Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Space radiobiology needs realistic hypotheses and relevant methodology
           [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Melanie L. Ferlazzo; Nicolas Foray
      Abstract: “If humans ever start to live permanently in space” and to verify whether assisted reproductive technology is safe in space, Wakayama et al. (1) maintained freeze-dried mouse spermatozoa in the International Space Station for 9 mo. While these authors are aware of the risks linked to space radiation, both their...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710545114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Reply to Ferlazzo and Foray: About the Space Pup project [Biological
    • Authors: Sayaka Wakayama; Yuko Kamada, Kaori Yamanaka, Takashi Kohda, Hiromi Suzuki, Toru Shimazu, Motoki N. Tada, Ikuko Osada, Aiko Nagamatsu, Satoshi Kamimura, Hiroaki Nagatomo, Eiji Mizutani, Fumitoshi Ishino, Sachiko Yano, Teruhiko Wakayama
      Abstract: We would like to thank Ferlazzo and Foray (1) for their very important comments and suggestions. We will keep in mind that “scientists should take particular care to justify their methodology and moderate their conclusions.” One concern of Ferlazzo and Foray (1) is that our control experiment entailed exposure to...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711468114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Disrupting the blood-brain barrier with focused ultrasound: Perspectives
           on inflammation and regeneration [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Joseph Silburt; Nir Lipsman, Isabelle Aubert
      Abstract: Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is promising for the treatment of neurological disorders, and the brain’s response to FUS requires full consideration for a safe translation to the clinic. The study by Kovacs et al. (1) provides insights into FUS-induced inflammatory changes that could be associated on the one hand with...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710761114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Reply to Silburt et al.: Concerning sterile inflammation following focused
           ultrasound and microbubbles in the brain [Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Zsofia I. Kovacs; Scott R. Burks, Joseph A. Frank
      Abstract: We thank Silburt et al. (1) for their comments on our article (2). The authors provide us with an opportunity to expand on sterile inflammation in the brain induced by pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) (3). pFUS with microbubbles (MB) resulting in blood–brain barrier disruption (BBBD) is accompanied by plasma protein...
      Keywords: Letters
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711544114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Crossover from band-like to thermally activated charge transport in
           organic transistors due to strain-induced traps [Applied Physical
    • Authors: Yaochuan Mei; Peter J. Diemer, Muhammad R. Niazi, Rawad K. Hallani, Karol Jarolimek, Cynthia S. Day, Chad Risko, John E. Anthony, Aram Amassian, Oana D. Jurchescu
      Abstract: The temperature dependence of the charge-carrier mobility provides essential insight into the charge transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors. Such knowledge imparts critical understanding of the electrical properties of these materials, leading to better design of high-performance materials for consumer applications. Here, we present experimental results that suggest that the inhomogeneous...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705164114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Quantitative time-resolved chemoproteomics reveals that stable O-GlcNAc
           regulates box C/D snoRNP biogenesis [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Wei Qin; Pinou Lv, Xinqi Fan, Baiyi Quan, Yuntao Zhu, Ke Qin, Ying Chen, Chu Wang, Xing Chen
      Abstract: O-linked GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAcylation), a ubiquitous posttranslational modification on intracellular proteins, is dynamically regulated in cells. To analyze the turnover dynamics of O-GlcNAcylated proteins, we developed a quantitative time-resolved O-linked GlcNAc proteomics (qTOP) strategy based on metabolic pulse-chase labeling with an O-GlcNAc chemical reporter and stable isotope labeling with amino acids...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702688114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Impact of glacial/interglacial sea level change on the ocean nitrogen
           cycle [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Haoȷia Ren; Daniel M. Sigman, Alfredo Martinez–Garcia, Robert F. Anderson, Min–Te Chen, Ana Christina Ravelo, Marietta Straub, George T. F. Wong, Gerald H. Haug
      Abstract: The continental shelves are the most biologically dynamic regions of the ocean, and they are extensive worldwide, especially in the western North Pacific. Their area has varied dramatically over the glacial/interglacial cycles of the last million years, but the effects of this variation on ocean biological and chemical processes remain...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701315114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Factor-dependent archaeal transcription termination [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Julie E. Walker; Olivia Luyties, Thomas J. Santangelo
      Abstract: RNA polymerase activity is regulated by nascent RNA sequences, DNA template sequences, and conserved transcription factors. Transcription factors promoting initiation and elongation have been characterized in each domain, but transcription termination factors have been identified only in bacteria and eukarya. Here we describe euryarchaeal termination activity (Eta), the first archaeal...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704028114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Conformational and chemical selection by a trans-acting editing domain
    • Authors: Eric M. Danhart; Marina Bakhtina, William A. Cantara, Alexandra B. Kuzmishin, Xiao Ma, Brianne L. Sanford, Mariȷa Košutić, Yuki Goto, Hiroaki Suga, Kotaro Nakanishi, Ronald Micura, Mark P. Foster, Karin Musier–Forsyth
      Abstract: Molecular sieves ensure proper pairing of tRNAs and amino acids during aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, thereby avoiding detrimental effects of mistranslation on cell growth and viability. Mischarging errors are often corrected through the activity of specialized editing domains present in some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases or via single-domain trans-editing proteins. ProXp-ala is a ubiquitous...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703925114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Phospholipase A activity of adenylate cyclase toxin mediates translocation
           of its adenylate cyclase domain [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: David Gonzalez–Bullon; Kepa B. Uribe, Cesar Martin, Helena Ostolaza
