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Journal Cover Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  [SJR: 6.883]   [H-I: 604]   [766 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
   Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Electron localization in rod-shaped triicosahedral gold nanocluster
           [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Meng Zhou; Renxi Jin, Matthew Y. Sfeir, Yuxiang Chen, Yongbo Song, Rongchao Jin
      Abstract: Atomically precise gold nanocluster based on linear assembly of repeating icosahedrons (clusters of clusters) is a unique type of linear nanostructure, which exhibits strong near-infrared absorption as their free electrons are confined in a one-dimensional quantum box. Little is known about the carrier dynamics in these nanoclusters, which limit their...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704699114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Hidden role of intermolecular proton transfer in the anomalously diffuse
           vibrational spectrum of a trapped hydronium ion [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Stephanie M. Craig; Fabian S. Menges, Chinh H. Duong, Joanna K. Denton, Lindsey R. Madison, Anne B. McCoy, Mark A. Johnson
      Abstract: We report the vibrational spectra of the hydronium and methyl-ammonium ions captured in the C3v binding pocket of the 18-crown-6 ether ionophore. Although the NH stretching bands of the CH3NH3+ ion are consistent with harmonic expectations, the OH stretching bands of H3O+ are surprisingly broad, appearing as a diffuse background...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705089114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Myosin Va’s adaptor protein melanophilin enforces track selection on the
           microtubule and actin networks in vitro [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Angela Oberhofer; Peter Spieler, Yuliya Rosenfeld, Willi L. Stepp, Augustine Cleetus, Alistair N. Hume, Felix Mueller–Planitz, Zeynep Okten
      Abstract: Pigment organelles, or melanosomes, are transported by kinesin, dynein, and myosin motors. As such, melanosome transport is an excellent model system to study the functional relationship between the microtubule- and actin-based transport systems. In mammalian melanocytes, it is well known that the Rab27a/melanophilin/myosin Va complex mediates actin-based transport in vivo....
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619473114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Mechanistic insights on the reduction of glutathione disulfide by protein
           disulfide isomerase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Rui P. P. Neves; Pedro Alexandrino Fernandes, Maria Joao Ramos
      Abstract: We explore the enzymatic mechanism of the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) by the reduced a domain of human protein disulfide isomerase (hPDI) with atomistic resolution. We use classical molecular dynamics and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations at the mPW1N/6–311+G(2d,2p):FF99SB//mPW1N/6–31G(d):FF99SB level. The reaction proceeds in two stages: (i) a thiol-disulfide...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618985114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Superresolution microscopy reveals the three-dimensional organization of
           meiotic chromosome axes in intact Caenorhabditis elegans tissue [Cell
           Biology]
    • Authors: Simone Kohler; Michal Woȷcik, Ke Xu, Abby F. Dernburg
      Abstract: When cells enter meiosis, their chromosomes reorganize as linear arrays of chromatin loops anchored to a central axis. Meiotic chromosome axes form a platform for the assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC) and play central roles in other meiotic processes, including homologous pairing, recombination, and chromosome segregation. However, little is...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702312114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Evidence for self-organization in determining spatial patterns of stream
           nutrients, despite primacy of the geomorphic template [Ecology]
    • Authors: Xiaoli Dong; Albert Ruhi, Nancy B. Grimm
      Abstract: Nutrients in freshwater ecosystems are highly variable in space and time. Nevertheless, the variety of processes contributing to nutrient patchiness, and the wide range of spatial and temporal scales at which these processes operate, obfuscate how this spatial heterogeneity is generated. Here, we describe the spatial structure of stream nutrient...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617571114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • RNA-seq reveals conservation of function among the yolk sacs of human,
           mouse, and chicken [Evolution]
    • Authors: Tereza Cindrova-Davies; Eric Jauniaux, Michael G. Elliot, Sungsam Gong, Graham J. Burton, D. Stephen Charnock-Jones
      Abstract: The yolk sac is phylogenetically the oldest of the extraembryonic membranes. The human embryo retains a yolk sac, which goes through primary and secondary phases of development, but its importance is controversial. Although it is known to synthesize proteins, its transport functions are widely considered vestigial. Here, we report RNA-sequencing...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702560114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Estimating the parameters of background selection and selective sweeps in
           Drosophila in the presence of gene conversion [Evolution]
    • Authors: Jose Luis Campos; Lei Zhao, Brian Charlesworth
      Abstract: We used whole-genome resequencing data from a population of Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the causes of the negative correlation between the within-population synonymous nucleotide site diversity (πS) of a gene and its degree of divergence from related species at nonsynonymous nucleotide sites (KA). By using the estimated distributions of mutational...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619434114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Follistatin is critical for mouse uterine receptivity and decidualization
           [Genetics]
    • Authors: Paul T. Fullerton Jr; Diana Monsivais, Ramakrishna Kommagani, Martin M. Matzuk
      Abstract: Embryo implantation remains a significant challenge for assisted reproductive technology, with implantation failure occurring in ∼50% of in vitro fertilization attempts. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying uterine receptivity will enable the development of new interventions and biomarkers. TGFβ family signaling in the uterus is critical for establishing and maintaining pregnancy....
