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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 1240  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 18131 - 18134
      Abstract: Origins of green coloration in frogs Hylid tree frog. Many vertebrates have blue-green blood and bones due to high concentrations of the pigment biliverdin. The biochemical basis and functions of this phenomenon, known as chlorosis, remain unclear. Carlos Taboada et al. (pp. 18574–18581) report that proteins named biliverdin-binding serpins (BBSs)...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti3120117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Scientific versus public debates: A PNAS case study [Editorials]
    • Authors: Douglas S. Massey; Mary C. Waters
      Pages: 18135 - 18136
      Abstract: Unfortunately, scientific communication and the resulting public use of research often do not reflect the painstaking and sometimes imperfect process of peer review, and in a hyperpartisan landscape invalid conclusions can acquire a tendentious life of their own. Here we review the process by which a controversial PNAS paper was...
      Keywords: Editorials
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012328117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Opinion: At a Crossroads: Reimagining science, engineering, and
           medicine—and its practitioners [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Freeman A. Hrabowski III; J. Kathleen Tracy, Peter H. Henderson
      Pages: 18137 - 18141
      Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has cast a bright light on the importance of science and evidence (1). Epidemiologists have provided public health advice informed by experience with epidemics and are sharing best practices for halting the spread of the virus. Biomedical scientists are researching how the virus works,...
      Keywords: Opinions, Medical Sciences, Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013588117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Inner Workings: A pulse of hope in the fight against Alzheimer’s
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Lynne Peeples
      Pages: 18142 - 18145
      Abstract: Flashes of strobe lights and the beat of stereo speakers filled the otherwise pitch-black, shoebox-sized cages. The mice inside may not have danced, but their brains caught the rhythm. Pulses of light and sound delivered to mouse brains at a frequency of 40 hertz appeared to reduce the number of...
      Keywords: Inner Workings, Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013084117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • QnAs with Hashim Al-Hashimi [QnAs]
    • Authors: Brian Doctrow
      Pages: 18146 - 18147
      Abstract: Proteins and nucleic acids can undergo a variety of motions inside cells, ranging from vibrations of individual atoms to rearrangements of large molecular domains. In some cases, these motions are integral to the molecule’s function, yet difficult to measure and track experimentally. Hashim Al-Hashimi, a biophysical chemist at Duke University,...
      Keywords: QnAs
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013688117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Honey bee colony aggression and indirect genetic effects [Genetics]
    • Authors: Marla B. Sokolowski
      Pages: 18148 - 18150
      Abstract: Social interaction is like a dance between two or more individuals who communicate with each other by sending and receiving information. Social cues are multisensory, involving combinations of visual, olfactory, auditory, and tactile information. One individual transmits information through its behavior and the other interprets it, providing a behavioral response...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012366117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Maladaptive response of arterial myocytes to chronic exposure to Ca2+
           channel blockers [Pharmacology]
    • Authors: Samantha C. O’Dwyer; Manuel F. Navedo, L. F. Santana
      Pages: 18151 - 18153
      Abstract: “The tragedies in life are largely arterial.” – Sir William Osler, 1908 (1) Hypertension is a debilitating cardiovascular disease characterized by the narrowing of arteries and arterioles which increases resistance to blood flow. This decrease in intraluminal diameter of arteries/arterioles is due to multiple factors, including arterial smooth muscle hypertrophy...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011909117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Cats as predators and early domesticates in ancient human landscapes
           [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Fiona Marshall
      Pages: 18154 - 18156
      Abstract: Cats have had diverse relationships with humans, ranging from rodent control, to household pets, to cultural icons. The presence of rodents in grain stores in Neolithic farming settlements is widely thought to have led to the domestication of cats (1–3). Felid bones are rare in archaeological sites, however, and processes...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011993117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Complications and challenges for securing Mediterranean timelines
           [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Sturt W. Manning
      Pages: 18157 - 18158
      Abstract: Pearson et al. (1) present important data; unfortunately, errors mar their work. They report 186 14C dates for relative year 834 (RY834) to RY1019 of the 1,028-y Gordion (GOR) juniper tree-ring chronology (1). “A gap of 103 years was added to the start of the single year sequence and 744...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006552117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Reply to Manning: Dating of Gordion tree-ring sequence still stands within
           a year of 745 BC [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Charlotte Pearson; Matthew Salzer, Lukas Wacker, Peter Brewer, Adam Sookdeo, Peter Kuniholm
      Pages: 18159 - 18160
      Abstract: We thank Manning (1) for his detailed consideration of our published work but point out that none of the objections raised affects, undermines, or alters our core scientific conclusions. First, the wiggle-match position using IntCal13 was undertaken to demonstrate comparability with previously published results, not to date our annual 14C...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007824117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Multidecadal records of intrinsic water-use efficiency in the desert shrub
           Encelia farinosa reveal strong responses to climate change [Ecology]
    • Authors: Avery W. Driscoll; Nicholas Q. Bitter, Darren R. Sandquist, James R. Ehleringer
      Pages: 18161 - 18168
      Abstract: While tree rings have enabled interannual examination of the influence of climate on trees, this is not possible for most shrubs. Here, we leverage a multidecadal record of annual foliar carbon isotope ratio collections coupled with 39 y of survey data from two populations of the drought-deciduous desert shrub Encelia...
      Keywords: Inaugural Articles
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008345117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Discovery of the world’s highest-dwelling mammal [Evolution]
    • Authors: Jay F. Storz; Marcial Quiroga–Carmona, Juan C. Opazo, Thomas Bowen, Matthew Farson, Scott J. Steppan, Guillermo D’Elia
      Pages: 18169 - 18171
      Abstract: Environmental limits of animal life are invariably revised when the animals themselves are investigated in their natural habitats. Here we report results of a scientific mountaineering expedition to survey the high-altitude rodent fauna of Volcán Llullaillaco in the Puna de Atacama of northern Chile, an effort motivated by video documentation...
      Keywords: Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005265117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Inefficient V(D)J recombination underlies monogenic T cell receptor {beta}
           expression [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Glendon S. Wu; Craig H. Bassing
      Pages: 18172 - 18174
      Abstract: The assembly of T cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) genes by V(D)J recombination generates the antigen receptor (AgR) diversity that is vital for adaptive immunity. At most AgR loci, V(D)J recombination is regulated so that only one allele assembles a functional gene, ensuring that nearly every T and B...
      Keywords: Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2010077117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Identification of GLUT12/SLC2A12 as a urate transporter that regulates the
           blood urate level in hyperuricemia model mice [Physiology]
    • Authors: Yu Toyoda; Tappei Takada, Hiroshi Miyata, Hirotaka Matsuo, Hidetoshi Kassai, Kazuki Nakao, Masahiro Nakatochi, Yusuke Kawamura, Seiko Shimizu, Nariyoshi Shinomiya, Kimiyoshi Ichida, Makoto Hosoyamada, Atsu Aiba, Hiroshi Suzuki
      Pages: 18175 - 18177
      Abstract: Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed some genetic loci associated with serum uric acid levels and susceptibility to gout/hyperuricemia which contain potential candidates of physiologically important urate transporters. One of these novel loci is located upstream of SGK1 and SLC2A12, suggesting that variations in these genes increase the risks of...
