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Journal of Neuroscience
Journal Prestige (SJR): 4.466
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 371  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0270-6474 - ISSN (Online) 1529-2401
Published by Society for Neuroscience Homepage  [2 journals]
  • This Week in The Journal

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      Pages: 8668 - 8668
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.twij.41.42.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Toward an Anti-Racist Approach to Biomedical and Neuroscience Research

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      Authors: Gilpin, N. W; Taffe, M. A.
      Pages: 8669 - 8672
      Abstract: Racism is a threat to public health. Race is a sociopolitical construct that has been used for generations to create disparities in educational access, housing conditions, exposure to environmental contaminants, and access to health care. Collectively, these disparities have a negative impact on the health of non-white Americans. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) funds biomedical research, including basic neuroscience research, aimed at understanding the mechanisms and consequences of health and disease in Americans. NIH has recently acknowledged its own structural racism, the disadvantage this perpetuates in the biomedical research enterprise, and has announced its commitment to eliminating these disparities. Here, we discuss different rates of disease in U.S. citizens from different racial backgrounds. We next describe ways in which the biomedical research enterprise (1) has contributed to health disparities and (2) can contribute to the solving this problem. Based on our own scientific expertise, we use neuroscience in general and mental health/addiction disorders more specifically as examples of a broader issue. The NIH, including its neuroscience-focused Institutes, and NIH-funded scientists, including neuroscientists, should prioritize research topics that reflect the health conditions that affect all Americans, not just white Americans.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1319-21.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Post-Translational Regulation of Pain-Related
           Acid-Sensing Ion Channels 1b and 3

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      Authors: Verkest, C; Diochot, S, Lingueglia, E, Baron, A.
      Pages: 8673 - 8685
      Abstract: Neuronal proton-gated acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) participate in the detection of tissue acidosis, a phenomenon often encountered in painful pathologic diseases. Such conditions often involve in parallel the activation of various signaling pathways such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that ultimately leads to phenotype modifications of sensory neurons. Here, we identify one member of the MAPKs, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), as a new post-translational positive regulator of ASICs in rodent sensory neurons. Recombinant H+-induced ASIC currents in HEK293 cells are potently inhibited within minutes by the JNK inhibitor SP600125 in a subunit-dependent manner, targeting both rodent and human ASIC1b and ASIC3 subunits (except mouse ASIC3). The regulation by JNK of recombinant ASIC1b- and ASIC3-containing channels (homomers and heteromers) is lost on mutation of a putative phosphorylation site within the intracellular N- and the C-terminal domain of the ASIC1b and ASIC3 subunit, respectively. Moreover, short-term JNK activation regulates the activity of native ASIC1b- and ASIC3-containing channels in rodent sensory neurons and is involved in the rapid potentiation of ASIC activity by the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. Local JNK activation in vivo in mice induces a short-term potentiation of the acid-induced cutaneous pain in inflammatory conditions that is partially blocked by the ASIC1-specific inhibitor mambalgin-1. Collectively, our data identify pain-related channels as novel physiological JNK substrates in nociceptive neurons and propose JNK-dependent phosphorylation as a fast post-translational mechanism of regulation of sensory-neuron-expressed ASIC1b- and ASIC3-containing channels that may contribute to peripheral sensitization and pain hypersensitivity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT ASICs are a class of excitatory cation channels critical for the detection of tissue acidosis, which is a hallmark of several painful diseases. Previous work in sensory neurons has shown that ASICs containing the ASIC3 or the ASIC1b subunit are important players in different pain models. We combine here functional and pharmacological in vitro and in vivo approaches to demonstrate that the MAP Kinase JNK is a potent post-translational positive regulator, probably via direct phosphorylation, of rodent and human ASIC1b- and ASIC3-containing channels. This JNK-dependent, fast post-translational mechanism of regulation of sensory-neuron-expressed ASICs may contribute to peripheral sensitization and pain hypersensitivity. These data also identify pain-related channels as direct downstream effectors of JNK in nociceptors.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0570-21.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • APOE4 Affects Basal and NMDAR-Mediated Protein Synthesis in Neurons by
           Perturbing Calcium Homeostasis

