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Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  [SJR: 6.883]   [H-I: 604]   [828 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Surfing of bacterial droplets: Bacillus subtilis sliding revisited
           [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Akos T. Kovacs; Roberto Grau, Eric J. G. Pollitt
      Abstract: Hennes et al. (1) report on the collective slipping of Bacillus subtilis colonies across the agar surface, termed “colony surfing.” We read this article with great interest. However, we understand that specific points require a more detailed discussion. We would like to highlight complementary biological observations on this area previously...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710371114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Reply to Kovacs et al.: Surfing or sliding: The act of naming and its
           implications [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Marc Hennes; Julien Tailleur, Gaelle Charron, Adrian Daerr
      Abstract: Kovács et al. (1) have greatly contributed to the characterization of “sliding” (2–4), a flagella-independent, “passive type of [bacterial] movement, [...] powered by the pushing force of dividing cells and additional factors facilitating the expansion over surfaces” (2). They suggest that bacterial surfing (5) should be described by the same...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712278114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Purported fragile-to-Arrhenius crossover in squalane [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Scott Bair
      Abstract: Jadhao and Robbins (1) claim to have discovered a crossover from Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann (VFT) to Arrhenius in squalane occurring at a viscosity of μ=1,000 Pa⋅s using extrapolation of the simple Eyring equation to the limiting low-shear viscosity from nonequilibrium molecular dynamic simulation at high shear rates. Stickel et al. (2) introduced...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714935114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Reply to Bair: Crossover to Arrhenius behavior at high viscosities in
           squalane [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Vikram Jadhao; Mark O. Robbins
      Abstract: As noted in our paper (1), values of the Newtonian viscosity, ηN, of squalane from Deegan et al. (2) are well fit by the Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann (VFT) equation over the measured range of temperature, T. This is entirely consistent with the fairly straight line shown for their data in the Stickel...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715298114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • No experimental Fermi surface measurements have been reported or made on
           low-temperature martensitic lithium [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Miguel Martinez-Canales; Ingo Loa, Graeme J. Ackland
      Abstract: Elatresh et al. (1) (ECAHDB) claim that the low-temperature martensitic structure of lithium “is not the heretofore assigned 9R.” This is based on comparing results of Fermi surface calculations to de Haas–van Alphen (dHvA) data from Springford and coworkers (2, 3). We note that Springford’s group took extensive steps to...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713529114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Reply to Martinez-Canales et al.: The structure(s) of lithium at low
           temperatures [Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Sabri F. Elatresh; Weizhao Cai, N. W. Ashcroft, Roald Hoffmann, Shanti Deemyad, Stanimir A. Bonev
      Abstract: In our recent article (1), we proposed that Fermiology measurements can be used as a complementary probe for determining the low-temperature state of Li. In a letter (2) criticizing our conclusions, Martinez-Canales, Loa, and Ackland (MLA) claim (i) that “obtaining dHvA signals from martensitic microstructures is usually impossible” and (ii)...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714115114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Mechanistic insights into electrochemical reduction of CO2 over Ag using
           density functional theory and transport models [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Meenesh R. Singh; Jason D. Goodpaster, Adam Z. Weber, Martin Head-Gordon, Alexis T. Bell
      Abstract: Electrochemical reduction of CO2 using renewable sources of electrical energy holds promise for converting CO2 to fuels and chemicals. Since this process is complex and involves a large number of species and physical phenomena, a comprehensive understanding of the factors controlling product distribution is required. While the most plausible reaction...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713164114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Evolutionary dynamics of language systems [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Simon J. Greenhill; Chieh-Hsi Wu, Xia Hua, Michael Dunn, Stephen C. Levinson, Russell D. Gray
      Abstract: Understanding how and why language subsystems differ in their evolutionary dynamics is a fundamental question for historical and comparative linguistics. One key dynamic is the rate of language change. While it is commonly thought that the rapid rate of change hampers the reconstruction of deep language relationships beyond 6,000–10,000 y,...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700388114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Cavity hydration dynamics in cytochrome c oxidase and functional
           implications [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Chang Yun Son; Arun Yethiraj, Qiang Cui
      Abstract: Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a transmembrane protein that uses the free energy of O2 reduction to generate the proton concentration gradient across the membrane. The regulation of competitive proton transfer pathways has been established to be essential to the vectorial transport efficiency of CcO, yet the underlying mechanism at...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707922114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Visualizing nuclear RNAi activity in single living human cells [Cell