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620903114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Manipulating DNA damage-response signaling for the treatment of
           immune-mediated diseases [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Jonathan P. McNally; Scott H. Millen, Vandana Chaturvedi, Nora Lakes, Catherine E. Terrell, Eileen E. Elfers, Kaitlin R. Carroll, Simon P. Hogan, Paul R. Andreassen, Julie Kanter, Carl E. Allen, Michael M. Henry, Jay N. Greenberg, Stephan Ladisch, Michelle L. Hermiston, Michael Joyce, David A. Hildeman, Jonathan D. Katz, Michael B. Jordan
      Abstract: Antigen-activated lymphocytes undergo extraordinarily rapid cell division in the course of immune responses. We hypothesized that this unique aspect of lymphocyte biology leads to unusual genomic stress in recently antigen-activated lymphocytes and that targeted manipulation of DNA damage-response (DDR) signaling pathways would allow for selective therapeutic targeting of pathological T...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703683114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • How an alloreactive T-cell receptor achieves peptide and MHC specificity
           [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Yuan Wang; Nishant K. Singh, Timothy T. Spear, Lance M. Hellman, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Rachel H. McMahan, Hugo R. Rosen, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Michael I. Nishimura, Brian M. Baker
      Abstract: T-cell receptor (TCR) allorecognition is often presumed to be relatively nonspecific, attributable to either a TCR focus on exposed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms or the degenerate recognition of allopeptides. However, paradoxically, alloreactivity can proceed with high peptide and MHC specificity. Although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, the existence of...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700459114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Thermal combination therapies for local drug delivery by magnetic
           resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound [Medical Sciences]
    • Authors: Nicole Hiȷnen; Esther Kneepkens, Mariska de Smet, Sander Langereis, Edwin Heiȷman, Holger Grull
      Abstract: Several thermal-therapy strategies such as thermal ablation, hyperthermia-triggered drug delivery from temperature-sensitive liposomes (TSLs), and combinations of the above were investigated in a rhabdomyosarcoma rat tumor model (n = 113). Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) was used as a noninvasive heating device with precise temperature control for image-guided drug...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700790114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Structure-guided evolution of antigenically distinct adeno-associated
           virus variants for immune evasion [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Longping Victor Tse; Kelli A. Klinc, Victoria J. Madigan, Ruth M. Castellanos Rivera, Lindsey F. Wells, L. Patrick Havlik, J. Kennon Smith, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, Aravind Asokan
      Abstract: Preexisting neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) pose a major, unresolved challenge that restricts patient enrollment in gene therapy clinical trials using recombinant AAV vectors. Structural studies suggest that despite a high degree of sequence variability, antibody recognition sites or antigenic hotspots on AAVs and other related parvoviruses might...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704766114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • AraC-like transcriptional activator CuxR binds c-di-GMP by a PilZ-like
           mechanism to regulate extracellular polysaccharide production
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Simon Schaper; Wieland Steinchen, Elizaveta Krol, Florian Altegoer, Dorota Skotnicka, Lotte Sogaard–Andersen, Gert Bange, Anke Becker
      Abstract: Cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) has emerged as a key regulatory player in the transition between planktonic and sedentary biofilm-associated bacterial lifestyles. It controls a multitude of processes including production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). The PilZ domain, consisting of an N-terminal “RxxxR” motif and a β-barrel domain, represents a prototype c-di-GMP...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702435114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Rifamycin action on RNA polymerase in antibiotic-tolerant Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis results in differentially detectable populations
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Kohta Saito, Thulasi Warrier, Selin Somersan-Karakaya, Lina Kaminski, Jianjie Mi, Xiuju Jiang, Suna Park, Kristi Shigyo, Ben Gold, Julia Roberts, Elaina Weber, William R. Jacobs Jr; Carl F. Nathan
      Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encounters stresses during the pathogenesis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) that can suppress replication of the bacteria and render them phenotypically tolerant to most available drugs. Where studied, the majority of Mtb in the sputum of most untreated subjects with active TB have been found to be...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705385114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Cortical neurons multiplex reward-related signals along with sensory and
           motor information [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Arjun Ramakrishnan; Yoon Woo Byun, Kyle Rand, Christian E. Pedersen, Mikhail A. Lebedev, Miguel A. L. Nicolelis
      Abstract: Rewards are known to influence neural activity associated with both motor preparation and execution. This influence can be exerted directly upon the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory (S1) cortical areas via the projections from reward-sensitive dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain ventral tegmental areas. However, the neurophysiological manifestation of reward-related signals...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703668114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Input timing for spatial processing is precisely tuned via constant
           synaptic delays and myelination patterns in the auditory brainstem
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Annette Stange-Marten; Alisha L. Nabel, James L. Sinclair, Matthew Fischl, Olga Alexandrova, Hilde Wohlfrom, Conny Kopp-Scheinpflug, Michael Pecka, Benedikt Grothe
      Abstract: Precise timing of synaptic inputs is a fundamental principle of neural circuit processing. The temporal precision of postsynaptic input integration is known to vary with the computational requirements of a circuit, yet how the timing of action potentials is tuned presynaptically to match these processing demands is not well understood....