      Keywords: Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006958117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Plato’s cube and the natural geometry of fragmentation [Applied
           Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Gabor Domokos; Douglas J. Jerolmack, Ferenc Kun, Janos Torok
      Pages: 18178 - 18185
      Abstract: Plato envisioned Earth’s building blocks as cubes, a shape rarely found in nature. The solar system is littered, however, with distorted polyhedra—shards of rock and ice produced by ubiquitous fragmentation. We apply the theory of convex mosaics to show that the average geometry of natural two-dimensional (2D) fragments, from mud...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001037117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Reconfigurable microbots folded from simple colloidal chains [Applied
           Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Tao Yang; Brennan Sprinkle, Yang Guo, Jun Qian, Daoben Hua, Aleksandar Donev, David W. M. Marr, Ning Wu
      Pages: 18186 - 18193
      Abstract: To overcome the reversible nature of low-Reynolds-number flow, a variety of biomimetic microrobotic propulsion schemes and devices capable of rapid transport have been developed. However, these approaches have been typically optimized for a specific function or environment and do not have the flexibility that many real organisms exhibit to thrive...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007255117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Predicting the long-term stability of compact multiplanet systems
           [Astronomy]
    • Authors: Daniel Tamayo; Miles Cranmer, Samuel Hadden, Hanno Rein, Peter Battaglia, Alysa Obertas, Philip J. Armitage, Shirley Ho, David N. Spergel, Christian Gilbertson, Naireen Hussain, Ari Silburt, Daniel Jontof-Hutter, Kristen Menou
      Pages: 18194 - 18205
      Abstract: We combine analytical understanding of resonant dynamics in two-planet systems with machine-learning techniques to train a model capable of robustly classifying stability in compact multiplanet systems over long timescales of 109 orbits. Our Stability of Planetary Orbital Configurations Klassifier (SPOCK) predicts stability using physically motivated summary statistics measured in integrations...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001258117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Lipid sponge droplets as programmable synthetic organelles [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Ahanjit Bhattacharya; Henrike Niederholtmeyer, Kira A. Podolsky, Rupak Bhattacharya, Jing-Jin Song, Roberto J. Brea, Chu-Hsien Tsai, Sunil K. Sinha, Neal K. Devaraj
      Pages: 18206 - 18215
      Abstract: Living cells segregate molecules and reactions in various subcellular compartments known as organelles. Spatial organization is likely essential for expanding the biochemical functions of synthetic reaction systems, including artificial cells. Many studies have attempted to mimic organelle functions using lamellar membrane-bound vesicles. However, vesicles typically suffer from highly limited transport...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004408117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Two-step reaction mechanism reveals new antioxidant capability of cysteine
           disulfides against hydroxyl radical attack [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Sarju Adhikari; Ramon Crehuet, Josep M. Anglada, Joseph S. Francisco, Yu Xia
      Pages: 18216 - 18223
      Abstract: Cysteine disulfides, which constitute an important component in biological redox buffer systems, are highly reactive toward the hydroxyl radical (•OH). The mechanistic details of this reaction, however, remain unclear, largely due to the difficulty in characterizing unstable reaction products. Herein, we have developed a combined approach involving mass spectrometry (MS)...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006639117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Crystallographic evidence of Watson-Crick connectivity in the base pair of
           anionic adenine with thymine [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Manish Kumar Mishra; Steven P. Kelley, Volodymyr Smetana, David A. Dixon, Ashley S. McNeill, Anja-Verena Mudring, Robin D. Rogers
      Pages: 18224 - 18230
      Abstract: Utilizing an ionic liquid strategy, we report crystal structures of salts of free anionic nucleobases and base pairs previously studied only computationally and in the gas phase. Reaction of tetrabutylammonium ([N4444]+) or tetrabutylphosphonium ([P4444]+) hydroxide with adenine (HAd) and thymine (HThy) led to hydrated salts of deprotonated adenine, [N4444][Ad]·2H2O, and...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008379117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Experimental and theoretical evidence for hydrogen doping in polymer
           solution-processed indium gallium oxide [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Wei Huang; Po-Hsiu Chien, Kyle McMillen, Sawankumar Patel, Joshua Tedesco, Li Zeng, Subhrangsu Mukherjee, Binghao Wang, Yao Chen, Gang Wang, Yang Wang, Yanshan Gao, Michael J. Bedzyk, Dean M. DeLongchamp, Yan-Yan Hu, Julia E. Medvedeva, Tobin J. Marks, Antonio Facchetti
      Pages: 18231 - 18239
      Abstract: The field-effect electron mobility of aqueous solution-processed indium gallium oxide (IGO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) is significantly enhanced by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) addition to the precursor solution, a>70-fold increase to 7.9 cm2/Vs. To understand the origin of this remarkable phenomenon, microstructure, electronic structure, and charge transport of IGO:PVA film are...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007897117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Automated detection of archaeological mounds using machine-learning
           classification of multisensor and multitemporal satellite data
           [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Hector A. Orengo; Francesc C. Conesa, Arnau Garcia–Molsosa, Agustin Lobo, Adam S. Green, Marco Madella, Cameron A. Petrie
      Pages: 18240 - 18250
      Abstract: This paper presents an innovative multisensor, multitemporal machine-learning approach using remote sensing big data for the detection of archaeological mounds in Cholistan (Pakistan). The Cholistan Desert presents one of the largest concentrations of Indus Civilization sites (from ca. 3300 to 1500 BC). Cholistan has figured prominently in theories about changes...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005583117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Recent anthropogenic curtailing of Yellow River runoff and sediment load
           is unprecedented over the past 500 y [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Yu Liu; Huiming Song, Zhisheng An, Changfeng Sun, Valerie Trouet, Qiufang Cai, Ruoshi Liu, Steven W. Leavitt, Yi Song, Qiang Li, Congxi Fang, Weijian Zhou, Yinke Yang, Zhao Jin, Yunqiang Wang, Junyan Sun, Xingmin Mu, Ying Lei, Lu Wang, Xuxiang Li, Meng Ren, Linlin Cui, Xueli Zeng
      Pages: 18251 - 18257
      Abstract: The Yellow River (YR) is the fifth-longest and the most sediment-laden river in the world. Frequent historical YR flooding events, however, have resulted in tremendous loss of life and property, whereas in recent decades YR runoff and sediment load have fallen sharply. To put these recent changes in a longer-term...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922349117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Elevated paleomagnetic dispersion at Saint Helena suggests long-lived
           anomalous behavior in the South Atlantic [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Yael A. Engbers; Andrew J. Biggin, Richard K. Bono
      Pages: 18258 - 18263
      Abstract: Earth’s magnetic field is presently characterized by a large and growing anomaly in the South Atlantic Ocean. The question of whether this region of Earth’s surface is preferentially subject to enhanced geomagnetic variability on geological timescales has major implications for core dynamics, core−mantle interaction, and the possibility of an imminent...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001217117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Exoplanet secondary atmosphere loss and revival [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Edwin S. Kite; Megan N. Barnett
      Pages: 18264 - 18271
      Abstract: The next step on the path toward another Earth is to find atmospheres similar to those of Earth and Venus—high–molecular-weight (secondary) atmospheres—on rocky exoplanets. Many rocky exoplanets are born with thick (>10 kbar) H2-dominated atmospheres but subsequently lose their H2; this process has no known Solar System analog. We study...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006177117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Elevated dust depositions in West Asia linked to ocean-atmosphere shifts
           during North Atlantic cold events [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Reza Safaierad; Mahyar Mohtadi, Bernd Zolitschka, Yusuke Yokoyama, Christoph Vogt, Enno Schefuss
      Pages: 18272 - 18277
      Abstract: Rapid North Atlantic cooling events during the last deglaciation caused atmospheric reorganizations on global and regional scales. Their impact on Asian climate has been investigated for monsoonal domains, but remains largely unknown in westerly wind-dominated semiarid regions. Here we generate a dust record from southeastern Iran spanning the period 19...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004071117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Soft transition between subcritical and supercritical currents through
