Journal Cover Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1363-951X
   Published by Emerald Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Police legitimacy: an introduction
    • Pages: 474 - 479
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 474-479, August 2017.

      Citation: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:40:59Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2017-0058
       
  • Research on police legitimacy: the state of the art
    • Pages: 480 - 513
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 480-513, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review the “state of the art” in research on police legitimacy. The authors consider two bodies of theory and empirical research on police legitimacy: one rooted in social psychology and concerned with individual attitudes, and the other based on organizational institutionalism. The authors contrast the theories, discuss the methods with which propositions have been examined, and take stock of the empirical evidence. The authors then turn to a direct comparison of the theories and their predictions. Design/methodology/approach Critical review and comparison of two bodies of literature. Findings Police legitimacy is a phenomenon that can be properly understood only when it is addressed at both individual and organizational levels. A large body of social psychological research on police legitimacy has been conducted at the individual level, though it has dwelled mainly on attitudes, and the empirical evidence on the relationships of attitudes to behavior is weak. A much smaller body of research on organizational legitimacy in policing has accumulated, and it appears to have promise for advancing our understanding of police legitimacy. Originality/value The understanding of police legitimacy can be deepened by the juxtaposition of these two bodies of theory and research.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:41:11Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2017-0062
       
  • The “silver bullet” to good policing: a mirage
    • Pages: 514 - 528
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 514-528, August 2017.
      Purpose Procedural justice (PJ) during police-citizen interactions has often been portrayed as a “silver bullet” to good policing, as it could function as a means to gain trust, voluntary obedience and public cooperation. PJ research is based on the assumption that there exists “true fairness.” However, it is still unclear what people actually mean when they evaluate the police as “fair” in surveys. By focusing the analysis to underexplored aspects of PJ, namely, the identity and political antecedents of the attribution of procedural fairness, the authors highlight the social and ideological reasons that influence people’s perceptions of police fairness. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In order to explain the attribution of fairness of police, the study comprises a range of independent variables organized into five overarching domains: prior experience with police, victimization, socioeconomic status and (disadvantaged) context of residence, ethnicity and political attitudes and punitive values. The analysis is based on a representative sample of France, as well as a booster sample of a deprived, urban province (Seine-Saint-Denis) in order to better incorporate ethnic effects into the model (March 2011; n=1.498, 18+). Findings The present study finds support for the notion that aggressive policing policies (police-initiated contacts, e.g. identification checks, road stops) negatively impacts attributions of fairness to police. In addition, the findings show that attributions of fairness are not only interactional (i.e. related to what police do in any given situation) or related to individual cognitive phenomena, but for the most part pertain to broader social and political explanations. Political and ethnic cleavages are the key to understanding how police are judged by the public. The findings therefore question the nature of what is actually measured when fairness is attributed to police, finding that more punitive and conservative respondents tend to assess the police as fair. The authors find that the attribution of fairness seems to correspond to upholding the existing social order. Research limitations/implications This study has limitations inherent to any cross-sectional survey and the findings pertain only to a single country (France). Furthermore, the authors did not analyze all possible confounding variables to perceived fairness. Social implications The findings pose a practical problem for police and government to implement, as the authors ultimately find that there is no single recipe, or “silver bullet,” for being deemed fair across all social, ethnic and political groups – and, of course, the expectations of one group might conflict with those of another. Originality/value The study demonstrates that existing theory needs to better incorporate those explanations of fairness which extend beyond interactional processes with police, and refer instead to the social and political cleavages in society.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:41:04Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2016-0073
       
  • Legitimacy judgments in neighborhood context
    • Pages: 529 - 543
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 529-543, August 2017.
      Purpose Policing differs across neighborhoods, but little is known about how context conditions residents’ assessments about police legitimacy. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether procedural justice and police effectiveness differently contribute to legitimacy judgments depending on the security risk inherent in the context. Design/methodology/approach The research applies a series of multi-level regression models using nearly 3,000 surveys of Trinidad and Tobago residents. Findings Police legitimacy and the conditions that promote legitimacy vary across neighborhoods. In “good” neighborhoods, individuals draw on police effectiveness and procedural justice to infer legitimacy, but in at-risk neighborhoods, residents’ views derive from effectiveness. Procedural justice does not play a significant role. Practical implications One implication for police is that the current emphasis on evidence-based policing strategies, especially in high crime neighborhoods, can provide a mechanism to improve the generally negative views about police legitimacy held by those residents. The findings do not imply, however, that police need not be concerned about procedural justice in at-risk neighborhoods. In fact, as police improve their crime prevention prowess, views about how procedurally just their methods are increase in importance. Originality/value Prior research addressing the antecedents of legitimacy has focused on individual demographic and attitudinal predictors. Only two prior studies have begun to investigate whether residents of different contexts may form their views based on different antecedents. This study outlines a theoretical basis for why different bases may be expected and then tests those expectations using rigorous statistical analyses.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:40:51Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2016-0066
       
