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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 952  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Reply to Vickers: Pharmacogenetics and progression to neovascular
           age-related macular degeneration—Evidence supporting practice change
           [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Demetrios G. Vavvas; Kent W. Small, Carl Awh, Brent W. Zanke, Robert J. Tibshirani, Rafal Kustra
      Abstract: Vickers (1) offers little substantive criticism, but we address three items he mentions: (i) our choice of clinical endpoint, (ii) the potential for multiple-testing false positives, and (iii) the need for additional study. An important distinction of our study (2) is the use of neovascular AMD (nvAMD) as the endpoint....
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804781115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Morality traits still dominate in forming impressions of others [Social
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Justin F. Landy; Jared Piazza, Geoffrey P. Goodwin
      Abstract: Melnikoff and Bailey (M a...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807096115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Reply to Landy et al.: Terms and conditions may apply [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: David E. Melnikoff; April H. Bailey
      Abstract: Landy, Piazza, and Goodwin (LP&G) have codeveloped a seminal and indispensable new model of person perception (1, 2). While endorsing LP&G’s model, we recently challenged one of its auxiliary hypotheses: the morality dominance hypothesis (MDH) (3). LP&G critiqued our studies, arguing that they merely qualify the MDH (4). We concur...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807699115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Pharmacogenomics of antioxidant supplementation to prevent age-related
           macular degeneration [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Andrew J. Vickers
      Abstract: Casual readers of Vavvas et al.’s recent paper in PNAS (1) on the pharmacogenomics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may get the impression that the authors have made an important incremental advance based on a logical series of studies, each of which has been moving the science in the same...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803536115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Water agglomerates on Fe3O4(001) [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Matthias Meier; Jan Hulva, Zdeněk Jakub, Jiři Pavelec, Martin Setvin, Roland Bliem, Michael Schmid, Ulrike Diebold, Cesare Franchini, Gareth S. Parkinson
      Abstract: Determining the structure of water adsorbed on solid surfaces is a notoriously difficult task and pushes the limits of experimental and theoretical techniques. Here, we follow the evolution of water agglomerates on Fe3O4(001); a complex mineral surface relevant in both modern technology and the natural environment. Strong OH–H2O bonds drive...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801661115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Simultaneous cancer and tumor microenvironment subtyping using confocal
           infrared microscopy for all-digital molecular histopathology [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Shachi Mittal; Kevin Yeh, L. Suzanne Leslie, Seth Kenkel, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Rohit Bhargava
      Abstract: Histopathology based on spatial patterns of epithelial cells is the gold standard for clinical diagnoses and research in carcinomas; although known to be important, the tissue microenvironment is not readily used due to complex and subjective interpretation with existing tools. Here, we demonstrate accurate subtyping from molecular properties of epithelial...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719551115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Exceptionally high levels of lead pollution in the Balkans from the Early
           Bronze Age to the Industrial Revolution [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Jack Longman; Daniel Veres, Walter Finsinger, Vasile Ersek
      Abstract: The Balkans are considered the birthplace of mineral resource exploitation and metalworking in Europe. However, since knowledge of the timing and extent of metallurgy in southeastern Europe is largely constrained by discontinuous archaeological findings, the long-term environmental impact of past mineral resource exploitation is not fully understood. Here, we present...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721546115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Targeting the potent Beclin 1-UVRAG coiled-coil interaction with designed
           peptides enhances autophagy and endolysosomal trafficking [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Shuai Wu; Yunjiao He, Xianxiu Qiu, Wenchao Yang, Wenchao Liu, Xiaohua Li, Yan Li, Han-Ming Shen, Renxiao Wang, Zhenyu Yue, Yanxiang Zhao
      Abstract: The Beclin 1–Vps34 complex, known as “mammalian class III PI3K,” plays essential roles in membrane-mediated transport processes including autophagy and endosomal trafficking. Beclin 1 acts as a scaffolding molecule for the complex and readily transits from its metastable homodimeric state to interact with key modulators such as Atg14L or UVRAG...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721173115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Individuality and slow dynamics in bacterial growth homeostasis
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Lee Susman; Maryam Kohram, Harsh Vashistha, Jeffrey T. Nechleba, Hanna Salman, Naama Brenner
      Abstract: Microbial growth and division are fundamental processes relevant to many areas of life science. Of particular interest are homeostasis mechanisms, which buffer growth and division from accumulating fluctuations over multiple cycles. These mechanisms operate within single cells, possibly extending over several division cycles. However, all experimental studies to date have...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615526115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • In vitro biomimetic engineering of a human hematopoietic niche with