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      Authors: Ramakrishna, S; Jhaveri, V, Konings, S. C, Nawalpuri, B, Chakraborty, S, Holst, B, Schmid, B, Gouras, G. K, Freude, K. K, Muddashetty, R. S.
      Pages: 8686 - 8709
      Abstract: Apolipoprotein E (APOE), one of the primary lipoproteins in the brain has three isoforms in humans, APOE2, APOE3, and APOE4. APOE4 is the most well-established risk factor increasing the predisposition for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The presence of the APOE4 allele alone is shown to cause synaptic defects in neurons and recent studies have identified multiple pathways directly influenced by APOE4. However, the mechanisms underlying APOE4-induced synaptic dysfunction remain elusive. Here, we report that the acute exposure of primary cortical neurons or synaptoneurosomes to APOE4 leads to a significant decrease in global protein synthesis. Primary cortical neurons were derived from male and female embryos of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats or C57BL/6J mice. Synaptoneurosomes were prepared from P30 male SD rats. APOE4 treatment also abrogates the NMDA-mediated translation response indicating an alteration of synaptic signaling. Importantly, we demonstrate that both APOE3 and APOE4 generate a distinct translation response which is closely linked to their respective calcium signature. Acute exposure of neurons to APOE3 causes a short burst of calcium through NMDA receptors (NMDARs) leading to an initial decrease in protein synthesis which quickly recovers. Contrarily, APOE4 leads to a sustained increase in calcium levels by activating both NMDARs and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs), thereby causing sustained translation inhibition through eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation, which in turn disrupts the NMDAR response. Thus, we show that APOE4 affects basal and activity-mediated protein synthesis responses in neurons by affecting calcium homeostasis.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Defective protein synthesis has been shown as an early defect in familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, this has not been studied in the context of sporadic AD, which constitutes the majority of cases. In our study, we show that Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4), the predominant risk factor for AD, inhibits global protein synthesis in neurons. APOE4 also affects NMDA activity-mediated protein synthesis response, thus inhibiting synaptic translation. We also show that the defective protein synthesis mediated by APOE4 is closely linked to the perturbation of calcium homeostasis caused by APOE4 in neurons. Thus, we propose the dysregulation of protein synthesis as one of the possible molecular mechanisms to explain APOE4-mediated synaptic and cognitive defects. Hence, the study not only suggests an explanation for the APOE4-mediated predisposition to AD, it also bridges the gap in understanding APOE4-mediated pathology.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0435-21.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Metabolic Control of Sensory Neuron Survival by the p75 Neurotrophin
           Receptor in Schwann Cells

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      Authors: Follis, R. M; Tep, C, Genaro-Mattos, T. C, Kim, M. L, Ryu, J. C, Morrison, V. E, Chan, J. R, Porter, N, Carter, B. D, Yoon, S. O.
      Pages: 8710 - 8724
      Abstract: We report that the neurotrophin receptor p75 contributes to sensory neuron survival through the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in Schwann cells. Selective deletion of p75 in mouse Schwann cells of either sex resulted in a 30% loss of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and diminished thermal sensitivity. P75 regulates Schwann cell cholesterol biosynthesis in response to BDNF, forming a co-receptor complex with ErbB2 and activating ErbB2-mediated stimulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2), a master regulator of cholesterol synthesis. Schwann cells lacking p75 exhibited decreased activation of SREBP2 and a reduction in 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase (DHCR7) expression, resulting in accumulation of the neurotoxic intermediate, 7-dehyrocholesterol in the sciatic nerve. Restoration of DHCR7 in p75 null Schwann cells in mice significantly attenuated DRG neuron loss. Together, these results reveal a mechanism by which the disruption of lipid metabolism in glial cells negatively influences sensory neuron survival, which has implications for a wide range of peripheral neuropathies.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although expressed in Schwann cells, the role of p75 in myelination has remained unresolved in part because of its dual expression in sensory neurons that Schwann cells myelinate. When p75 was deleted selectively among Schwann cells, myelination was minimally affected, while sensory neuron survival was reduced by 30%. The phenotype is mainly due to dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis in p75-deficient Schwann cells, leading to an accumulation of neurotoxic cholesterol precursor, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). Mechanism-wise, we discovered that in response to BDNF, p75 recruits and activates ErbB2 independently of ErbB3, thereby stimulating the master regulator, sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2). These results together highlight a novel role of p75 in Schwann cells in regulating DRG neuron survival by orchestrating proper cholesterol metabolism.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3243-20.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • The Role of Galanin in Cerebellar Granule Cell Migration in the Early
           Postnatal Mouse during Normal Development and after Injury

