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Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.388
Citation Impact (citeScore): 6
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1420-682X - ISSN (Online) 1420-9071
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2658 journals]
  • The impact of obesity on adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicles

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      Abstract: Abstract Recently, the emerging roles of adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) linking obesity and its comorbidities have been recognized. In obese subjects, adipocytes are having hypertrophic growth and are under stressed. The dysfunction adipocytes dysregulate the assembly of the biological components in the EVs including exosomes. This article critically reviews the current findings on the impact of obesity on the exosomal cargo contents that induce the pathophysiological changes. Besides, this review also summarizes the understanding on how obesity affects the biogenesis of adipocyte-derived exosomes and the exosome secretion. Furthermore, the differences of the exosomal contents in different adipose depots, and the impact of obesity on the exosomes that are derived from the stromal vascular fraction such as the adipose tissue macrophages and adipocyte-derived stem cells will also be discussed. The current development and potential application of exosome-based therapy will be summarized. This review provides crucial information for the design of novel exosome-based therapy for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities.
      PubDate: 2021-10-22
       
  • The influenza virus RNA polymerase as an innate immune agonist and
           antagonist

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      Abstract: Abstract Influenza A viruses cause a mild-to-severe respiratory disease that affects millions of people each year. One of the many determinants of disease outcome is the innate immune response to the viral infection. While antiviral responses are essential for viral clearance, excessive innate immune activation promotes lung damage and disease. The influenza A virus RNA polymerase is one of viral proteins that affect innate immune activation during infection, but the mechanisms behind this activity are not well understood. In this review, we discuss how the viral RNA polymerase can both activate and suppress innate immune responses by either producing immunostimulatory RNA species or directly targeting the components of the innate immune signalling pathway, respectively. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive overview of the polymerase residues, and their mutations, associated with changes in innate immune activation, and discuss their putative effects on polymerase function based on recent advances in our understanding of the influenza A virus RNA polymerase structure.
      PubDate: 2021-10-22
       
  • The Hsp70–Hsp90 go-between Hop/Stip1/Sti1 is a proteostatic switch and
           may be a drug target in cancer and neurodegeneration

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      Abstract: Abstract The Hsp70 and Hsp90 molecular chaperone systems are critical regulators of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) in eukaryotes under normal and stressed conditions. The Hsp70 and Hsp90 systems physically and functionally interact to ensure cellular proteostasis. Co-chaperones interact with Hsp70 and Hsp90 to regulate and to promote their molecular chaperone functions. Mammalian Hop, also called Stip1, and its budding yeast ortholog Sti1 are eukaryote-specific co-chaperones, which have been thought to be essential for substrate (“client”) transfer from Hsp70 to Hsp90. Substrate transfer is facilitated by the ability of Hop to interact simultaneously with Hsp70 and Hsp90 as part of a ternary complex. Intriguingly, in prokaryotes, which lack a Hop ortholog, the Hsp70 and Hsp90 orthologs interact directly. Recent evidence shows that eukaryotic Hsp70 and Hsp90 can also form a prokaryote-like binary chaperone complex in the absence of Hop, and that this binary complex displays enhanced protein folding and anti-aggregation activities. The canonical Hsp70-Hop-Hsp90 ternary chaperone complex is essential for optimal maturation and stability of a small subset of clients, including the glucocorticoid receptor, the tyrosine kinase v-Src, and the 26S/30S proteasome. Whereas many cancers have increased levels of Hop, the levels of Hop decrease in the aging human brain. Since Hop is not essential in all eukaryotic cells and organisms, tuning Hop levels or activity might be beneficial for the treatment of cancer and neurodegeneration.
      PubDate: 2021-10-22
       
  • Developmentally regulated GTPases: structure, function and roles in
           disease

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      Abstract: Abstract GTPases are a large superfamily of evolutionarily conserved proteins involved in a variety of fundamental cellular processes. The developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein (DRG) subfamily of GTPases consists of two highly conserved paralogs, DRG1 and DRG2, both of which have been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, translation and microtubules. Furthermore, DRG1 and 2 proteins both have a conserved binding partner, DRG family regulatory protein 1 and 2 (DFRP1 and DFRP2), respectively, that prevents them from being degraded. Similar to DRGs, the DFRP proteins have also been studied in the context of cell growth control and translation. Despite these proteins having been implicated in several fundamental cellular processes they remain relatively poorly characterized, however. In this review, we provide an overview of the structural biology and biochemistry of DRG GTPases and discuss current understanding of DRGs and DFRPs in normal physiology, as well as their emerging roles in diseases such as cancer.
      PubDate: 2021-10-19
       