           functional properties [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Paul E. Bourgine; Thibaut Klein, Anna M. Paczulla, Takafumi Shimizu, Leo Kunz, Konstantinos D. Kokkaliaris, Daniel L. Coutu, Claudia Lengerke, Radek Skoda, Timm Schroeder, Ivan Martin
      Abstract: In adults, human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Our understanding of human hematopoiesis and the associated niche biology remains limited, due to human material accessibility and limits of existing in vitro culture models. The establishment of an in vitro BM system would...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805440115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Spatially modulated ephrinA1:EphA2 signaling increases local contractility
           and global focal adhesion dynamics to promote cell motility [Cell Biology]
           
    • Authors: Zhongwen Chen; Dongmyung Oh, Kabir H. Biswas, Cheng-Han Yu, Ronen Zaidel-Bar, Jay T. Groves
      Abstract: Recent studies have revealed pronounced effects of the spatial distribution of EphA2 receptors on cellular response to receptor activation. However, little is known about molecular mechanisms underlying this spatial sensitivity, in part due to lack of experimental systems. Here, we introduce a hybrid live-cell patterned supported lipid bilayer experimental platform...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719961115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Minimizing ATP depletion by oxygen scavengers for single-molecule
           fluorescence imaging in live cells [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Seung-Ryoung Jung; Yi Deng, Christopher Kushmerick, Charles L. Asbury, Bertil Hille, Duk-Su Koh
      Abstract: The stability of organic dyes against photobleaching is critical in single-molecule tracking and localization microscopy. Since oxygen accelerates photobleaching of most organic dyes, glucose oxidase is commonly used to slow dye photobleaching by depleting oxygen. As demonstrated here, pyranose-2-oxidase slows bleaching of Alexa647 dye by ∼20-fold. However, oxygen deprivation may...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717724115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Automatically identifying, counting, and describing wild animals in
           camera-trap images with deep learning [Ecology]
    • Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Norouzzadeh; Anh Nguyen, Margaret Kosmala, Alexandra Swanson, Meredith S. Palmer, Craig Packer, Jeff Clune
      Abstract: Having accurate, detailed, and up-to-date information about the location and behavior of animals in the wild would improve our ability to study and conserve ecosystems. We investigate the ability to automatically, accurately, and inexpensively collect such data, which could help catalyze the transformation of many fields of ecology, wildlife biology,...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719367115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Directed evolution of multiple genomic loci allows the prediction of
           antibiotic resistance [Evolution]
    • Authors: Akos Nyerges; Balint Csorgő, Gabor Draskovits, Balint Kintses, Petra Szili, Gyorgyi Ferenc, Tamas Revesz, Eszter Ari, Istvan Nagy, Balazs Balint, Balint Mark Vasarhelyi, Peter Bihari, Monika Szamel, David Balogh, Henrietta Papp, Dorottya Kalapis, Balazs Papp, Csaba Pal
      Abstract: Antibiotic development is frequently plagued by the rapid emergence of drug resistance. However, assessing the risk of resistance development in the preclinical stage is difficult. Standard laboratory evolution approaches explore only a small fraction of the sequence space and fail to identify exceedingly rare resistance mutations and combinations thereof. Therefore,...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801646115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Cell-intrinsic regulation of murine epidermal Langerhans cells by protein
           S [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Yaara Tabib; Nora S. Jaber, Maria Nassar, Tal Capucha, Gabriel Mizraji, Tsipora Nir, Noam Koren, Itay Aizenbud, Avraham Maimon, Luba Eli-Berchoer, Asaf Wilensky, Tal Burstyn-Cohen, Avi-Hai Hovav
      Abstract: AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase family, has been shown to play a role in the differentiation and activation of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). Here, we demonstrate that growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6) protein, the predominant ligand of AXL, has no impact on LC...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800303115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor enhancers support a transcription factor
           network predictive of clinical outcome [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Matthew L. Hemming; Matthew A. Lawlor, Rhamy Zeid, Tom Lesluyes, Jonathan A. Fletcher, Chandraȷit P. Raut, Ewa T. Sicinska, Frederic Chibon, Scott A. Armstrong, George D. Demetri, James E. Bradner
      Abstract: Activating mutations in the KIT or PDGFRA receptor tyrosine kinases are hallmarks of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). The biological underpinnings of recurrence following resection or disease progression beyond kinase mutation are poorly understood. Utilizing chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing of tumor samples and cell lines, we describe the enhancer landscape of...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802079115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • A stress-induced response complex (SIRC) shuttles miRNAs, siRNAs, and
           oligonucleotides to the nucleus [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Daniela Castanotto; Xiaowei Zhang, Jessica Alluin, Xizhe Zhang, Jacqueline Ruger, Brian Armstrong, John Rossi, Arthur Riggs, C. A. Stein
      Abstract: Although some information is available for specific subsets of miRNAs and several factors have been shown to bind oligonucleotides (ONs), no general transport mechanism for these molecules has been identified to date. In this work, we demonstrate that the nuclear transport of ONs, siRNAs, and miRNAs responds to cellular stress....