  • Promoting Muslims’ cooperation with police in counter-terrorism
    • Pages: 544 - 559
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 544-559, August 2017.
      Purpose Procedural justice is important for fostering peoples’ willingness to cooperate with police. Theorizing suggests this relationship results because procedural justice enhances perceptions that the police are legitimate and entitled to be supported. The purpose of this paper is to examine how legitimacy perceptions moderate the effect of procedural justice policing on Muslims’ willingness to cooperate with police. Design/methodology/approach Survey data from 800 Muslims in Australia are used. Findings This study shows Muslims’ procedural justice perceptions are positively associated with two types of cooperation: willingness to cooperate with police in general crime control efforts; and willingness to report terror threats to police. Muslims’ perceptions of police legitimacy and law legitimacy also influence willingness to cooperate. Specifically, police legitimacy is more important for predicting general willingness to cooperate with police, while law legitimacy is more important for predicting Muslims’ willingness to report terror threats. Importantly, legitimacy perceptions moderate the relationship between procedural justice and both types of cooperation. Specifically, procedural justice promotes cooperation more strongly for those who question the legitimacy of police or the legitimacy of counter-terrorism laws, but the moderation effects differ across the two cooperation contexts. The findings have implications for procedural justice scholarship and for counter-terrorism policing. Originality/value The current paper examines an under-explored aspect of legitimacy; it examines police legitimacy perceptions, but also examines how people view the legitimacy of laws police enforce (i.e. law legitimacy). It is argued that perceptions about law legitimacy can also impact people’s willingness to cooperate with police.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-05-2016-0069
       
  • Building police legitimacy in a high demand environment: the case of
           Yukon, Canada
    • Pages: 560 - 573
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 560-573, August 2017.
      Purpose Police legitimacy has emerged as a core concept in the study of twenty-first century policing. The purpose of this paper is to contribute new knowledge by examining the dynamics surrounding policing legitimacy in a high demand environment in Northern Canada. Design/methodology/approach A case study approach was used to explore the historical and contemporary factors that contributed to the challenges surrounding the police-First Nations relations, how these challenges affected public confidence in, and trust of, the police, and how the communities, police, and government took action to address these issues. Findings The findings reveal that it is possible for the police, First Nations, and government in high demand environments to implement reforms and to create the foundation for police-community collaboration. The development of relationships based on trust and a continuing dialogue is important components in building police legitimacy. Research limitations/implications The study was conducted in one northern jurisdiction. The findings may apply to other jurisdictions where the police are involved in policing indigenous peoples. Practical implications The case study provides insight into the processes required to fundamentally alter the police-First Nations relations, to improve police service delivery in high demand environments, and to ensure that reforms are sustained. Originality/value Police legitimacy has been examined primarily in urban environments where police services have considerable capacities and there re-extensive networks of support from various agencies and organizations. The dynamics of policing in northern communities are appreciably different and present challenges as well as opportunities for improving police legitimacy.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:41:03Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2016-0088
       
  • Explaining procedural justice during police-suspect encounters
    • Pages: 574 - 586
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 574-586, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a series of hypotheses regarding the use of procedurally just policing during suspect encounters. Design/methodology/approach Systematic social observation data from police encounters with suspects are used (N=939). Ordinary least-squares regression models are estimated to evaluate the effects of four variable clusters (i.e. suspect self-presentation, situational factors, suspect social characteristics, and officer characteristics) on procedurally just policing practices. Findings Results from the regression models show that the most salient predictors of police officers exercising authority in a procedurally just manner include the level of self-control displayed by suspects, the number of citizen onlookers, whether the encounter involved a traffic problem, the race/ethnicity of suspects, and suspects’ social status. Research limitations/implications This study focused only on police-suspects encounters where compliance requests were made. While the size of the sample is relatively large, the results from this study do not generalize to all types of police encounters with members of the public. Originality/value This research adds to an emerging body of research focused on predicting procedurally just practices in police encounters. The findings support increased attention to theories that explain police-citizens interactions, and also indicate that further consideration to the measurement of police behavior is warranted.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2016-0087
       