      Abstract: Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT or CyaA) plays a crucial role in respiratory tract colonization and virulence of the whooping cough causative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Secreted as soluble protein, it targets myeloid cells expressing the CD11b/CD18 integrin and on delivery of its N-terminal adenylate cyclase catalytic domain (AC domain) into the...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701783114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Homeostatic enhancement of sensory transduction [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Andrew R. Milewski; Daibhid O Maoileidigh, Joshua D. Salvi, A. J. Hudspeth
      Abstract: Our sense of hearing boasts exquisite sensitivity, precise frequency discrimination, and a broad dynamic range. Experiments and modeling imply, however, that the auditory system achieves this performance for only a narrow range of parameter values. Small changes in these values could compromise hair cells’ ability to detect stimuli. We propose...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706242114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Time-resolved observation of protein allosteric communication [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Sebastian Buchenberg; Florian Sittel, Gerhard Stock
      Abstract: Allostery represents a fundamental mechanism of biological regulation that is mediated via long-range communication between distant protein sites. Although little is known about the underlying dynamical process, recent time-resolved infrared spectroscopy experiments on a photoswitchable PDZ domain (PDZ2S) have indicated that the allosteric transition occurs on multiple timescales. Here, using...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707694114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Oligomerization of the tetramerization domain of p53 probed by two- and
           three-color single-molecule FRET [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Hoi Sung Chung; Fanjie Meng, Jae-Yeol Kim, Kevin McHale, Irina V. Gopich, John M. Louis
      Abstract: We describe a method that combines two- and three-color single-molecule FRET spectroscopy with 2D FRET efficiency–lifetime analysis to probe the oligomerization process of intrinsically disordered proteins. This method is applied to the oligomerization of the tetramerization domain (TD) of the tumor suppressor protein p53. TD exists as a monomer at...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700357114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Exploiting conformational plasticity in the AAA+ protein VCP/p97 to modify
           function [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Anne Kathrin Schutz; Enrico Rennella, Lewis E. Kay
      Abstract: p97/VCP, a member of the AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) family of proteins, is implicated in the etiology of a group of degenerative diseases affecting bone and muscle tissue as well as the central nervous system. Methyl-TROSY–based NMR studies have previously revealed how disease-causing mutations deregulate a subtle...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707974114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Intraflagellar transport velocity is governed by the number of active
           KIF17 and KIF3AB motors and their motility properties under load
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Bojan Milic; Johan O. L. Andreasson, Daniel W. Hogan, Steven M. Block
      Abstract: Homodimeric KIF17 and heterotrimeric KIF3AB are processive, kinesin-2 family motors that act jointly to carry out anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT), ferrying cargo along microtubules (MTs) toward the tips of cilia. How IFT trains attain speeds that exceed the unloaded rate of the slower, KIF3AB motor remains unknown. By characterizing the...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708157114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Testing inhomogeneous solvation theory in structure-based ligand discovery
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Trent E. Balius; Marcus Fischer, Reed M. Stein, Thomas B. Adler, Crystal N. Nguyen, Anthony Cruz, Michael K. Gilson, Tom Kurtzman, Brian K. Shoichet
      Abstract: Binding-site water is often displaced upon ligand recognition, but is commonly neglected in structure-based ligand discovery. Inhomogeneous solvation theory (IST) has become popular for treating this effect, but it has not been tested in controlled experiments at atomic resolution. To do so, we turned to a grid-based version of this...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703287114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 escorts XPC to UV-induced DNA lesions during
           nucleotide excision repair [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Mihaela Robu; Rashmi G. Shah, Nupur K. Purohit, Pengbo Zhou, Hanspeter Naegeli, Girish M. Shah
      Abstract: Xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC) protein initiates the global genomic subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) for removal of UV-induced direct photolesions from genomic DNA. The XPC has an inherent capacity to identify and stabilize at the DNA lesion sites, and this function is facilitated in the genomic context by UV-damaged...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706981114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Superresolution expansion microscopy reveals the three-dimensional
           organization of the Drosophila synaptonemal complex [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Cori K. Cahoon; Zulin Yu, Yongfu Wang, Fengli Guo, Jay R. Unruh, Brian D. Slaughter, R. Scott Hawley
      Abstract: The synaptonemal complex (SC), a structure highly conserved from yeast to mammals, assembles between homologous chromosomes and is essential for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division. In Drosophila melanogaster, many SC components and their general positions within the complex have been dissected through a combination of genetic analyses,...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705623114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Interferon-{gamma} is a master checkpoint regulator of cytokine-induced
           differentiation [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Zhao Zha; Felicitas Bucher, Anahita Nejatfard, Tianqing Zheng, Hongkai Zhang, Kyungmoo Yea, Richard A. Lerner
      Abstract: Cytokines are protein mediators that are known to be involved in many biological processes, including cell growth, survival, inflammation, and development. To study their regulation, we generated a library of 209 different cytokines. This was used in a combinatorial format to study the effects of cytokines on each other, with...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706915114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • DNA damage tolerance in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mice
    • Authors: Bas Pilzecker; Olimpia Alessandra Buoninfante, Paul van den Berk, Cesare Lancini, Ji-Ying Song, Elisabetta Citterio, Heinz Jacobs
      Abstract: DNA damage tolerance (DDT) enables bypassing of DNA lesions during replication, thereby preventing fork stalling, replication stress, and secondary DNA damage related to fork stalling. Three modes of DDT have been documented: translesion synthesis (TLS), template switching (TS), and repriming. TLS and TS depend on site-specific PCNA K164 monoubiquitination and...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706508114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Elevated auxin biosynthesis and transport underlie high vein density in C4