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721346115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • PHIP as a therapeutic target for driver-negative subtypes of melanoma,
           breast, and lung cancer [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: David de Semir; Vladimir Bezrookove, Mehdi Nosrati, Altaf A. Dar, Clayton Wu, Julia Shen, Christopher Rieken, Meenakshi Venkatasubramanian, James R. Miller III, Pierre-Yves Desprez, Sean McAllister, Liliana Soroceanu, Robert J. Debs, Nathan Salomonis, Dirk Schadendorf, James E. Cleaver, Mohammed Kashani-Sabet
      Abstract: The identification and targeting of key molecular drivers of melanoma and breast and lung cancer have substantially improved their therapy. However, subtypes of each of these three common, lethal solid tumors lack identified molecular drivers, and are thus not amenable to targeted therapies. Here we show that pleckstrin homology domain-interacting...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804779115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • ABC transporter content diversity in Streptococcus pneumoniae impacts
           competence regulation and bacteriocin production [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Charles Y. Wang; Nisha Patel, Wei-Yun Wholey, Suzanne Dawid
      Abstract: The opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) uses natural genetic competence to increase its adaptability through horizontal gene transfer. One method of acquiring DNA is through predation of neighboring strains with antimicrobial peptides called “bacteriocins.” Competence and production of the major family of pneumococcal bacteriocins, pneumocins, are regulated by the quorum-sensing...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1804668115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Comprehensive skin microbiome analysis reveals the uniqueness of human
           skin and evidence for phylosymbiosis within the class Mammalia
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Ashley A. Ross; Kirsten M. Muller, J. Scott Weese, Josh D. Neufeld
      Abstract: Skin is the largest organ of the body and represents the primary physical barrier between mammals and their external environment, yet the factors that govern skin microbial community composition among mammals are poorly understood. The objective of this research was to generate a skin microbiota baseline for members of the...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801302115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Stimulation-induced increases in cerebral blood flow and local capillary
           vasoconstriction depend on conducted vascular responses [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Changsi Cai; Jonas C. Fordsmann, Sofie H. Jensen, Bodil Gesslein, Micael Lonstrup, Bȷorn O. Hald, Stefan A. Zambach, Birger Brodin, Martin J. Lauritzen
      Abstract: Functional neuroimaging, such as fMRI, is based on coupling neuronal activity and accompanying changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. However, the relationship between CBF and events at the level of the penetrating arterioles and capillaries is not well established. Recent findings suggest an active role of capillaries in...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707702115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Rapid, experience-dependent translation of neurogranin enables memory
           encoding [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Kendrick J. Jones; Sebastian Templet, Khaled Zemoura, Bozena Kuzniewska, Franciso X. Pena, Hongik Hwang, Ding J. Lei, Henny Haensgen, Shannon Nguyen, Christopher Saenz, Michael Lewis, Magdalena Dziembowska, Weifeng Xu
      Abstract: Experience induces de novo protein synthesis in the brain and protein synthesis is required for long-term memory. It is important to define the critical temporal window of protein synthesis and identify newly synthesized proteins required for memory formation. Using a behavioral paradigm that temporally separates the contextual exposure from the...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716750115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Soluble epoxide hydrolase plays a key role in the pathogenesis of
           Parkinson’s disease [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Qian Ren; Min Ma, Jun Yang, Risa Nonaka, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Kei-ichi Ishikawa, Kenta Kobayashi, Shigeo Murayama, Sung Hee Hwang, Shinji Saiki, Wado Akamatsu, Nobutaka Hattori, Bruce D. Hammock, Kenji Hashimoto
      Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized as a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder, and the deposition of specific protein aggregates of α-synuclein, termed Lewy bodies, is evident in multiple brain regions of PD patients. Although there are several available medications to treat PD symptoms, these medications do not prevent the progression...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802179115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • A shared cis-regulatory module activates transcription in the suspensor of
           plant embryos [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Kelli F. Henry; Anhthu Q. Bui, Tomokazu Kawashima, Robert B. Goldberg
      Abstract: The mechanisms controlling the transcription of gene sets in specific regions of a plant embryo shortly after fertilization remain unknown. Previously, we showed that G564 mRNA, encoding a protein of unknown function, accumulates to high levels in the giant suspensor of both Scarlet Runner Bean (SRB) and Common Bean embryos,...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805802115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Correction for Zahran et al., Assessment of the Legionnaires’ disease
           outbreak in Flint, Michigan [Correction]
    • Abstract: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Correction for “Assessment of the Legionnaires’ disease outbreak in Flint, Michigan,” by Sammy Zahran, Shawn P. McElmurry, Paul E. Kilgore, David Mushinski, Jack Press, Nancy G. Love, Richard C. Sadler, and Michele S. Swanson, which was first published February 5, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1718679115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:E1730–E1739)....