  • How to measure procedurally (un)just behavior during police-citizen
           interactions
    • Pages: 587 - 600
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 587-600, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to validate an instrument, based on previous research, for measuring procedurally just and unjust police behavior during interactions with citizens. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered from September 2015 to January 2016 using systematic social observations in two local police forces in Belgium. A total of 284 full police-citizen interactions were observed. The authors describe and explain how the procedurally (un)just police behavior is measured and discuss existing research on the subject. The authors also test the validity of the instrument and stress the importance of making a distinction between procedurally just and unjust behavior, which has often been overlooked in previous research. Findings The measurement instrument passed the validity test, except for the procedurally just neutrality sub-index. The findings also confirm that both procedurally just and procedurally unjust police behavior can occur in the same interaction. Moreover, except for the trustworthy sub-indexes, the authors found a stronger negative correlation of procedurally unjust behavior with the citizen’s behavior compared to the strength of the positive correlations of the procedural justice indexes. Research limitations/implications The findings confirm a usable measurement instrument for research about procedural justice using systematic social observations. Important improvements were made to instruments that have been utilized in previous research. One of the most important recommendations for future research is to make a distinction between procedurally just and unjust police behavior. Originality/value This study is the first in which all four elements of police procedurally just behavior as well as their four procedurally unjust variants were measured using systematic social observations.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:41:10Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-09-2016-0140
       
  • Police legitimacy in context: an exploration of “soft” power in police
           custody in England
    • Pages: 601 - 613
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 601-613, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how police authority – in its “soft” form – is used and understood by staff and detainees in police custody in England, examining how these meanings are shaped by this unique police setting. It is argued that the nature of this setting, as fraught and uncertain, along with the large volume of citizens who come into contact with the police therein, makes police custody the ultimate “teachable moment”. Design/methodology/approach The present paper is based on in-depth qualitative data collected between March 2014 and May 2015 in four custody suites (in four forces). In each site, the researchers spent three to four weeks observing and then interviewed 10-15 staff (largely police officers, detention officers but also a few other criminal justice practitioners) and 10-15 detainees. In total, the paper is based on 532 hours of observing and 97 interviews (47 with staff and 50 with detainees). Findings One way that the staff used their authority in the custody suites in the research was softly and innocuously; this entailed for example staff communicating in a respectful manner with detainees, such as by being deliberately polite. The authors conclude that this “soft” power was a dynamic, processual matter, shaped in particular by the physical conditions of the suite, the uncertain and insecure nature of detainees’ circumstances, as well as by the sense of disempowerment they felt as a result of being deprived of their liberty and autonomy, all of which contributed to police custody being the ultimate “teachable moment”. Originality/value The paper draws on a range of qualitative data collected from both staff and detainees in four types of police custody suites as part the “good” police custody study. It therefore makes an original contribution to the field which has tended to rely on cross-sectional surveys of citizens not policed populations (Harkin, 2015; Worden and Mclean, 2017).
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2016-0077
       
  • Identity, legitimacy and “making sense” of police use of force
    • Pages: 614 - 627
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 614-627, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which police legitimacy and social identity explain variation in public acceptance of police use of force. The authors assess whether there is an association between legitimacy and public acceptance of apparently illegal or unethical police action; and the extent to which identification with a particular social group predicts judgments of police behavior. Design/methodology/approach The study draws upon cross-sectional data from a 2015 survey of a representative sample of adults in England and Wales. Structural equation modeling is used to model conditional correlations between latent constructs. Findings There are two main findings. First, identifying more strongly with a social group that the police may be seen to represent was consistently associated with greater acceptance of police use of force, whether or not that force seemed to be justified. Second, beliefs about the legitimacy of the police were also associated with acceptance, but primarily only in relation to the use of force in situations where it appeared prima facie justifiable. Social implications Results suggest one possible set of reasons why police retain public support in the face of scandals concerning excessive use of force. Originality/value This is one of only very few studies that have used survey data to explore lay justifications for police use of force.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:41:09Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-06-2016-0085
       
  • Private police legitimacy: the case of internal investigations by fraud
           examiners
    • Pages: 628 - 640
      Abstract: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Volume 40, Issue 3, Page 628-640, August 2017.
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss the legitimacy of private policing of financial crime by fraud examiners. Design/methodology/approach The literature on fraud examiners is interpreted in the legitimacy context. Findings A number of critical issues based on the institutional theory and social psychology issues are discussed that question the legitimacy of private policing of financial crime. Research limitations/implications There is a need for regulation of the private fraud examination industry. Practical implications A number of legitimacy issues should be addressed by financial crime specialists. Social implications Victims of private investigations require regulation of the investigation industry. Originality/value Criteria for police legitimacy are applied to the private sector.
      Citation: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T07:40:56Z
      DOI: 10.1108/PIJPSM-04-2016-0053
       
 
 
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