  • Extracellular vesicle release and uptake by the liver under normo- and
           hyperlipidemia

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      Abstract: Abstract Liver plays a central role in elimination of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), and it also significantly contributes to EV release. However, the involvement of the different liver cell populations remains unknown. Here, we investigated EV uptake and release both in normolipemia and hyperlipidemia. C57BL/6 mice were kept on high fat diet for 20–30 weeks before circulating EV profiles were determined. In addition, control mice were intravenously injected with 99mTc-HYNIC-Duramycin labeled EVs, and an hour later, biodistribution was analyzed by SPECT/CT. In vitro, isolated liver cell types were tested for EV release and uptake with/without prior fatty acid treatment. We detected an elevated circulating EV number after the high fat diet. To clarify the differential involvement of liver cell types, we carried out in vitro experiments. We found an increased release of EVs by primary hepatocytes at concentrations of fatty acids comparable to what is characteristic for hyperlipidemia. When investigating EV biodistribution with 99mTc-labeled EVs, we detected EV accumulation primarily in the liver upon intravenous injection of mice with medium (326.3 ± 19.8 nm) and small EVs (130.5 ± 5.8 nm). In vitro, we found that medium and small EVs were preferentially taken up by Kupffer cells, and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that in hyperlipidemia, there was a decreased EV uptake both by Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Our data suggest that hyperlipidema increases the release and reduces the uptake of EVs by liver cells. We also provide evidence for a size-dependent differential EV uptake by the different cell types of the liver. The EV radiolabeling protocol using 99mTc-Duramycin may provide a fast and simple labeling approach for SPECT/CT imaging of EVs biodistribution.
      PubDate: 2021-10-19
       
  • The Na+-activated K+ channel Slack contributes to synaptic development and
           plasticity

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      Abstract: Abstract Human mutations of the Na+-activated K+ channel Slack (KCNT1) are associated with epilepsy and intellectual disability. Accordingly, Slack knockout mice (Slack−/−) exhibit cognitive flexibility deficits in distinct behavioral tasks. So far, however, the underlying causes as well as the role of Slack in hippocampus-dependent memory functions remain enigmatic. We now report that infant (P6–P14) Slack−/− lack both hippocampal LTD and LTP, likely due to impaired NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling. Postsynaptic GluN2B levels are reduced in infant Slack−/−, evidenced by lower amplitudes of NMDAR-meditated excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Low GluN2B affected NMDAR-mediated Ca2+-influx, rendering cultured hippocampal Slack−/−neurons highly insensitive to the GluN2B-specific inhibitor Ro 25-6981. Furthermore, dephosphorylation of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluA1 at S845, which is involved in AMPAR endocytosis during homeostatic and neuromodulator-regulated plasticity, is reduced after chemical LTD (cLTD) in infant Slack−/−. We additionally detect a lack of mGluR-induced LTD in infant Slack−/−, possibly caused by upregulation of the recycling endosome-associated small GTPase Rab4 which might accelerate AMPAR recycling from early endosomes. Interestingly, LTP and mGluR LTD, but not LTD and S845 dephosphorylation after cLTD are restored in adult Slack−/−. This together with normalized expression levels of GluN2B and Rab4 hints to developmental “restoration” of LTP expression despite Slack ablation, whereas in infant and adult brain, NMDAR-dependent LTD induction depends on this channel. Based on the present findings, NMDAR and vesicular transport might represent novel targets for the therapy of intellectual disability associated with Slack mutations. Consequently, careful modulation of hippocampal Slack activity should also improve learning abilities.
      PubDate: 2021-10-18
       
  • Kappa but not delta or mu opioid receptors form homodimers at low membrane
           densities

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      Abstract: Abstract Opioid receptors (ORs) have been observed as homo- and heterodimers, but it is unclear if the dimers are stable under physiological conditions, and whether monomers or dimers comprise the predominant fraction in a cell. Here, we use three live-cell imaging approaches to assess dimerization of ORs at expression levels that are 10–100 × smaller than in classical biochemical assays. At membrane densities around 25/µm2, a split-GFP assay reveals that κOR dimerizes, while µOR and δOR stay monomeric. At receptor densities < 5/µm2, single-molecule imaging showed no κOR dimers, supporting the concept that dimer formation depends on receptor membrane density. To directly observe the transition from monomers to dimers, we used a single-molecule assay to assess membrane protein interactions at densities up to 100 × higher than conventional single-molecule imaging. We observe that κOR is monomeric at densities < 10/µm2 and forms dimers at densities that are considered physiological. In contrast, µOR and δOR stay monomeric even at the highest densities covered by our approach. The observation of long-lasting co-localization of red and green κOR spots suggests that it is a specific effect based on OR dimerization and not an artefact of coincidental encounters.
      PubDate: 2021-10-17
       