           intermittent cascading interfacial instabilities [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Jorge Salinas; S. Balachandar, Mrugesh Shringarpure, Juan Fedele, David Hoyal, Mariano Cantero
      Pages: 18278 - 18284
      Abstract: Long-running gravity currents are flows that are submerged beneath a deep layer of quiescent fluid and they travel over long distances along inclined or horizontal surfaces. They are driven by the density difference between the current and the clear ambient fluid above. In this work we present results on highly...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008959117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • High-pressure elastic properties of dolomite melt supporting
           carbonate-induced melting in deep upper mantle [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Man Xu; Zhicheng Jing, Suraj K. Bajgain, Mainak Mookherjee, James A. Van Orman, Tony Yu, Yanbin Wang
      Pages: 18285 - 18291
      Abstract: Deeply subducted carbonates likely cause low-degree melting of the upper mantle and thus play an important role in the deep carbon cycle. However, direct seismic detection of carbonate-induced partial melts in the Earth’s interior is hindered by our poor knowledge on the elastic properties of carbonate melts. Here we report...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004347117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Pencil-paper on-skin electronics [Engineering]
    • Authors: Yadong Xu; Ganggang Zhao, Liang Zhu, Qihui Fei, Zhe Zhang, Zanyu Chen, Fufei An, Yangyang Chen, Yun Ling, Peijun Guo, Shinghua Ding, Guoliang Huang, Pai-Yen Chen, Qing Cao, Zheng Yan
      Pages: 18292 - 18301
      Abstract: Pencils and papers are ubiquitous in our society and have been widely used for writing and drawing, because they are easy to use, low-cost, widely accessible, and disposable. However, their applications in emerging skin-interfaced health monitoring and interventions are still not well explored. Herein, we report a variety of pencil–paper-based...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008422117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Reproductive outcomes predicted by phase imaging with computational
           specificity of spermatozoon ultrastructure [Engineering]
    • Authors: Mikhail E. Kandel; Marcello Rubessa, Yuchen R. He, Sierra Schreiber, Sasha Meyers, Luciana Matter Naves, Molly K. Sermersheim, G. Scott Sell, Michael J. Szewczyk, Nahil Sobh, Matthew B. Wheeler, Gabriel Popescu
      Pages: 18302 - 18309
      Abstract: The ability to evaluate sperm at the microscopic level, at high-throughput, would be useful for assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), as it can allow specific selection of sperm cells for in vitro fertilization (IVF). The tradeoff between intrinsic imaging and external contrast agents is particularly acute in reproductive medicine. The use...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001754117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Bioinspired conductive cellulose liquid-crystal hydrogels as
           multifunctional electrical skins [Engineering]
    • Authors: Zhuohao Zhang; Zhuoyue Chen, Yu Wang, Yuanjin Zhao
      Pages: 18310 - 18316
      Abstract: Bionic electronic skin (E-skin) that could convert external physical or mechanical stimuli into output signals has a wide range of applications including wearable devices, artificial prostheses, software robots, etc. Here, we present a chameleon-inspired multifunctional E-skin based on hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), Poly(Acrylamide-co-Acrylic acid) (PACA), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composited liquid-crystal...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007032117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Qualitative crop condition survey reveals spatiotemporal production
           patterns and allows early yield prediction [Agricultural Sciences]
    • Authors: Santiago Begueria; Marco P. Maneta
      Pages: 18317 - 18323
      Abstract: Large-scale continuous crop monitoring systems (CMS) are key to detect and manage agricultural production anomalies. Current CMS exploit meteorological and crop growth models, and satellite imagery, but have underutilized legacy sources of information such as operational crop expert surveys with long and uninterrupted records. We argue that crop expert assessments,...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917774117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Cavity molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water under vibrational
           ultrastrong coupling [Physics]
    • Authors: Tao E. Li; Joseph E. Subotnik, Abraham Nitzan
      Pages: 18324 - 18331
      Abstract: We simulate vibrational strong coupling (VSC) and vibrational ultrastrong coupling (V-USC) for liquid water with classical molecular dynamics simulations. When the cavity modes are resonantly coupled to the O−H stretch mode of liquid water, the infrared spectrum shows asymmetric Rabi splitting. The lower polariton (LP) may be suppressed or enhanced...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2009272117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Link-usage asymmetry and collective patterns emerging from rich-club
           organization of complex networks [Physics]
    • Authors: Paolo Moretti; Marc–Thorsten Hutt
      Pages: 18332 - 18340
      Abstract: In models of excitable dynamics on graphs, excitations can travel in both directions of an undirected link. However, as a striking interplay of dynamics and network topology, excitations often establish a directional preference. Some of these cases of “link-usage asymmetry” are local in nature and can be mechanistically understood, for...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919785117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Linear resistivity and Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) spin liquid behavior in a
           quantum critical metal with spin-1/2 fermions [Physics]
    • Authors: Peter Cha; Nils Wentzell, Olivier Parcollet, Antoine Georges, Eun-Ah Kim
      Pages: 18341 - 18346
      Abstract: “Strange metals” with resistivity depending linearly on temperature T down to low T have been a long-standing puzzle in condensed matter physics. Here, we consider a lattice model of itinerant spin-1/2 fermions interacting via onsite Hubbard interaction and random infinite-ranged spin–spin interaction. We show that the quantum critical point associated...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003179117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Biocement stabilization of an experimental-scale artificial slope and the
           reformation of iron-rich crusts [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Alan Levett; Emma J. Gagen, Yitian Zhao, Paulo M. Vasconcelos, Gordon Southam
      Pages: 18347 - 18354
      Abstract: Novel biotechnologies are required to remediate iron ore mines and address the increasing number of tailings (mine waste) dam collapses worldwide. In this study, we aimed to accelerate iron reduction and oxidation to stabilize an artificial slope. An open-air bioreactor was inoculated with a mixed consortium of microorganisms capable of...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001740117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Relating size and functionality in human social networks through
           complexity [Applied Mathematics]
    • Authors: B. J. West; G. F. Massari, G. Culbreth, R. Failla, M. Bologna, R. I. M. Dunbar, P. Grigolini
      Pages: 18355 - 18358
      Abstract: Extensive empirical evidence suggests that there is a maximal number of people with whom an individual can maintain stable social relationships (the Dunbar number). We argue that this arises as a consequence of a natural phase transition in the dynamic self-organization among N individuals within a social system. We present...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006875117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Integration of ancient DNA with transdisciplinary dataset finds strong
           support for Inca resettlement in the south Peruvian coast [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Jacob L. Bongers; Nathan Nakatsuka, Colleen O’Shea, Thomas K. Harper, Henry Tantalean, Charles Stanish, Lars Fehren–Schmitz
      Pages: 18359 - 18368
      Abstract: Ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis provides a powerful means of investigating human migration, social organization, and a plethora of other crucial questions about humanity’s past. Recently, specialists have suggested that the ideal research design involving aDNA would include multiple independent lines of evidence. In this paper, we adopt a transdisciplinary approach...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005965117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Robust evidence for bisexual orientation among men [Psychological and
           Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Jeremy Jabbour; Luke Holmes, David Sylva, Kevin J. Hsu, Theodore L. Semon, A. M. Rosenthal, Adam Safron, Erlend Slettevold, Tuesday M. Watts-Overall, Ritch C. Savin-Williams, John Sylla, Gerulf Rieger, J. Michael Bailey
