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New Library World
Number of Followers: 879  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0307-4803 - ISSN (Online) 2398-5348
Published by Emerald Homepage  [364 journals]
  • Implementation of embedded assessment in maker classrooms: challenges and
           opportunities

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      Authors: Yoon Jeon (YJ) Kim, Yumiko Murai, Stephanie Chang
      Abstract: As maker-centered learning grows rapidly in school environments, there is an urgent need for new forms of assessment. The purpose of this paper is to report on the development and implementation of tools to support embedded assessment of maker competencies within school-based maker programs and describes alternative assessment approaches to rubrics and portfolios. This study used a design-based research (DBR) method, with researchers collaborating with US middle school teachers to iteratively design a set of tools that support implementation of embedded assessment. Based on teacher and student interviews, classroom observations, journal notes and post-implementation interviews, the authors report on the final phase of DBR, highlighting how teachers can implement embedded assessment in maker classrooms as well as the challenges that teachers face with assessment. This study showed that embedded assessment can be implemented in a variety of ways, and that flexible and adaptable assessment tools can play a crucial role in supporting teachers in this process. Additionally, though teachers expressed a strong desire for student involvement in the assessment process, we observed minimal student agency during implementation. Further study is needed to investigate how establishing classroom culture and norms around assessment may enable students to fully participate in assessment processes. Due to the dynamic and collaborative nature of maker-centered learning, teachers may find it difficult to provide on-the-fly feedback. By employing an embedded assessment approach, this study explored a new form of assessment that is flexible and adaptable, allowing teachers to formally plan ahead while also adjusting in the moment.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-06-07
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-08-2020-0188
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • “I know it when I see it”: employing reflective practice for
           assessment and feedback of reflective writing in a makerspace classroom

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      Authors: Ofer Chen, Yoav Bergner
      Abstract: In reflective writing, students are encouraged to examine their own setbacks and progress. With a shortage of guidance in how to provide feedback to students on this type of writing, teachers are often left to figure it out on the job. The central hypothesis in this paper is that the lens of reflective practice can help focus teacher efforts and ultimately improve both feedback and instruction. The purpose of this paper is not to produce a universal prescription for assessing reflective writing but rather a protocol for teacher reflective practice that can apply to challenging grading and feedback-giving situations. Student assessment is a chance for teachers to learn about their students’ abilities and challenges and to provide feedback for improvement. Assessment and grading sessions can also become opportunities for teachers to examine their own instructional and assessment practices. This self-examination process, a cornerstone of reflective practice (Schön, 1984), is challenging, but it may be especially valuable when guidelines for feedback and assessment are hard to come by. Such may be said to be the case in student-centered learning environments such as school Fablabs and makerspaces, where stated goals commonly include cultivating learner self-regulation and resilience. These hard-to-measure constructs are typically assessed through analysis of student reflective journals. This in-depth case study uses mixed-methods to examine how a semester-long intervention affected the grading, feedback and instructional practices of a teacher in a hands-on design classroom. The intervention involved 10 grade-aloud sessions using a computer-based rubric tool (Gradescope) and a culminating card-sorting task. The lens of reflective practice was applied to understanding the teacher’s development of their own reflective capabilities. During the intervention, the participating teacher grappled with grading and feedback-giving dilemmas which led to clarifications of assessment objectives; changes to instruction; and improved feedback-giving practices, many of which persisted after the intervention. The teacher perceived the intervention as adding both rigor and productive “soul-searching” to their professional practice. Lasting changes in feedback behaviors included a comprehensive rubric and an increase in the frequency, specificity and depth of feedback given to student written work. Significant prior efforts have been directed separately at the use of reflective practice for teachers, in general, and on the feedback and grading of student process journals. This work combines these lines of inquiry in the reflective classroom assessment protocol, a novel on-the-job professional development opportunity that fosters reflective practice in times of assessment to improve instructional and feedback practices.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-05-19
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-09-2020-0209
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • “It’s a lab full of art machinery”: implications of women’s
           experiences, values and visions of success for makerspace evaluation