           leaves [Genetics]
    • Authors: Chi-Fa Huang; Chun-Ping Yu, Yeh-Hua Wu, Mei-Yeh Jade Lu, Shih-Long Tu, Shu-Hsing Wu, Shin-Han Shiu, Maurice S. B. Ku, Wen-Hsiung Li
      Abstract: High vein density, a distinctive trait of C4 leaves, is central to both C3-to-C4 evolution and conversion of C3 to C4-like crops. We tested the hypothesis that high vein density in C4 leaves is due to elevated auxin biosynthesis and transport in developing leaves. Up-regulation of genes in auxin biosynthesis...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1709171114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • IL-4-secreting eosinophils promote endometrial stromal cell proliferation
           and prevent Chlamydia-induced upper genital tract damage [Immunology and
    • Authors: Rodolfo D. Vicetti Miguel; Nirk E. Quispe Calla, Darlene Dixon, Robert A. Foster, Andrea Gambotto, Stephen D. Pavelko, Luanne Hall-Stoodley, Thomas L. Cherpes
      Abstract: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women typically are asymptomatic and do not cause permanent upper genital tract (UGT) damage. Consistent with this presentation, type 2 innate and TH2 adaptive immune responses associated with dampened inflammation and tissue repair are elicited in the UGT of Chlamydia-infected women. Primary C. trachomatis infection...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621253114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • PUM1 is a biphasic negative regulator of innate immunity genes by
           suppressing LGP2 [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Yonghong Liu; Linlin Qu, Yuanyuan Liu, Bernard Roizman, Grace Guoying Zhou
      Abstract: PUM1 is an RNA binding protein shown to regulate the stability and function of mRNAs bearing a specific sequence. We report the following: (i) A key function of PUM1 is that of a repressor of key innate immunity genes by repressing the expression of LGP2. Thus, between 12 and 48...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708713114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • CD318 is a ligand for CD6 [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Gospel Enyindah-Asonye; Yan Li, Jeffrey H. Ruth, Danislav S. Spassov, Katie E. Hebron, Andries Zijlstra, Mark M. Moasser, Benlian Wang, Nora G. Singer, Huadong Cui, Ray A. Ohara, Stephanie M. Rasmussen, David A. Fox, Feng Lin
      Abstract: It has been proposed that CD6, an important regulator of T cells, functions by interacting with its currently identified ligand, CD166, but studies performed during the treatment of autoimmune conditions suggest that the CD6–CD166 interaction might not account for important functions of CD6 in autoimmune diseases. The antigen recognized by...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704008114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Escherichia coli cytochrome c peroxidase is a respiratory oxidase that
           enables the use of hydrogen peroxide as a terminal electron acceptor
    • Authors: Maryam Khademian; James A. Imlay
      Abstract: Microbial cytochrome c peroxidases (Ccp) have been studied for 75 years, but their physiological roles are unclear. Ccps are located in the periplasms of bacteria and the mitochondrial intermembrane spaces of fungi. In this study, Ccp is demonstrated to be a significant degrader of hydrogen peroxide in anoxic Escherichia coli....
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701587114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Distinct functions of diaphanous-related formins regulate HIV-1 uncoating
           and transport [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Michael Keegan Delaney; Viacheslav Malikov, Qingqing Chai, Guangyuan Zhao, Mojgan H. Naghavi
      Abstract: Diaphanous (Dia)-related formins (DRFs) coordinate cytoskeletal remodeling by controlling actin nucleation and microtubule (MT) stabilization to facilitate processes such as cell polarization and migration; yet the full extent of their activities remains unknown. Here, we uncover two discrete roles and functions of DRFs during early human immunodeficiency virus type 1...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700247114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Structural basis of subunit selectivity for competitive NMDA receptor
           antagonists with preference for GluN2A over GluN2B subunits [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Genevieve E. Lind; Tung-Chung Mou, Lucia Tamborini, Martin G. Pomper, Carlo De Micheli, Paola Conti, Andrea Pinto, Kasper B. Hansen
      Abstract: NMDA-type glutamate receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that contribute to excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Most NMDA receptors comprise two glycine-binding GluN1 and two glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits (GluN2A–D). We describe highly potent (S)-5-[(R)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (ACEPC) competitive GluN2 antagonists, of which ST3 has a binding affinity of 52...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707752114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Neuronal cytoskeletal gene dysregulation and mechanical hypersensitivity
           in a rat model of Rett syndrome [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Aritra Bhattacherjee; Ying Mu, Michelle K. Winter, Jennifer R. Knapp, Linda S. Eggimann, Sumedha S. Gunewardena, Kazuto Kobayashi, Shigeki Kato, Dora Krizsan-Agbas, Peter G. Smith
      Abstract: Children with Rett syndrome show abnormal cutaneous sensitivity. The precise nature of sensory abnormalities and underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Rats with methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) mutation, characteristic of Rett syndrome, show hypersensitivity to pressure and cold, but hyposensitivity to heat. They also show cutaneous hyperinnervation by nonpeptidergic...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618210114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Loss of clusterin shifts amyloid deposition to the cerebrovasculature via
           disruption of perivascular drainage pathways [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Aleksandra M. Wojtas; Silvia S. Kang, Benjamin M. Olley, Maureen Gatherer, Mitsuru Shinohara, Patricia A. Lozano, Chia-Chen Liu, Aishe Kurti, Kelsey E. Baker, Dennis W. Dickson, Mei Yue, Leonard Petrucelli, Guojun Bu, Roxana O. Carare, John D. Fryer
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition in brain parenchyma as plaques and in cerebral blood vessels as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). CAA deposition leads to several clinical complications, including intracerebral hemorrhage. The underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate plaque and CAA deposition in the vast majority of...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701137114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Low-frequency hippocampal-cortical activity drives brain-wide
           resting-state functional MRI connectivity [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Russell W. Chan; Alex T. L. Leong, Leon C. Ho, Patrick P. Gao, Eddie C. Wong, Celia M. Dong, Xunda Wang, Jufang He, Ying-Shing Chan, Lee Wei Lim, Ed X. Wu