      Pages: 18369 - 18377
      Abstract: The question whether some men have a bisexual orientation—that is, whether they are substantially sexually aroused and attracted to both sexes—has remained controversial among both scientists and laypersons. Skeptics believe that male sexual orientation can only be homosexual or heterosexual, and that bisexual identification reflects nonsexual concerns, such as a...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003631117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Lay theories of peace and their influence on policy preference during
           violent conflict [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Oded Adomi Leshem; Eran Halperin
      Pages: 18378 - 18384
      Abstract: We often talk about peace as if the concept is self-explanatory. Yet people can have various theories about what peace “is.” In this study, we examine the lay theories of peace of citizens embroiled in a prolonged ethnonational conflict. We show that lay theories of peace 1) depend on whether...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005928117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Crop rotation mitigates impacts of corn rootworm resistance to transgenic
           Bt corn [Agricultural Sciences]
    • Authors: Yves Carriere; Zachary Brown, Serkan Aglasan, Pierre Dutilleul, Matthew Carroll, Graham Head, Bruce E. Tabashnik, Peter Sogaard Jorgensen, Scott P. Carroll
      Pages: 18385 - 18392
      Abstract: Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can suppress pests and reduce insecticide sprays, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Although farmers plant refuges of non-Bt host plants to delay pest resistance, this tactic has not been sufficient against the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003604117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • A 1.4-million-year-old bone handaxe from Konso, Ethiopia, shows advanced
           tool technology in the early Acheulean [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Katsuhiro Sano; Yonas Beyene, Shigehiro Katoh, Daisuke Koyabu, Hideki Endo, Tomohiko Sasaki, Berhane Asfaw, Gen Suwa
      Pages: 18393 - 18400
      Abstract: In the past decade, the early Acheulean before 1 Mya has been a focus of active research. Acheulean lithic assemblages have been shown to extend back to ∼1.75 Mya, and considerable advances in core reduction technologies are seen by 1.5 to 1.4 Mya. Here we report a bifacially flaked bone...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006370117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Phosphoprotein-based biomarkers as predictors for cancer therapy [Applied
           Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Angela M. Carter; Chunfeng Tan, Karine Pozo, Rahul Telange, Roberto Molinaro, Ailan Guo, Enrica De Rosa, Jonathan O. Martinez, Shanrong Zhang, Nilesh Kumar, Masaya Takahashi, Thorsten Wiederhold, Hans K. Ghayee, Sarah C. Oltmann, Karel Pacak, Eugene A. Woltering, Kimmo J. Hatanpaa, Fiemu E. Nwariaku, Elizabeth G. Grubbs, Anthony J. Gill, Bruce Robinson, Frank Gillardon, Sushanth Reddy, Renata Jaskula-Sztul, James A. Mobley, M. Shahid Mukhtar, Ennio Tasciotti, Herbert Chen, James A. Bibb
      Pages: 18401 - 18411
      Abstract: Disparities in cancer patient responses have prompted widespread searches to identify differences in sensitive vs. nonsensitive populations and form the basis of personalized medicine. This customized approach is dependent upon the development of pathway-specific therapeutics in conjunction with biomarkers that predict patient responses. Here, we show that Cdk5 drives growth...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2010103117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • A single-cell Raman-based platform to identify developmental stages of
           
    • Authors: Chia-Chen Hsu; Jiabao Xu, Bas Brinkhof, Hui Wang, Zhanfeng Cui, Wei E. Huang, Hua Ye
      Pages: 18412 - 18423
      Abstract: Stem cells with the capability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell derivatives provide platforms for drug screening and promising treatment options for a wide variety of neural diseases. Nevertheless, clinical applications of stem cells have been hindered partly owing to a lack of standardized techniques to characterize cell molecular...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001906117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Bidirectional titration of yeast gene expression using a pooled CRISPR
           guide RNA approach [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Emily K. Bowman; Matthew Deaner, Jan-Fang Cheng, Robert Evans, Ernst Oberortner, Yasuo Yoshikuni, Hal S. Alper
      Pages: 18424 - 18430
      Abstract: Most classic genetic approaches utilize binary modifications that preclude the identification of key knockdowns for essential genes or other targets that only require moderate modulation. As a complementary approach to these classic genetic methods, we describe a plasmid-based library methodology that affords bidirectional, graded modulation of gene expression enabled by...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007413117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • An influenza A hemagglutinin small-molecule fusion inhibitor identified by
           a new high-throughput fluorescence polarization screen [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Yao Yao; Rameshwar U. Kadam, Chang-Chun David Lee, Jordan L. Woehl, Nicholas C. Wu, Xueyong Zhu, Seiya Kitamura, Ian A. Wilson, Dennis W. Wolan
      Pages: 18431 - 18438
      Abstract: Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein is the primary surface antigen targeted by the host immune response and a focus for development of novel vaccines, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), and therapeutics. HA enables viral entry into host cells via receptor binding and membrane fusion and is a validated target for drug discovery....
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006893117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Direct readout of heterochromatic H3K9me3 regulates DNMT1-mediated
           maintenance DNA methylation [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Wendan Ren; Huitao Fan, Sara A. Grimm, Yiran Guo, Jae Jin Kim, Jiekai Yin, Linhui Li, Christopher J. Petell, Xiao–Feng Tan, Zhi–Min Zhang, John P. Coan, Linfeng Gao, Ling Cai, Brittany Detrick, Burak Cetin, Qiang Cui, Brian D. Strahl, Or Gozani, Yinsheng Wang, Kyle M. Miller, Sean E. O’Leary, Paul A. Wade, Dinshaw J. Patel, Gang Greg Wang, Jikui Song
      Pages: 18439 - 18447
      Abstract: In mammals, repressive histone modifications such as trimethylation of histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9me3), frequently coexist with DNA methylation, producing a more stable and silenced chromatin state. However, it remains elusive how these epigenetic modifications crosstalk. Here, through structural and biochemical characterizations, we identified the replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) domain...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2009316117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • What ATP binding does to the Ca2+ pump and how nonproductive phosphoryl
           transfer is prevented in the absence of Ca2+ [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Yoshiki Kabashima; Haruo Ogawa, Rie Nakajima, Chikashi Toyoshima
      Pages: 18448 - 18458
      Abstract: Under physiological conditions, most Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) molecules bind ATP before binding the Ca2+ transported. SERCA has a high affinity for ATP even in the absence of Ca2+, and ATP accelerates Ca2+ binding at pH values lower than 7, where SERCA is in the E2 state with low-affinity Ca2+-binding sites. Here...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006027117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Long-range intramolecular allostery and regulation in the dynein-like AAA
           protein Mdn1 [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Keith J. Mickolajczyk; Paul Dominic B. Olinares, Yiming Niu, Nan Chen, Sara E. Warrington, Yusuke Sasaki, Thomas Walz, Brian T. Chait, Tarun M. Kapoor
      Pages: 18459 - 18469
      Abstract: Mdn1 is an essential mechanoenzyme that uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to physically reshape and remodel, and thus mature, the 60S subunit of the ribosome. This massive (>500 kDa) protein has an N-terminal AAA (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities) ring, which, like dynein, has six ATPase sites. The...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002792117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Calcium-triggered fusion of lipid membranes is enabled by amphiphilic
           nanoparticles [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Mukarram A. Tahir; Zekiye P. Guven, Laura R. Arriaga, Berta Tinao, Yu-Sang Sabrina Yang, Ahmet Bekdemir, Jacob T. Martin, Alisha N. Bhanji, Darrell Irvine, Francesco Stellacci, Alfredo Alexander-Katz
      Pages: 18470 - 18476
      Abstract: Lipid membrane fusion is an essential process for a number of critical biological functions. The overall process is thermodynamically favorable but faces multiple kinetic barriers along the way. Inspired by nature’s engineered proteins such as SNAP receptor [soluble N-ethylmale-imide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor (SNARE)] complexes or viral fusogenic proteins that actively...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902597117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Machine learning classification can reduce false positives in