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702290114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum and other membranes in neurons
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Yumei Wu; Christina Whiteus, C. Shan Xu, Kenneth J. Hayworth, Richard J. Weinberg, Harald F. Hess, Pietro De Camilli
      Abstract: Close appositions between the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other intracellular membranes have important functions in cell physiology. These include lipid homeostasis, regulation of Ca2+ dynamics, and control of organelle biogenesis and dynamics. Although these membrane contacts have previously been observed in neurons, their distribution and abundance have...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701078114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • The POTRA domains of Toc75 exhibit chaperone-like function to facilitate
           import into chloroplasts [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Patrick K. O’Neil; Lynn G. L. Richardson, Yamuna D. Paila, Grzegorz Piszczek, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Nicholas Noinaȷ, Danny Schnell
      Abstract: Protein trafficking across membranes is an essential function in cells; however, the exact mechanism for how this occurs is not well understood. In the endosymbionts, mitochondria and chloroplasts, the vast majority of proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm as preproteins and then imported into the organelles via specialized machineries. In...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621179114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • AP1G mediates vacuolar acidification during synergid-controlled pollen
           tube reception [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Jia-Gang Wang; Chong Feng, Hai-Hong Liu, Qiang-Nan Feng, Sha Li, Yan Zhang
      Abstract: Double fertilization in angiosperms requires the delivery of immotile sperm through pollen tubes, which enter embryo sacs to initiate synergid degeneration and to discharge. This fascinating process, called pollen tube reception, involves extensive communications between pollen tubes and synergids, within which few intracellular regulators involved have been revealed. Here, we...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617967114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Auxin steers root cell expansion via apoplastic pH regulation in
           Arabidopsis thaliana [Plant Biology]
    • Authors: Elke Barbez; Kai Dunser, Angelika Gaidora, Thomas Lendl, Wolfgang Busch
      Abstract: Plant cells are embedded within cell walls, which provide structural integrity, but also spatially constrain cells, and must therefore be modified to allow cellular expansion. The long-standing acid growth theory postulates that auxin triggers apoplast acidification, thereby activating cell wall-loosening enzymes that enable cell expansion in shoots. Interestingly, this model...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613499114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Correction for Ferrari et al., Hypoxia treatment reverses
           
    • Abstract: MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Hypoxia treatment reverses neurodegenerative disease in a mouse model of Leigh syndrome,” by Michele Ferrari, Isha H. Jain, Olga Goldberger, Emanuele Rezoagli, Robrecht Thoonen, Kai-Hung Chen, David E. Sosnovik, Marielle Scherrer-Crosbie, Vamsi K. Mootha, and Warren M. Zapol, which appeared in issue 21, May 23, 2017,...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708137114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Correction for Ding et al., Hepatitis E virus ORF3 is a functional ion
           channel required for release of infectious particles [Correction]
    • Abstract: MICROBIOLOGY Correction for “Hepatitis E virus ORF3 is a functional ion channel required for release of infectious particles,” by Qiang Ding, Brigitte Heller, Juan M. V. Capuccino, Bokai Song, Ila Nimgaonkar, Gabriela Hrebikova, Jorge E. Contreras, and Alexander Ploss, which appeared in issue 5, January 31, 2017, of Proc Natl...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708260114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Correction for Pearce et al., Variation in the {beta}-endorphin, oxytocin,
           and dopamine receptor genes is associated with different dimensions of
           human sociality [Correction]
    • Abstract: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES Correction for “Variation in the β-endorphin, oxytocin, and dopamine receptor genes is associated with different dimensions of human sociality,” by Eiluned Pearce, Rafael Wlodarski, Anna Machin, and Robin I. M. Dunbar, which appeared in issue 20, May 16, 2017, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (114:5300–5305;...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1708178114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    • Pages: 6145 - 6147
      Abstract: Metabolic adaptations of Sherpas to high altitudes Sherpa mountaineers in the Himalayas. Image courtesy of iStock/fotoVoyager. Previous studies have suggested that enhanced mechanisms for tissue oxygen delivery in Sherpas of Tibetan descent might play a role in their ability to survive at high altitude. However, whether metabolic adaptations that alter...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti2417114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Opinion: Smart farming is key to developing sustainable agriculture
           [Sustainability Science]
    • Authors: Achim Walter; Robert Finger, Robert Huber, Nina Buchmann
      Pages: 6148 - 6150
      Abstract: Agriculture has seen many revolutions, whether the domestication of animals and plants a few thousand years ago, the systematic use of crop rotations and other improvements in farming practice a few hundred years ago, or the “green revolution” with systematic breeding and the widespread use of man-made fertilizers and pesticides...
      Keywords: Opinions, Front Matter, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707462114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Profile of King-Wai Yau [Profiles]
    • Authors: Jennifer Viegas
      Pages: 6151 - 6153
      Abstract: Neuroscientist King-Wai Yau of Johns Hopkins University has made fundamental discoveries concerning the mechanisms underlying sensory transduction. His research over the past four decades has focused primarily on vision. “Vision is one of our most precious senses from which come art, science, humanity, beauty, and practically all aspects of life,”...