      Abstract: The hippocampus, including the dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG), and cortex engage in bidirectional communication. We propose that low-frequency activity in hippocampal–cortical pathways contributes to brain-wide resting-state connectivity to integrate sensory information. Using optogenetic stimulation and brain-wide fMRI and resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI), we determined the large-scale effects of spatiotemporal-specific downstream propagation...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703309114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Hyperpolarized 13C MR metabolic imaging can detect neuroinflammation in
           vivo in a multiple sclerosis murine model [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Caroline Guglielmetti; Chloe Naȷac, Alessandro Didonna, Annemie Van der Linden, Sabrina M. Ronen, Myriam M. Chaumeil
      Abstract: Proinflammatory mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) play a crucial role in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Despite advances in neuroimaging, there are currently limited available methods enabling noninvasive detection of MPs in vivo. Interestingly, upon activation and subsequent differentiation toward a proinflammatory phenotype MPs undergo metabolic reprogramming...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613345114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Cdk5-dependent phosphorylation of liprin{alpha}1 mediates neuronal
           activity-dependent synapse development [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Huiqian Huang; Xiaochen Lin, Zhuoyi Liang, Teng Zhao, Shengwang Du, Michael M. T. Loy, Kwok-On Lai, Amy K. Y. Fu, Nancy Y. Ip
      Abstract: The experience-dependent modulation of brain circuitry depends on dynamic changes in synaptic connections that are guided by neuronal activity. In particular, postsynaptic maturation requires changes in dendritic spine morphology, the targeting of postsynaptic proteins, and the insertion of synaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Thus, it is critical to understand how neuronal activity...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708240114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Engineering the lutein epoxide cycle into Arabidopsis thaliana [Plant
    • Authors: Lauriebeth Leonelli; Matthew D. Brooks, Krishna K. Niyogi
      Abstract: Although sunlight provides the energy necessary for plants to survive and grow, light can also damage reaction centers of photosystem II (PSII) and reduce photochemical efficiency. To prevent damage, plants possess photoprotective mechanisms that dissipate excess excitation. A subset of these mechanisms is collectively referred to as NPQ, or nonphotochemical...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704373114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Dissecting and modeling zeaxanthin- and lutein-dependent nonphotochemical
           quenching in Arabidopsis thaliana [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Michelle Leuenberger; Jonathan M. Morris, Arnold M. Chan, Lauriebeth Leonelli, Krishna K. Niyogi, Graham R. Fleming
      Abstract: Photosynthetic organisms use various photoprotective mechanisms to dissipate excess photoexcitation as heat in a process called nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Regulation of NPQ allows for a rapid response to changes in light intensity and in vascular plants, is primarily triggered by a pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane (∆pH). The response...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704502114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • SPF45-related splicing factor for phytochrome signaling promotes
           photomorphogenesis by regulating pre-mRNA splicing in Arabidopsis [Plant
    • Authors: Ruiȷiao Xin; Ling Zhu, Patrice A. Salome, Estefania Mancini, Carine M. Marshall, Frank G. Harmon, Marcelo J. Yanovsky, Detlef Weigel, Enamul Huq
      Abstract: Light signals regulate plant growth and development by controlling a plethora of gene expression changes. Posttranscriptional regulation, especially pre-mRNA processing, is a key modulator of gene expression; however, the molecular mechanisms linking pre-mRNA processing and light signaling are not well understood. Here we report a protein related to the human...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706379114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Correction for Sokolow et al., Reduced transmission of human
           schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on
           the snail intermediate host [Correction]
    • Abstract: ECOLOGY, SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction for “Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host,” by Susanne H. Sokolow, Elizabeth Huttinger, Nicolas Jouanard, Michael H. Hsieh, Kevin D. Lafferty, Armand M. Kuris, Gilles Riveau, Simon Senghor, Cheikh Thiam, Alassane N’Diaye, Djibril...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712011114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Correction for Lee et al., Inositol pyrophosphates inhibit
           synaptotagmin-dependent exocytosis [Correction]
    • Abstract: NEUROSCIENCE Correction for “Inositol pyrophosphates inhibit synaptotagmin-dependent exocytosis,” by Tae-Sun Lee, Joo-Young Lee, Jae Won Kyung, Yoosoo Yang, Seung Ju Park, Seulgi Lee, Igor Pavlovic, Byoungjae Kong, Yong Seok Jho, Henning J. Jessen, Dae-Hyuk Kweon, Yeon-Kyun Shin, Sung Hyun Kim, Tae-Young Yoon, and Seyun Kim, which was first published June...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712781114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Retraction for Ryan et al., Cell-cell signaling in Xanthomonas campestris
           involves an HD-GYP domain protein that functions in cyclic di-GMP turnover
    • Abstract: MICROBIOLOGY Retraction for “Cell–cell signaling in Xanthomonas campestris involves an HD-GYP domain protein that functions in cyclic di-GMP turnover,” by Robert P. Ryan, Yvonne Fouhy, Jean F. Lucey, Lisa C. Crossman, Stephen Spiro, Ya-Wen He, Lian-Hui Zhang, Stephan Heeb, Miguel Cámara, Paul Williams, and J. Maxwell Dow, which was first...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712524114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 8661 - 8662
      Abstract: Gecko evolution and human-caused isolation Common gecko of the Brazilian Cerrado. Image courtesy of Guilherme Santoro (Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Brazil). Previous studies have found that human-caused ecosystem changes can drive rapid adaptive changes in local organisms. Mariana Eloy de Amorim et al. (pp. 8812–8816) explored how approximately 15 years...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti3317114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • News Feature: Putting fossils to work in hopes of restoration
           [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: John Carey
      Pages: 8663 - 8666
      Abstract: Paleo detective work is at the core of an emerging field called conservation paleobiology. Its researchers hope to stem the loss of species and ecosystems in a rapidly changing world. In the early 1990s, University of Arizona geoscientist Karl Flessa decided to scout out a new research site in the...