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      Authors: Rebecca M. Teasdale
      Abstract: Evaluation of public library makerspaces traditionally examines achievement of library goals, which reflect leaders’ and funders’ values. Understanding makers’ experiences and perspectives may help evaluators frame their inquiry to reflect community values, test assumptions about makers and support democratic and equity-focused aims. This paper aims to inform how evaluations of public library makerspaces are framed to address the experiences, values and visions for success of adult women, a group that is often marginalized in making and makerspaces. Informed by democratic approaches to evaluation and activity theory, this paper draws on semi-structured interviews with women makers engaged with digital fabrication in public library makerspaces. The women in the sample leveraged digital fabrication to deepen existing creative practices, challenging gendered distinctions between crafting and technology. They directed making toward economic survival and thriving, including creative-sector entrepreneurship. Making was also directed toward strengthening families and communities, centering relationships beyond the makerspace. Learning emerged as a byproduct of engagement, organized to produce specific artifacts. Library resources, arrangements and rules supported women with varying technology skills and also constrained some making activities. Findings suggest evaluators should resist deficit framing of women and making; broaden science, technology, engineering and mathematics-focused definitions of making; focus on the personally meaningful ends to which making is directed; expand conceptualizations of community; examine arrangements and resources that mediate making and learning; and center the perspectives of local women makers. This paper presents an empirical account of makers who are often marginalized and identifies six implications for evaluations of public library makerspaces.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-05-15
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-08-2020-0177
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Making for learning: how graduate students discuss and design for
           maker-focused pedagogy

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      Authors: Megan Humburg, Verily Tan, Adam V. Maltese, Amber Simpson, Joshua A. Danish
      Abstract: This study aims to understand how graduate students in a maker education course discuss beliefs about making and implement these beliefs as pedagogy in their curricular designs. Interview transcripts from seven students were analyzed thematically for conceptions of making and learning. Lesson plans were also coded for elements of making, and the authors compared students’ articulated ideas about making with the practical implementation of making in their designs. Students reflected on the nature of making and the possible benefits and tensions surrounding the use of making for learning. Multiple students discussed benefits for their future learning and careers. Comparisons between interview and lesson plans highlight both successful alignments and key gaps in the application of making principles, including struggles that students encountered when translating their beliefs about making into real-world pedagogy. Given the limited sample size, future research should explore the extent to which educators in other contexts encounter similar or different obstacles in their development of maker-focused pedagogies. Findings can be used to inform future maker education courses to better support students in successfully translating core principles of making from general beliefs into effective and practical pedagogical strategies. Despite widespread interest in combining making with educational spaces, much remains to be understood about the strategies that educators use to integrate elements of making into their pedagogy. This study contributes discussions of the benefits and tensions that maker educators may encounter when blending tenets of making with the needs of formal education.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-05-15
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-08-2020-0191
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Exploring ideation strategies as an opportunity to support and evaluate
           making

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      Authors: Marcelo Worsley
      Abstract: This paper aims to compare two types of prompts, encouraging participants to think about real-world examples or engineering principles to show how these two approaches can result in vastly different design practices. Two studies (N = 20, N = 40) examine the impact of two different prompts. Non-expert students, from high school and university, completed a hands-on, engineering design task in pairs. Half were prompted to ideate using real-world examples, while the other half were prompted to ideate using engineering principles. The findings are based on human coding and artifact analyses. In both studies, and across multiple measures, students in the principle-based condition performed better than students in the example-based condition. A seemingly small difference in how students are prompted or encouraged to approach a problem can have a significant impact on their experience. The findings also suggest that leveraging engineering principles, even when those principles are only loosely formed, can be effective even for non-experts. Finally, the findings motivate identifying student reasoning strategies over time as a potential means for assessment in Makerspaces. Encouraging makers to think about different ways for approaching problems can be an important way to help them succeed. It may also be a useful way to chronicle their learning pathway. To the author's knowledge, explicitly looking at ideation strategies has not been widely discussed within the Maker community as a way to support learners, or as a way to evaluate learning.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-05-15
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-08-2020-0194
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Not all evidence is created equal: assessment artifacts in maker education