    • Authors: Shira Avivi; Amir Mor, Iris Dotan, Sivan Tzadok, Itamar Kanter, Noa Kinor, Dan Canaani, Yaron Shav-Tal
      Abstract: Nuclear RNA interference (RNAi) is mediated by the canonical RNAi machinery and can lead to transcriptional silencing, transcriptional activation, or modulation of alternative splicing patterns. These effects transpire through changes in histone and DNA modifications via RNAi-mediated recruitment of chromatin-modifying enzymes. To prove that nuclear RNAi occurs and modulates transcription...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707440114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Cytoplasmic MTOCs control spindle orientation for asymmetric cell division
           in plants [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Ken Kosetsu; Takashi Murata, Moe Yamada, Momoko Nishina, Joanna Boruc, Mitsuyasu Hasebe, Daniel Van Damme, Gohta Goshima
      Abstract: Proper orientation of the cell division axis is critical for asymmetric cell divisions that underpin cell differentiation. In animals, centrosomes are the dominant microtubule organizing centers (MTOC) and play a pivotal role in axis determination by orienting the mitotic spindle. In land plants that lack centrosomes, a critical role of...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713925114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Period2 3'-UTR and microRNA-24 regulate circadian rhythms by repressing
           PERIOD2 protein accumulation [Genetics]
    • Authors: Seung-Hee Yoo; Shihoko Kojima, Kazuhiro Shimomura, Nobuya Koike, Ethan D. Buhr, Tadashi Furukawa, Caroline H. Ko, Gabrielle Gloston, Christopher Ayoub, Kazunari Nohara, Bryan A. Reyes, Yoshiki Tsuchiya, Ook-Joon Yoo, Kazuhiro Yagita, Choogon Lee, Zheng Chen, Shin Yamazaki, Carla B. Green, Joseph S. Takahashi
      Abstract: We previously created two PER2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) circadian reporter knockin mice that differ only in the Per2 3′-UTR region: Per2::Luc, which retains the endogenous Per2 3′-UTR and Per2::LucSV, where the endogenous Per2 3′-UTR was replaced by an SV40 late poly(A) signal. To delineate the in vivo functions of Per2 3′-UTR, we...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706611114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • FOXO1 opposition of CD8+ T cell effector programming confers early memory
           properties and phenotypic diversity [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Arnaud Delpoux; Chen-Yen Lai, Stephen M. Hedrick, Andrew L. Doedens
      Abstract: The factors and steps controlling postinfection CD8+ T cell terminal effector versus memory differentiation are incompletely understood. Whereas we found that naive TCF7 (alias “Tcf-1”) expression is FOXO1 independent, early postinfection we report bimodal, FOXO1-dependent expression of the memory-essential transcription factor TCF7 in pathogen-specific CD8+ T cells. We determined the...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618916114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Systems-level identification of PKA-dependent signaling in epithelial
           cells [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Kiyoshi Isobe; Hyun Jun Jung, Chin–Rang Yang, J’Neka Claxton, Pablo Sandoval, Maurice B. Burg, Viswanathan Raghuram, Mark A. Knepper
      Abstract: G protein stimulatory α-subunit (Gαs)-coupled heptahelical receptors regulate cell processes largely through activation of protein kinase A (PKA). To identify signaling processes downstream of PKA, we deleted both PKA catalytic subunits using CRISPR-Cas9, followed by a “multiomic” analysis in mouse kidney epithelial cells expressing the Gαs-coupled V2 vasopressin receptor. RNA-seq...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1709123114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Genome-wide engineering of an infectious clone of herpes simplex virus
           type 1 using synthetic genomics assembly methods [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Lauren M. Oldfield; Peter Grzesik, Alexander A. Voorhies, Nina Alperovich, Derek MacMath, Claudia D. Najera, Diya Sabrina Chandra, Sanjana Prasad, Vladimir N. Noskov, Michael G. Montague, Robert M. Friedman, Prashant J. Desai, Sanjay Vashee
      Abstract: Here, we present a transformational approach to genome engineering of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which has a large DNA genome, using synthetic genomics tools. We believe this method will enable more rapid and complex modifications of HSV-1 and other large DNA viruses than previous technologies, facilitating many useful...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700534114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Expanded subgenomic mRNA transcriptome and coding capacity of a nidovirus
    • Authors: Han Di, Joseph C. Madden Jr; Esther K. Morantz, Hsin-Yao Tang, Rachel L. Graham, Ralph S. Baric, Margo A. Brinton
      Abstract: Members of the order Nidovirales express their structural protein ORFs from a nested set of 3′ subgenomic mRNAs (sg mRNAs), and for most of these ORFs, a single genomic transcription regulatory sequence (TRS) was identified. Nine TRSs were previously reported for the arterivirus Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). In the...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706696114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Structures of human-infecting Thogotovirus fusogens support a common
           ancestor with insect baculovirus [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Ruchao Peng; Shuijun Zhang, Yingzi Cui, Yi Shi, George F. Gao, Jianxun Qi
      Abstract: Thogotoviruses are emerging tick-borne zoonotic orthomyxoviruses infecting both humans and domestic animals with severe clinical consequences. These viruses utilize a single-envelope glycoprotein (Gp) to facilitate their entry into host cells. Here, we present the Gp structures of Thogoto and Dhori viruses, both of which are members of the Thogotovirus genus...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706125114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Motor origin of temporal predictions in auditory attention [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Benjamin Morillon; Sylvain Baillet