      Keywords: News Features, Front Matter, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:28-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711154114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • QnAs with Daan Frenkel [QnAs]
    • Authors: Chris Samoray
      Pages: 8667 - 8668
      Abstract: The self-assembly of biological molecules and systems is a common phenomenon in nature. Linear chains of protein molecules fold into functional 3D structures in one example of biological self-assembly (1). Computational scientist Daan Frenkel at the University of Cambridge seeks to explore how self-assembly might be applied to fields such...
      Keywords: QnAs
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712622114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • QnAs with Luciana Borio [QnAs]
    • Authors: Prashant Nair
      Pages: 8669 - 8671
      Abstract: Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are often held up as a touchstone for assessing the safety and efficacy of new drugs and vaccines. Because randomly assigning patients to either a control or intervention group renders the two groups comparable and reduces bias, RCTs have become the coin of the realm...
      Keywords: QnAs
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1712546114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Profile of Bruce Western [Profiles]
    • Authors: Paul Gabrielsen
      Pages: 8672 - 8674
      Abstract: On a summer afternoon in the late 1990s in New York City’s Tompkins Square Park, sociologist Bruce Western and his colleague Katherine Beckett engaged in a conversation that would change the course of their research. At the time, Western studied the social programs of European welfare states. Against the backdrop...
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710704114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Mercury, volcanism, and mass extinctions [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Bridget A. Bergquist
      Pages: 8675 - 8677
      Abstract: Understanding the causes and timings of mass extinctions are important for our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth and how major biogeochemical cycles have been and can be perturbed. Four of the five biggest mass extinctions (1) are associated with large igneous provinces (LIPS), which are the most...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1709070114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Cytochrome c peroxidase facilitates the beneficial use of H2O2 in
           prokaryotes [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Alaattin Kaya; Marco Mariotti, Vadim N. Gladyshev
      Pages: 8678 - 8680
      Abstract: A new exciting study reports the discovery of a beneficial function of H2O2 in bacteria (1). Khademian and Imlay show that Escherichia coli can use cytochrome c peroxidase (Ccp) as a respiratory enzyme, wherein H2O2 acts as an electron acceptor under anoxic conditions (Fig. 1A). This finding may impact our...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1710943114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Role of clusterin in the brain vascular clearance of amyloid-{beta}
    • Authors: Amy R. Nelson; Abhay P. Sagare, Berislav V. Zlokovic
      Pages: 8681 - 8682
      Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by neurovascular dysfunction, elevated brain parenchymal and vascular amyloid-β (Aβ) levels, tau pathology, and neuronal loss (1, 2). Faulty transvascular clearance of brain Aβ across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in Aβ accumulation in the brain,...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711357114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Science and data science [Computer Sciences]
    • Authors: David M. Blei; Padhraic Smyth
      Pages: 8689 - 8692
      Abstract: Data science has attracted a lot of attention, promising to turn vast amounts of data into useful predictions and insights. In this article, we ask why scientists should care about data science. To answer, we discuss data science from three perspectives: statistical, computational, and human. Although each of the three...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702076114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Ultralow thermal conductivity in all-inorganic halide perovskites [Applied
           Physical Sciences]
    • Authors: Woochul Lee; Huashan Li, Andrew B. Wong, Dandan Zhang, Minliang Lai, Yi Yu, Qiao Kong, Elbert Lin, Jeffrey J. Urban, Jeffrey C. Grossman, Peidong Yang
      Pages: 8693 - 8697
      Abstract: Controlling the flow of thermal energy is crucial to numerous applications ranging from microelectronic devices to energy storage and energy conversion devices. Here, we report ultralow lattice thermal conductivities of solution-synthesized, single-crystalline all-inorganic halide perovskite nanowires composed of CsPbI3 (0.45 ± 0.05 W·m−1·K−1), CsPbBr3 (0.42 ± 0.04 W·m−1·K−1), and CsSnI3...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711744114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Light-responsive organic flashing electron ratchet [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Ofer Kedem; Bryan Lau, Mark A. Ratner, Emily A. Weiss
      Pages: 8698 - 8703
      Abstract: Ratchets are nonequilibrium devices that produce directional motion of particles from nondirectional forces without using a bias, and are responsible for many types of biological transport, which occur with high yield despite strongly damped and noisy environments. Ratchets operate by breaking time-reversal and spatial symmetries in the direction of transport...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705973114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Autonomous reciprocating migration of an active material [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Lin Ren; Meng Wang, Changwei Pan, Qingyu Gao, Yang Liu, Irving R. Epstein
      Pages: 8704 - 8709
      Abstract: Periodic to-and-fro migration is a sophisticated mode of locomotion found in many forms of active matter in nature. Providing a general description of periodic migration is challenging, because many details of animal migration remain a mystery. We study periodic migration in a simpler system using a mechanistic model of a...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704094114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Toward broadband mechanical spectroscopy [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Tina Hecksher; Darius H. Torchinsky, Christoph Klieber, Jeremy A. Johnson, Jeppe C. Dyre, Keith A. Nelson
      Pages: 8710 - 8715
      Abstract: Diverse material classes exhibit qualitatively similar behavior when made viscous upon cooling toward the glass transition, suggesting a common theoretical basis. We used seven different measurement methods to determine the mechanical relaxation kinetics of a prototype molecular glass former over a temporal range of 13 decades and over a temperature...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707251114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Glacial weathering, sulfide oxidation, and global carbon cycle feedbacks