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808389115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Correction for Adam et al., Evolutionary history of carbon monoxide
           dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase, one of the oldest enzymatic complexes
           [Correction]
    • Abstract: EVOLUTION Correction for “Evolutionary history of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase, one of the oldest enzymatic complexes,” by Panagiotis S. Adam, Guillaume Borrel, and Simonetta Gribaldo, which was first published January 22, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1716667115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:E1166–E1173). The authors wish to note the following: “We would like to...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807540115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Correction for Oyen et al., Structural basis for antibody recognition of
           the NANP repeats in Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein
           [Correction]
    • Abstract: MICROBIOLOGY, BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY Correction for “Structural basis for antibody recognition of the NANP repeats in Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein,” by David Oyen, Jonathan L. Torres, Ulrike Wille-Reece, Christian F. Ockenhouse, Daniel Emerling, Jacob Glanville, Wayne Volkmuth, Yevel Flores-Garcia, Fidel Zavala, Andrew B. Ward, C. Richter King, and Ian...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808460115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 6315 - 6317
      Abstract: Commensal rats record shifts in Polynesian resources View of Tikopia Island with its crater lake from the peak of Mt Reani. Although little direct archaeological evidence exists to quantify the impacts of human colonization on local ecosystems, commensal animals, which accompany human habitation but are not domesticated, can preserve a...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti2518115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Opinion: Medical misinformation in the era of Google: Computational
           approaches to a pervasive problem [Computer Sciences]
    • Authors: Scott R. Granter; David J. Papke Jr.
      Pages: 6318 - 6321
      Abstract: On December 28, 1917, a fascinating article appeared in the pages of the New York Evening Mail. The article, titled “A Neglected History,” written by H.L. Mencken, laments the fact that the 75th anniversary of the introduction of the bathtub to the United States had passed without the slightest public...
      Keywords: Opinions, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1808264115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Fatty acid chemical mediator provides insights into the pathology and
           treatment of Parkinson’s disease [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Cesar V. Borlongan
      Pages: 6322 - 6324
      Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) ranks as the second-most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that afflicts the aging population (1). Hallmark neuropathological features of PD consist of dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra, striatal dopamine deficiency, and formation of intracellular inclusions, called Lewy bodies, marked by α-synuclein aggregates (2). Although the primary brain...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807276115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Time to build on good design: Resolving the temporal dynamics of gene
           regulatory networks [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Kathleen Greenham; C. Robertson McClung
      Pages: 6325 - 6327
      Abstract: The increasing availability of -omics data is driving the development of computational methods for integrating these datasets to connect the underlying molecular mechanisms to phenotypes. Building gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from transcriptomic studies often results in a static view of gene expression, which can make it difficult to disentangle pathway...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807707115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • The scale of life and its lessons for humanity [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: Matthew G. Burgess; Steven D. Gaines
      Pages: 6328 - 6330
      Abstract: The scale of life on Earth is shaped by a confluence of biophysical, evolutionary, ecological, and, recently, human forces. Measuring the scale of life offers insights about these forces and raises many more questions. In PNAS, Bar-On et al. (1) offer the most comprehensive quantification to date of the biomass...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1807019115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • High-resolution {mu}CT of a mouse embryo using a compact laser-driven
           X-ray betatron source [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Jason M. Cole; Daniel R. Symes, Nelson C. Lopes, Jonathan C. Wood, Kristjan Poder, Saleh Alatabi, Stanley W. Botchway, Peta S. Foster, Sarah Gratton, Sara Johnson, Christos Kamperidis, Olena Kononenko, Michael De Lazzari, Charlotte A. J. Palmer, Dean Rusby, Jeremy Sanderson, Michael Sandholzer, Gianluca Sarri, Zsombor Szoke-Kovacs, Lydia Teboul, James M. Thompson, Jonathan R. Warwick, Henrik Westerberg, Mark A. Hill, Dominic P. Norris, Stuart P. D. Mangles, Zulfikar Najmudin
      Pages: 6335 - 6340