      Abstract: In behavior, action and perception are inherently interdependent. However, the actual mechanistic contributions of the motor system to sensory processing are unknown. We present neurophysiological evidence that the motor system is involved in predictive timing, a brain function that aligns temporal fluctuations of attention with the timing of events in...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705373114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Framework for gradual progression of cell ontogeny in the Arabidopsis root
           meristem [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Jos R. Wendrich; Barbara K. Moller, Song Li, Shunsuke Saiga, Rosangela Sozzani, Philip N. Benfey, Bert De Rybel, Dolf Weiȷers
      Abstract: In plants, apical meristems allow continuous growth along the body axis. Within the root apical meristem, a group of slowly dividing quiescent center cells is thought to limit stem cell activity to directly neighboring cells, thus endowing them with unique properties, distinct from displaced daughters. This binary identity of the...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707400114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Mediator subunit MED25 links the jasmonate receptor to transcriptionally
           active chromatin [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Chunpeng An; Lin Li, Qingzhe Zhai, Yanrong You, Lei Deng, Fangming Wu, Rong Chen, Hongling Jiang, Hang Wang, Qian Chen, Chuanyou Li
      Abstract: Jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), the active form of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA), is sensed by the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1), a component of a functional Skp–Cullin–F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Sensing of JA-Ile by COI1 rapidly triggers genome-wide transcriptional changes that are largely regulated by the basic helix–loop–helix transcription...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710885114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Correction for Dixon et al., Combined hydrogels that switch human
           pluripotent stem cells from self-renewal to differentiation [Correction]
    • Abstract: CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “Combined hydrogels that switch human pluripotent stem cells from self-renewal to differentiation,” by James E. Dixon, Disheet A. Shah, Catherine Rogers, Stephen Hall, Nicola Weston, Christopher D. J. Parmenter, Donal McNally, Chris Denning, and Kevin M. Shakesheff, which was first published March 27, 2014; 10.1073/pnas.1319685111 (Proc...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716533114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Correction for Cekanaviciute et al., Gut bacteria from multiple sclerosis
           patients modulate human T cells and exacerbate symptoms in mouse models
    • Abstract: IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for “Gut bacteria from multiple sclerosis patients modulate human T cells and exacerbate symptoms in mouse models,” by Egle Cekanaviciute, Bryan B. Yoo, Tessel F. Runia, Justine W. Debelius, Sneha Singh, Charlotte A. Nelson, Rachel Kanner, Yadira Bencosme, Yun Kyung Lee, Stephen L. Hauser, Elizabeth Crabtree-Hartman,...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716911114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Correction to Supporting Information for Palermo et al., CRISPR-Cas9
           conformational activation as elucidated from enhanced molecular
           simulations [SI Correction]
    • Abstract: BIOPHYSICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY Correction to Supporting Information for “CRISPR-Cas9 conformational activation as elucidated from enhanced molecular simulations,” by Giulia Palermo, Yinglong Miao, Ross C. Walker, Martin Jinek, and J. Andrew McCammon, which was first published June 26, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1707645114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:7260–7265). The authors note...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716079114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 10997 - 10998
      Abstract: Genome editing and glaucoma Genome editing treats glaucoma in mouse model. Image courtesy of iStockphoto/Natali_Mis. Mutations in the myocilin gene (MYOC) can lead to the misfolding and toxic buildup of the encoded protein in the trabecular meshwork (TM), a tissue that regulates pressure inside the eyes, triggering the death of...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti4217114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Opinion: Fostering synthesis in archaeology to advance science and benefit
           society [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Jeffrey H. Altschul; Keith W. Kintigh, Terry H. Klein, William H. Doelle, Kelley A. Hays-Gilpin, Sarah A. Herr, Timothy A. Kohler, Barbara J. Mills, Lindsay M. Montgomery, Margaret C. Nelson, Scott G. Ortman, John N. Parker, Matthew A. Peeples, Jeremy A. Sabloff
      Pages: 10999 - 11002
      Abstract: In 1966 the US Congress passed the National Historic Preservation Act. Its intent: to ensure that the values embedded in historic buildings, archaeological sites, and other important places of the past honored all Americans in ways that would inspire and motivate present and future generations. In the intervening 50 years,...
      Keywords: Opinions, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715950114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Profile of Lora V. Hooper [Profiles]
    • Authors: Brian Doctrow
      Pages: 11003 - 11005
      Abstract: Lora Hooper, a professor of immunology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, describes her career as “a random walk in science.” Her pursuit of science was aided by inspirational mentors who pointed her in directions she might not otherwise have taken. These unexpected turns ultimately led her to...
