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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 6.092
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 1363  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0027-8424 - ISSN (Online) 1091-6490
Published by PNAS Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Retraction for Start et al., Physiology underlies the assembly of
           ecological communities [Retractions]

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      Authors: Shannon McCauley; Benjamin Gilbert
      Abstract: ECOLOGY Retraction for “Physiology underlies the assembly of ecological communities,” by Denon Start, Shannon McCauley, and Benjamin Gilbert, which was first published May 21, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1802091115 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115, 6016–6021). The undersigned authors wish to retract this article and note the following: “This paper tested the relationship...
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T12:53:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2117483118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 43 (2021)
       
  • Mapping the climate risk for European fisheries [Applied Biological
           Sciences]

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      Authors: Malin L. Pinsky
      Abstract: With fires, floods, storms surges, and heatwaves becoming dismayingly common because of climate change, how can societies adapt to these and further changes' In this context, fisheries have emerged as the proverbial canary in the coalmine and an important test case for the rest of society. The reason is, in...
      Keywords: Applied Biological Sciences, Commentaries, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T12:34:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2115997118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 43 (2021)
       
  • A novel class of TMPRSS2 inhibitors potently block SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV
           viral entry and protect human epithelial lung cells [Chemistry]

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      Authors: Matthew Mahoney; Vishnu C. Damalanka, Michael A. Tartell, Dong hee Chung, Andre Luiz Lourenco, Dustin Pwee, Anne E. Mayer Bridwell, Markus Hoffmann, Jorine Voss, Partha Karmakar, Nurit P. Azouz, Andrea M. Klingler, Paul W. Rothlauf, Cassandra E. Thompson, Melody Lee, Lidiȷa Klampfer, Christina L. Stallings, Marc E. Rothenberg, Stefan Pohlmann, Sean P. J. Whelan, Anthony J. O’Donoghue, Charles S. Craik, James W. Janetka
      Abstract: The host cell serine protease TMPRSS2 is an attractive therapeutic target for COVID-19 drug discovery. This protease activates the Spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and of other coronaviruses and is essential for viral spread in the lung. Utilizing rational structure-based drug design (SBDD) coupled to...
      Keywords: Chemistry, Medical Sciences, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108728118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 43 (2021)
       
  • COVID-19 cynomolgus macaque model reflecting human COVID-19 pathological
           conditions [Microbiology]

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      Authors: Emiko Urano; Tomotaka Okamura, Chikako Ono, Shiori Ueno, Satoshi Nagata, Haruhiko Kamada, Mahoko Higuchi, Mugi Furukawa, Wataru Kamitani, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Yasuhiro Yasutomi
      Abstract: The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global threat to human health and life. A useful pathological animal model accurately reflecting human pathology is needed to overcome the COVID-19 crisis. In the present study, COVID-19 cynomolgus monkey models including monkeys with underlying diseases causing severe...
      Keywords: Microbiology, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:01:36-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104847118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 43 (2021)
       
  • Distant residues modulate conformational opening in SARS-CoV-2 spike
           protein [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

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      Authors: Dhiman Ray; Ly Le, Ioan Andricioaei
      Abstract: Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) involves the attachment of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of its spike proteins to the ACE2 receptors on the peripheral membrane of host cells. Binding is initiated by a down-to-up conformational change in the spike protein, the change that presents the RBD...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T12:03:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100943118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 43 (2021)
       
  • Retraction for Cabral et al., A global network of marine protected areas
           for food [Retractions]

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      Abstract: ECOLOGY, SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Retraction for “A global network of marine protected areas for food,” by Reniel B. Cabral, Darcy Bradley, Juan Mayorga, Whitney Goodell, Alan M. Friedlander, Enric Sala, Christopher Costello, and Steven D. Gaines, which was first published October 26, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2000174117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 28134–28139)....
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T12:03:10-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2117750118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 43 (2021)
       
  • Cadmium hijacks the high zinc response by binding and activating the
           HIZR-1 nuclear receptor [Genetics]

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      Authors: Brian J. Earley; Ciro Cubillas, Kurt Warnhoff, Raheel Ahmad, Alan Alcantar, Maximilian D. Lyon, Daniel L. Schneider, Kerry Kornfeld
      Abstract: Cadmium is an environmental pollutant and significant health hazard that is similar to the physiological metal zinc. In Caenorhabditis elegans, high zinc homeostasis is regulated by the high zinc activated nuclear receptor (HIZR-1) transcription factor. To define relationships between the responses to high zinc and cadmium, we analyzed transcription. Many...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T12:53:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022649118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Timing outweighs magnitude of rainfall in shaping population dynamics of a
           small mammal species in steppe grassland [Population Biology]