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      Authors: Komuro, Y; Galas, L, Morozov, Y. M, Fahrion, J. K, Raoult, E, Lebon, A, Tilot, A. K, Kikuchi, S, Ohno, N, Vaudry, D, Rakic, P, Komuro, H.
      Pages: 8725 - 8741
      Abstract: Galanin, one of the most inducible neuropeptides, is widely present in developing brains, and its expression is altered by pathologic events (e.g., epilepsy, ischemia, and axotomy). The roles of galanin in brain development under both normal and pathologic conditions have been hypothesized, but the question of how galanin is involved in fetal and early postnatal brain development remains largely unanswered. In this study, using granule cell migration in the cerebellum of early postnatal mice (both sexes) as a model system, we examined the role of galanin in neuronal cell migration during normal development and after brain injury. Here we show that, during normal development, endogenous galanin participates in accelerating granule cell migration via altering the Ca2+ and cAMP signaling pathways. Upon brain injury induced by the application of cold insults, galanin levels decrease at the lesion sites, but increase in the surroundings of lesion sites. Granule cells exhibit the following corresponding changes in migration: (1) slowing down migration at the lesion sites; and (2) accelerating migration in the surroundings of lesion sites. Experimental manipulations of galanin signaling reduce the lesion site-specific changes in granule cell migration, indicating that galanin plays a role in such deficits in neuronal cell migration. The present study suggests that manipulating galanin signaling may be a potential therapeutic target for acutely injured brains during development.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Deficits in neuronal cell migration caused by brain injury result in abnormal development of cortical layers, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. Here, we report that on brain injury, endogenous levels of galanin, a neuropeptide, are altered in a lesion site-specific manner, decreasing at the lesion sites but increasing in the surroundings of lesion sites. The changes in galanin levels positively correlate with the migration rate of immature neurons. Manipulations of galanin signaling ameliorate the effects of injury on neuronal migration and cortical layer development. These results shed a light on galanin as a potential therapeutic target for acutely injured brains during development.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0900-15.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Developmental Effects of Oxytocin Neurons on Social Affiliation and
           Processing of Social Information

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      Authors: Nunes, A. R; Gliksberg, M, Varela, S. A. M, Teles, M, Wircer, E, Blechman, J, Petri, G, Levkowitz, G, Oliveira, R. F.
      Pages: 8742 - 8760
      Abstract: Hormones regulate behavior either through activational effects that facilitate the acute expression of specific behaviors or through organizational effects that shape the development of the nervous system thereby altering adult behavior. Much research has implicated the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in acute modulation of various aspects of social behaviors across vertebrate species, and OXT signaling is associated with the developmental social deficits observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, little is known about the role of OXT in the neurodevelopment of the social brain. We show that perturbation of OXT neurons during early zebrafish development led to a loss of dopaminergic neurons, associated with visual processing and reward, and blunted the neuronal response to social stimuli in the adult brain. Ultimately, adult fish whose OXT neurons were ablated in early life, displayed altered functional connectivity within social decision-making brain nuclei both in naive state and in response to social stimulus and became less social. We propose that OXT neurons have an organizational role, namely, to shape forebrain neuroarchitecture during development and to acquire an affiliative response toward conspecifics.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Social behavior is developed over the lifetime of an organism and the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) modulates social behaviors across vertebrate species, and is associated with neuro-developmental social deficits such as autism. However, whether OXT plays a role in the developmental maturation of neural systems that are necessary for social behavior remains poorly explored. We show that proper behavioral and neural response to social stimuli depends on a developmental process orchestrated by OXT neurons. Animals whose OXT system is ablated in early life show blunted neuronal and behavioral responses to social stimuli as well as wide ranging disruptions in the functional connectivity of the social brain. We provide a window into the mechanisms underlying OXT-dependent developmental processes that implement adult sociality.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2939-20.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Reliable Sensory Processing in Mouse Visual Cortex through Cooperative
           Interactions between Somatostatin and Parvalbumin Interneurons