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716687114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Synthetic genome engineering gets infectious [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Leslie A. Mitchell; Tom Ellis
      Pages: 11006 - 11008
      Abstract: Since the start of this century, a handful of research groups have pursued the synthesis and large-scale engineering of genomes. Work on synthetic genomes has seen the field scale-up from the full synthesis of the small poliovirus genome (2002) (1), to a complete working synthetic bacterial genome (2010) (2), and...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715365114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Trees harness the power of microbes to survive climate change [Ecology]
    • Authors: Jennifer A. Lau; Jay T. Lennon, Katy D. Heath
      Pages: 11009 - 11011
      Abstract: Microorganisms are the most abundant and diverse taxa on Earth. They have the ability to tolerate extreme environments, catalyze a range of metabolic functions, and rapidly evolve in response to changing environmental conditions. Imagine if plants and animals could harness these powers. In fact, microorganisms confer numerous benefits to plants...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715417114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • NS1 is the fluid for “flu-transmission” [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Tokiko Watanabe; Masaki Imai, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
      Pages: 11012 - 11014
      Abstract: The development of modern medicine has allowed us to conquer numerous infectious diseases; however, we human beings constantly face threats from novel infectious diseases that have been previously unrecognized. These so-called “emerging infectious diseases” are often caused by zoonotic pathogens, which mostly originate in wild animals (1, 2). Human diseases,...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1715239114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • On the origin of biological construction, with a focus on multicellularity
    • Authors: Jordi van Gestel; Corina E. Tarnita
      Pages: 11018 - 11026
      Abstract: Biology is marked by a hierarchical organization: all life consists of cells; in some cases, these cells assemble into groups, such as endosymbionts or multicellular organisms; in turn, multicellular organisms sometimes assemble into yet other groups, such as primate societies or ant colonies. The construction of new organizational layers results...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704631114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Resistin-like molecule {beta} is a bactericidal protein that promotes
           spatial segregation of the microbiota and the colonic epithelium
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Daniel C. Propheter; Andrew L. Chara, Tamia A. Harris, Kelly A. Ruhn, Lora V. Hooper
      Pages: 11027 - 11033
      Abstract: The mammalian intestine is colonized by trillions of bacteria that perform essential metabolic functions for their hosts. The mutualistic nature of this relationship depends on maintaining spatial segregation between these bacteria and the intestinal epithelial surface. This segregation is achieved in part by the presence of a dense mucus layer...
      Keywords: Inaugural Articles
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711395114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Universal poroelastic mechanism for hydraulic signals in biomimetic and
           natural branches [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: J.–F. Louf; G. Guena, E. Badel, Y. Forterre
      Pages: 11034 - 11039
      Abstract: Plants constantly undergo external mechanical loads such as wind or touch and respond to these stimuli by acclimating their growth processes. A fascinating feature of this mechanical-induced growth response is that it can occur rapidly and at long distance from the initial site of stimulation, suggesting the existence of a...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707675114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Spontaneous self-dislodging of freezing water droplets and the role of
           wettability [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Gustav Graeber; Thomas M. Schutzius, Hadi Eghlidi, Dimos Poulikakos
      Pages: 11040 - 11045
      Abstract: Spontaneous removal of liquid, solidifying liquid and solid forms of matter from surfaces, is of significant importance in nature and technology, where it finds applications ranging from self-cleaning to icephobicity and to condensation systems. However, it is a great challenge to understand fundamentally the complex interaction of rapidly solidifying, typically...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705952114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Li-rich antiperovskite superionic conductors based on cluster ions
           [Applied Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Hong Fang; Puru Jena
      Pages: 11046 - 11051
      Abstract: Enjoying great safety, high power, and high energy densities, all-solid-state batteries play a key role in the next generation energy storage devices. However, their development is limited by the lack of solid electrolyte materials that can reach the practically useful conductivities of 10−2 S/cm at room temperature (RT). Here, by...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:40-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704086114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Mechanically switching single-molecule fluorescence of GFP by unfolding
           and refolding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Ziad Ganim; Matthias Rief
      Pages: 11052 - 11056
      Abstract: Green fluorescent protein (GFP) variants are widely used as genetically encoded fluorescent fusion tags, and there is an increasing interest in engineering their structure to develop in vivo optical sensors, such as for optogenetics and force transduction. Ensemble experiments have shown that the fluorescence of GFP is quenched upon denaturation....