      Keywords: PNAS Profiles
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707649114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Bam and Otu can regulate stem cell fate by stabilizing cyclin A
           [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Juliette Mathieu; Jean–Rene Huynh
      Pages: 6154 - 6156
      Abstract: Identifying factors that regulate the balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation into specialized cells is key to understanding tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Long before the identification of the four factors sufficient to define stemness, a single gene named bag of marbles (bam) was shown to be necessary and sufficient...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706840114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Detection of sickness in conspecifics using olfactory and visual cues
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Camille Ferdenzi; Carmen Licon, Moustafa Bensafi
      Pages: 6157 - 6159
      Abstract: Social Communication in Humans Social communication in humans, although largely based on sophisticated language skills, is also substantially mediated by nonverbal cues that the receiver perceives through his/her senses. It is largely acknowledged that humans are highly visual organisms and that their perception of the social and physical environment is...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707139114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Ancestral gene regulatory networks drive cancer [Systems Biology]
    • Authors: Kimberly J. Bussey; Luis H. Cisneros, Charles H. Lineweaver, Paul C. W. Davies
      Pages: 6160 - 6162
      Abstract: Although cancer is one of the most intensively studied phenomena in biology and occurs in almost all multicellular species (1, 2), an explanation for its existence and properties within the context of evolutionary history has received comparatively little attention. However, it is widely recognized that progress in treatment and prevention...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706990114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to climate change
           [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Callum M. Roberts; Bethan C. O’Leary, Douglas J. McCauley, Philippe Maurice Cury, Carlos M. Duarte, Jane Lubchenco, Daniel Pauly, Andrea Saenz–Arroyo, Ussif Rashid Sumaila, Rod W. Wilson, Boris Worm, Juan Carlos Castilla
      Pages: 6167 - 6175
      Abstract: Strong decreases in greenhouse gas emissions are required to meet the reduction trajectory resolved within the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, even these decreases will not avert serious stress and damage to life on Earth, and additional steps are needed to boost the resilience of ecosystems, safeguard their wildlife, and protect...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701262114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Economic development, flow of funds, and the equilibrium interaction of
           financial frictions [Economic Sciences]
    • Authors: Benjamin Moll; Robert M. Townsend, Victor Zhorin
      Pages: 6176 - 6184
      Abstract: We use a variety of different datasets from Thailand to study not only the extremes of micro and macro variables but also within-country flow of funds and labor migration. We develop a general equilibrium model that encompasses regional variation in the type of financial friction and calibrate it to measured...
      Keywords: Inaugural Articles
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707055114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Deformable and conformal silk hydrogel inverse opal [Applied Physical
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Kyungtaek Min; Sookyoung Kim, Sunghwan Kim
      Pages: 6185 - 6190
      Abstract: Photonic crystals (PhCs) efficiently manipulate photons at the nanoscale. Applying these crystals to biological tissue that has been subjected to large deformation and humid environments can lead to fascinating bioapplications such as in vivo biosensors and artificial ocular prostheses. These applications require that these PhCs have mechanical durability, deformability, and...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701092114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Zinc-binding structure of a catalytic amyloid from solid-state NMR
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Myungwoon Lee; Tuo Wang, Olga V. Makhlynets, Yibing Wu, Nicholas F. Polizzi, Haifan Wu, Pallavi M. Gosavi, Jan Stohr, Ivan V. Korendovych, William F. DeGrado, Mei Hong
      Pages: 6191 - 6196
      Abstract: Throughout biology, amyloids are key structures in both functional proteins and the end product of pathologic protein misfolding. Amyloids might also represent an early precursor in the evolution of life because of their small molecular size and their ability to self-purify and catalyze chemical reactions. They also provide attractive backbones...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706179114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Unique aqueous Li-ion/sulfur chemistry with high energy density and
           reversibility [Chemistry]
    • Authors: Chongyin Yang; Liumin Suo, Oleg Borodin, Fei Wang, Wei Sun, Tao Gao, Xiulin Fan, Singyuk Hou, Zhaohui Ma, Khalil Amine, Kang Xu, Chunsheng Wang
      Pages: 6197 - 6202
      Abstract: Leveraging the most recent success in expanding the electrochemical stability window of aqueous electrolytes, in this work we create a unique Li-ion/sulfur chemistry of both high energy density and safety. We show that in the superconcentrated aqueous electrolyte, lithiation of sulfur experiences phase change from a high-order polysulfide to low-order...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703937114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the
           summertime marine Arctic boundary layer [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Emma L. Mungall; Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Alex K. Y. Lee, Jennie L. Thomas, Marjolaine Blais, Michel Gosselin, Lisa A. Miller, Tim Papakyriakou, Megan D. Willis, John Liggio
      Pages: 6203 - 6208
      Abstract: Summertime Arctic shipboard observations of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as organic acids, key precursors of climatically active secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are consistent with a novel source of OVOCs to the marine boundary layer via chemistry at the sea surface microlayer. Although this source has been studied in...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620571114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • The impact of Last Glacial climate variability in west-European loess