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      Authors: Louisa Rosenheck, Grace C. Lin, Rashi Nigam, Prasanth Nori, Yoon Jeon Kim
      Abstract: When using embedded, student-centered assessment tools for maker education, understanding the characteristics of a body of evidence can help teachers guide the assessment process. This study aims to examine assessment artifacts from a makerspace program and present a set of qualities that emerged, which researchers and maker educators can use to evaluate the quality of evidence before interpreting it and making claims about student learning. This study used the interpretive analysis approach to identify salient qualities in a body of evidence of maker learning. Data sources included student assessment artifacts, researchers’ analytic memos, notes on the coding and analysis process, background stories and field observations. The study found that the assessment artifacts generated by students aligned with the maker-related target skills. A set of qualities was produced that can be used to describe the strength of a body of evidence and help determine whether it is appropriate to be used in the meaning making phase. The qualities identified in this study can be directly incorporated into the embedded assessment toolkit to provide feedback on the strength of evidence for learning in makerspaces. Assessment methods for maker education are nascent, and ways to describe the quality of a student-generated body of evidence have not yet been established. This study applies existing knowledge of embedded assessment and reflective practice toward the creation of a new way of assessing skills that are difficult to measure.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-05-15
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-08-2020-0205
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Characterizing an information environment for supporting learning

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      Authors: Kathleen Campana
      Abstract: This study aims to offer insights into the presence and nature of an information environment provided for young children to support their learning and explore how an information environment for young children can be characterized. Observations of video-recorded public library storytimes were used to investigate the presence and nature of an information environment for young children’s learning. The observations revealed that storytimes provide a rich, multimodal information environment where information is shared with young children and they are encouraged to interact with it in a variety of ways. The storytime participants take on several different roles that help to foster and sustain the information environment. This study tests the applicability of Eisenberg and Small’s (1993) information-based education framework for exploring an information environment and recommends revisions to improve the framework’s effectiveness for characterizing information environments for young children.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-05-15
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-08-2020-0206
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Collaborative idea exchange and material tinkering influence families’
           creative engineering practices and products during engineering programs in
           informal learning environments

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      Authors: Soo Hyeon Kim, Heather Toomey Zimmerman
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate how families’ sociomaterial experiences in engineering programs held in libraries and a museum influence their creative engineering practices and the creativity expressed in their products derived from their inquiry-driven engineering activities. This research project takes a naturalistic inquiry using qualitative and quantitative analyses based on video records from activities of 31 parent–child pairs and on creativity assessment of products that used littleBits as prototyping tools. Families engaged in two sociomaterial experiences related to engineering – collaborative idea exchange and ongoing generative tinkering with materials – which supported the emergence of novel ideas and feasible solutions during the informal engineering programs. Families in the high novelty score group experienced multiple instances of collaborative idea exchange and ongoing generative tinkering with materials, co-constructed through parent-child collaboration, that were expansive toward further idea and solution generation. Families in the low novelty score group experienced brief collaborative idea exchange and material tinkering with specific idea suggestions and high involvement from the parent. An in-depth case study of one family further illustrated that equal engagement by the parent and child as they tinkered with the technology supported families’ creative engineering practices. This analysis adds to the information sciences and learning sciences literatures with an account that integrates methodologies from sociocultural and engineering design research to understand the relationship between families’ engagement in creative engineering practices and their products. Implications for practitioners include suggestions for designing spaces to support families’ collaborative idea exchange and ongoing generative tinkering to facilitate the development of creative engineering practices during short-term engineering programs.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-05-11
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-02-2020-0031
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Re-mediating designs for equity: making commitments concrete

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      Authors: A. Susan Jurow, Quinton Freeman
      Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to detail how a social design experiment focused on equity was systematically reorganized to address changing historical and social contexts of injustice. This paper presents a design narrative. The design narrative presents the principled foundations that guided our re-design of the social design experiment. The value of this design narrative is in demonstrating how designs for equity need to be revised in light of dynamic social, cultural and historical circumstances.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-05-05
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-10-2020-0231
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Being mobile: a call for collaborative innovation practices'