      Abstract: In the field of X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) there is a growing need to reduce acquisition times at high spatial resolution (approximate micrometers) to facilitate in vivo and high-throughput operations. The state of the art represented by synchrotron light sources is not practical for certain applications, and therefore the development...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802314115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Robust nonequilibrium pathways to microcompartment assembly [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Grant M. Rotskoff; Phillip L. Geissler
      Pages: 6341 - 6346
      Abstract: Cyanobacteria sequester photosynthetic enzymes into microcompartments which facilitate the conversion of carbon dioxide into sugars. Geometric similarities between these structures and self-assembling viral capsids have inspired models that posit microcompartments as stable equilibrium arrangements of the constituent proteins. Here we describe a different mechanism for microcompartment assembly, one that is...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802499115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Distinguishing malignant from benign microscopic skin lesions using
           desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Katherine Margulis; Albert S. Chiou, Sumaira Z. Aasi, Robert J. Tibshirani, Jean Y. Tang, Richard N. Zare
      Pages: 6347 - 6352
      Abstract: Detection of microscopic skin lesions presents a considerable challenge in diagnosing early-stage malignancies as well as in residual tumor interrogation after surgical intervention. In this study, we established the capability of desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) to distinguish between micrometer-sized tumor aggregates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), a...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803733115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Potassic, high-silica Hadean crust [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Patrick Boehnke; Elizabeth A. Bell, Thomas Stephan, Reto Trappitsch, C. Brenhin Keller, Olivia S. Pardo, Andrew M. Davis, T. Mark Harrison, Michael J. Pellin
      Pages: 6353 - 6356
      Abstract: Understanding Hadean (>4 Ga) Earth requires knowledge of its crust. The composition of the crust and volatiles migrating through it directly influence the makeup of the atmosphere, the composition of seawater, and nutrient availability. Despite its importance, there is little known and less agreed upon regarding the nature of the...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720880115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Pronounced summer warming in northwest Greenland during the Holocene and
           Last Interglacial [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Jamie M. McFarlin; Yarrow Axford, Magdalena R. Osburn, Meredith A. Kelly, Erich C. Osterberg, Lauren B. Farnsworth
      Pages: 6357 - 6362
      Abstract: Projections of future rates of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet are highly uncertain because its sensitivity to warming is unclear. Geologic reconstructions of Quaternary interglacials can illustrate how the ice sheet responded during past warm periods, providing insights into ice sheet behavior and important tests for data-model comparisons....
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720420115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Proterozoic Milankovitch cycles and the history of the solar system
           [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Stephen R. Meyers; Alberto Malinverno
      Pages: 6363 - 6368
      Abstract: The geologic record of Milankovitch climate cycles provides a rich conceptual and temporal framework for evaluating Earth system evolution, bestowing a sharp lens through which to view our planet’s history. However, the utility of these cycles for constraining the early Earth system is hindered by seemingly insurmountable uncertainties in our...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1717689115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Modulating cell state to enhance suspension expansion of human pluripotent
           stem cells [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Yonatan Y. Lipsitz; Curtis Woodford, Ting Yin, Jacob H. Hanna, Peter W. Zandstra
      Pages: 6369 - 6374
      Abstract: The development of cell-based therapies to replace missing or damaged tissues within the body or generate cells with a unique biological activity requires a reliable and accessible source of cells. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have emerged as a strong candidate cell source capable of extended propagation in vitro and...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714099115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Configuration correlation governs slow dynamics of supercooled metallic
           liquids [Physics]
    • Authors: Yuan-Chao Hu; Yan-Wei Li, Yong Yang, Peng-Fei Guan, Hai-Yang Bai, Wei-Hua Wang
      Pages: 6375 - 6380
      Abstract: The origin of dramatic slowing down of dynamics in metallic glass-forming liquids toward their glass transition temperatures is a fundamental but unresolved issue. Through extensive molecular dynamics simulations, here we show that, contrary to the previous beliefs, it is not local geometrical orderings extracted from instantaneous configurations but the intrinsic...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802300115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Beating the classical precision limit with spin-1 Dicke states of more
           than 10,000 atoms [Physics]
    • Authors: Yi-Quan Zou; Ling-Na Wu, Qi Liu, Xin-Yu Luo, Shuai-Feng Guo, Jia-Hao Cao, Meng Khoon Tey, Li You