  • Extracellular vesicle proteomes of two transmissible cancers of Tasmanian
           devils reveal tenascin-C as a serum-based differential diagnostic
           biomarker

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      Abstract: Abstract The iconic Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is endangered due to the transmissible cancer Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), of which there are two genetically independent subtypes (DFT1 and DFT2). While DFT1 and DFT2 can be differentially diagnosed using tumour biopsies, there is an urgent need to develop less-invasive biomarkers that can detect DFTD and distinguish between subtypes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), the nano-sized membrane-enclosed vesicles present in most biofluids, represent a valuable resource for biomarker discovery. Here, we characterized the proteome of EVs from cultured DFTD cells using data-independent acquisition–mass spectrometry and an in-house spectral library of > 1500 proteins. EVs from both DFT1 and DFT2 cell lines expressed higher levels of proteins associated with focal adhesion functions. Furthermore, hallmark proteins of epithelial–mesenchymal transition were enriched in DFT2 EVs relative to DFT1 EVs. These findings were validated in EVs derived from serum samples, revealing that the mesenchymal marker tenascin-C was also enriched in EVs derived from the serum of devils infected with DFT2 relative to those infected with DFT1 and healthy controls. This first EV-based investigation of DFTD increases our understanding of the cancers’ EVs and their possible involvement in DFTD progression, such as metastasis. Finally, we demonstrated the potential of EVs to differentiate between DFT1 and DFT2, highlighting their potential use as less-invasive liquid biopsies for the Tasmanian devil.
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
       
  • Structure–function relationships explain CTCF zinc finger mutation
           phenotypes in cancer

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      Abstract: Abstract CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) plays fundamental roles in transcriptional regulation and chromatin architecture maintenance. CTCF is also a tumour suppressor frequently mutated in cancer, however, the structural and functional impact of mutations have not been examined. We performed molecular and structural characterisation of five cancer-specific CTCF missense zinc finger (ZF) mutations occurring within key intra- and inter-ZF residues. Functional characterisation of CTCF ZF mutations revealed a complete (L309P, R339W, R377H) or intermediate (R339Q) abrogation as well as an enhancement (G420D) of the anti-proliferative effects of CTCF. DNA binding at select sites was disrupted and transcriptional regulatory activities abrogated. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics confirmed that mutations in residues specifically contacting DNA bases or backbone exhibited loss of DNA binding. However, R339Q and G420D were stabilised by the formation of new primary DNA bonds, contributing to gain-of-function. Our data confirm that a spectrum of loss-, change- and gain-of-function impacts on CTCF zinc fingers are observed in cell growth regulation and gene regulatory activities. Hence, diverse cellular phenotypes of mutant CTCF are clearly explained by examining structure–function relationships.
      PubDate: 2021-10-16
       
  • RIPK3 signaling and its role in the pathogenesis of cancers

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      Abstract: Abstract RIPK3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3) is a serine/threonine-protein kinase. As a key component of necrosomes, RIPK3 is an essential mediator of inflammatory factors (such as TNFα-tumor necrosis factor α) and infection-induced necroptosis, a programmed necrosis. In addition, RIPK3 signaling is also involved in the regulation of apoptosis, cytokine/chemokine production, mitochondrial metabolism, autophagy, and cell proliferation by interacting with and/or phosphorylating the critical regulators of the corresponding signaling pathways. Similar to apoptosis, RIPK3-signaling-mediated necroptosis is inactivated in most types of cancers, suggesting RIPK3 might play a critical suppressive role in the pathogenesis of cancers. However, in some inflammatory types of cancers, such as pancreatic cancers and colorectal cancers, RIPK3 signaling might promote cancer development by stimulating proliferation signaling in tumor cells and inducing an immunosuppressive response in the tumor environment. In this review, we summarize recent research progress in the regulators of RIPK3 signaling, and discuss the function of this pathway in the regulation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL)-mediated necroptosis and MLKL-independent cellular behaviors. In addition, we deliberate the potential roles of RIPK3 signaling in the pathogenesis of different types of cancers and discuss the potential strategies for targeting this pathway in cancer therapy.
      PubDate: 2021-10-15
       