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      Authors: Guoliang Li; Xinrong Wan, Baofa Yin, Wanhong Wei, Xianglei Hou, Xin Zhang, Erdenetuya Batsuren, Jidong Zhao, Shuli Huang, Xiaoming Xu, Jing Liu, Yiran Song, Arpat Ozgul, Christopher R. Dickman, Guiming Wang, Charles J. Krebs, Zhibin Zhang
      Abstract: Climate change–induced shifts in species phenology differ widely across trophic levels, which may lead to consumer–resource mismatches with cascading population and ecosystem consequences. Here, we examined the effects of different rainfall patterns (i.e., timing and amount) on the phenological asynchrony of population of a generalist herbivore and their food sources...
      Keywords: Population Biology
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T12:53:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2023691118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Genome evolution of the psammophyte Pugionium for desert adaptation and
           further speciation [Evolution]

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      Authors: Quanȷun Hu; Yazhen Ma, Terezie Mandakova, Sheng Shi, Chunlin Chen, Pengchuan Sun, Lei Zhang, Landi Feng, Yudan Zheng, Xiaoqin Feng, Wenȷie Yang, Jiebei Jiang, Ting Li, Pingping Zhou, Qiushi Yu, Dongshi Wan, Martin A. Lysak, Zhenxiang Xi, Eviatar Nevo, Jianquan Liu
      Abstract: Deserts exert strong selection pressures on plants, but the underlying genomic drivers of ecological adaptation and subsequent speciation remain largely unknown. Here, we generated de novo genome assemblies and conducted population genomic analyses of the psammophytic genus Pugionium (Brassicaceae). Our results indicated that this bispecific genus had undergone an allopolyploid...
      Keywords: Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T12:53:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025711118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Neogene continental denudation and the beryllium conundrum [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

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      Authors: Shilei (李石磊) Li; Steven L. Goldstein, Maureen E. Raymo
      Abstract: Reconstructing Cenozoic history of continental silicate weathering is crucial for understanding Earth’s carbon cycle and greenhouse history. The question of whether continental silicate weathering increased during the late Cenozoic, setting the stage for glacial cycles, has remained controversial for decades. Whereas numerous independent proxies of weathering in ocean sediments (e.g.,...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T12:53:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026456118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Stiffness of targeted layer-by-layer nanoparticles impacts elimination
           half-life, tumor accumulation, and tumor penetration [Applied Biological
           Sciences]

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      Authors: Stephanie M. Kong; Daniel F. Costa, Anna Jagielska, Krystyn J. Van Vliet, Paula T. Hammond
      Abstract: Nanoparticle (NP) stiffness has been shown to significantly impact circulation time and biodistribution in anticancer drug delivery. In particular, the relationship between particle stiffness and tumor accumulation and penetration in vivo is an important phenomenon to consider in optimizing NP-mediated tumor delivery. Layer-by-layer (LbL) NPs represent a promising class of...
      Keywords: Applied Biological Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T12:53:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104826118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Spatial social dilemmas promote diversity [Social Sciences]

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      Authors: Christoph Hauert; Michael Doebeli
      Abstract: Cooperative investments in social dilemmas can spontaneously diversify into stably coexisting high and low contributors in well-mixed populations. Here we extend the analysis to emerging diversity in (spatially) structured populations. Using pair approximation, we derive analytical expressions for the invasion fitness of rare mutants in structured populations, which then yields...
      Keywords: Evolution, Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T12:53:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2105252118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Totimorphic assemblies from neutrally stable units [Engineering]

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      Authors: Gaurav Chaudhary; S. Ganga Prasath, Edward Soucy, L. Mahadevan
      Abstract: Inspired by the quest for shape-shifting structures in a range of applications, we show how to create morphable structural materials using a neutrally stable unit cell as a building block. This unit cell is a self-stressed hinged structure with a one-parameter family of morphing motions that are all energetically equivalent....
      Keywords: Engineering
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T12:53:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107003118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Low-bias ncRNA libraries using ordered two-template relay: Serial template
           jumping by a modified retroelement reverse transcriptase [Biochemistry]