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704937114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Allocating dissipation across a molecular machine cycle to maximize flux
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Aidan I. Brown; David A. Sivak
      Pages: 11057 - 11062
      Abstract: Biomolecular machines consume free energy to break symmetry and make directed progress. Nonequilibrium ATP concentrations are the typical free energy source, with one cycle of a molecular machine consuming a certain number of ATP, providing a fixed free energy budget. Since evolution is expected to favor rapid-turnover machines that operate...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707534114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine candidate against Streptococcus
           pneumoniae serotype 5 [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Marilda P. Lisboa; Naeem Khan, Christopher Martin, Fei-Fei Xu, Katrin Reppe, Andreas Geissner, Subramanian Govindan, Martin Witzenrath, Claney L. Pereira, Peter H. Seeberger
      Pages: 11063 - 11068
      Abstract: Glycoconjugate vaccines based on isolated capsular polysaccharide (CPS) save millions of lives annually by preventing invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Some components of the S. pneumoniae glycoconjugate vaccine Prevnar13 that contains CPS antigens from 13 serotypes undergo modifications or degradation during isolation and conjugation, resulting in production problems...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706875114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • An anion-immobilized composite electrolyte for dendrite-free lithium metal
           anodes [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Chen-Zi Zhao; Xue-Qiang Zhang, Xin-Bing Cheng, Rui Zhang, Rui Xu, Peng-Yu Chen, Hong-Jie Peng, Jia-Qi Huang, Qiang Zhang
      Pages: 11069 - 11074
      Abstract: Lithium metal is strongly regarded as a promising electrode material in next-generation rechargeable batteries due to its extremely high theoretical specific capacity and lowest reduction potential. However, the safety issue and short lifespan induced by uncontrolled dendrite growth have hindered the practical applications of lithium metal anodes. Hence, we propose...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708489114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Asynchronous warming and {delta}18O evolution of deep Atlantic water
           masses during the last deglaciation [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
    • Authors: Jiaxu Zhang; Zhengyu Liu, Esther C. Brady, Delia W. Oppo, Peter U. Clark, Alexandra Jahn, Shaun A. Marcott, Keith Lindsay
      Pages: 11075 - 11080
      Abstract: The large-scale reorganization of deep ocean circulation in the Atlantic involving changes in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) played a critical role in regulating hemispheric and global climate during the last deglaciation. However, changes in the relative contributions of NADW and AABW and their properties...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704512114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Early snowmelt significantly enhances boreal springtime carbon uptake
           [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Jouni Pulliainen; Mika Aurela, Tuomas Laurila, Tuula Aalto, Matias Takala, Miia Salminen, Markku Kulmala, Alan Barr, Martin Heimann, Anders Lindroth, Ari Laaksonen, Chris Derksen, Annikki Makela, Tiina Markkanen, Juha Lemmetyinen, Jouni Susiluoto, Sigrid Dengel, Ivan Mammarella, Juha–Pekka Tuovinen, Timo Vesala
      Pages: 11081 - 11086
      Abstract: We determine the annual timing of spring recovery from space-borne microwave radiometer observations across northern hemisphere boreal evergreen forests for 1979–2014. We find a trend of advanced spring recovery of carbon uptake for this period, with a total average shift of 8.1 d (2.3 d/decade). We use this trend to...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707889114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Elliptical orbits of microspheres in an evanescent field [Engineering]
    • Authors: Lulu Liu; Simon Kheifets, Vincent Ginis, Andrea Di Donato, Federico Capasso
      Pages: 11087 - 11091
      Abstract: We examine the motion of periodically driven and optically tweezed microspheres in fluid and find a rich variety of dynamic regimes. We demonstrate, in experiment and in theory, that mean particle motion in 2D is rarely parallel to the direction of the applied force and can even exhibit elliptical orbits...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1714953114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Unexpected source of Fukushima-derived radiocesium to the coastal ocean of
           Japan [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Virginie Sanial; Ken O. Buesseler, Matthew A. Charette, Seiya Nagao
      Pages: 11092 - 11096
      Abstract: There are 440 operational nuclear reactors in the world, with approximately one-half situated along the coastline. This includes the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), which experienced multiple reactor meltdowns in March 2011 followed by the release of radioactivity to the marine environment. While surface inputs to the ocean via...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708659114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Direct measurement of weakly nonequilibrium system entropy is consistent
           with Gibbs-Shannon form [Physics]
    • Authors: Momčilo Gavrilov; Raphael Chetrite, John Bechhoefer
      Pages: 11097 - 11102
      Abstract: Stochastic thermodynamics extends classical thermodynamics to small systems in contact with one or more heat baths. It can account for the effects of thermal fluctuations and describe systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. A basic assumption is that the expression for Shannon entropy is the appropriate description for the entropy of...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708689114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Short- and long-term effects of imprisonment on future felony convictions
           and prison admissions [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: David J. Harding; Jeffrey D. Morenoff, Anh P. Nguyen, Shawn D. Bushway
      Pages: 11103 - 11108
      Abstract: A substantial contributor to prison admissions is the return of individuals recently released from prison, which has come to be known as prison’s “revolving door.” However, it is unclear whether being sentenced to prison itself has a causal effect on the probability of a subsequent return to prison or on...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701544114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Projections of white and black older adults without living kin in the