      Pages: 6381 - 6385
      Abstract: Interferometry is a paradigm for most precision measurements. Using N uncorrelated particles, the achievable precision for a two-mode (two-path) interferometer is bounded by the standard quantum limit (SQL), 1/N, due to the discrete (quanta) nature of individual measurements. Despite being a challenging benchmark, the two-mode SQL has been approached in...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715105115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Reciprocal space tomography of 3D skyrmion lattice order in a chiral
           magnet [Physics]
    • Authors: Shilei Zhang; Gerrit van der Laan, Jan Muller, Lukas Heinen, Markus Garst, Andreas Bauer, Helmuth Berger, Christian Pfleiderer, Thorsten Hesȷedal
      Pages: 6386 - 6391
      Abstract: It is commonly assumed that surfaces modify the properties of stable materials within the top few atomic layers of a bulk specimen only. Exploiting the polarization dependence of resonant elastic X-ray scattering to go beyond conventional diffraction and imaging techniques, we have determined the depth dependence of the full 3D...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803367115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Restructuring of nutrient flows in island ecosystems following human
           colonization evidenced by isotopic analysis of commensal rats
           [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Jillian A. Swift; Patrick Roberts, Nicole Boivin, Patrick V. Kirch
      Pages: 6392 - 6397
      Abstract: The role of humans in shaping local ecosystems is an increasing focus of archaeological research, yet researchers often lack an appropriate means of measuring past anthropogenic effects on local food webs and nutrient cycling. Stable isotope analysis of commensal animals provides an effective proxy for local human environments because these...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805787115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Human midcingulate cortex encodes distributed representations of task
           progress [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Clay B. Holroyd; Jose J. F. Ribas–Fernandes, Danesh Shahnazian, Massimo Silvetti, Tom Verguts
      Pages: 6398 - 6403
      Abstract: The function of midcingulate cortex (MCC) remains elusive despite decades of investigation and debate. Complicating matters, individual MCC neurons respond to highly diverse task-related events, and MCC activation is reported in most human neuroimaging studies employing a wide variety of task manipulations. Here we investigate this issue by applying a...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803650115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • A folded viral noncoding RNA blocks host cell exoribonucleases through a
           conformationally dynamic RNA structure [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Anna-Lena Steckelberg; Benjamin M. Akiyama, David A. Costantino, Tim L. Sit, Jay C. Nix, Jeffrey S. Kieft
      Pages: 6404 - 6409
      Abstract: Folded RNA elements that block processive 5′ → 3′ cellular exoribonucleases (xrRNAs) to produce biologically active viral noncoding RNAs have been discovered in flaviviruses, potentially revealing a new mode of RNA maturation. However, whether this RNA structure-dependent mechanism exists elsewhere and, if so, whether a singular RNA fold is required,...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802429115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Altered p53 functionality in cancer-associated fibroblasts contributes to
           their cancer-supporting features [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Sharathchandra Arandkar; Noa Furth, Yair Elisha, Nishanth Belugali Nataraj, Heiko van der Kuip, Yosef Yarden, Walter Aulitzky, Igor Ulitsky, Benjamin Geiger, Moshe Oren
      Pages: 6410 - 6415
      Abstract: Within the tumor microenvironment, cancer cells coexist with noncancerous adjacent cells that constitute the tumor microenvironment and impact tumor growth through diverse mechanisms. In particular, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote tumor progression in multiple ways. Earlier studies have revealed that in normal fibroblasts (NFs), p53 plays a cell nonautonomous tumor-suppressive role...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719076115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Distance-dependent defensive coloration in the poison frog Dendrobates
           tinctorius, Dendrobatidae [Ecology]
    • Authors: James B. Barnett; Constantine Michalis, Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel, Innes C. Cuthill
      Pages: 6416 - 6421
      Abstract: Poison dart frogs provide classic examples of warning signals: potent toxins signaled by distinctive, conspicuous coloration. We show that, counterintuitively, the bright yellow and blue-black color of Dendrobates tinctorius (Dendrobatidae) also provides camouflage. Through computational modeling of predator vision, and a screen-based detection experiment presenting frogs at different spatial resolutions,...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800826115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Exploitation drives an ontogenetic-like deepening in marine fish [Ecology]
    • Authors: Kenneth T. Frank; Brian Petrie, William C. Leggett, Daniel G. Boyce
      Pages: 6422 - 6427