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      Authors: Heather E. Upton; Lucas Ferguson, Morayma M. Temoche-Diaz, Xiao-Man Liu, Sydney C. Pimentel, Nicholas T. Ingolia, Randy Schekman, Kathleen Collins
      Abstract: Selfish, non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retroelements and mobile group II introns encode reverse transcriptases (RTs) that can initiate DNA synthesis without substantial base pairing of primer and template. Biochemical characterization of these enzymes has been limited by recombinant expression challenges, hampering understanding of their properties and the possible exploitation of...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T12:53:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107900118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Prediction of unconventional magnetism in doped FeSb2 [Physics]

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      Authors: Igor I. Mazin; Klaus Koepernik, Michelle D. Johannes, Rafael Gonzalez–Hernandez, Libor Šmeȷkal
      Abstract: It is commonly believed that the energy bands of typical collinear antiferromagnets (AFs), which have zero net magnetization, are Kramers spin-degenerate. Kramers nondegeneracy is usually associated with a global time-reversal symmetry breaking (e.g., via ferromagnetism) or with a combination of spin–orbit interaction and broken spatial inversion symmetry. Recently, another type...
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T12:53:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108924118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Inherent hepatocytic heterogeneity determines expression and retention of
           edited F9 alleles post-AAV/CRISPR infusion [Medical Sciences]

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      Authors: Qiang Wang; Lin Zhang, Guo-Wei Zhang, Jian-Hua Mao, Xiao-Dong Xi, Lu Jiang, Gang Lv, Jing Lu, Yan Shen, Zhu Chen, Jiang Zhu, Sai-Juan Chen
      Abstract: Infusing CRISPR/donor-loaded adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV/CRISPR) could enable in vivo hepatic gene editing to remedy hemophilia B (HB) with inherited deficiency of clotting factor IX (FIX). Yet, current regimens focus on correcting HB with simple mutations in the coding region of the F9, overlooking those carrying complicated mutations involving the...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-14T12:53:51-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2110887118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • The human olfactory bulb processes odor valence representation and cues
           motor avoidance behavior [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

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      Authors: Behzad Iravani; Martin Schaefer, Donald A. Wilson, Artin Arshamian, Johan N. Lundstrom
      Abstract: Determining the valence of an odor to guide rapid approach–avoidance behavior is thought to be one of the core tasks of the olfactory system, and yet little is known of the initial neural mechanisms supporting this process or of its subsequent behavioral manifestation in humans. In two experiments, we measured...
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T12:34:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101209118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Four-dimensional chromosome reconstruction elucidates the spatiotemporal
           reorganization of the mammalian X chromosome [Cell Biology]

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      Authors: Anna Lappala; Chen-Yu Wang, Andrea Kriz, Hunter Michalk, Kevin Tan, Jeannie T. Lee, Karissa Y. Sanbonmatsu
      Abstract: Chromosomes are segmented into domains and compartments, but how these structures are spatially related in three dimensions (3D) is unclear. Here, we developed tools that directly extract 3D information from Hi-C experiments and integrate the data across time. With our “4DHiC” method, we use X chromosome inactivation (XCI) as a...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T12:34:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107092118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Frequency of enforcement is more important than the severity of punishment
           in reducing violation behaviors [Social Sciences]

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      Authors: Kinneret Teodorescu; Ori Plonsky, Shahar Ayal, Rachel Barkan
      Abstract: External enforcement policies aimed to reduce violations differ on two key components: the probability of inspection and the severity of the punishment. Different lines of research offer different insights regarding the relative importance of each component. In four studies, students and Prolific crowdsourcing participants (Ntotal = 816) repeatedly faced temptations...
      Keywords: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T12:34:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108507118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Surface equilibration mechanism controls the molecular packing of glassy
           molecular semiconductors at organic interfaces [Chemistry]

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      Authors: Marie E. Fiori; Kushal Bagchi, Michael F. Toney, M. D. Ediger
      Abstract: Glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are anisotropic, and the average molecular orientation can be varied significantly by controlling the deposition conditions. While previous work has characterized the average structure of thick PVD glasses, most experiments are not sensitive to the structure near an underlying substrate or interface. Given...
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T12:34:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2111988118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Opinion: Transformational opportunities for an equitable ocean commons
           [Environmental Sciences]

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      Authors: Joachim Claudet; Diva J. Amon, Robert Blasiak
      Abstract: A frontier mentality has been a defining aspect of human history. Often this sentiment is optimistically framed in the language of aspirations and opportunities. But it can also be accompanied by unsavory narratives of over-exploitation, inequity, and conflict (1). If any place on Earth can be considered a final frontier,...
      Keywords: Opinions, Environmental Sciences, Front Matter, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T12:34:44-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2117033118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • The association of opening K-12 schools with the spread of COVID-19 in the
           United States: County-level panel data analysis [Economic Sciences]