           structure-based virtual screening [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Yusuf O. Adeshina; Eric J. Deeds, John Karanicolas
      Pages: 18477 - 18488
      Abstract: With the recent explosion in the size of libraries available for screening, virtual screening is positioned to assume a more prominent role in early drug discovery’s search for active chemical matter. In typical virtual screens, however, only about 12% of the top-scoring compounds actually show activity when tested in biochemical...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000585117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • HEDGES error-correcting code for DNA storage corrects indels and allows
           sequence constraints [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: William H. Press; John A. Hawkins, Stephen K. Jones Jr, Jeffrey M. Schaub, Ilya J. Finkelstein
      Pages: 18489 - 18496
      Abstract: Synthetic DNA is rapidly emerging as a durable, high-density information storage platform. A major challenge for DNA-based information encoding strategies is the high rate of errors that arise during DNA synthesis and sequencing. Here, we describe the HEDGES (Hash Encoded, Decoded by Greedy Exhaustive Search) error-correcting code that repairs all...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004821117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Cryo-EM analysis of a membrane protein embedded in the liposome
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Xia Yao; Xiao Fan, Nieng Yan
      Pages: 18497 - 18503
      Abstract: Membrane proteins (MPs) used to be the most difficult targets for structural biology when X-ray crystallography was the mainstream approach. With the resolution revolution of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM), rapid progress has been made for structural elucidation of isolated MPs. The next challenge is to preserve the electrochemical gradients and...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2009385117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Calcium and hydroxyapatite binding site of human vitronectin provides
           insights to abnormal deposit formation [Biophysics and Computational
           Biology]
    • Authors: Kyungsoo Shin; James E. Kent, Chandan Singh, Lynn M. Fujimoto, Jinghua Yu, Ye Tian, Wonpil Im, Francesca M. Marassi
      Pages: 18504 - 18510
      Abstract: The human blood protein vitronectin (Vn) is a major component of the abnormal deposits associated with age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s disease, and many other age-related disorders. Its accumulation with lipids and hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been demonstrated, but the precise mechanism for deposit formation remains unknown. Using a combination of solution...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007699117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Cleavage-furrow formation without F-actin in Chlamydomonas [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Masayuki Onishi; James G. Umen, Frederick R. Cross, John R. Pringle
      Pages: 18511 - 18520
      Abstract: It is widely believed that cleavage-furrow formation during cytokinesis is driven by the contraction of a ring containing F-actin and type-II myosin. However, even in cells that have such rings, they are not always essential for furrow formation. Moreover, many taxonomically diverse eukaryotic cells divide by furrowing but have no...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920337117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Last step in the path of LDL cholesterol from lysosome to plasma membrane
           to ER is governed by phosphatidylserine [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Michael N. Trinh; Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein, Jaeil Han, Goncalo Vale, Jeffrey G. McDonald, Joachim Seemann, Joshua T. Mendell, Feiran Lu
      Pages: 18521 - 18529
      Abstract: Animal cells acquire cholesterol from receptor-mediated uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which releases cholesterol in lysosomes. The cholesterol moves to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it inhibits production of LDL receptors, completing a feedback loop. Here we performed a CRISPR-Cas9 screen in human SV589 cells for genes required for LDL-derived...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2010682117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Vps13 is required for the packaging of the ER into autophagosomes during
           ER-phagy [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Shuliang Chen; Muriel Mari, Smriti Parashar, Dongmei Liu, Yixian Cui, Fulvio Reggiori, Peter J. Novick, Susan Ferro-Novick
      Pages: 18530 - 18539
      Abstract: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) macroautophagy (hereafter called ER-phagy) uses autophagy receptors to selectively degrade ER domains in response to starvation or the accumulation of aggregation-prone proteins. Autophagy receptors package the ER into autophagosomes by binding to the ubiquitin-like yeast protein Atg8 (LC3 in mammals), which is needed for autophagosome formation. In...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008923117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Clusters of bacterial RNA polymerase are biomolecular condensates that
           assemble through liquid-liquid phase separation [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Anne-Marie Ladouceur; Baljyot Singh Parmar, Stefan Biedzinski, James Wall, S. Graydon Tope, David Cohn, Albright Kim, Nicolas Soubry, Rodrigo Reyes-Lamothe, Stephanie C. Weber
      Pages: 18540 - 18549
      Abstract: Once described as mere “bags of enzymes,” bacterial cells are in fact highly organized, with many macromolecules exhibiting nonuniform localization patterns. Yet the physical and biochemical mechanisms that govern this spatial heterogeneity remain largely unknown. Here, we identify liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) as a mechanism for organizing clusters of RNA...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005019117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • High plant diversity and slow assembly of old-growth grasslands [Ecology]
    • Authors: Ashish N. Nerlekar; Joseph W. Veldman
      Pages: 18550 - 18556
      Abstract: Earth’s ancient grasslands and savannas—hereafter old-growth grasslands—have long been viewed by scientists and environmental policymakers as early successional plant communities of low conservation value. Challenging this view, emerging research suggests that old-growth grasslands support substantial biodiversity and are slow to recover if destroyed by human land uses (e.g., tillage agriculture,...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922266117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Shifts in timing and duration of breeding for 73 boreal bird species over
           four decades [Ecology]
    • Authors: Maria H. Hallfors; Laura H. Antao, Malcolm Itter, Aleksi Lehikoinen, Tanȷa Lindholm, Tomas Roslin, Marȷo Saastamoinen
      Pages: 18557 - 18565
      Abstract: Breeding timed to match optimal resource abundance is vital for the successful reproduction of species, and breeding is therefore sensitive to environmental cues. As the timing of breeding shifts with a changing climate, this may not only affect the onset of breeding but also its termination, and thus the length...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1913579117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Behavioral traits that define social dominance are the same that reduce
           social influence in a consensus task [Ecology]
    • Authors: Mariana Rodriguez–Santiago; Paul Nuhrenberg, James Derry, Oliver Deussen, Fritz A. Francisco, Linda K. Garrison, Sylvia F. Garza, Hans A. Hofmann, Alex Jordan
      Pages: 18566 - 18573
      Abstract: Dominant individuals are often most influential in their social groups, affecting movement, opinion, and performance across species and contexts. Yet, behavioral traits like aggression, intimidation, and coercion, which are associated with and in many cases define dominance, can be socially aversive. The traits that make dominant individuals influential in one...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000158117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Multiple origins of green coloration in frogs mediated by a novel
           biliverdin-binding serpin [Evolution]
    • Authors: Carlos Taboada; Andres E. Brunetti, Mariana L. Lyra, Robert R. Fitak, Ana Faigon Soverna, Santiago R. Ron, Maria G. Lagorio, Celio F. B. Haddad, Norberto P. Lopes, Sonke Johnsen, Julian Faivovich, Lucia B. Chemes, Sara E. Bari
      Pages: 18574 - 18581
      Abstract: Many vertebrates have distinctive blue-green bones and other tissues due to unusually high biliverdin concentrations—a phenomenon called chlorosis. Despite its prevalence, the biochemical basis, biology, and evolution of chlorosis are poorly understood. In this study, we show that the occurrence of high biliverdin in anurans (frogs and toads) has evolved...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006771117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Evolutionary stalling and a limit on the power of natural selection to
           improve a cellular module [Evolution]
    • Authors: Sandeep Venkataram; Ross Monasky, Shohreh H. Sikaroodi, Sergey Kryazhimskiy, Betul Kacar