           revealed by radiocarbon dating of fossil earthworm granules [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Olivier Moine; Pierre Antoine, Christine Hatte, Amaelle Landais, Jerome Mathieu, Charlotte Prud’homme, Denis–Didier Rousseau
      Pages: 6209 - 6214
      Abstract: The characterization of Last Glacial millennial-timescale warming phases, known as interstadials or Dansgaard–Oeschger events, requires precise chronologies for the study of paleoclimate records. On the European continent, such chronologies are only available for several Last Glacial pollen and rare speleothem archives principally located in the Mediterranean domain. Farther north, in...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614751114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Postglacial response of Arctic Ocean gas hydrates to climatic amelioration
           [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Pavel Serov; Sunil Vadakkepuliyambatta, Jurgen Mienert, Henry Patton, Alexey Portnov, Anna Silyakova, Giuliana Panieri, Michael L. Carroll, JoLynn Carroll, Karin Andreassen, Alun Hubbard
      Pages: 6215 - 6220
      Abstract: Seafloor methane release due to the thermal dissociation of gas hydrates is pervasive across the continental margins of the Arctic Ocean. Furthermore, there is increasing awareness that shallow hydrate-related methane seeps have appeared due to enhanced warming of Arctic Ocean bottom water during the last century. Although it has been...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619288114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Tropical cyclone activity enhanced by Sahara greening and reduced dust
           emissions during the African Humid Period [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Francesco S. R. Pausata; Kerry A. Emanuel, Marc Chiacchio, Gulilat T. Diro, Qiong Zhang, Laxmi Sushama, J. Curt Stager, Jeffrey P. Donnelly
      Pages: 6221 - 6226
      Abstract: Tropical cyclones (TCs) can have devastating socioeconomic impacts. Understanding the nature and causes of their variability is of paramount importance for society. However, historical records of TCs are too short to fully characterize such changes and paleo-sediment archives of Holocene TC activity are temporally and geographically sparse. Thus, it is...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619111114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Early 20th-century Arctic warming intensified by Pacific and Atlantic
           multidecadal variability [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    • Authors: Hiroki Tokinaga; Shang-Ping Xie, Hitoshi Mukougawa
      Pages: 6227 - 6232
      Abstract: With amplified warming and record sea ice loss, the Arctic is the canary of global warming. The historical Arctic warming is poorly understood, limiting our confidence in model projections. Specifically, Arctic surface air temperature increased rapidly over the early 20th century, at rates comparable to those of recent decades despite...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615880114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Spontaneous formation of aligned DNA nanowires by capillarity-induced skin
           folding [Engineering]
    • Authors: So Nagashima; Hyun Dong Ha, Do Hyun Kim, Andreȷ Košmrlȷ, Howard A. Stone, Myoung–Woon Moon
      Pages: 6233 - 6237
      Abstract: Although DNA nanowires have proven useful as a template for fabricating functional nanomaterials and a platform for genetic analysis, their widespread use is still hindered because of limited control over the size, geometry, and alignment of the nanowires. Here, we document the capillarity-induced folding of an initially wrinkled surface and...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700003114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Increased nitrous oxide emissions from Arctic peatlands after permafrost
           thaw [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Carolina Voigt; Maiȷa E. Marushchak, Richard E. Lamprecht, Marcin Jackowicz–Korczyłski, Amelie Lindgren, Mikhail Mastepanov, Lars Granlund, Torben R. Christensen, Teemu Tahvanainen, Pertti J. Martikainen, Christina Biasi
      Pages: 6238 - 6243
      Abstract: Permafrost in the Arctic is thawing, exposing large carbon and nitrogen stocks for decomposition. Gaseous carbon release from Arctic soils due to permafrost thawing is known to be substantial, but growing evidence suggests that Arctic soils may also be relevant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we show that N2O...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702902114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Simple nuclear C*-algebras not isomorphic to their opposites [Mathematics]
    • Authors: Ilijas Farah; Ilan Hirshberg
      Pages: 6244 - 6249
      Abstract: We show that it is consistent with Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice (ZFC) that there is a simple nuclear nonseparable C∗-algebra, which is not isomorphic to its opposite algebra. We can furthermore guarantee that this example is an inductive limit of unital copies of the Cuntz algebra...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619936114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Quantum critical scaling and fluctuations in Kondo lattice materials
           [Physics]
    • Authors: Yi-feng Yang; David Pines, Gilbert Lonzarich
      Pages: 6250 - 6255
      Abstract: We propose a phenomenological framework for three classes of Kondo lattice materials that incorporates the interplay between the fluctuations associated with the antiferromagnetic quantum critical point and those produced by the hybridization quantum critical point that marks the end of local moment behavior. We show that these fluctuations give rise...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703172114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Nontrivial Berry phase in magnetic BaMnSb2 semimetal [Physics]
    • Authors: Silu Huang; Jisun Kim, W. A. Shelton, E. W. Plummer, Rongying Jin
      Pages: 6256 - 6261
      Abstract: The subject of topological materials has attracted immense attention in condensed-matter physics because they host new quantum states of matter containing Dirac, Majorana, or Weyl fermions. Although Majorana fermions can only exist on the surface of topological superconductors, Dirac and Weyl fermions can be realized in both 2D and 3D...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1706657114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Disparate foundations of scientists’ policy positions on contentious