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      Authors: Victor Chernozhukov; Hiroyuki Kasahara, Paul Schrimpf
      Abstract: This paper empirically examines how the opening of K–12 schools is associated with the spread of COVID-19 using county-level panel data in the United States. As preliminary evidence, our event-study analysis indicates that cases and deaths in counties with in-person or hybrid opening relative to those with remote opening substantially...
      Keywords: Economic Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T11:49:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2103420118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Linking species traits and demography to explain complex temperature
           responses across levels of organization [Ecology]

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      Authors: Daniel J. Wieczynski; Pranav Singla, Adrian Doan, Alexandra Singleton, Ze-Yi Han, Samantha Votzke, Andrea Yammine, Jean P. Gibert
      Abstract: Microbial communities regulate ecosystem responses to climate change. However, predicting these responses is challenging because of complex interactions among processes at multiple levels of organization. Organismal traits that determine individual performance and ecological interactions are essential for scaling up environmental responses from individuals to ecosystems. We combine protist microcosm experiments...
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T11:49:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104863118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Synapse development is regulated by microglial THIK-1 K+ channels
           [Neuroscience]

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      Authors: Pablo Izquierdo; Hiroko Shiina, Chanawee Hirunpattarasilp, Grace Gillis, David Attwell
      Abstract: Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system. They constantly survey the brain parenchyma for redundant synapses, debris, or dying cells, which they remove through phagocytosis. Microglial ramification, motility, and cytokine release are regulated by tonically active THIK-1 K+ channels on the microglial plasma membrane. Here, we...
      Keywords: Neuroscience
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T11:49:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2106294118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Dynamic changes in tRNA modifications and abundance during T cell
           activation [Cell Biology]

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      Authors: Roni Rak; Michal Polonsky, Inbal Eizenberg-Magar, Yufeng Mo, Yuriko Sakaguchi, Orel Mizrahi, Aharon Nachshon, Shlomit Reich-Zeliger, Noam Stern-Ginossar, Orna Dahan, Tsutomu Suzuki, Nir Friedman, Yitzhak Pilpel
      Abstract: The tRNA pool determines the efficiency, throughput, and accuracy of translation. Previous studies have identified dynamic changes in the tRNA (transfer RNA) supply and mRNA (messenger RNA) demand during cancerous proliferation. Yet dynamic changes may also occur during physiologically normal proliferation, and these are less well characterized. We examined the...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T11:49:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2106556118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Spontaneous helielectric nematic liquid crystals: Electric analog to
           helimagnets [Physics]

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      Authors: Xiuhu Zhao; Junchen Zhou, Jinxing Li, Junichi Kougo, Zhe Wan, Mingjun Huang, Satoshi Aya
      Abstract: Recently, a type of ferroelectric nematic fluid has been discovered in liquid crystals in which the molecular polar nature at molecule level is amplified to macroscopic scales through a ferroelectric packing of rod-shaped molecules. Here, we report on the experimental proof of a polar chiral liquid matter state, dubbed helielectric...
      Keywords: Physics
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T11:49:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2111101118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Same gene, opposite sexes: Sex-specific divergent expression of a gene
           required for vertebrate fertilization [Genetics]

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      Authors: Enrica Bianchi
      Abstract: The vast majority of eukaryotes reproduce sexually; each species generates highly specialized cells with distinct morphological and functional characteristics that differ depending on the individual’s genetic sex. The male spermatozoon (sperm) is generally a motile cell that bears the paternal genome (1, 2), while the female oocyte usually is a...
      Keywords: Genetics, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T11:49:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2116001118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • When adaptive radiations collide: Different evolutionary trajectories
           between and within island and mainland lizard clades [Evolution]

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      Authors: Austin H. Patton; Luke J. Harmon, Maria del Rosario Castaneda, Hannah K. Frank, Colin M. Donihue, Anthony Herrel, Jonathan B. Losos
      Abstract: Oceanic islands are known as test tubes of evolution. Isolated and colonized by relatively few species, islands are home to many of nature’s most renowned radiations from the finches of the Galápagos to the silverswords of the Hawaiian Islands. Despite the evolutionary exuberance of insular life, island occupation has long...
      Keywords: Inaugural Articles, Evolution
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024451118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Freeze tolerance influenced forest cover and hydrology during the
           Pennsylvanian [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