  • Amyloid β structural polymorphism, associated toxicity and
           therapeutic strategies

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      Abstract: Abstract A review of the multidisciplinary scientific literature reveals a large variety of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomeric species, differing in molecular weight, conformation and morphology. These species, which may assemble via either on‐ or off-aggregation pathways, exhibit differences in stability, function and neurotoxicity, according to different experimental settings. The conformations of the different Aβ species are stabilized by intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds and by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, all depending on the chemical and physical environment (e.g., solvent, ions, pH) and interactions with other molecules, such as lipids and proteins. This complexity and the lack of a complete understanding of the relationship between the different Aβ species and their toxicity is currently dictating the nature of the inhibitor (or inducer)-based approaches that are under development for interfering with (or inducing) the formation of specific species and Aβ oligomerization, and for interfering with the associated downstream neurotoxic effects. Here, we review the principles that underlie the involvement of different Aβ oligomeric species in neurodegeneration, both in vitro and in preclinical studies. In addition, we provide an overview of the existing inhibitors (or inducers) of Aβ oligomerization that serve as potential therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases. The review, which covers the exciting studies that have been published in the past few years, comprises three main parts: 1) on- and off‐fibrillar assembly mechanisms and Aβ structural polymorphism; 2) interactions of Aβ with other molecules and cell components that dictate the Aβ aggregation pathway; and 3) targeting the on‐fibrillar Aβ assembly pathway as a therapeutic approach.
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
       
  • OncomiRs miR-106a and miR-17 negatively regulate the nucleoside-derived
           drug transporter hCNT1

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      Abstract: High-affinity uptake of natural nucleosides as well as nucleoside derivatives used in anticancer therapies is mediated by human concentrative nucleoside transporters (hCNTs). hCNT1, the hCNT family member that specifically transports pyrimidines, is also a transceptor involved in tumor progression. In particular, oncogenesis appears to be associated with hCNT1 downregulation in some cancers, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we sought to address changes in colorectal and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma—both of which are important digestive cancers—in the context of treatment with fluoropyrimidine derivatives. An analysis of cancer samples and matching non-tumoral adjacent tissues revealed downregulation of hCNT1 protein in both types of tumor. Further exploration of the putative regulation of hCNT1 by microRNAs (miRNAs), which are highly deregulated in these cancers, revealed a direct relationship between the oncomiRs miR-106a and miR-17 and the loss of hCNT1. Collectively, our findings provide the first demonstration that hCNT1 inhibition by these oncomiRs could contribute to chemoresistance to fluoropyrimidine-based treatments in colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2021-10-13
       
  • Genome-wide mRNA profiling identifies X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) as an
           IRE1 and PUMA repressor

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      Abstract: Abstract Accumulation of misfolded proteins in ER activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a multifunctional signaling pathway that is important for cell survival. The UPR is regulated by three ER transmembrane sensors, one of which is inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1). IRE1 activates a transcription factor, X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), by removing a 26-base intron from XBP1 mRNA that generates spliced XBP1 mRNA (XBP1s). To search for XBP1 transcriptional targets, we utilized an XBP1s-inducible human cell line to limit XBP1 expression in a controlled manner. We also verified the identified XBP1-dependent genes with specific silencing of this transcription factor during pharmacological ER stress induction with both an N-linked glycosylation inhibitor (tunicamycin) and a non-competitive inhibitor of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) (thapsigargin). We then compared those results to the XBP1s-induced cell line without pharmacological ER stress induction. Using next‐generation sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis of XBP1-binding motifs, we defined an XBP1 regulatory network and identified XBP1 as a repressor of PUMA (a proapoptotic gene) and IRE1 mRNA expression during the UPR. Our results indicate impairing IRE1 activity during ER stress conditions accelerates cell death in ER-stressed cells, whereas elevating XBP1 expression during ER stress using an inducible cell line correlated with a clear prosurvival effect and reduced PUMA protein expression. Although further studies will be required to test the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the relationship between these genes with XBP1, these studies identify a novel repressive role of XBP1 during the UPR.
      PubDate: 2021-10-12
       
  • X-linked histone H3K27 demethylase Kdm6a regulates sexually dimorphic
           differentiation of hypothalamic neurons