           biomedical research [Immunology and Inflammation]
    • Authors: Achim Edelmann; James Moody, Ryan Light
      Pages: 6262 - 6267
      Abstract: What drives scientists’ position taking on matters where empirical answers are unavailable or contradictory? We examined the contentious debate on whether to limit experiments involving the creation of potentially pandemic pathogens. Hundreds of scientists, including Nobel laureates, have signed petitions on the debate, providing unique insights into how scientists take...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613580114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Assessing human weaning practices with calcium isotopes in tooth enamel
           [Anthropology]
    • Authors: Theo Tacail; Beatrice Thivichon–Prince, Jeremy E. Martin, Cyril Charles, Laurent Viriot, Vincent Balter
      Pages: 6268 - 6273
      Abstract: Weaning practices differ among great apes and likely diverged during the course of human evolution, but behavioral inference from the fossil record is hampered by a lack of unambiguous biomarkers. Here, we show that early-life dietary transitions are recorded in human deciduous tooth enamel as marked variations in Ca isotope...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704412114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of the scrambling domain of the TMEM16 family
           [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Sayuri Gyobu; Kenji Ishihara, Jun Suzuki, Katsumori Segawa, Shigekazu Nagata
      Pages: 6274 - 6279
      Abstract: The TMEM16 protein family has 10 members, each of which carries 10 transmembrane segments. TMEM16A and 16B are Ca2+-activated Cl− channels. Several other members, including TMEM16F, promote phospholipid scrambling between the inner and outer leaflets of a cell membrane in response to intracellular Ca2+. However, the mechanism by which TMEM16...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703391114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Three classes of oxygen-dependent cyclase involved in chlorophyll and
           bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Guangyu E. Chen; Daniel P. Canniffe, C. Neil Hunter
      Pages: 6280 - 6285
      Abstract: The biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll pigments is among the most productive biological pathways on Earth. Photosynthesis relies on these modified tetrapyrroles for the capture of solar radiation and its conversion to chemical energy. (Bacterio)chlorophylls have an isocyclic fifth ring, the formation of which has remained enigmatic for more than 60 y....
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701687114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Photoactivation mechanism of a carotenoid-based photoreceptor
           [Biochemistry]
    • Authors: Sepalika Bandara; Zhong Ren, Lu Lu, Xiaoli Zeng, Heewhan Shin, Kai-Hong Zhao, Xiaojing Yang
      Pages: 6286 - 6291
      Abstract: Photoprotection is essential for efficient photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria have evolved a unique photoprotective mechanism mediated by a water-soluble carotenoid-based photoreceptor known as orange carotenoid protein (OCP). OCP undergoes large conformational changes in response to intense blue light, and the photoactivated OCP facilitates dissipation of excess energy via direct interaction with allophycocyanins...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700956114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • A mechanism for lipid binding to apoE and the role of intrinsically
           disordered regions coupled to domain-domain interactions [Biophysics and
           Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Carl Frieden; Hanliu Wang, Chris M. W. Ho
      Pages: 6292 - 6297
      Abstract: Relative to the apolipoprotein E (apoE) E3 allele of the APOE gene, apoE4 strongly increases the risk for the development of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. However, apoE4 differs from apoE3 by only a single amino acid at position 112, which is arginine in apoE4 and cysteine in apoE3. It remains unclear...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1705080114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Structural basis for ligand binding to an enzyme by a conformational
           selection pathway [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Michael Kovermann; Christin Grundstrom, A. Elisabeth Sauer–Eriksson, Uwe H. Sauer, Magnus Wolf–Watz
      Pages: 6298 - 6303
      Abstract: Proteins can bind target molecules through either induced fit or conformational selection pathways. In the conformational selection model, a protein samples a scarcely populated high-energy state that resembles a target-bound conformation. In enzymatic catalysis, such high-energy states have been identified as crucial entities for activity and the dynamic interconversion between...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700919114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • A helicase-independent activity of eIF4A in promoting mRNA recruitment to
           the human ribosome [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    • Authors: Masaaki Sokabe; Christopher S. Fraser
      Pages: 6304 - 6309
      Abstract: In the scanning model of translation initiation, the decoding site and latch of the 40S subunit must open to allow the recruitment and migration of messenger RNA (mRNA); however, the precise molecular details for how initiation factors regulate mRNA accommodation into the decoding site have not yet been elucidated. Eukaryotic...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620426114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Viral and cellular mRNA-specific activators harness PABP and eIF4G to
           promote translation initiation downstream of cap binding [Cell Biology]
    • Authors: Richard W. P. Smith; Ross C. Anderson, Osmany Larralde, Joel W. S. Smith, Barbara Gorgoni, William A. Richardson, Poonam Malik, Sheila V. Graham, Nicola K. Gray
      Pages: 6310 - 6315