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      Authors: Rikhye, R. V; Yildirim, M, Hu, M, Breton-Provencher, V, Sur, M.
      Pages: 8761 - 8778
      Abstract: Intrinsic neuronal variability significantly limits information encoding in the primary visual cortex (V1). However, under certain conditions, neurons can respond reliably with highly precise responses to the same visual stimuli from trial to trial. This suggests that there exists intrinsic neural circuit mechanisms that dynamically modulate the intertrial variability of visual cortical neurons. Here, we sought to elucidate the role of different inhibitory interneurons (INs) in reliable coding in mouse V1. To study the interactions between somatostatin-expressing interneurons (SST-INs) and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV-INs), we used a dual-color calcium imaging technique that allowed us to simultaneously monitor these two neural ensembles while awake mice, of both sexes, passively viewed natural movies. SST neurons were more active during epochs of reliable pyramidal neuron firing, whereas PV neurons were more active during epochs of unreliable firing. SST neuron activity lagged that of PV neurons, consistent with a feedback inhibitory SST->PV circuit. To dissect the role of this circuit in pyramidal neuron activity, we used temporally limited optogenetic activation and inactivation of SST and PV interneurons during periods of reliable and unreliable pyramidal cell firing. Transient firing of SST neurons increased pyramidal neuron reliability by actively suppressing PV neurons, a proposal that was supported by a rate-based model of V1 neurons. These results identify a cooperative functional role for the SST->PV circuit in modulating the reliability of pyramidal neuron activity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cortical neurons often respond to identical sensory stimuli with large variability. However, under certain conditions, the same neurons can also respond highly reliably. The circuit mechanisms that contribute to this modulation remain unknown. Here, we used novel dual-wavelength calcium imaging and temporally selective optical perturbation to identify an inhibitory neural circuit in visual cortex that can modulate the reliability of pyramidal neurons to naturalistic visual stimuli. Our results, supported by computational models, suggest that somatostatin interneurons increase pyramidal neuron reliability by suppressing parvalbumin interneurons via the inhibitory SST->PV circuit. These findings reveal a novel role of the SST->PV circuit in modulating the fidelity of neural coding critical for visual perception.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3176-20.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Differential Effects of Cerebellar Degeneration on Feedforward versus
           Feedback Control across Speech and Reaching Movements

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      Authors: Parrell, B; Kim, H. E, Breska, A, Saxena, A, Ivry, R.
      Pages: 8779 - 8789
      Abstract: Errors that result from a mismatch between predicted movement outcomes and sensory afference are used to correct ongoing movements through feedback control and to adapt feedforward control of future movements. The cerebellum has been identified as a critical part of the neural circuit underlying implicit adaptation across a wide variety of movements (reaching, gait, eye movements, and speech). The contribution of this structure to feedback control is less well understood. Although it has recently been shown in the speech domain that individuals with cerebellar degeneration produce larger online corrections for sensory perturbations than control participants, similar behavior has not been observed in other motor domains. Currently, comparisons across domains are limited by different population samples and potential ceiling effects in existing tasks. To assess the relationship between changes in feedforward and feedback control associated with cerebellar degeneration across motor domains, we evaluated adaptive (feedforward) and compensatory (feedback) responses to sensory perturbations in reaching and speech production in human participants of both sexes with cerebellar degeneration and neurobiologically healthy controls. As expected, the cerebellar group demonstrated impaired adaptation in both reaching and speech. In contrast, the groups did not differ in their compensatory response in either domain. Moreover, compensatory and adaptive responses in the cerebellar group were not correlated within or across motor domains. These results point to a general impairment in feedforward control with spared feedback control in cerebellar degeneration. However, the magnitude of feedforward impairments and potential changes in feedback-based control manifest in a domain-specific manner across individuals.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cerebellum contributes to feedforward updating of movement in response to sensory errors, but its role in feedback control is less understood. Here, we tested individuals with cerebellar degeneration (CD), using sensory perturbations to assess adaptation of feedforward control and feedback gains during reaching and speech production tasks. The results confirmed that CD leads to reduced adaption in both domains. However, feedback gains were unaffected by CD in either domain. Interestingly, measures of feedforward and feedback control were not correlated across individuals within or across motor domains. Together, these results indicate a general impairment in feedforward control with spared feedback control in CD. However, the magnitude of feedforward impairments manifests in a domain-specific manner across individuals.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0739-21.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Posterodorsal Medial Amygdala Regulation of Female Social Behavior: GABA
           versus Glutamate Projections