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      Abstract: Abstract Several X-linked genes are involved in neuronal differentiation and may contribute to the generation of sex dimorphisms in the brain. Previous results showed that XX hypothalamic neurons grow faster, have longer axons, and exhibit higher expression of the neuritogenic gene neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) than XY before perinatal masculinization. Here we evaluated the participation of candidate X-linked genes in the development of these sex differences, focusing mainly on Kdm6a, a gene encoding for an H3K27 demethylase with functions controlling gene expression genome-wide. We established hypothalamic neuronal cultures from wild-type or transgenic Four Core Genotypes mice, a model that allows evaluating the effect of sex chromosomes independently of gonadal type. X-linked genes Kdm6a, Eif2s3x and Ddx3x showed higher expression in XX compared to XY neurons, regardless of gonadal sex. Moreover, Kdm6a expression pattern with higher mRNA levels in XX than XY did not change with age at E14, P0, and P60 in hypothalamus or under 17β-estradiol treatment in culture. Kdm6a pharmacological blockade by GSK-J4 reduced axonal length only in female neurons and decreased the expression of neuritogenic genes Neurod1, Neurod2 and Cdk5r1 in both sexes equally, while a sex-specific effect was observed in Ngn3. Finally, Kdm6a downregulation using siRNA reduced axonal length and Ngn3 expression only in female neurons, abolishing the sex differences observed in control conditions. Altogether, these results point to Kdm6a as a key mediator of the higher axogenesis and Ngn3 expression observed in XX neurons before the critical period of brain masculinization.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
       
  • Beyond immunosuppressive effects: dual roles of myeloid-derived suppressor
           cells in bone-related diseases

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      Abstract: Abstract Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells (IMCs) with immunosuppressive functions, whereas IMCs originally differentiate into granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) to participate in innate immunity under steady-state conditions. At present, difficulties remain in identifying MDSCs due to lacking of specific biomarkers. To make identification of MDSCs accurately, it also needs to be determined whether having immunosuppressive functions. MDSCs play crucial roles in anti-tumor, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Meanwhile, MDSCs could make close interaction with osteoclasts, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and other stromal cells within microenvironment of bone and joint, and thereby contributing to poor prognosis of bone-related diseases such as cancer-related bone metastasis, osteosarcoma (OS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), and orthopedic trauma. In addition, MDSCs have been shown to participate in the procedure of bone repair. In this review, we have summarized the function of MDSCs in cancer-related bone metastasis, the interaction with stromal cells within the bone microenvironment as well as joint microenvironment, and the critical role of MDSCs in bone repair. Besides, the promising value of MDSCs in the treatment for bone-related diseases is also well discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
       
  • The multifunctional RNA-binding protein Staufen1: an emerging regulator of
           oncogenesis through its various roles in key cellular events

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      Abstract: Abstract The double-stranded multifunctional RNA-binding protein (dsRBP) Staufen was initially discovered in insects as a regulator of mRNA localization. Later, its mammalian orthologs have been described in different organisms, including humans. Two human orthologues of Staufen, named Staufen1 (STAU1) and Staufen2 (STAU2), share some structural and functional similarities. However, given their different spatio-temporal expression patterns, each of these orthologues plays distinct roles in cells. In the current review, we focus on the role of STAU1 in cell functions and cancer development. Since its discovery, STAU1 has mostly been studied for its involvement in various aspects of RNA metabolism. Given the pivotal role of RNA metabolism within cells, recent studies have explored the mechanistic impact of STAU1 in a wide variety of cell functions ranging from cell growth to cell death, as well as in various disease states. In particular, there has been increasing attention on the role of STAU1 in neuromuscular disorders, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the role of STAU1 in RNA metabolism and cell functions. We also highlight the link between STAU1-mediated control of cellular functions and cancer development, progression, and treatment. Hence, our review emphasizes the potential of STAU1 as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for cancer diagnosis and treatment, respectively.
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
       
  • The molecular identity of the TLQP-21 peptide receptor

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      Abstract: Abstract The TLQP-21 neuropeptide has been implicated in functions as diverse as lipolysis, neurodegeneration and metabolism, thus suggesting an important role in several human diseases. Three binding targets have been proposed for TLQP-21: C3aR1, gC1qR and HSPA8. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the molecular identity of the TLQP-21 receptor and the proposed multi-receptor mechanism of action. Several studies confirm a critical role for C3aR1 in TLQP-21 biological activity and a largely conserved mode of binding, receptor activation and signaling with C3a, its first-identified endogenous ligand. Conversely, data supporting a role of gC1qR and HSPA8 in TLQP-21 activity remain limited, with no signal transduction pathways being described. Overall, C3aR1 is the only receptor for which a necessary and sufficient role in TLQP-21 activity has been confirmed thus far. This conclusion calls into question the validity of a multi-receptor mechanism of action for TLQP-21 and should inform future studies.
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
       