           [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Mark A. Torres; Nils Moosdorf, Jens Hartmann, Jess F. Adkins, A. Joshua West
      Pages: 8716 - 8721
      Abstract: Connections between glaciation, chemical weathering, and the global carbon cycle could steer the evolution of global climate over geologic time, but even the directionality of feedbacks in this system remain to be resolved. Here, we assemble a compilation of hydrochemical data from glacierized catchments, use this data to evaluate the...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702953114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Atypical fracture with long-term bisphosphonate therapy is associated with
           altered cortical composition and reduced fracture resistance [Medical
    • Authors: Ashley A. Lloyd; Bernd Gludovatz, Christoph Riedel, Emma A. Luengo, Rehan Saiyed, Eric Marty, Dean G. Lorich, Joseph M. Lane, Robert O. Ritchie, Bȷorn Busse, Eve Donnelly
      Pages: 8722 - 8727
      Abstract: Bisphosphonates are the most widely prescribed pharmacologic treatment for osteoporosis and reduce fracture risk in postmenopausal women by up to 50%. However, in the past decade these drugs have been associated with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs), rare fractures with a transverse, brittle morphology. The unusual fracture morphology suggests that bisphosphonate...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704460114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Printed droplet microfluidics for on demand dispensing of picoliter
           droplets and cells [Engineering]
    • Authors: Russell H. Cole; Shi-Yang Tang, Christian A. Siltanen, Payam Shahi, Jesse Q. Zhang, Sean Poust, Zev J. Gartner, Adam R. Abate
      Pages: 8728 - 8733
      Abstract: Although the elementary unit of biology is the cell, high-throughput methods for the microscale manipulation of cells and reagents are limited. The existing options either are slow, lack single-cell specificity, or use fluid volumes out of scale with those of cells. Here we present printed droplet microfluidics, a technology to...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704020114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Concurrent design of quasi-random photonic nanostructures [Engineering]
    • Authors: Won-Kyu Lee; Shuangcheng Yu, Clifford J. Engel, Thaddeus Reese, Dongjoon Rhee, Wei Chen, Teri W. Odom
      Pages: 8734 - 8739
      Abstract: Nanostructured surfaces with quasi-random geometries can manipulate light over broadband wavelengths and wide ranges of angles. Optimization and realization of stochastic patterns have typically relied on serial, direct-write fabrication methods combined with real-space design. However, this approach is not suitable for customizable features or scalable nanomanufacturing. Moreover, trial-and-error processing cannot...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704711114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Localized stress fluctuations drive shear thickening in dense suspensions
    • Authors: Vikram Rathee; Daniel L. Blair, Jeffrey S. Urbach
      Pages: 8740 - 8745
      Abstract: Dense particulate suspensions exhibit a dramatic increase in average viscosity above a critical, material-dependent shear stress. This thickening changes from continuous to discontinuous as the concentration is increased. Using direct measurements of spatially resolved surface stresses in the continuous thickening regime, we report the existence of clearly defined dynamic localized...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703871114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Crop-damaging temperatures increase suicide rates in India [Sustainability
    • Authors: Tamma A. Carleton
      Pages: 8746 - 8751
      Abstract: More than three quarters of the world’s suicides occur in developing countries, yet little is known about the drivers of suicidal behavior in poor populations. I study India, where one fifth of global suicides occur and suicide rates have doubled since 1980. Using nationally comprehensive panel data over 47 y,...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701354114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Empirical prediction intervals improve energy forecasting [Sustainability
    • Authors: Lynn H. Kaack; Jay Apt, M. Granger Morgan, Patrick McSharry
      Pages: 8752 - 8757
      Abstract: Hundreds of organizations and analysts use energy projections, such as those contained in the US Energy Information Administration (EIA)’s Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), for investment and policy decisions. Retrospective analyses of past AEO projections have shown that observed values can differ from the projection by several hundred percent, and thus...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619938114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Three-dimensional biomimetic vascular model reveals a RhoA, Rac1, and
           N-cadherin balance in mural cell-endothelial cell-regulated barrier
           function [Applied Biological Sciences]
    • Authors: Stella Alimperti; Teodelinda Mirabella, Varnica Bajaj, William Polacheck, Dana M. Pirone, Jeremy Duffield, Jeroen Eyckmans, Richard K. Assoian, Christopher S. Chen
      Pages: 8758 - 8763
      Abstract: The integrity of the endothelial barrier between circulating blood and tissue is important for blood vessel function and, ultimately, for organ homeostasis. Here, we developed a vessel-on-a-chip with perfused endothelialized channels lined with human bone marrow stromal cells, which adopt a mural cell-like phenotype that recapitulates barrier function of the...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618333114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Polycomb-mediated chromatin loops revealed by a subkilobase-resolution
           chromatin interaction map [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Kyle P. Eagen; Erez Lieberman Aiden, Roger D. Kornberg
      Pages: 8764 - 8769
      Abstract: The locations of chromatin loops in Drosophila were determined by Hi-C (chemical cross-linking, restriction digestion, ligation, and high-throughput DNA sequencing). Whereas most loop boundaries or “anchors” are associated with CTCF protein in mammals, loop anchors in Drosophila were found most often in association with the polycomb group (PcG) protein Polycomb...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701291114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Atomic structure of a toxic, oligomeric segment of SOD1 linked to
           amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Smriti Sangwan; Anni Zhao, Katrina L. Adams, Christina K. Jayson, Michael R. Sawaya, Elizabeth L. Guenther, Albert C. Pan, Jennifer Ngo, Destaye M. Moore, Angela B. Soriaga, Thanh D. Do, Lukasz Goldschmidt, Rebecca Nelson, Michael T. Bowers, Carla M. Koehler, David E. Shaw, Bennett G. Novitch, David S. Eisenberg
      Pages: 8770 - 8775