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      Authors: Johnson, C. S; Hong, W, Micevych, P. E.
      Pages: 8790 - 8800
      Abstract: Social behaviors, including reproductive behaviors, often display sexual dimorphism. Lordosis, the measure of female sexual receptivity, is one of the most apparent sexually dimorphic reproductive behaviors. Lordosis is regulated by estrogen and progesterone (P4) acting within a hypothalamic-limbic circuit, consisting of the arcuate, medial preoptic, and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. Social cues are integrated into the circuit through the amygdala. The posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MeApd) is involved in sexually dimorphic social and reproductive behaviors, and sends projections to hypothalamic neuroendocrine regions. GABA from the MeApd appears to facilitate social behaviors, while glutamate may play the opposite role. To test these hypotheses, adult female vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-Cre and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2)-Cre mice were transfected with halorhodopsin (eNpHR)-expressing or channelrhodopsin-expressing adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), respectively, in the MeApd. The lordosis quotient (LQ) was measured following either photoinhibition of VGAT or photoexcitation of VGluT2 neurons, and brains were assessed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry (IHC). Photoinhibition of VGAT neurons in the MeApd decreased LQ, and decreased c-Fos expression within VGAT neurons, within the MeApd as a whole, and within the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial nucleus (VMHvl). Photoexcitation of VGluT2 neurons did not affect LQ, but did increase time spent self-grooming, and increased c-Fos expression within VGluT2 neurons in the MeApd. Neither condition altered c-Fos expression in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) or the arcuate nucleus (ARH). These data support a role for MeApd GABA in the facilitation of lordosis. Glutamate from the MeApd does not appear to be directly involved in the lordosis circuit, but appears to direct behavior away from social interactions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Lordosis, the measure of female sexual receptivity, is a sexually dimorphic behavior regulated within a hypothalamic-limbic circuit. Social cues are integrated through the amygdala, and the posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MeApd) is involved in sexually dimorphic social and reproductive behaviors. Photoinhibition of GABAergic neurons in the MeApd inhibited lordosis, while photoactivation of glutamate neurons had no effect on lordosis, but increased self-grooming. These data support a role for MeApd GABA in the facilitation of social behaviors and MeApd glutamate projections in anti-social interactions.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1103-21.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Excessive Laughter-like Vocalizations, Microcephaly, and Translational
           Outcomes in the Ube3a Deletion Rat Model of Angelman Syndrome

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      Authors: Berg, E. L; Jami, S. A, Petkova, S. P, Berz, A, Fenton, T. A, Lerch, J. P, Segal, D. J, Gray, J. A, Ellegood, J, Wöhr, M, Silverman, J. L.
      Pages: 8801 - 8814
      Abstract: Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disabilities, motor and balance deficits, impaired communication, and a happy, excitable demeanor with frequent laughter. We sought to elucidate a preclinical outcome measure in male and female rats that addressed communication abnormalities of AS and other neurodevelopmental disorders in which communication is atypical and/or lack of speech is a core feature. We discovered, and herein report for the first time, excessive laughter-like 50 kHz ultrasonic emissions in the Ube3amat–/pat+ rat model of AS, which suggests an excitable, playful demeanor and elevated positive affect, similar to the demeanor of individuals with AS. Also in line with the AS phenotype, Ube3amat–/pat+ rats demonstrated aberrant social interactions with a novel partner, distinctive gait abnormalities, impaired cognition, an underlying LTP deficit, and profound reductions in brain volume. These unique, robust phenotypes provide advantages compared with currently available mouse models and will be highly valuable as outcome measures in the evaluation of therapies for AS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurogenetic disorder for which there is no cure, despite decades of research using mouse models. This study used a recently developed rat model of AS to delineate disease-relevant outcome measures to facilitate therapeutic development. We found the rat to be a strong model of AS, offering several advantages over mouse models by exhibiting numerous AS-relevant phenotypes, including overabundant laughter-like vocalizations, reduced hippocampal LTP, and volumetric anomalies across the brain. These findings are unconfounded by detrimental motor abilities and background strain, issues plaguing mouse models. This rat model represents an important advancement in the field of AS, and the outcome metrics reported herein will be central to the therapeutic pipeline.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0925-21.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Cognitive Control Promotes Either Honesty or Dishonesty, Depending on
           One's Moral Default