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      Authors: Laurent Antonczak, Thierry Burger-Helmchen
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine mobile technology as being a key apparatus and interface for collaborative innovation, which allows organisations to develop their information ecology. The qualitative research was performed by in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. The eight main interviews are supported by an interdisciplinary narrative literature review of knowledge management and associated fields. This study validates the following propositions: mobile technology can offer users timely information, mobile technology can foster collaboration beyond physical and organisational boundaries, in general, mobile technology enables a wider amount of interactions between people. Thereby, this paper draws some implications about the knowledge management of creative (and non-creative) workers. The collected data sheds light on how organisations and individuals positioned themselves about mobile technology co-creative practices before the COVID era. Therefore, it shall be pertinent to further investigate these findings through a quantitative approach to better ascertain path models and to strengthen the new results with another qualitative perspective, in the post-COVID era. The study highlights how mobile devices are facilitating collaborative innovation practices by improving management decisions, enabling new business and/or operating models, developing a flow of ideas inner/outer an organisation and fostering the ability to make innovation. Mobile technology transforms the way to work (knowledge creation and/or conversion) and it changes the relations between collaborators in a working environment (beyond physical boundaries). This study deciphers how a creative and/or decision-making person can change their work schedule and/or routines based on the use of mobile devices. The added value of this transdisciplinary study is that it improves research on collaborative innovation and collective knowledge by revealing three pertinent characteristics of mobile technology: enabling quick decision; connecting with a glocal network and fostering collective creativity. It also creates a bridge between the fields of education and business.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-02-2020-0035
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Dialogic spaces in divergent and convergent collaborative learning tasks

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      Authors: Laura Palmgren-Neuvonen, Karen Littleton, Noora Hirvonen
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine how dialogic spaces were co-constituted (opened, broadened and deepened) between students engaged in divergent and convergent collaborative learning tasks, orchestrated by teachers in Finnish primary and secondary schools. The concept of dialogic space refers to a dynamic, shared resource of ideas in dialogue and has come to represent an ideal form of educational interaction, in the contexts of collaborative learning, joint creative work and shared knowledge-building. A socio-cultural discourse analysis of video-observed classroom dialogue, entailing the development of a new analytic typology, was undertaken to explore the co-constitution of dialogic space. The data are derived from two qualitative studies, one examining dialogue to co-create fictive video stories in primary-school classrooms (divergent task), the other investigating collaborative knowledge building in secondary-school health education (convergent task). Dialogic spaces were opened through group settings and by the students’ selection of topics. In the divergent task, the broadening of dialogic space derived from the heterogeneous group settings, whereas in the convergent task, from the multiple and various information sources involved. As regards the deepening of dialogic space, explicit reflective talk remained scarce; instead the norms deriving from the school-context tasks and requirements guided the group dialogue. This study lays the groundwork for subsequent research regarding the orchestration of dialogic space in divergent and convergent tasks by offering a typology to operationalise dialogic space for further, more systematic, comparisons and aiding the understandings of the processes implicated in intercreating and interthinking. This in turn is of significance for the development of dialogic pedagogies.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-02-2020-0043
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Cultivating data visualization literacy in museums

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      Authors: Kylie Peppler, Anna Keune, Ariel Han
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore what design aspects can support data visualization literacy within science museums. The qualitative study thematically analyzes video data of 11 visitor groups as they engage with reading and writing of data visualization through a science museum exhibition that features real-time and uncurated data. Findings present how the design aspects of the exhibit led to identifying single data records, data patterns, mismeasurements and distribution rate. The findings preface how to study data visualization literacy learning in short museum interactions. Practically, the findings point toward design implications for facilitating data visualization literacy in museum exhibits. The originality of the study lays in the way the exhibit supports engagement with data visualization literacy with uncurated data records.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-04-2020-0132
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Enhancing instructional outcomes with a serious gamified system: a
           qualitative investigation of student perceptions