      Pages: 18582 - 18590
      Abstract: Cells consist of molecular modules which perform vital biological functions. Cellular modules are key units of adaptive evolution because organismal fitness depends on their performance. Theory shows that in rapidly evolving populations, such as those of many microbes, adaptation is driven primarily by common beneficial mutations with large effects, while...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1921881117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Metformin inhibits RAN translation through PKR pathway and mitigates
           disease in C9orf72 ALS/FTD mice [Genetics]
    • Authors: Tao Zu; Shu Guo, Olgert Bardhi, Daniel A. Ryskamp, Jian Li, Solaleh Khoramian Tusi, Avery Engelbrecht, Kelena Klippel, Paramita Chakrabarty, Lien Nguyen, Todd E. Golde, Nahum Sonenberg, Laura P. W. Ranum
      Pages: 18591 - 18599
      Abstract: Repeat associated non-AUG (RAN) translation is found in a growing number of microsatellite expansion diseases, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We show that RAN translation is highly regulated by the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). In cells, structured CAG, CCUG, CAGG, and G4C2 expansion RNAs activate PKR, which leads to...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005748117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Molecular characterization of a fungal gasdermin-like protein [Genetics]
    • Authors: Asen Daskalov; Patrick S. Mitchell, Andrew Sandstrom, Russell E. Vance, N. Louise Glass
      Pages: 18600 - 18607
      Abstract: Programmed cell death (PCD) in filamentous fungi prevents cytoplasmic mixing following fusion between conspecific genetically distinct individuals (allorecognition) and serves as a defense mechanism against mycoparasitism, genome exploitation, and deleterious cytoplasmic elements (i.e., senescence plasmids). Recently, we identified regulator of cell death-1 (rcd-1), a gene controlling PCD in germinated asexual...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004876117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Genome-wide role of Rad26 in promoting transcription-coupled nucleotide
           excision repair in yeast chromatin [Genetics]
    • Authors: Mingrui Duan; Kathiresan Selvam, John J. Wyrick, Peng Mao
      Pages: 18608 - 18616
      Abstract: Transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism that removes RNA polymerase (RNAP)-stalling DNA damage from the transcribed strand (TS) of active genes. TC-NER deficiency in humans is associated with the severe neurological disorder Cockayne syndrome. Initiation of TC-NER is mediated by specific factors such as the...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003868117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • T-box transcription factor 3 governs a transcriptional program for the
           function of the mouse atrioventricular conduction system [Genetics]
    • Authors: Rajiv A. Mohan; Fernanda M. Bosada, Jan H. van Weerd, Karel van Duijvenboden, Jianan Wang, Mathilda T. M. Mommersteeg, Ingeborg B. Hooijkaas, Vincent Wakker, Corrie de Gier-de Vries, Ruben Coronel, Gerard J. J. Boink, Jeroen Bakkers, Phil Barnett, Bas J. Boukens, Vincent M. Christoffels
      Pages: 18617 - 18626
      Abstract: Genome-wide association studies have identified noncoding variants near TBX3 that are associated with PR interval and QRS duration, suggesting that subtle changes in TBX3 expression affect atrioventricular conduction system function. To explore whether and to what extent the atrioventricular conduction system is affected by Tbx3 dose reduction, we first characterized...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919379117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Bacterial immunotherapy for cancer induces CD4-dependent tumor-specific
           immunity through tumor-intrinsic interferon-{gamma} signaling [Immunology
           and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Anthony C. Antonelli; Anna Binyamin, Tobias M. Hohl, Michael S. Glickman, Gil Redelman-Sidi
      Pages: 18627 - 18637
      Abstract: Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy for bladder cancer is the only bacterial cancer therapy approved for clinical use. Although presumed to induce T cell-mediated immunity, whether tumor elimination depends on bacteria-specific or tumor-specific immunity is unknown. Herein we show that BCG-induced bladder tumor elimination requires CD4 and CD8 T cells, although...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004421117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Fetal public V{gamma}9V{delta}2 T cells expand and gain potent cytotoxic
           functions early after birth [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Maria Papadopoulou; Tanya Dimova, Muki Shey, Libby Briel, Helen Veldtsman, Nondumiso Khomba, Hadn Africa, Marcia Steyn, Willem A. Hanekom, Thomas J. Scriba, Elisa Nemes, David Vermijlen
      Pages: 18638 - 18648
      Abstract: Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are a major human blood γδ T cell population that respond in a T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent manner to phosphoantigens which are generated by a variety of microorganisms. It is not clear how Vγ9Vδ2 T cells react toward the sudden microbial exposure early after birth. We found...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922595117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Microbial exposure drives polyclonal expansion of innate {gamma}{delta} T
           cells immediately after birth [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Sarina Ravens; Alina S. Fichtner, Maike Willers, Dennis Torkornoo, Sabine Pirr, Jennifer Schoning, Malte Deseke, Inga Sandrock, Anȷa Bubke, Anneke Wilharm, Daniel Dodoo, Beverly Egyir, Katie L. Flanagan, Lars Steinbruck, Paul Dickinson, Peter Ghazal, Bright Adu, Dorothee Viemann, Immo Prinz
      Pages: 18649 - 18660
      Abstract: Starting at birth, the immune system of newborns and children encounters and is influenced by environmental challenges. It is still not completely understood how γδ T cells emerge and adapt during early life. Studying the composition of T cell receptors (TCRs) using next-generation sequencing (NGS) in neonates, infants, and children...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1922588117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Site-specific ubiquitination of pathogenic huntingtin attenuates its
           deleterious effects [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Vicky Hakim-Eshed; Ayub Boulos, Chen Cohen-Rosenzweig, Libo Yu-Taeger, Tamar Ziv, Yong Tae Kwon, Olaf Riess, Hoa Huu Phuc Nguyen, Noam E. Ziv, Aaron Ciechanover
      Pages: 18661 - 18669
      Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive incurable neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms. It is caused by expansion of a cytosine–adenine–guanine triplet in the N-terminal domain of exon 1 in the huntingtin (HTT) gene that codes for an expanded polyglutamine stretch in the protein product which becomes aggregation...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007667117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • High-throughput discovery of phage receptors using transposon insertion
           sequencing of bacteria [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Kaitlyn E. Kortright; Benjamin K. Chan, Paul E. Turner
      Pages: 18670 - 18679
      Abstract: As the most abundant microbes on Earth, novel bacteriophages (phages; bacteria-specific viruses) are readily isolated from environmental samples. However, it remains challenging to characterize phage–bacteria interactions, such as the host receptor(s) phages bind to initiate infection. Here, we tested whether transposon insertion sequencing (INSeq) could be used to identify bacterial...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001888117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Subdomain cryo-EM structure of nodaviral replication protein A crown
           complex provides mechanistic insights into RNA genome replication
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Nuruddin Unchwaniwala; Hong Zhan, Janice Pennington, Mark Horswill, Johan A. den Boon, Paul Ahlquist
      Pages: 18680 - 18691
      Abstract: For positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses, the major target for antiviral therapies is genomic RNA replication, which occurs at poorly understood membrane-bound viral RNA replication complexes. Recent cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) of nodavirus RNA replication complexes revealed that the viral double-stranded RNA replication template is coiled inside a 30- to 90-nm invagination...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006165117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Intact proviral DNA assay analysis of large cohorts of people with HIV
           provides a benchmark for the frequency and composition of persistent
           proviral DNA [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Francesco R. Simonetti; Jennifer A. White, Camille Tumiotto, Kristen D. Ritter, Mian Cai, Rajesh T. Gandhi, Steven G. Deeks, Bonnie J. Howell, Luis J. Montaner, Joel N. Blankson, Albine Martin, Gregory M. Laird, Robert F. Siliciano, John W. Mellors, Janet D. Siliciano
      Pages: 18692 - 18700