      Abstract: Virtually all studies reporting deepening with increasing size or age by fishes involve commercially harvested species. Studies of North Sea plaice in the early 1900s first documented this phenomenon (named Heincke’s law); it occurred at a time of intensive harvesting and rapid technological changes in fishing methods. The possibility that...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:54-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802096115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Evolutionary convergence in lignin-degrading enzymes [Evolution]
    • Authors: Ivan Ayuso–Fernandez; Francisco J. Ruiz–Duenas, Angel T. Martinez
      Pages: 6428 - 6433
      Abstract: The resurrection of ancestral enzymes of now-extinct organisms (paleogenetics) is a developing field that allows the study of evolutionary hypotheses otherwise impossible to be tested. In the present study, we target fungal peroxidases that play a key role in lignin degradation, an essential process in the carbon cycle and often...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802555115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • BP180 dysfunction triggers spontaneous skin inflammation in mice
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Yang Zhang; Bin-Jin Hwang, Zhen Liu, Ning Li, Kendall Lough, Scott E. Williams, Jinbo Chen, Susan W. Burette, Luis A. Diaz, Maureen A. Su, Shengxiang Xiao, Zhi Liu
      Pages: 6434 - 6439
      Abstract: BP180, also known as collagen XVII, is a hemidesmosomal component and plays a key role in maintaining skin dermal/epidermal adhesion. Dysfunction of BP180, either through genetic mutations in junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) or autoantibody insult in bullous pemphigoid (BP), leads to subepidermal blistering accompanied by skin inflammation. However, whether BP180...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721805115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Trends in health inequalities in 27 European countries [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Johan P. Mackenbach; Jose Rubio Valverde, Barbara Artnik, Matthias Bopp, Henrik Bronnum–Hansen, Patrick Deboosere, Ramune Kalediene, Katalin Kovacs, Mall Leinsalu, Pekka Martikainen, Gwenn Menvielle, Enrique Regidor, Jitka Rychtařikova, Maica Rodriguez–Sanz, Paolo Vineis, Chris White, Bogdan Woȷtyniak, Yannan Hu, Wilma J. Nusselder
      Pages: 6440 - 6445
      Abstract: Unfavorable health trends among the lowly educated have recently been reported from the United States. We analyzed health trends by education in European countries, paying particular attention to the possibility of recent trend interruptions, including interruptions related to the impact of the 2008 financial crisis. We collected and harmonized data...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800028115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Regulation of stringent factor by branched-chain amino acids
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Mingxu Fang; Carl E. Bauer
      Pages: 6446 - 6451
      Abstract: When faced with amino acid starvation, prokaryotic cells induce a stringent response that modulates their physiology. The stringent response is manifested by production of signaling molecules guanosine 5′-diphosphate,3′-diphosphate (ppGpp) and guanosine 5′-triphosphate,3′-diphosphate (pppGpp) that are also called alarmones. In many species, alarmone levels are regulated by a multidomain bifunctional alarmone...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803220115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Synthetic bottom-up approach reveals the complex interplay of Shigella
           effectors in regulation of epithelial cell death [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Xiangyu Mou; Skye Souter, Juan Du, Analise Z. Reeves, Cammie F. Lesser
      Pages: 6452 - 6457
      Abstract: Over the course of an infection, many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use complex nanomachines to directly inject tens to hundreds of proteins (effectors) into the cytosol of infected host cells. These effectors rewire processes to promote bacterial replication and spread. The roles of effectors in pathogenesis have traditionally been investigated by...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801310115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Gut microbiota regulates maturation of the adult enteric nervous system
           via enteric serotonin networks [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Filipe De Vadder; Estelle Grasset, Louise Manneras Holm, Gerard Karsenty, Andrew J. Macpherson, Louise E. Olofsson, Fredrik Backhed
      Pages: 6458 - 6463
      Abstract: The enteric nervous system (ENS) is crucial for essential gastrointestinal physiologic functions such as motility, fluid secretion, and blood flow. The gut is colonized by trillions of bacteria that regulate host production of several signaling molecules including serotonin (5-HT) and other hormones and neurotransmitters. Approximately 90% of 5-HT originates from...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720017115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Small RNA profiling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies MrsI as
           necessary for an anticipatory iron sparing response [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Elias R. Gerrick; Thibault Barbier, Michael R. Chase, Raylin Xu, Josie Francois, Vincent H. Lin, Matthew J. Szucs, Jeremy M. Rock, Rushdy Ahmad, Brian Tȷaden, Jonathan Livny, Sarah M. Fortune
      Pages: 6464 - 6469
