symbiosis by mediating respiratory network
           formation [Evolution]
    • Authors: Seonghan Jang; Peter Mergaert, Tsubasa Ohbayashi, Kota Ishigami, Shuji Shigenobu, Hideomi Itoh, Yoshitomo Kikuchi
      Abstract: Most animals harbor a gut microbiota that consists of potentially pathogenic, commensal, and mutualistic microorganisms. Dual oxidase (Duox) is a well described enzyme involved in gut mucosal immunity by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that antagonizes pathogenic bacteria and maintains gut homeostasis in insects. However, despite its nonspecific...
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020922118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Posttranslational regulation of multiple clock-related transcription
           factors triggers cold-inducible gene expression in Arabidopsis [Plant
           Biology]
    • Authors: Satoshi Kidokoro; Kentaro Hayashi, Hiroki Haraguchi, Tomona Ishikawa, Fumiyuki Soma, Izumi Konoura, Satomi Toda, Junya Mizoi, Takamasa Suzuki, Kazuo Shinozaki, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki
      Abstract: Cold stress is an adverse environmental condition that affects plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Under cold stress conditions, the expression of numerous genes that function in the stress response and tolerance is induced in various plant species, and the dehydration-responsive element (DRE) binding protein 1/C-repeat binding factor (DREB1/CBF) transcription...
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021048118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • SUMO enables substrate selectivity by mitogen-activated protein kinases to
           regulate immunity in plants [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Vivek Verma; Anjil K. Srivastava, Catherine Gough, Alberto Campanaro, Moumita Srivastava, Rebecca Morrell, Joshua Joyce, Mark Bailey, Cunjin Zhang, Patrick J. Krysan, Ari Sadanandom
      Abstract: The versatility of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in translating exogenous and endogenous stimuli into appropriate cellular responses depends on its substrate specificity. In animals, several mechanisms have been proposed about how MAPKs maintain specificity to regulate distinct functional pathways. However, little is known of mechanisms that enable substrate selectivity in...
      Keywords: Plant Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021351118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • mTORC1-chaperonin CCT signaling regulates m6A RNA methylation to suppress
           autophagy [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Hong-Wen Tang; Jui-Hsia Weng, Wen Xing Lee, Yanhui Hu, Lei Gu, Sungyun Cho, Gina Lee, Richard Binari, Cathleen Li, Min En Cheng, Ah-Ram Kim, Jun Xu, Zhangfei Shen, Chiwei Xu, John M. Asara, John Blenis, Norbert Perrimon
      Abstract: Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism that senses and integrates nutritional and environmental cues with cellular responses. Recent studies have revealed critical roles of mTORC1 in RNA biogenesis and processing. Here, we find that the m6A methyltransferase complex (MTC) is...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021945118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • N6-methyladenosine modification of HCV RNA genome regulates
           cap-independent IRES-mediated translation via YTHDC2 recognition
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Geon-Woo Kim; Aleem Siddiqui
      Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are associated with the risk of progression to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The HCV RNA genome is translated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent mechanism. The structure and function of the HCV IRES have been investigated by both biological and biophysical criteria. Recently,...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022024118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Spine dynamics of PSD-95-deficient neurons in the visual cortex link
           silent synapses to structural cortical plasticity [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Rashad Yusifov; Anȷa Tippmann, Jochen F. Staiger, Oliver M. Schluter, Siegrid Lowel
      Abstract: Critical periods (CPs) are time windows of heightened brain plasticity during which experience refines synaptic connections to achieve mature functionality. At glutamatergic synapses on dendritic spines of principal cortical neurons, the maturation is largely governed by postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95)-dependent synaptic incorporation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors into nascent AMPA-receptor...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022701118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A versatile platform for locus-scale genome rewriting and verification
           [Genetics]
    • Authors: Ran Brosh; Jon M. Laurent, Raquel Ordonez, Emily Huang, Megan S. Hogan, Angela M. Hitchcock, Leslie A. Mitchell, Sudarshan Pinglay, John A. Cadley, Raven D. Luther, David M. Truong, Jef D. Boeke, Matthew T. Maurano
      Abstract: Routine rewriting of loci associated with human traits and diseases would facilitate their functional analysis. However, existing DNA integration approaches are limited in terms of scalability and portability across genomic loci and cellular contexts. We describe Big-IN, a versatile platform for targeted integration of large DNAs into mammalian cells. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T12:07:59-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023952118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Infection curves on small-world networks are linear only in the vicinity
           of the critical point [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Łukasz Kuśmierz; Taro Toyoizumi
      Abstract: In ref. 1, an epidemiological model based on the small-world (2) contact network and the SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered) infection dynamics is analyzed and compared with the classical (well-mixed) SIR model. The authors claim that they observe a “a hitherto unobserved transition from linear growth to S-shaped infection curves.” This is rather...