  • Increased glucosylceramide production leads to decreased cell energy
           metabolism and lowered tumor marker expression in non-cancerous liver
           cells

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      Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most difficult cancer types to treat. Liver cancer is often diagnosed at late stages and therapeutic treatment is frequently accompanied by development of multidrug resistance. This leads to poor outcomes for cancer patients. Understanding the fundamental molecular mechanisms leading to liver cancer development is crucial for developing new therapeutic approaches, which are more efficient in treating cancer. Mice with a liver specific UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG) knockout (KO) show delayed diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver tumor growth. Accordingly, the rationale for our study was to determine whether UGCG overexpression is sufficient to drive cancer phenotypes in liver cells. We investigated the effect of UGCG overexpression (OE) on normal murine liver (NMuLi) cells. Increased UGCG expression results in decreased mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis, which is reversible by treatment with EtDO-P4, an UGCG inhibitor. Furthermore, tumor markers such as FGF21 and EPCAM are lowered following UGCG OE, which could be related to glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and lactosylceramide (LacCer) accumulation in glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (GEMs) and subsequently altered signaling protein phosphorylation. These cellular processes lead to decreased proliferation in NMuLi/UGCG OE cells. Our data show that increased UGCG expression itself does not induce pro-cancerous processes in normal liver cells, which indicates that increased GlcCer expression leads to different outcomes in different cancer types. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2021-10-09
       
  • Recapitulating pancreatic cell–cell interactions through bioengineering
           approaches: the momentous role of non-epithelial cells for diabetes cell
           therapy

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      Abstract: Abstract Over the past few years, extensive efforts have been made to generate in-vitro pancreatic micro-tissue, for disease modeling or cell replacement approaches in pancreatic related diseases such as diabetes mellitus. To obtain these goals, a closer look at the diverse cells participating in pancreatic development is necessary. Five major non-epithelial pancreatic (pN-Epi) cell populations namely, pancreatic endothelium, mesothelium, neural crests, pericytes, and stellate cells exist in pancreas throughout its development, and they are hypothesized to be endogenous inducers of the development. In this review, we discuss different pN-Epi cells migrating to and existing within the pancreas and their diverse effects on pancreatic epithelium during organ development mediated via associated signaling pathways, soluble factors or mechanical cell–cell interactions. In-vivo and in-vitro experiments, with a focus on N-Epi cells’ impact on pancreas endocrine development, have also been considered. Pluripotent stem cell technology and multicellular three-dimensional organoids as new approaches to generate pancreatic micro-tissues have also been discussed. Main challenges for reaching a detailed understanding of the role of pN-Epi cells in pancreas development in utilizing for in-vitro recapitulation have been summarized. Finally, various novel and innovative large-scale bioengineering approaches which may help to recapitulate cell–cell interactions and are crucial for generation of large-scale in-vitro multicellular pancreatic micro-tissues, are discussed.
      PubDate: 2021-10-06
       
  • IFITM1 expression determines extracellular vesicle uptake in colorectal
           cancer

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      Abstract: Abstract The majority of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients carry mutations in the APC gene, which lead to the unregulated activation of the Wnt pathway. Extracellular vesicles (EV) are considered potential therapeutic tools. Although CRC is a genetically heterogeneous disease, the significance of the intra-tumor heterogeneity in EV uptake of CRC cells is not yet known. By using mouse and patient-derived organoids, the currently available best model of capturing cellular heterogeneity, we found that Apc mutation induced the expression of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (Ifitm1), a membrane protein that plays a major role in cellular antiviral responses. Importantly, organoids derived from IFITM1high CRC cells contained more proliferating cells and they had a markedly reduced uptake of fibroblast EVs as compared to IFITM1low/− cells. In contrast, there was no difference in the intensity of EV release between CRC subpopulations with high and low IFITM1 levels. Importantly, the difference in cell proliferation between these two subpopulations disappeared in the presence of fibroblast-derived EVs, proving the functional relevance of the enhanced EV uptake by IFITM1low CRC cells. Furthermore, inactivating IFITM1 resulted in an enhanced EV uptake, highlighting the importance of this molecule in establishing the cellular difference for EV effects. Collectively, we identified CRC cells with functional difference in their EV uptake ability that must be taken into consideration when using EVs as therapeutic tools for targeting cancer cells.
      PubDate: 2021-10-05
       
 
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