      Abstract: One key to the success of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a pathogen is its ability to reside in the hostile environment of the human macrophage. Bacteria adapt to stress through a variety of mechanisms, including the use of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), which posttranscriptionally regulate bacterial gene expression. However, very little...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1718003115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Transdifferentiation of human adult peripheral blood T cells into neurons
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Koȷi Tanabe; Cheen Euong Ang, Soham Chanda, Victor Hipolito Olmos, Daniel Haag, Douglas F. Levinson, Thomas C. Sudhof, Marius Wernig
      Pages: 6470 - 6475
      Abstract: Human cell models for disease based on induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have proven to be powerful new assets for investigating disease mechanisms. New insights have been obtained studying single mutations using isogenic controls generated by gene targeting. Modeling complex, multigenetic traits using patient-derived iPS cells is much more challenging...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1720273115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • TMS-induced neuronal plasticity enables targeted remodeling of visual
           cortical maps [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Vladislav Kozyrev; Robert Staadt, Ulf T. Eysel, Dirk Jancke
      Pages: 6476 - 6481
      Abstract: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has become a popular clinical method to modify cortical processing. The events underlying TMS-induced functional changes remain, however, largely unknown because current noninvasive recording methods lack spatiotemporal resolution or are incompatible with the strong TMS-associated electrical field. In particular, an answer to the question of how...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1802798115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Genome-wide regulation of light-controlled seedling morphogenesis by three
           families of transcription factors [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Hui Shi; Mohan Lyu, Yiwen Luo, Shoucheng Liu, Yue Li, Hang He, Ning Wei, Xing Wang Deng, Shangwei Zhong
      Pages: 6482 - 6487
      Abstract: Three families of transcription factors have been reported to play key roles in light control of Arabidopsis seedling morphogenesis. Among them, bHLH protein PIFs and plant-specific protein EIN3/EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIN3/EIL1) accumulate in the dark to maintain skotomorphogenesis. On the other hand, HY5 and HY5 HOMOLOG (HYH), two related bZIP proteins,...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1803861115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Uncovering pH at both sides of the root plasma membrane interface using
           noninvasive imaging [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Alexandre Martiniere; Remy Gibrat, Herve Sentenac, Xavier Dumont, Isabelle Gaillard, Nadine Paris
      Pages: 6488 - 6493
      Abstract: Building a proton gradient across a biological membrane and between different tissues is a matter of great importance for plant development and nutrition. To gain a better understanding of proton distribution in the plant root apoplast as well as across the plasma membrane, we generated Arabidopsis plants expressing stable membrane-anchored...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721769115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Temporal transcriptional logic of dynamic regulatory networks underlying
           nitrogen signaling and use in plants [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Kranthi Varala; Amy Marshall–Colon, Jacopo Cirrone, Matthew D. Brooks, Angelo V. Pasquino, Sophie Leran, Shipra Mittal, Tara M. Rock, Molly B. Edwards, Grace J. Kim, Sandrine Ruffel, W. Richard McCombie, Dennis Shasha, Gloria M. Coruzzi
      Pages: 6494 - 6499
      Abstract: This study exploits time, the relatively unexplored fourth dimension of gene regulatory networks (GRNs), to learn the temporal transcriptional logic underlying dynamic nitrogen (N) signaling in plants. Our “just-in-time” analysis of time-series transcriptome data uncovered a temporal cascade of cis elements underlying dynamic N signaling. To infer transcription factor (TF)-target...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721487115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • Memory-related hippocampal activation in the sleeping toddler
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Janani Prabhakar; Elliott G. Johnson, Christine Wu Nordahl, Simona Ghetti
      Pages: 6500 - 6505
      Abstract: Nonhuman research has implicated developmental processes within the hippocampus in the emergence and early development of episodic memory, but methodological challenges have hindered assessments of this possibility in humans. Here, we delivered a previously learned song and a novel song to 2-year-old toddlers during natural nocturnal sleep and, using functional...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1805572115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
  • The biomass distribution on Earth [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: Yinon M. Bar-On; Rob Phillips, Ron Milo
      Pages: 6506 - 6511
      Abstract: A census of the biomass on Earth is key for understanding the structure and dynamics of the biosphere. However, a global, quantitative view of how the biomass of different taxa compare with one another is still lacking. Here, we assemble the overall biomass composition of the biosphere, establishing a census...
      PubDate: 2018-06-19T11:45:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711842115
      Issue No: Vol. 115, No. 25 (2018)
       
 
 
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