      Keywords: Letters, Medical Sciences, Letters and Replies, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-02-26T11:49:01-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024297118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Reply to Kuśmierz and Toyoizumi: A network-based explanation of why most
           COVID-19 infection curves are linear [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Stefan Thurner; Peter Klimek, Rudolf Hanel
      Abstract: In a comment on our recent paper (1), the commentators point out that infection curves on small-world (SW) networks are linear only in the vicinity of the critical point (2) and that infection dynamics on complex or SW networks have already been studied, for instance, in ref. 3. In our...
      Keywords: Letters, Medical Sciences, Letters and Replies, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-02-26T11:49:01-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100906118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Identification of tetracycline combinations as EphB1 tyrosine kinase
           inhibitors for treatment of neuropathic pain [Biophysics and Computational
           Biology]
    • Authors: Mahmoud S. Ahmed; Ping Wang, Ngoc Uyen Nhi Nguyen, Yuji Nakada, Ivan Menendez-Montes, Muhammad Ismail, Robert Bachoo, Mark Henkemeyer, Hesham A. Sadek, Enas S. Kandil
      Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated that the synaptic EphB1 receptor tyrosine kinase is a major mediator of neuropathic pain, suggesting that targeting the activity of this receptor might be a viable therapeutic option. Therefore, we set out to determine if any FDA-approved drugs can act as inhibitors of the EphB1 intracellular...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-02-24T11:07:25-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016265118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Conflicting shape percepts explained by perception cognition distinction
           [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Paul Linton
      Abstract: Morales et al. (1) show that a front-facing ellipse is more quickly identified among front-facing circles than rotated circles, leading them to conclude that vision has a dual character: A rotated circle is perceived both as a perspectival two-dimensional (2D) ellipse and as a 3D circle. We have two concerns....
      Keywords: Letters, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-02-23T08:25:39-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024195118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Influence of a COVID-19 vaccine’s effectiveness and safety profile on
           vaccination acceptance [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Robert M. Kaplan; Arnold Milstein
      Abstract: Although a safe and effective vaccine holds the greatest promise for resolving the COVID-19 pandemic, hesitancy to accept vaccines remains common. To explore vaccine acceptance decisions, we conducted a national survey of 1,000 people from all US states in August of 2020 and a replication in December of 2020. Using...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T12:02:20-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021726118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Richer color vocabulary is correlated with color memory, but its relation
           to perception is unknown [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Shiri Lev-Ari
      Abstract: Hasantash and Afraz (1) investigate the influence of language on perception and memory. Their study improves on prior studies by including a perceptual and a memory task within the same experiment, by taking a within-language individual differences approach, and by including a few other modifications to the design. While the...
      Keywords: Letters, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T12:02:20-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024682118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Reply to Lev-Ari: Operational definition of “color perception”; which
           task represents the concept better' [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Arash Afraz; Maryam Hasantash
      Abstract: This is the response to the Letter to the Editor by Shiri Lev-Ari (1), whom we thank for formulating a thoughtful critique of our work (2). In fact, we have been preoccupied with similar questions throughout the design stages of the study, and we are happy to explain why we...
      Keywords: Letters, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T12:02:20-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026301118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Encoding memory in tube diameter hierarchy of living flow network
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Mirna Kramar; Karen Alim
      Abstract: The concept of memory is traditionally associated with organisms possessing a nervous system. However, even very simple organisms store information about past experiences to thrive in a complex environment—successfully exploiting nutrient sources, avoiding danger, and warding off predators. How can simple organisms encode information about their environment' We here follow...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Physics
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T12:02:19-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007815118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Chemical evidence for the persistence of wine production and trade in
           Early Medieval Islamic Sicily [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Lea Drieu; Paola Orecchioni, Claudio Capelli, Antonino Meo, Jasmine Lundy, Viva Sacco, Lucia Arcifa, Alessandra Molinari, Martin Carver, Oliver E. Craig
      Abstract: Although wine was unquestionably one of the most important commodities traded in the Mediterranean during the Roman Empire, less is known about wine commerce after its fall and whether the trade continued in regions under Islamic control. To investigate, here we undertook systematic analysis of grapevine products in archaeological ceramics,...