           United States, 2015 to 2060 [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: Ashton M. Verdery; Rachel Margolis
      Pages: 11109 - 11114
      Abstract: Close kin provide many important functions as adults age, affecting health, financial well-being, and happiness. Those without kin report higher rates of loneliness and experience elevated risks of chronic illness and nursing facility placement. Historical racial differences and recent shifts in core demographic rates suggest that white and black older...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710341114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Molecular mechanisms and structural features of cardiomyopathy-causing
           troponin T mutants in the tropomyosin overlap region [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Binnu Gangadharan; Margaret S. Sunitha, Souhrid Mukherjee, Ritu Roy Chowdhury, Farah Haque, Narendrakumar Sekar, Ramanathan Sowdhamini, James A. Spudich, John A. Mercer
      Pages: 11115 - 11120
      Abstract: Point mutations in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins are the leading cause of inherited primary cardiomyopathies. Among them are mutations in the TNNT2 gene that encodes cardiac troponin T (TnT). These mutations are clustered in the tropomyosin (Tm) binding region of TnT, TNT1 (residues 80–180). To understand the mechanistic changes caused...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710354114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Minimal and RNA-free RNase P in Aquifex aeolicus [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Astrid I. Nickel; Nadine B. Waber, Markus Gossringer, Marcus Lechner, Uwe Linne, Ursula Toth, Walter Rossmanith, Roland K. Hartmann
      Pages: 11121 - 11126
      Abstract: RNase P is an essential tRNA-processing enzyme in all domains of life. We identified an unknown type of protein-only RNase P in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus: Without an RNA subunit and the smallest of its kind, the 23-kDa polypeptide comprises a metallonuclease domain only. The protein has RNase P...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707862114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Extracellular vesicles from human pancreatic islets suppress human islet
           amyloid polypeptide amyloid formation [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Diana Ribeiro; Istvan Horvath, Nikki Heath, Ryan Hicks, Anna Forslow, Pernilla Wittung–Stafshede
      Pages: 11127 - 11132
      Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles released by cells to aid cell–cell communication and tissue homeostasis. Human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is the major component of amyloid deposits found in pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). IAPP is secreted in conjunction with insulin from pancreatic β cells...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711389114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Structure and dynamics of the RNAPII CTDsome with Rtt103 [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Olga Jasnovidova; Tomas Klumpler, Karel Kubicek, Sergei Kalynych, Pavel Plevka, Richard Stefl
      Pages: 11133 - 11138
      Abstract: RNA polymerase II contains a long C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates interactions at the site of transcription. The CTD architecture remains poorly understood due to its low sequence complexity, dynamic phosphorylation patterns, and structural variability. We used integrative structural biology to visualize the architecture of the CTD in complex with...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712450114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Detection of isolated protein-bound metal ions by single-particle
           cryo-STEM [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Nadav Elad; Giuliano Bellapadrona, Lothar Houben, Irit Sagi, Michael Elbaum
      Pages: 11139 - 11144
      Abstract: Metal ions play essential roles in many aspects of biological chemistry. Detecting their presence and location in proteins and cells is important for understanding biological function. Conventional structural methods such as X-ray crystallography and cryo-transmission electron microscopy can identify metal atoms on protein only if the protein structure is solved...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708609114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Chemical substitutions in the selectivity filter of potassium channels do
           not rule out constricted-like conformations for C-type inactivation
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Jing Li; Jared Ostmeyer, Eliot Boulanger, Huan Rui, Eduardo Perozo, Benoit Roux
      Pages: 11145 - 11150
      Abstract: In many K+ channels, prolonged activating stimuli lead to a time-dependent reduction in ion conduction, a phenomenon known as C-type inactivation. X-ray structures of the KcsA channel suggest that this inactivated state corresponds to a “constricted” conformation of the selectivity filter. However, the functional significance of the constricted conformation has...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706983114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Structural basis underlying complex assembly and conformational transition
           of the type I R-M system [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Yan-Ping Liu; Qun Tang, Jie-Zhong Zhang, Li-Fei Tian, Pu Gao, Xiao-Xue Yan
      Pages: 11151 - 11156
      Abstract: Type I restriction-modification (R-M) systems are multisubunit enzymes with separate DNA-recognition (S), methylation (M), and restriction (R) subunits. Despite extensive studies spanning five decades, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying subunit assembly and conformational transition are still unclear due to the lack of high-resolution structural information. Here, we report the atomic...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711754114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Tectonic conformational changes of a coronavirus spike glycoprotein
           promote membrane fusion [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Alexandra C. Walls; M. Alejandra Tortorici, Joost Snijder, Xiaoli Xiong, Berend-Jan Bosch, Felix A. Rey, David Veesler
      Pages: 11157 - 11162