      Abstract: Regulation of mRNA translation is a major control point for gene expression and is critical for life. Of central importance is the complex between cap-bound eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), eIF4G, and poly(A) tail-binding protein (PABP) that circularizes mRNAs, promoting translation and stability. This complex is often targeted to regulate...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1610417114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Bam-dependent deubiquitinase complex can disrupt germ-line stem cell
           maintenance by targeting cyclin A [Developmental Biology]
    • Authors: Shanming Ji; Chaoyi Li, Lin Hu, Kehui Liu, Jie Mei, Yuewan Luo, Yi Tao, Zongping Xia, Qinmiao Sun, Dahua Chen
      Pages: 6316 - 6321
      Abstract: Drosophila germ-line stem cells (GSCs) provide an excellent model to study the regulatory mechanisms of stem cells in vivo. Bag of marbles (bam) has been demonstrated to be necessary and sufficient to promote GSC and cystoblast differentiation. Despite extensive investigation of its regulation and genetic functions, the biochemical nature of...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1619188114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Historical climate controls soil respiration responses to current soil
           moisture [Environmental Sciences]
    • Authors: Christine V. Hawkes; Bonnie G. Waring, Jennifer D. Rocca, Stephanie N. Kivlin
      Pages: 6322 - 6327
      Abstract: Ecosystem carbon losses from soil microbial respiration are a key component of global carbon cycling, resulting in the transfer of 40–70 Pg carbon from soil to the atmosphere each year. Because these microbial processes can feed back to climate change, understanding respiration responses to environmental factors is necessary for improved...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620811114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Positive association between population genetic differentiation and
           speciation rates in New World birds [Evolution]
    • Authors: Michael G. Harvey; Glenn F. Seeholzer, Brian Tilston Smith, Daniel L. Rabosky, Andres M. Cuervo, Robb T. Brumfield
      Pages: 6328 - 6333
      Abstract: An implicit assumption of speciation biology is that population differentiation is an important stage of evolutionary diversification, but its significance as a rate-limiting control on phylogenetic speciation dynamics remains largely untested. If population differentiation within a species is related to its speciation rate over evolutionary time, the causes of differentiation...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617397114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Deciphering the landscape of host barriers to Listeria monocytogenes
           infection [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Ting Zhang; Soren Abel, Pia Abel zur Wiesch, Jumpei Sasabe, Brigid M. Davis, Darren E. Higgins, Matthew K. Waldor
      Pages: 6334 - 6339
      Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes is a common food-borne pathogen that can disseminate from the intestine and infect multiple organs. Here, we used sequence tag-based analysis of microbial populations (STAMP) to investigate L. monocytogenes population dynamics during infection. We created a genetically barcoded library of murinized L. monocytogenes and then used deep sequencing...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702077114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Bacteria exploit a polymorphic instability of the flagellar filament to
           escape from traps [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Marco J. Kuhn; Felix K. Schmidt, Bruno Eckhardt, Kai M. Thormann
      Pages: 6340 - 6345
      Abstract: Many bacterial species swim by rotating single polar helical flagella. Depending on the direction of rotation, they can swim forward or backward and change directions to move along chemical gradients but also to navigate their obstructed natural environment in soils, sediments, or mucus. When they get stuck, they naturally try...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701644114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Phosphate is the third nutrient monitored by TOR in Candida albicans and
           provides a target for fungal-specific indirect TOR inhibition
           [Microbiology]
    • Authors: Ning–Ning Liu; Peter R. Flanagan, Jumei Zeng, Niketa M. Jani, Maria E. Cardenas, Gary P. Moran, Julia R. Kohler
      Pages: 6346 - 6351
      Abstract: The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway regulates morphogenesis and responses to host cells in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Eukaryotic Target of Rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) induces growth and proliferation in response to nitrogen and carbon source availability. Our unbiased genetic approach seeking unknown components of TORC1 signaling in C....
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617799114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Visual cortex entrains to sign language [Psychological and Cognitive
           Sciences]
    • Authors: Geoffrey Brookshire; Jenny Lu, Howard C. Nusbaum, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Daniel Casasanto
      Pages: 6352 - 6357
      Abstract: Despite immense variability across languages, people can learn to understand any human language, spoken or signed. What neural mechanisms allow people to comprehend language across sensory modalities? When people listen to speech, electrophysiological oscillations in auditory cortex entrain to slow (
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620350114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Astrocytic glycogen-derived lactate fuels the brain during exhaustive
           exercise to maintain endurance capacity [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Takashi Matsui; Hideki Omuro, Yu-Fan Liu, Mariko Soya, Takeru Shima, Bruce S. McEwen, Hideaki Soya
      Pages: 6358 - 6363
      Abstract: Brain glycogen stored in astrocytes provides lactate as an energy source to neurons through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to maintain neuronal functions such as hippocampus-regulated memory formation. Although prolonged exhaustive exercise decreases brain glycogen, the role of this decrease and lactate transport in the exercising brain remains less clear. Because muscle...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1702739114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Positive impacts of early auditory training on cortical processing at an
           older age [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Yuan Cheng; Guoqiang Jia, Yifan Zhang, Huanhuan Hao, Ye Shan, Liping Yu, Xinde Sun, Qingyin Zheng, Nina Kraus, Michael M. Merzenich, Xiaoming Zhou