      Abstract: A scalable approach for quantifying intact HIV-1 proviruses is critical for basic research and clinical trials directed at HIV-1 cure. The intact proviral DNA assay (IPDA) is a novel approach to characterizing the HIV-1 reservoir, focusing on the genetic integrity of individual proviruses independent of transcriptional status. It uses multiplex...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2006816117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Yin Yang 1 is a potent activator of human T lymphotropic virus type 1
           LTR-driven gene expression via RNA binding [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Gary Z. Wang; Stephen P. Goff
      Pages: 18701 - 18710
      Abstract: Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a DNA-binding transcription factor that either activates or represses gene expression. YY1 has previously been implicated in the transcriptional silencing of many retroviruses by binding to DNA sequences in the U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). We here show that YY1 overexpression...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005726117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Molecular basis of Coxsackievirus A10 entry using the two-in-one
           attachment and uncoating receptor KRM1 [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Yingzi Cui; Ruchao Peng, Hao Song, Zhou Tong, Xiao Qu, Sheng Liu, Xin Zhao, Yan Chai, Peiyi Wang, George F. Gao, Jianxun Qi
      Pages: 18711 - 18718
      Abstract: KREMEN1 (KRM1) has been identified as a functional receptor for Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10), a causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), which poses a great threat to infants globally. However, the underlying mechanisms for the viral entry process are not well understood. Here we determined the atomic structures of different forms...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005341117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Nanoparticles presenting clusters of CD4 expose a universal vulnerability
           of HIV-1 by mimicking target cells [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Magnus A. G. Hoffmann; Yotam Bar-On, Zhi Yang, Harry B. Gristick, Priyanthi N. P. Gnanapragasam, Jost Vielmetter, Michel C. Nussenzweig, Pamela J. Bjorkman
      Pages: 18719 - 18728
      Abstract: CD4-based decoy approaches against HIV-1 are attractive options for long-term viral control, but initial designs, including soluble CD4 (sCD4) and CD4-Ig, were ineffective. To evaluate a therapeutic that more accurately mimics HIV-1 target cells compared with monomeric sCD4 and dimeric CD4-Ig, we generated virus-like nanoparticles that present clusters of membrane-associated...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2010320117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Wide lag time distributions break a trade-off between reproduction and
           survival in bacteria [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Stefany Moreno–Gamez; Daniel J. Kiviet, Clement Vulin, Susan Schlegel, Kim Schlegel, G. Sander van Doorn, Martin Ackermann
      Pages: 18729 - 18736
      Abstract: Many microorganisms face a fundamental trade-off between reproduction and survival: Rapid growth boosts population size but makes microorganisms sensitive to external stressors. Here, we show that starved bacteria encountering new resources can break this trade-off by evolving phenotypic heterogeneity in lag time. We quantify the distribution of single-cell lag times...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003331117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • The gain-of-function allele bamAE470K bypasses the essential requirement
           for BamD in {beta}-barrel outer membrane protein assembly [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Elizabeth M. Hart; Meera Gupta, Martin Wuhr, Thomas J. Silhavy
      Pages: 18737 - 18743
      Abstract: The outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria confers innate resistance to toxins and antibiotics. Integral β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) function to establish and maintain the selective permeability of the OM. OMPs are assembled into the OM by the β-barrel assembly machine (BAM), which is composed of one OMP—BamA—and four...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007696117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Morphological profiling of tubercle bacilli identifies drug pathways of
           action [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Trever C. Smith II; Krista M. Pullen, Michaela C. Olson, Morgan E. McNellis, Ian Richardson, Sophia Hu, Jonah Larkins-Ford, Xin Wang, Joel S. Freundlich, D. Michael Ando, Bree B. Aldridge
      Pages: 18744 - 18753
      Abstract: Morphological profiling is a method to classify target pathways of antibacterials based on how bacteria respond to treatment through changes to cellular shape and spatial organization. Here we utilized the cell-to-cell variation in morphological features of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli to develop a rapid profiling platform called Morphological Evaluation and Understanding...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002738117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Fc-mediated effector function contributes to the in vivo antiviral effect
           of an HIV neutralizing antibody [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Mangaiarkarasi Asokan; Joana Dias, Cuiping Liu, Anna Maximova, Keenan Ernste, Amarendra Pegu, Krisha McKee, Wei Shi, Xuejun Chen, Cassandra Almasri, Wanwisa Promsote, David R. Ambrozak, Lucio Gama, Jianfei Hu, Daniel C. Douek, John-Paul Todd, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Slim Fourati, Rafick P. Sekaly, Andrew R. Crowley, Margaret E. Ackerman, Sung Hee Ko, Divya Kilam, Eli A. Boritz, Laura E. Liao, Katharine Best, Alan S. Perelson, John R. Mascola, Richard A. Koup
      Pages: 18754 - 18763
      Abstract: Treatment of HIV infection with either antiretroviral (ARV) therapy or neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs) leads to a reduction in HIV plasma virus. Both ARVs and NAbs prevent new rounds of viral infection, but NAbs may have the additional capacity to accelerate the loss of virus-infected cells through Fc gamma receptor...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2008236117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • FOXO transcription factors activate alternative major immediate early
           promoters to induce human cytomegalovirus reactivation [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Andrew E. Hale; Donna Collins-McMillen, Erik M. Lenarcic, Suzu Igarashi, Jeremy P. Kamil, Felicia Goodrum, Nathaniel J. Moorman
      Pages: 18764 - 18770
      Abstract: Human progenitor cells (HPCs) support human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency, and their differentiation along the myeloid lineage triggers cellular cues that drive reactivation. A key step during HCMV reactivation in latently infected HPCs is reexpression of viral major immediate early (MIE) genes. We recently determined that the major immediate early promoter...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002651117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Human cytomegalovirus protein pUL36: A dual cell death pathway inhibitor
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Alice Fletcher-Etherington; Luis Nobre, Katie Nightingale, Robin Antrobus, Jenna Nichols, Andrew J. Davison, Richard J. Stanton, Michael P. Weekes
      Pages: 18771 - 18779
      Abstract: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important human pathogen and a paradigm of intrinsic, innate, and adaptive viral immune evasion. Here, we employed multiplexed tandem mass tag-based proteomics to characterize host proteins targeted for degradation late during HCMV infection. This approach revealed that mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), a key...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:09-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001887117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • A connectomics approach to understanding a retinal disease [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Charles L. Zucker; Paul S. Bernstein, Richard L. Schalek, Jeff W. Lichtman, John E. Dowling
      Pages: 18780 - 18787
      Abstract: Macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel), a late-onset macular degeneration, has been linked to a loss in the retina of Müller glial cells and the amino acid serine, synthesized by the Müller cells. The disease is confined mainly to a central retinal region called the MacTel zone. We have used electron...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2011532117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Integrative structural, functional, and transcriptomic analyses of
           sex-biased brain organization in humans [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Siyuan Liu; Jakob Seidlitz, Jonathan D. Blumenthal, Liv S. Clasen, Armin Raznahan
      Pages: 18788 - 18798
      Abstract: Humans display reproducible sex differences in cognition and behavior, which may partly reflect intrinsic sex differences in regional brain organization. However, the consistency, causes and consequences of sex differences in the human brain are poorly characterized and hotly debated. In contrast, recent studies in mice—a major model organism for studying...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1919091117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • V1 neurons encode the perceptual compensation of false torsion arising