      Abstract: The tremendous pandemic potential of coronaviruses was demonstrated twice in the past few decades by two global outbreaks of deadly pneumonia. The coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein initiates infection by promoting fusion of the viral and cellular membranes through conformational changes that remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the cryoEM structure...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708727114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Discovery of an O-mannosylation pathway selectively serving cadherins and
           protocadherins [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Ida Signe Bohse Larsen; Yoshiki Narimatsu, Hiren Jitendra Joshi, Lina Siukstaite, Oliver J. Harrison, Julia Brasch, Kerry M. Goodman, Lars Hansen, Lawrence Shapiro, Barry Honig, Sergey Y. Vakhrushev, Henrik Clausen, Adnan Halim
      Pages: 11163 - 11168
      Abstract: The cadherin (cdh) superfamily of adhesion molecules carry O-linked mannose (O-Man) glycans at highly conserved sites localized to specific β-strands of their extracellular cdh (EC) domains. These O-Man glycans do not appear to be elongated like O-Man glycans found on α-dystroglycan (α-DG), and we recently demonstrated that initiation of cdh/protocadherin...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708319114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Tree genetics defines fungal partner communities that may confer drought
           tolerance [Ecology]
    • Authors: Catherine A. Gehring; Christopher M. Sthultz, Lluvia Flores–Renteria, Amy V. Whipple, Thomas G. Whitham
      Pages: 11169 - 11174
      Abstract: Plant genetic variation and soil microorganisms are individually known to influence plant responses to climate change, but the interactive effects of these two factors are largely unknown. Using long-term observational studies in the field and common garden and greenhouse experiments of a foundation tree species (Pinus edulis) and its mutualistic...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704022114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • High-intensity urban light installation dramatically alters nocturnal bird
           migration [Ecology]
    • Authors: Benjamin M. Van Doren; Kyle G. Horton, Adriaan M. Dokter, Holger Klinck, Susan B. Elbin, Andrew Farnsworth
      Pages: 11175 - 11180
      Abstract: Billions of nocturnally migrating birds move through increasingly photopolluted skies, relying on cues for navigation and orientation that artificial light at night (ALAN) can impair. However, no studies have quantified avian responses to powerful ground-based light sources in urban areas. We studied effects of ALAN on migrating birds by monitoring...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708574114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Interhost dispersal alters microbiome assembly and can overwhelm host
           innate immunity in an experimental zebrafish model [Ecology]
    • Authors: Adam R. Burns; Elizabeth Miller, Meghna Agarwal, Annah S. Rolig, Kathryn Milligan-Myhre, Steve Seredick, Karen Guillemin, Brendan J. M. Bohannan
      Pages: 11181 - 11186
      Abstract: The diverse collections of microorganisms associated with humans and other animals, collectively referred to as their “microbiome,” are critical for host health, but the mechanisms that govern their assembly are poorly understood. This has made it difficult to identify consistent host factors that explain variation in microbiomes across hosts, despite...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702511114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Phenotypic variation explains food web structural patterns [Ecology]
    • Authors: Jean P. Gibert; John P. DeLong
      Pages: 11187 - 11192
      Abstract: Food webs (i.e., networks of species and their feeding interactions) share multiple structural features across ecosystems. The factors explaining such similarities are still debated, and the role played by most organismal traits and their intraspecific variation is unknown. Here, we assess how variation in traits controlling predator–prey interactions (e.g., body...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703864114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Rapid evolution of hosts begets species diversity at the cost of
           intraspecific diversity [Evolution]
    • Authors: Jens Frickel; Loukas Theodosiou, Lutz Becks
      Pages: 11193 - 11198
      Abstract: Ecosystems are complex food webs in which multiple species interact and ecological and evolutionary processes continuously shape populations and communities. Previous studies on eco-evolutionary dynamics have shown that the presence of intraspecific diversity affects community structure and function, and that eco-evolutionary feedback dynamics can be an important driver for its...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701845114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • CRISPR-Cas9-based treatment of myocilin-associated glaucoma [Genetics]
    • Authors: Ankur Jain; Gulab Zode, Ramesh B. Kasetti, Fei A. Ran, Winston Yan, Tasneem P. Sharma, Kevin Bugge, Charles C. Searby, John H. Fingert, Feng Zhang, Abbot F. Clark, Val C. Sheffield
      Pages: 11199 - 11204
      Abstract: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of irreversible vision loss worldwide, with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) a major risk factor. Myocilin (MYOC) dominant gain-of-function mutations have been reported in ∼4% of POAG cases. MYOC mutations result in protein misfolding, leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the trabecular...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706193114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits human innate immune responses via the
           production of TLR2 antagonist glycolipids [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Landry Blanc; Martine Gilleron, Jacques Prandi, Ok–ryul Song, Mi–Seon Jang, Brigitte Gicquel, Daniel Drocourt, Olivier Neyrolles, Priscille Brodin, Gerard Tiraby, Alain Vercellone, Jerome Nigou
      Pages: 11205 - 11210
      Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major human pathogen that is able to survive inside host cells and resist immune clearance. Most particularly, it inhibits several arms of the innate immune response, including phagosome maturation or cytokine production. To better understand the molecular mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis circumvents host immune defenses,...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707840114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Long-term restoration of visual function in end-stage retinal degeneration