      Pages: 6364 - 6369
      Abstract: Progressive negative behavioral changes in normal aging are paralleled by a complex series of physical and functional declines expressed in the cerebral cortex. In studies conducted in the auditory domain, these degrading physical and functional cortical changes have been shown to be broadly reversed by intensive progressive training that improves...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1707086114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Simultaneous analysis of the LFP and spiking activity reveals essential
           components of a visuomotor transformation in the frontal eye field
           [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Naveen Sendhilnathan; Debaleena Basu, Aditya Murthy
      Pages: 6370 - 6375
      Abstract: The frontal eye field (FEF) is a key brain region to study visuomotor transformations because the primary input to FEF is visual in nature, whereas its output reflects the planning of behaviorally relevant saccadic eye movements. In this study, we used a memory-guided saccade task to temporally dissociate the visual...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1703809114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • miR-183/96 plays a pivotal regulatory role in mouse photoreceptor
           maturation and maintenance [Neuroscience]
    • Authors: Lue Xiang; Xue-Jiao Chen, Kun-Chao Wu, Chang-Jun Zhang, Gao-Hui Zhou, Ji-Neng Lv, Lan-Fang Sun, Fei-Fei Cheng, Xue-Bi Cai, Zi-Bing Jin
      Pages: 6376 - 6381
      Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be essential for retinal maturation and functionality; however, the role of the most abundant miRNAs, the miR-183/96/182 cluster (miR-183 cluster), in photoreceptor cells remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that ablation of two components of the miR-183 cluster, miR-183 and miR-96, significantly affects photoreceptor maturation and...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1618757114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Metabolic basis to Sherpa altitude adaptation [Physiology]
    • Authors: James A. Horscroft; Aleksandra O. Kotwica, Verena Laner, James A. West, Philip J. Hennis, Denny Z. H. Levett, David J. Howard, Bernadette O. Fernandez, Sarah L. Burgess, Zsuzsanna Ament, Edward T. Gilbert–Kawai, Andre Vercueil, Blaine D. Landis, Kay Mitchell, Monty G. Mythen, Cristina Branco, Randall S. Johnson, Martin Feelisch, Hugh E. Montgomery, Julian L. Griffin, Michael P. W. Grocott, Erich Gnaiger, Daniel S. Martin, Andrew J. Murray
      Pages: 6382 - 6387
      Abstract: The Himalayan Sherpas, a human population of Tibetan descent, are highly adapted to life in the hypobaric hypoxia of high altitude. Mechanisms involving enhanced tissue oxygen delivery in comparison to Lowlander populations have been postulated to play a role in such adaptation. Whether differences in tissue oxygen utilization (i.e., metabolic...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1700527114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Arabidopsis JASMONATE-INDUCED OXYGENASES down-regulate plant immunity by
           hydroxylation and inactivation of the hormone jasmonic acid [Plant
           Biology]
    • Authors: Lotte Caarls; Joyce Elberse, Mo Awwanah, Nora R. Ludwig, Michel de Vries, Tieme Zeilmaker, Saskia C. M. Van Wees, Robert C. Schuurink, Guido Van den Ackerveken
      Pages: 6388 - 6393
      Abstract: The phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) is vital in plant defense and development. Although biosynthesis of JA and activation of JA-responsive gene expression by the bioactive form JA-isoleucine have been well-studied, knowledge on JA metabolism is incomplete. In particular, the enzyme that hydroxylates JA to 12-OH-JA, an inactive form of JA...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1701101114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Response time in economic games reflects different types of decision
           conflict for prosocial and proself individuals [Psychological and
           Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Toshio Yamagishi; Yoshie Matsumoto, Toko Kiyonari, Haruto Takagishi, Yang Li, Ryota Kanai, Masamichi Sakagami
      Pages: 6394 - 6399
      Abstract: Behavioral and neuroscientific studies explore two pathways through which internalized social norms promote prosocial behavior. One pathway involves internal control of impulsive selfishness, and the other involves emotion-based prosocial preferences that are translated into behavior when they evade cognitive control for pursuing self-interest. We measured 443 participants’ overall prosocial behavior...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1608877114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Behavioral and neural correlates to multisensory detection of sick humans
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    • Authors: Christina Regenbogen; John Axelsson, Julie Lasselin, Danȷa K. Porada, Tina Sundelin, Moa G. Peter, Mats Lekander, Johan N. Lundstrom, Mats J. Olsson
      Pages: 6400 - 6405
      Abstract: Throughout human evolution, infectious diseases have been a primary cause of death. Detection of subtle cues indicating sickness and avoidance of sick conspecifics would therefore be an adaptive way of coping with an environment fraught with pathogens. This study determines how humans perceive and integrate early cues of sickness in...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617357114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
  • Altered interactions between unicellular and multicellular genes drive
           hallmarks of transformation in a diverse range of solid tumors [Systems
           Biology]
    • Authors: Anna S. Trigos; Richard B. Pearson, Anthony T. Papenfuss, David L. Goode
      Pages: 6406 - 6411
      Abstract: Tumors of distinct tissues of origin and genetic makeup display common hallmark cellular phenotypes, including sustained proliferation, suppression of cell death, and altered metabolism. These phenotypic commonalities have been proposed to stem from disruption of conserved regulatory mechanisms evolved during the transition to multicellularity to control fundamental cellular processes such...
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T09:29:39-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1617743114
      Issue No: Vol. 114, No. 24 (2017)
       
 
 
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