      Abstract: Fibrils and oligomers are the aggregated protein agents of neuronal dysfunction in ALS diseases. Whereas we now know much about fibril architecture, atomic structures of disease-related oligomers have eluded determination. Here, we determine the corkscrew-like structure of a cytotoxic segment of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in its oligomeric state. Mutations...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705091114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Circadian repressors CRY1 and CRY2 broadly interact with nuclear receptors
           and modulate transcriptional activity [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Anna Kriebs; Sabine D. Jordan, Erin Soto, Emma Henriksson, Colby R. Sandate, Megan E. Vaughan, Alanna B. Chan, Drew Duglan, Stephanie J. Papp, Anne-Laure Huber, Megan E. Afetian, Ruth T. Yu, Xuan Zhao, Michael Downes, Ronald M. Evans, Katja A. Lamia
      Pages: 8776 - 8781
      Abstract: Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) regulate physiology by sensing lipophilic ligands and adapting cellular transcription appropriately. A growing understanding of the impact of circadian clocks on mammalian transcription has sparked interest in the interregulation of transcriptional programs. Mammalian clocks are based on a transcriptional feedback loop featuring the transcriptional activators circadian...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704955114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • 2-Hydroxyisobutyrylation on histone H4K8 is regulated by glucose
           homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Jing Huang; Zhouqing Luo, Wantao Ying, Qichen Cao, He Huang, Junkai Dong, Qingyu Wu, Yingming Zhao, Xiaohong Qian, Junbiao Dai
      Pages: 8782 - 8787
      Abstract: New types of modifications of histones keep emerging. Recently, histone H4K8 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (H4K8hib) was identified as an evolutionarily conserved modification. However, how this modification is regulated within a cell is still elusive, and the enzymes adding and removing 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation have not been found. Here, we report that the amount of...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700796114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Transmembrane allosteric energetics characterization for strong coupling
           between proton and potassium ion binding in the KcsA channel [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Yunyao Xu; Manasi P. Bhate, Ann E. McDermott
      Pages: 8788 - 8793
      Abstract: The slow spontaneous inactivation of potassium channels exhibits classic signatures of transmembrane allostery. A variety of data support a model in which the loss of K+ ions from the selectivity filter is a major factor in promoting inactivation, which defeats transmission, and is allosterically coupled to protonation of key channel...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701330114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Microfluidic perfusion shows intersarcomere dynamics within single
           skeletal muscle myofibrils [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Felipe de Souza Leite; Fabio C. Minozzo, David Altman, Dilson E. Rassier
      Pages: 8794 - 8799
      Abstract: The sarcomere is the smallest functional unit of myofibrils in striated muscles. Sarcomeres are connected in series through a network of elastic and structural proteins. During myofibril activation, sarcomeres develop forces that are regulated through complex dynamics among their structures. The mechanisms that regulate intersarcomere dynamics are unclear, which limits...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700615114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Mouse macrophages show different requirements for phosphatidylserine
           receptor Tim4 in efferocytosis [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Yuichi Yanagihashi; Katsumori Segawa, Ryota Maeda, Yo-ichi Nabeshima, Shigekazu Nagata
      Pages: 8800 - 8805
      Abstract: Protein S (ProS) and growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) bind to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and induce efferocytosis upon binding TAM-family receptors (Tyro3, Axl, and Mer). Here, we produced mouse ProS, Gas6, and TAM-receptor extracellular region fused to IgG fragment crystallizable region in HEK293T cells. ProS and Gas6 bound Ca2+ dependently to PtdSer...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705365114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Presumptive TRP channel CED-11 promotes cell volume decrease and
           facilitates degradation of apoptotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans [Cell
    • Authors: Kaitlin Driscoll; Gillian M. Stanfield, Rita Droste, H. Robert Horvitz
      Pages: 8806 - 8811
      Abstract: Apoptotic cells undergo a series of morphological changes. These changes are dependent on caspase cleavage of downstream targets, but which targets are significant and how they facilitate the death process are not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans an increase in the refractility of the dying cell is a hallmark morphological...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705084114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Lizards on newly created islands independently and rapidly adapt in
           morphology and diet [Ecology]
    • Authors: Mariana Eloy de Amorim; Thomas W. Schoener, Guilherme Ramalho Chagas Cataldi Santoro, Anna Carolina Ramalho Lins, Jonah Piovia–Scott, Reuber Albuquerque Brandao
      Pages: 8812 - 8816
      Abstract: Rapid adaptive changes can result from the drastic alterations humans impose on ecosystems. For example, flooding large areas for hydroelectric dams converts mountaintops into islands and leaves surviving populations in a new environment. We report differences in morphology and diet of the termite-eating gecko Gymnodactylus amarali between five such newly...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1709080114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Nitrogen-fixing trees inhibit growth of regenerating Costa Rican
           rainforests [Ecology]
    • Authors: Benton N. Taylor; Robin L. Chazdon, Benedicte Bachelot, Duncan N. L. Menge
      Pages: 8817 - 8822
      Abstract: More than half of the world’s tropical forests are currently recovering from human land use, and this regenerating biomass now represents the largest carbon (C)-capturing potential on Earth. How quickly these forests regenerate is now a central concern for both conservation and global climate-modeling efforts. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing trees are thought...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707094114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Ensemble modeling informs hypoxia management in the northern Gulf of
           Mexico [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Donald Scavia; Isabella Bertani, Daniel R. Obenour, R. Eugene Turner, David R. Forrest, Alexey Katin
      Pages: 8823 - 8828
      Abstract: A large region of low-dissolved-oxygen bottom waters (hypoxia) forms nearly every summer in the northern Gulf of Mexico because of nutrient inputs from the Mississippi River Basin and water column stratification. Policymakers developed goals to reduce the area of hypoxic extent because of its ecological, economic, and commercial fisheries impacts....