           from Listing’s law [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Mohammad Farhan Khazali; Hamidreza Ramezanpour, Peter Thier
      Pages: 18799 - 18809
      Abstract: We try to deploy the retinal fovea to optimally scrutinize an object of interest by directing our eyes to it. The horizontal and vertical components of eye positions acquired by goal-directed saccades are determined by the object’s location. However, the eccentric eye positions also involve a torsional component, which according...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2007644117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Redistribution of metabolic resources through astrocyte networks mitigates
           neurodegenerative stress [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Melissa L. Cooper; Silvia Pasini, Wendi S. Lambert, Karis B. D’Alessandro, Vincent Yao, Michael L. Risner, David J. Calkins
      Pages: 18810 - 18821
      Abstract: In the central nervous system, glycogen-derived bioenergetic resources in astrocytes help promote tissue survival in response to focal neuronal stress. However, our understanding of the extent to which these resources are mobilized and utilized during neurodegeneration, especially in nearby regions that are not actively degenerating, remains incomplete. Here we modeled...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2009425117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • TNNT2 mutations in the tropomyosin binding region of TNT1 disrupt its role
           in contractile inhibition and stimulate cardiac dysfunction [Physiology]
    • Authors: Aditi Madan; Meera C. Viswanathan, Kathleen C. Woulfe, William Schmidt, Agnes Sidor, Ting Liu, Tran H. Nguyen, Bosco Trinh, Cortney Wilson, Sineeȷ Madathil, Georg Vogler, Brian O’Rourke, Brandon J. Biesiadecki, Larry S. Tobacman, Anthony Cammarato
      Pages: 18822 - 18831
      Abstract: Muscle contraction is regulated by the movement of end-to-end-linked troponin−tropomyosin complexes over the thin filament surface, which uncovers or blocks myosin binding sites along F-actin. The N-terminal half of troponin T (TnT), TNT1, independently promotes tropomyosin-based, steric inhibition of acto-myosin associations, in vitro. Recent structural models additionally suggest TNT1 may...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001692117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Induced proximity of a TIR signaling domain on a plant-mammalian NLR
           chimera activates defense in plants [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Zane Duxbury; Shanshan Wang, Craig I. MacKenzie, Jeannette L. Tenthorey, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Sung Un Huh, Lanxi Hu, Lionel Hill, Pok Man Ngou, Pingtao Ding, Jian Chen, Yan Ma, Hailong Guo, Baptiste Castel, Panagiotis N. Moschou, Maud Bernoux, Peter N. Dodds, Russell E. Vance, Jonathan D. G. Jones
      Pages: 18832 - 18839
      Abstract: Plant and animal intracellular nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors detect pathogen-derived molecules and activate defense. Plant NLRs can be divided into several classes based upon their N-terminal signaling domains, including TIR (Toll-like, Interleukin-1 receptor, Resistance protein)- and CC (coiled-coil)-NLRs. Upon ligand detection, mammalian NAIP and NLRC4 NLRs oligomerize, forming...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2001185117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Light modulates the gravitropic responses through organ-specific PIFs and
           HY5 regulation of LAZY4 expression in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Panyu Yang; Qiming Wen, Renbo Yu, Xue Han, Xing Wang Deng, Haodong Chen
      Pages: 18840 - 18848
      Abstract: Light and gravity are two key environmental factors that control plant growth and architecture. However, the molecular basis of the coordination of light and gravity signaling in plants remains obscure. Here, we report that two classes of transcription factors, PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) and ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), can directly bind...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005871117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Tonoplast-localized Ca2+ pumps regulate Ca2+ signals during
           pattern-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Richard Hilleary; Julio Paez-Valencia, Cullen Vens, Masatsugu Toyota, Michael Palmgren, Simon Gilroy
      Pages: 18849 - 18857
      Abstract: One of the major events of early plant immune responses is a rapid influx of Ca2+ into the cytosol following pathogen recognition. Indeed, changes in cytosolic Ca2+ are recognized as ubiquitous elements of cellular signaling networks and are thought to encode stimulus-specific information in their duration, amplitude, and frequency. Despite...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2004183117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Allosteric deactivation of PIFs and EIN3 by microproteins in light control
           of plant development [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Qingqing Wu; Kunyan Kuang, Mohan Lyu, Yan Zhao, Yue Li, Jing Li, Ying Pan, Hui Shi, Shangwei Zhong
      Pages: 18858 - 18868
      Abstract: Buried seedlings undergo dramatic developmental transitions when they emerge from soil into sunlight. As central transcription factors suppressing light responses, PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs) and ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) actively function in darkness and must be promptly repressed upon light to initiate deetiolation. Microproteins are evolutionarily conserved small single-domain proteins that act...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002313117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • A mechanism-aware and multiomic machine-learning pipeline characterizes
           yeast cell growth [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Christopher Culley; Supreeta Vijayakumar, Guido Zampieri, Claudio Angione
      Pages: 18869 - 18879
      Abstract: Metabolic modeling and machine learning are key components in the emerging next generation of systems and synthetic biology tools, targeting the genotype–phenotype–environment relationship. Rather than being used in isolation, it is becoming clear that their value is maximized when they are combined. However, the potential of integrating these two frameworks...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2002959117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Thermodynamic energetics underlying genomic instability and whole-genome
           doubling in cancer [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Francoise Remacle; Thomas G. Graeber, R. D. Levine
      Pages: 18880 - 18890
      Abstract: Genomic instability contributes to tumorigenesis through the amplification and deletion of cancer driver genes. DNA copy number (CN) profiling of ensembles of tumors allows a thermodynamic analysis of the profile for each tumor. The free energy of the distribution of CNs is found to be a monotonically increasing function of...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1920870117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Correction for Pearson et al., Securing timelines in the ancient
           Mediterranean using multiproxy annual tree-ring data [Correction]
    • Pages: 18891 - 18891
      Abstract: ANTHROPOLOGY, CHEMISTRY Correction for “Securing timelines in the ancient Mediterranean using multiproxy annual tree-ring data,” by Charlotte Pearson, Matthew Salzer, Lukas Wacker, Peter Brewer, Adam Sookdeo, and Peter Kuniholm, which was first published March 30, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1917445117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 8410–8415). The authors note that an earlier...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013168117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Correction for Tzafetas et al., The intelligent knife (iKnife) and its
           intraoperative diagnostic advantage for the treatment of cervical disease
           [Correction]
    • Pages: 18892 - 18892
      Abstract: MEDICAL SCIENCES, CHEMISTRY Correction for “The intelligent knife (iKnife) and its intraoperative diagnostic advantage for the treatment of cervical disease,” by Menelaos Tzafetas, Anita Mitra, Maria Paraskevaidi, Zsolt Bodai, Ilkka Kalliala, Sarah Bowden, Konstantinos Lathouras, Francesca Rosini, Marcell Szasz, Adele Savage, Julia Balog, James McKenzie, Deirdre Lyons, Phillip Bennett, David...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2013655117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
  • Correction to Supporting Information for Zadra et al., Inhibition of de
           novo lipogenesis targets androgen receptor signaling in
           castration-resistant prostate cancer [SI Correction]
    • Pages: 18893 - 18893
      Abstract: MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction to Supporting Information for “Inhibition of de novo lipogenesis targets androgen receptor signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer,” by Giorgia Zadra, Caroline F. Ribeiro, Paolo Chetta, Yeung Ho, Stefano Cacciatore, Xueliang Gao, Sudeepa Syamala, Clyde Bango, Cornelia Photopoulos, Ying Huang, Svitlana Tyekucheva, Debora C. Bastos, Jeremy Tchaicha, Brian...
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:02:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2012767117
      Issue No: Vol. 117, No. 31 (2020)
       
 
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