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      Authors: Hussein Haruna, Asad Abbas, Zamzami Zainuddin, Xiao Hu, Robin R. Mellecker, Samira Hosseini
      Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate the students’ perception of their learning experiences concerning serious gaming and gamification instructions and determines whether they were motivated enough and engaged during the educative process in a resource-poor context. Moreover, the study evaluated the impact of interactive instructional environment outcomes in terms of students’ perceptions of the learning catalysed by gamified systems, particularly in enhancing attitude change coupled with knowledge acquisition. This study used a qualitative research design technique to collect the data. A total of 108 first year secondary school students participated in a sexual health literacy course that lasted for a five-week learning period. Using a cluster-sampling technique, three classes were randomly assigned to serious gaming, gamification and teacher-centred instructions. Individual face-to-face interviews were used to assess students’ perceives required satisfaction with three instructions. Data were audio-recorded, and coding analysis was used using NVivo software facilitated qualitative data analysis. The results show that serious gaming and gamification instructions trumped the traditional teacher-centred instruction method. While intervention students were all positive about the serious gaming and gamification instructions, non-intervention students were negative about conservative teacher-centered learning whose limited interactivity also undermined learning relative to the two innovative interventions. As a justification to limit face-to-face classes, this study may be useful during an emergency phenomenon, including the current situation of amid COVID-19. The implementation of serious gaming and gamification as remotely instructional options could be among the measures to protect educational communities through reducing close-proximity, and eventually, control contamination and the spread of viruses. The application of serious gaming and game elements should not be conceptualised as universal but context-specific. This study shows that particularism is essential to optimise the results in terms of coming up with a specific design based on the scope of evaluation for positive results and develop an intervention that will work, especially in the resource-poor context of the developing world.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-04-02
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-05-2020-0162
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Situating race: the case for examining Black children’s informal
           mathematics learning outside of schools

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      Authors: Jahneille Cunningham, Kimberley Gomez
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the ways racialization in K-12 mathematics classrooms has narrowed the understanding of mathematical learning for Black children. Drawing on situated learning theory and funds of knowledge, the authors argue that the social learning context of mathematics classrooms has limited the understanding of what Black children are capable of mathematically. The authors suggest that as a community of practice, mathematics classrooms may be marginalizing Black children, as well as other students of color, by devaluing their community-based knowledge and ways of knowing. The extant literature portrays Black children as struggling in mathematics; however, this research is overwhelmingly conducted based on school performance measures. Yet, if one looks beyond the classroom to Black children's homes and communities, a plethora of mathematical knowledge tied to cultural and community practices may be found. As such, Black children who struggle in mathematics classroom may be experiencing misalignment across contexts, rather than a lack of mathematical knowledge altogether. This paper has implications for classroom practice, particularly teacher ideologies pertaining to community-based knowledge. The authors urge mathematics education researchers and practitioners to look beyond the classroom, as community-based mathematical practices may provide more insight into students’ mathematical capabilities. These implications are particularly important for educating students of color, who often experience a subpar classroom education. In this paper, the authors provide a critical lens to situated learning theory, pushing mathematics education research to examine the underexplored topic of Black children's out-of-school mathematical practices.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-01-2020-0016
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Effect of flipped teaching on the performance and perceptions of
           pre-service teachers on a biology course

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      Authors: Roberto Reinoso, Jaime Delgado-Iglesias, Itziar Fernández
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyse student performance and perceptions when a flipped classroom setting is used, in comparison with the traditional model. The inverted learning model or “flipped classroom” is a pedagogical approach that attempts to reverse the traditional teaching and learning process, making the student the protagonist of their own learning, and is characterised by the theoretical contents being taught “outside the classroom”, allowing students to spend more class time carrying out other types of more practical activities that encourage much more active learning, such as enquiry exercises, problem solving, collaborative projects and so on. The study was conducted on a biology course of the Primary Education Bachelor’s Degree during the 2017/2018 academic year (n = 240). The results revealed that better learning outcomes were achieved by students when the flipped classroom methodology was proposed. It has also been found that student perceptions of the teaching approach were more positive when the flipped model was followed. The flipped classroom methodology also seems to foster student participation and motivation more effectively than traditional teaching formats, mainly because the active learning activities that are carried out in this new educative approach manage to involve the students in their own learning processes. Despite the enhanced popularity of flipped classroom research in multiple educational contexts and the growing number of studies published in recent years, there is little empirical evidence regarding the effect of the flipped classroom on learning outcomes and satisfaction in pre-service teachers.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-02-26
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-07-2020-0173
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • ESOL pre-service teachers’ culturally and linguistically responsive
           teaching in mixed-reality simulations