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705293114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Plant feeding promotes diversification in the Crustacea [Evolution]
    • Authors: Alistair G. B. Poore; Shane T. Ahyong, James K. Lowry, Erik E. Sotka
      Pages: 8829 - 8834
      Abstract: About half of the world’s animal species are arthropods associated with plants, and the ability to consume plant material has been proposed to be an important trait associated with the spectacular diversification of terrestrial insects. We review the phylogenetic distribution of plant feeding in the Crustacea, the other major group...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706399114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Three Cambrian fossils assembled into an extinct body plan of cnidarian
           affinity [Evolution]
    • Authors: Qiang Ou; Jian Han, Zhifei Zhang, Degan Shu, Ge Sun, Georg Mayer
      Pages: 8835 - 8840
      Abstract: The early Cambrian problematica Xianguangia sinica, Chengjiangopenna wangii, and Galeaplumosus abilus from the Chengjiang biota (Yunnan, China) have caused much controversy in the past and their phylogenetic placements remain unresolved. Here we show, based on exceptionally preserved material (85 new specimens plus type material), that specimens previously assigned to these...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701650114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Specific regulation of thermosensitive lipid droplet fusion by a nuclear
           hormone receptor pathway [Genetics]
    • Authors: Shiwei Li; Qi Li, Yuanyuan Kong, Shuang Wu, Qingpo Cui, Mingming Zhang, Shaobing O. Zhang
      Pages: 8841 - 8846
      Abstract: Nuclear receptors play important roles in regulating fat metabolism and energy production in humans. The regulatory functions and endogenous ligands of many nuclear receptors are still unidentified, however. Here, we report that CYP-37A1 (ortholog of human cytochrome P450 CYP4V2), EMB-8 (ortholog of human P450 oxidoreductase POR), and DAF-12 (homolog of...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704277114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Zika plasma viral dynamics in nonhuman primates provides insights into
           early infection and antiviral strategies [Biophysics and Computational
    • Authors: Katharine Best; Jeremie Guedj, Vincent Madelain, Xavier de Lamballerie, So-Yon Lim, Christa E. Osuna, James B. Whitney, Alan S. Perelson
      Pages: 8847 - 8852
      Abstract: The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with fetal abnormalities and neurological complications, prompting global concern. Here we present a mathematical analysis of the within-host dynamics of plasma ZIKV burden in a nonhuman primate model, allowing for characterization of the growth and clearance of ZIKV within individual...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704011114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Organization and somatotopy of corticothalamic projections from L5B in
           mouse barrel cortex [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Anton Sumser; Rebecca A. Mease, Bert Sakmann, Alexander Groh
      Pages: 8853 - 8858
      Abstract: Neurons in cortical layer 5B (L5B) connect the cortex to numerous subcortical areas. Possibly the best-studied L5B cortico–subcortical connection is that between L5B neurons in the rodent barrel cortex (BC) and the posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus (POm). However, the spatial organization of L5B giant boutons in the POm...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704302114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Elevated IOP alters the space-time profiles in the center and surround of
           both ON and OFF RGCs in mouse [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: J. Sabharwal; R. L. Seilheimer, X. Tao, C. S. Cowan, B. J. Frankfort, S. M. Wu
      Pages: 8859 - 8864
      Abstract: Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, and is characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. An experimental model of glaucoma has been established by elevating the intraocular pressure (IOP) via microbead occlusion of ocular fluid outflow in mice. Studies in this model have found visual dysfunction that...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706994114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency alters nucleus accumbens synaptic
           physiology and drug reward behavior [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Daniel T. Kashima; Brad A. Grueter
      Pages: 8865 - 8870
      Abstract: Behavioral manifestations of drug-seeking behavior are causally linked to alterations of synaptic strength onto nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons (MSN). Although neuron-driven changes in physiology and behavior are well characterized, there is a lack of knowledge of the role of the immune system in mediating such effects. Toll-like receptor...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705974114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Evidence for frequency-dependent cortical plasticity in the human brain
    • Authors: Caroline A. Lea-Carnall; Nelson J. Trujillo-Barreto, Marcelo A. Montemurro, Wael El-Deredy, Laura M. Parkes
      Pages: 8871 - 8876
      Abstract: Frequency-dependent plasticity (FDP) describes adaptation at the synapse in response to stimulation at different frequencies. Its consequence on the structure and function of cortical networks is unknown. We tested whether cortical “resonance,” favorable stimulation frequencies at which the sensory cortices respond maximally, influenced the impact of FDP on perception, functional...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620988114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Two interacting PPR proteins are major Arabidopsis editing factors in
           plastid and mitochondria [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Damien Guillaumot; Mauricio Lopez–Obando, Kevin Baudry, Alexandra Avon, Guillem Rigaill, Andeol Falcon de Longevialle, Benȷamin Broche, Mizuki Takenaka, Richard Berthome, Geert De Jaeger, Etienne Delannoy, Claire Lurin
      Pages: 8877 - 8882
      Abstract: RNA editing is converting hundreds of cytosines into uridines during organelle gene expression of land plants. The pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are at the core of this posttranscriptional RNA modification. Even if a PPR protein defines the editing site, a DYW domain of the same or another PPR protein is...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705780114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Multiple PPR protein interactions are involved in the RNA editing system
           in Arabidopsis mitochondria and plastids [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Nuria Andres–Colas; Qiang Zhu, Mizuki Takenaka, Bert De Rybel, Dolf Weiȷers, Dominique Van Der Straeten
      Pages: 8883 - 8888
      Abstract: Recent identification of several different types of RNA editing factors in plant organelles suggests complex RNA editosomes within which each factor has a different task. However, the precise protein interactions between the different editing factors are still poorly understood. In this paper, we show that the E+-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR)...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705815114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
  • Habitual sleep as a contributor to racial differences in cardiometabolic
           risk [Social Sciences]
    • Authors: David S. Curtis; Thomas E. Fuller-Rowell, Mona El-Sheikh, Mercedes R. Carnethon, Carol D. Ryff
      Pages: 8889 - 8894
      Abstract: Insufficient and disrupted sleep is linked with cardiovascular and metabolic dysregulation and morbidity. The current study examines the degree to which differences in sleep between black/African American (AA) and white/European American (EA) adults explain racial differences in cardiometabolic (CMB) disease risk. Total sleep time and sleep efficiency (percent of time...
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T10:30:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618167114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 33 (2017)
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