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      Authors: Speer, S. P; Smidts, A, Boksem, M. A. S.
      Pages: 8815 - 8825
      Abstract: Cognitive control is crucially involved in making (dis)honest decisions. However, the precise nature of this role has been hotly debated. Is honesty an intuitive response, or is will power needed to override an intuitive inclination to cheat' A reconciliation of these conflicting views proposes that cognitive control enables dishonest participants to be honest, whereas it allows those who are generally honest to cheat. Thus, cognitive control does not promote (dis)honesty per se; it depends on one's moral default. In the present study, we tested this proposal using electroencephalograms in humans (males and females) in combination with an independent localizer (Stroop task) to mitigate the problem of reverse inference. Our analysis revealed that the neural signature evoked by cognitive control demands in the Stroop task can be used to estimate (dis)honest choices in an independent cheating task, providing converging evidence that cognitive control can indeed help honest participants to cheat, whereas it facilitates honesty for cheaters.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dishonesty causes enormous economic losses. To target dishonesty with interventions, a rigorous understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms is required. A recent study found that cognitive control enables honest participants to cheat, whereas it helps cheaters to be honest. However, it is evident that a single study does not suffice as support for a novel hypothesis. Therefore, we tested the replicability of this finding using a different modality (EEG instead of fMRI) together with an independent localizer task to avoid reverse inference. We find that the same neural signature evoked by cognitive control demands in the localizer task can be used to estimate (dis)honesty in an independent cheating task, establishing converging evidence that the effect of cognitive control indeed depends on a person's moral default.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0666-21.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Common and Unique Inhibitory Control Signatures of Action-Stopping and
           Attentional Capture Suggest That Actions Are Stopped in Two Stages

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      Authors: Tatz, J. R; Soh, C, Wessel, J. R.
      Pages: 8826 - 8838
      Abstract: The ability to stop an already initiated action is paramount to adaptive behavior. Much scientific debate in the field of human action-stopping currently focuses on two interrelated questions. (1) Which cognitive and neural processes uniquely underpin the implementation of inhibitory control when actions are stopped after explicit stop signals, and which processes are instead commonly evoked by all salient signals, even those that do not require stopping' (2) Why do purported (neuro)physiological signatures of inhibition occur at two different latencies after stop signals' Here, we address both questions via two preregistered experiments that combined measurements of corticospinal excitability, EMG, and whole-scalp EEG. Adult human subjects performed a stop signal task that also contained "ignore" signals: equally salient signals that did not require stopping but rather completion of the Go response. We found that both stop- and ignore signals produced equal amounts of early-latency inhibition of corticospinal excitability and EMG, which took place ~150 ms following either signal. Multivariate pattern analysis of the whole-scalp EEG data further corroborated that this early processing stage was shared between stop- and ignore signals, as neural activity following the two signals could not be decoded from each other until a later time period. In this later period, unique activity related to stop signals emerged at frontocentral scalp sites, reflecting an increased stop signal P3. These findings suggest a two-step model of action-stopping, according to which an initial, universal inhibitory response to the saliency of the stop signal is followed by a slower process that is unique to outright stopping.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans often have to stop their ongoing actions when indicated by environmental stimuli (stop signals). Successful action-stopping requires both the ability to detect these salient stop signals and to subsequently inhibit ongoing motor programs. Because of this tight entanglement of attentional control and motor inhibition, identifying unique neurophysiological signatures of action-stopping is difficult. Indeed, we report that recently proposed early-latency signatures of motor inhibition during action-stopping are also found after salient signals that do not require stopping. However, using multivariate pattern analysis of scalp-recorded neural data, we also identified subsequent neural activity that uniquely distinguished action-stopping from saliency detection. These results suggest that actions are stopped in two stages: the first common to all salient events and the second unique to action-stopping.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1105-21.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Hippocampal Connectivity with Retrosplenial Cortex is Linked to
           Neocortical Tau Accumulation and Memory Function