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      Authors: Shim Lew, Tugce Gul, John L. Pecore
      Abstract: Simulation technology has been used as a viable alternative to provide a real life setting in teacher education. Applying mixed-reality classroom simulations to English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) teacher preparation, this qualitative case study aims to examine how pre-service teachers (PSTs) practice culturally and linguistically responsive teaching to work with an English learner (EL) avatar and other avatar students. Using an embedded single case study, three PSTs’ teaching simulations and interviews were collected and analyzed. This study found PST participants made meaningful connections between theory and practices of culturally and linguistically responsive teaching, particularly by connecting academic concepts to students’ life experiences, promoting cultural diversity, using instructional scaffolding and creating a safe environment. Nevertheless, they needed further improvement in incorporating cultural diversity into content lessons, creating a challenging and supportive classroom and developing interactional scaffolding for ELs’ language development. The findings also show that while PST participants perceived simulation technology as very beneficial, expanding the range of technological affordances could provide PSTs an opportunity to undertake a full range of critical teaching strategies for ELs. This research contributes to broadening the realm of mixed-reality technology by applying it to ESOL teacher education and has implications for both ESOL teacher educators and simulation technology researchers.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-01-2020-0012
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Learning online research skills in lower secondary school: long-term
           intervention effects, skill profiles and background factors

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      Authors: Tuulikki Alamettälä, Eero Sormunen
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the long-term development of online research skills effects of a teaching intervention in online research skills among lower secondary school students and how various factors such as teaching interventions and students’ to identify students’ skill profiles in online research self-efficacy, attitudes, information and communication technology (ICT) activity and gender are associated with development. Two intervention courses were implemented to improve online research skills among 7th-grade students. In the follow-up test in the 8th grade, students’ skills were measured in Web searching, critical evaluation of sources and argumentative use of Web information. Students’ self-efficacy beliefs in online research, their attitudes toward learning, behavioral intentions in online research and ICT activity were surveyed by questionnaires. The main finding was that the effect observed immediately after the intervention in 7th grade did not last until the following year. A cluster analysis revealed six skill profiles characterizing strengths and weaknesses in students’ performance in the subtasks of online research and indicated that many students suffer from poor evaluation skills. Self-efficacy beliefs stood out as a student-related factor associated with the development of online research skills. This study contributed to the pedagogy of online research skills. It indicates that small-scale interventions are not enough to enhance 7th-graders’ online research skills. Students need continuous practice in different contexts during their school years. It is important to support students’ self-efficacy to motivate them to develop their skills in all the subtasks of online research. This study also demonstrated the importance of follow-up studies in online research skills, as they have been rare thus far.
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-01-25
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-03-2020-0058
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Personal knowledge management and enactment of personal knowledge
           infrastructures as shadow IT

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      Authors: Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi, Rebecca Reynolds, Ali Eshraghi
      Abstract: Personal knowledge management (KM) lends new emphasis to ways through which individual knowledge workers engage with knowledge in organizational contexts. This paper aims to go beyond an organizational approach to KM to examine key personal KM and knowledge building (KB) practices among adult professionals. This paper presents a summary of the findings from interviews with 58 consultants from 17 managing consulting firms. Participants were selected based on their knowledge-intensive roles and their willingness to share information about their knowledge practices. Data analysis was inductive and revealed multiple personal KM activities common among research participants, and the way these are supported by informal ties and various technologies. This work highlights ways in which “shadow information technology” undergirds personal knowledge infrastructures and supports KM and KB practices in the context of management consulting firms. The results uncover how personal knowledge infrastructures emerge from personal KM and KB practices, and the role of informal social networks as well as social media in supporting personal KM and KB. This study contributes an overall conceptual model of factors that help knowledge workers build a personal knowledge infrastructure. By affording an understanding of socially embedded personal KM activities, this work helps organizations create a balance between KM strategies at the organizational level and personal knowledge goals of individual workers. Much of the previous research on KM adopts organizational approaches to KM, accentuating how organizations can effectively capture, organize and distribute organizational knowledge (primarily through KM systems).
      Citation: Information and Learning Sciences
      PubDate: 2020-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/ILS-11-2019-0120
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2020)
       
  • Information and Learning Sciences

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