           using subretinal human melanopsin gene therapy [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Samantha R. De Silva; Alun R. Barnard, Steven Hughes, Shu K. E. Tam, Chris Martin, Mandeep S. Singh, Alona O. Barnea-Cramer, Michelle E. McClements, Matthew J. During, Stuart N. Peirson, Mark W. Hankins, Robert E. MacLaren
      Pages: 11211 - 11216
      Abstract: Optogenetic strategies to restore vision in patients who are blind from end-stage retinal degenerations aim to render remaining retinal cells light sensitive once photoreceptors are lost. Here, we assessed long-term functional outcomes following subretinal delivery of the human melanopsin gene (OPN4) in the rd1 mouse model of retinal degeneration using...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701589114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Molecular basis of mammalian transmissibility of avian H1N1 influenza
           viruses and their pandemic potential [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Mark Zanin; Sook-San Wong, Subrata Barman, Challika Kaewborisuth, Peter Vogel, Adam Rubrum, Daniel Darnell, Atanaska Marinova-Petkova, Scott Krauss, Richard J. Webby, Robert G. Webster
      Pages: 11217 - 11222
      Abstract: North American wild birds are an important reservoir of influenza A viruses, yet the potential of viruses in this reservoir to transmit and cause disease in mammals is not well understood. Our surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) at Delaware Bay, USA, revealed a group of similar H1N1 AIVs isolated...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1713974114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Host-derived fatty acids activate type VII secretion in Staphylococcus
           aureus [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Michael S. Lopez; Irene S. Tan, Donghong Yan, Jing Kang, Mark McCreary, Zora Modrusan, Cary D. Austin, Min Xu, Eric J. Brown
      Pages: 11223 - 11228
      Abstract: The type VII secretion system (T7SS) of Staphylococcus aureus is a multiprotein complex dedicated to the export of several virulence factors during host infection. This virulence pathway plays a key role in promoting bacterial survival and the long-term persistence of staphylococcal abscess communities. The expression of the T7SS is activated...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700627114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Cannabidiol attenuates seizures and social deficits in a mouse model of
           Dravet syndrome [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Joshua S. Kaplan; Nephi Stella, William A. Catterall, Ruth E. Westenbroek
      Pages: 11229 - 11234
      Abstract: Worldwide medicinal use of cannabis is rapidly escalating, despite limited evidence of its efficacy from preclinical and clinical studies. Here we show that cannabidiol (CBD) effectively reduced seizures and autistic-like social deficits in a well-validated mouse genetic model of Dravet syndrome (DS), a severe childhood epilepsy disorder caused by loss-of-function...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711351114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) signaling in spinal
           microglia drives visceral sensitization following colitis [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Lilian Basso; Tamia K. Lapointe, Mircea Iftinca, Candace Marsters, Morley D. Hollenberg, Deborah M. Kurrasch, Christophe Altier
      Pages: 11235 - 11240
      Abstract: Pain is a main symptom of inflammatory diseases and often persists beyond clinical remission. Although we have a good understanding of the mechanisms of sensitization at the periphery during inflammation, little is known about the mediators that drive central sensitization. Recent reports have identified hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors as important regulators...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706053114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Stress attenuates the flexible updating of aversive value [Psychological
           and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Candace M. Raio; Catherine A. Hartley, Temidayo A. Orederu, Jian Li, Elizabeth A. Phelps
      Pages: 11241 - 11246
      Abstract: In a dynamic environment, sources of threat or safety can unexpectedly change, requiring the flexible updating of stimulus−outcome associations that promote adaptive behavior. However, aversive contexts in which we are required to update predictions of threat are often marked by stress. Acute stress is thought to reduce behavioral flexibility, yet...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702565114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Prairie strips improve biodiversity and the delivery of multiple ecosystem
           services from corn-soybean croplands [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Lisa A. Schulte; Jarad Niemi, Matthew J. Helmers, Matt Liebman, J. Gordon Arbuckle, David E. James, Randall K. Kolka, Matthew E. O’Neal, Mark D. Tomer, John C. Tyndall, Heidi Asbȷornsen, Pauline Drobney, Jeri Neal, Gary Van Ryswyk, Chris Witte
      Pages: 11247 - 11252
      Abstract: Loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystem services from agricultural lands remain important challenges in the United States despite decades of spending on natural resource management. To date, conservation investment has emphasized engineering practices or vegetative strategies centered on monocultural plantings of nonnative plants, largely excluding native species from cropland....
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620229114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
  • Multigenerational silencing dynamics control cell aging [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: Yang Li; Meng Jin, Richard O’Laughlin, Philip Bittihn, Lev S. Tsimring, Lorraine Pillus, Jeff Hasty, Nan Hao
      Pages: 11253 - 11258
      Abstract: Cellular aging plays an important role in many diseases, such as cancers, metabolic syndromes, and neurodegenerative disorders. There has been steady progress in identifying aging-related factors such as reactive oxygen species and genomic instability, yet an emerging challenge is to reconcile the contributions of these factors with the fact that...
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T09:41:41-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703379114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 42 (2017)
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