      Keywords: Anthropology, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T12:02:19-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2017983118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Deep time diversity and the early radiations of birds [Evolution]
    • Authors: Yilun Yu; Chi Zhang, Xing Xu
      Abstract: Reconstructing the history of biodiversity has been hindered by often-separate analyses of stem and crown groups of the clades in question that are not easily understood within the same unified evolutionary framework. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of birds by analyzing three supertrees that combine published phylogenies of both...
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T12:02:19-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019865118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Elastic amplification of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solidifying
           melts [Engineering]
    • Authors: Etienne Jambon–Puillet; Matthieu Royer Piechaud, P.–T. Brun
      Abstract: The concomitant mechanical deformation and solidification of melts are relevant to a broad range of phenomena. Examples include the preparation of cotton candy, the atomization of metals, the manufacture of glass fibers, and the formation of elongated structures in volcanic eruptions known as Pele’s hair. Usually, solid-like deformations during solidification...
      Keywords: Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-02-22T12:02:19-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020701118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • The inflated significance of neutral genetic diversity in conservation
           genetics [Evolution]
    • Authors: Joao C. Teixeira; Christian D. Huber
      Abstract: The current rate of species extinction is rapidly approaching unprecedented highs, and life on Earth presently faces a sixth mass extinction event driven by anthropogenic activity, climate change, and ecological collapse. The field of conservation genetics aims at preserving species by using their levels of genetic diversity, usually measured as...
      Keywords: Evolution, Perspectives
      PubDate: 2021-02-19T11:25:23-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2015096118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • How old are the oldest Homo sapiens in Far East Asia' [Genetics]
    • Authors: Jean-Jacques Hublin
      Abstract: There is abundant genetic and paleontological evidence supporting the African origin of our species. At some point in its evolution, Homo sapiens spread out of Africa into Eurasia, replacing or partially absorbing local populations of other hominin forms. Ultimately, it colonized regions where no humans had ever lived before. Although...
      Keywords: Anthropology, Genetics, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-02-18T11:04:00-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101173118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Bepridil is potent against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Erol C. Vatansever; Kai S. Yang, Aleksandra K. Drelich, Kaci C. Kratch, Chia-Chuan Cho, Kempaiah Rayavara Kempaiah, Jason C. Hsu, Drake M. Mellott, Shiqing Xu, Chien-Te K. Tseng, Wenshe Ray Liu
      Abstract: Guided by a computational docking analysis, about 30 Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency (FDA/EMA)-approved small-molecule medicines were characterized on their inhibition of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (Mpro). Of these small molecules tested, six displayed a concentration that inhibits response by 50% (IC50) value...
      Keywords: Biochemistry, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-02-17T11:28:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012201118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Rapid emergence of virus-host mutualism under stress [Evolution]
    • Authors: Valerian V. Dolja
      Abstract: Broad Spectrum of Outcomes in Virus–Host Interactions The article by González et al. (1) in PNAS illuminates the flexibility of the virus–host relationships by demonstrating a rapid shift to mutualism under stress in an RNA plant virus model. A common public perception of a virus, particularly relevant in the time...
      Keywords: Evolution, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-02-17T11:28:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100936118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • Kathryn Anderson, grand dame of developmental biology [Retrospectives]
    • Authors: Ushma S. Neill; Joan Massague
      Abstract: One of the most inspirational scientists we have ever known found her own inspiration in the pages of Life magazine. In a 2016 interview with one of us, Kathryn Anderson (1952–2020) mentioned that “in eighth grade, an article caught my eye about human development with a really beautiful picture of...
      Keywords: Retrospectives, Retrospectives
      PubDate: 2021-02-17T11:28:32-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101148118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
  • A metagenomics approach to investigate microbiome sociobiology [Evolution]
    • Authors: Sandra B. Andersen; Jonas Schluter
      Abstract: The theory of kin selection is the framework to explain the evolution of social interactions that abound across the diversity of life (1). Observing cooperative behavior posed a challenge to Darwin, but with social insects in mind he proposed that natural selection at the family level can favor helping relatives...
      Keywords: Evolution, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-02-16T09:08:44-08:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100934118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 10 (2021)
       
 
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