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      Authors: Ziontz, J; Adams, J. N, Harrison, T. M, Baker, S. L, Jagust, W. J.
      Pages: 8839 - 8847
      Abstract: The mechanisms underlying accumulation of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related tau pathology outside of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in older adults are unknown but crucial to understanding cognitive decline. A growing body of evidence from human and animal studies strongly implicates neural connectivity in the propagation of tau in humans, but the pathways of neocortical tau spread and its consequences for cognitive function are not well understood. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and tau PET imaging from a sample of 97 male and female cognitively normal older adults, we examined MTL structures involved in medial parietal tau accumulation and associations with memory function. Functional connectivity between hippocampus (HC) and retrosplenial cortex (RsC), a key region of the medial parietal lobe, was associated with tau in medial parietal lobe. By contrast, connectivity between entorhinal cortex (EC) and RsC did not correlate with medial parietal lobe tau. Further, greater hippocampal-retrosplenial (HC-RsC) connectivity was associated with a stronger correlation between MTL and medial parietal lobe tau. Finally, an interaction between connectivity strength and medial parietal tau was associated with episodic memory performance, particularly in the visuospatial domain. This pattern of tau accumulation thus appears to reflect pathways of neural connectivity, and propagation of tau from EC to medial parietal lobe via the HC may represent a critical process in the evolution of cognitive dysfunction in aging and AD.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The accumulation of tau pathology in the neocortex is a fundamental process underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we use functional connectivity in cognitively normal older adults to track the accumulation of tau in the medial parietal lobe, a key region for memory processing that is affected early in the progression of AD. We show that the strength of connectivity between the hippocampus (HC) and retrosplenial cortex (RsC) is related to medial parietal tau burden, and that these tau and connectivity measures interact to associate with episodic memory performance. These findings establish the HC as the origin of medial parietal tau and implicate tau pathology in this region as a crucial marker of the beginnings of AD.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0990-21.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Chemogenetic Activation of Cortical Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons
           Reverses Noise-Induced Impairments in Gap Detection

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      Authors: Masri, S; Chan, N, Marsh, T, Zinsmaier, A, Schaub, D, Zhang, L, Wang, W, Bao, S.
      Pages: 8848 - 8857
      Abstract: Exposure to loud noises not only leads to trauma and loss of output from the ear but also alters downstream central auditory circuits. A perceptual consequence of noise-induced central auditory disruption is impairment in gap-induced prepulse inhibition, also known as gap detection. Recent studies have implicated cortical parvalbumin (PV)-positive inhibitory interneurons in gap detection and prepulse inhibition. Here, we show that exposure to loud noises specifically reduces the density of cortical PV but not somatostatin (SOM)-positive interneurons in the primary auditory cortex in mice (C57BL/6) of both sexes. Optogenetic activation of PV neurons produced less cortical inhibition in noise-exposed than sham-exposed animals, indicative of reduced PV neuron function. Activation of SOM neurons resulted in similar levels of cortical inhibition in noise- and sham-exposed groups. Furthermore, chemogenetic activation of PV neurons with the hM3-based designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs completely reversed the impairments in gap detection for noise-exposed animals. These results support the notions that cortical PV neurons encode gap in sound and that PV neuron dysfunction contributes to noise-induced impairment in gap detection.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Noise-induced hearing loss contributes to a range of central auditory processing deficits (CAPDs). The mechanisms underlying noise-induced CAPDs are still poorly understood. Here we show that exposure to loud noises results in dysfunction of PV-positive but not somatostatin-positive inhibitory interneurons in the primary auditory cortex. In addition, cortical PV inhibitory neurons in noise-exposed animals had reduced expression of glutamic acid decarboxylases and weakened inhibition on cortical activity. Noise exposure resulted in impaired gap detection, indicative of disrupted temporal sound processing and possibly tinnitus. We found that chemogenetic activation of cortical PV inhibitory interneurons alleviated the deficits in gap detection. These results implicate PV neuron dysfunction as a mechanism for noise-induced CAPDs.
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T09:30:21-07:00
      DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2687-19.2021
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 42 (2021)
       
 
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