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      Authors: William J. Matthaeus; Sophia I. Macarewich, Jon D. Richey, Jonathan P. Wilson, Jennifer C. McElwain, Isabel P. Montanez, William A. DiMichele, Michael T. Hren, Christopher J. Poulsen, Joseph D. White
      Abstract: The distribution of forest cover alters Earth surface mass and energy exchange and is controlled by physiology, which determines plant environmental limits. Ancient plant physiology, therefore, likely affected vegetation-climate feedbacks. We combine climate modeling and ecosystem-process modeling to simulate arboreal vegetation in the late Paleozoic ice age. Using GENESIS V3...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025227118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Combined solar power and storage as cost-competitive and grid-compatible
           supply for China’s future carbon-neutral electricity system
           [Environmental Sciences]

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      Authors: Xi Lu; Shi Chen, Chris P. Nielsen, Chongyu Zhang, Jiacong Li, He Xu, Ye Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Feng Song, Chu Wei, Kebin He, Michael B. McElroy, Jiming Hao
      Abstract: As the world’s largest CO2 emitter, China’s ability to decarbonize its energy system strongly affects the prospect of achieving the 1.5 °C limit in global, average surface-temperature rise. Understanding technically feasible, cost-competitive, and grid-compatible solar photovoltaic (PV) power potentials spatiotemporally is critical for China’s future energy pathway. This study develops...
      Keywords: Environmental Sciences, Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2103471118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Confederate monuments and the history of lynching in the American South:
           An empirical examination [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

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      Authors: Kyshia Henderson; Samuel Powers, Michele Claibourn, Jazmin L. Brown-Iannuzzi, Sophie Trawalter
      Abstract: The present work interrogates the history of Confederate memorializations by examining the relationship between these memorializations and lynching, an explicitly racist act of violence. We obtained and merged data on Confederate memorializations at the county level and lynching victims, also at the county level. We find that the number of...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2103519118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Density-dependent mating behaviors reduce male mating harassment in
           locusts [Ecology]

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      Authors: Koutaro Ould Maeno; Cyril Piou, Sidi Ould Ely, Sid’Ahmed Ould Mohamed, Mohamed El Hacen Jaavar, Said Ghaout, Mohamed Abdallahi Ould Babah Ebbe
      Abstract: Male mating harassment may occur when females and males do not have the same mating objectives. Communal animals need to manage the costs of male mating harassment. Here, we demonstrate how desert locusts in dense populations reduce such conflicts through behaviors. In transient populations (of solitarious morphology but gregarious behavior),...
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104673118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Development of an entirely plasmid-based reverse genetics system for
           12-segmented double-stranded RNA viruses [Microbiology]

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      Authors: Ryotaro Nouda; Shohei Minami, Yuta Kanai, Takahiro Kawagishi, Jeffery A. Nurdin, Moeko Yamasaki, Ryusei Kuwata, Hiroshi Shimoda, Ken Maeda, Takeshi Kobayashi
      Abstract: The family Reoviridae is a nonenveloped virus group with a double-stranded (ds) RNA genome comprising 9 to 12 segments. In the family Reoviridae, the genera Cardoreovirus, Phytoreovirus, Seadornavirus, Mycoreovirus, and Coltivirus contain virus species having 12-segmented dsRNA genomes. Reverse genetics systems used to generate recombinant infectious viruses are powerful tools...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2105334118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Trusted authorities can change minds and shift norms during conflict
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

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      Authors: Graeme Blair; Rebecca Littman, Elizabeth R. Nugent, Rebecca Wolfe, Mohammed Bukar, Benjamin Crisman, Anthony Etim, Chad Hazlett, Jiyoung Kim
      Abstract: The reintegration of former members of violent extremist groups is a pressing policy challenge. Governments and policymakers often have to change minds among reticent populations and shift perceived community norms in order to pave the way for peaceful reintegration. How can they do so on a mass scale' Previous research...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2105570118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Opt-out choice framing attenuates gender differences in the decision to
           compete in the laboratory and in the field [Economic Sciences]

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      Authors: Joyce C. He; Sonia K. Kang, Nicola Lacetera
      Abstract: Research shows that women are less likely to enter competitions than men. This disparity may translate into a gender imbalance in holding leadership positions or ascending in organizations. We provide both laboratory and field experimental evidence that this difference can be attenuated with a default nudge—changing the choice to enter...
      Keywords: Economic Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108337118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Rapid cloud removal of dimethyl sulfide oxidation products limits SO2 and
           cloud condensation nuclei production in the marine atmosphere [Earth,
           Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

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      Authors: Gordon A. Novak; Charles H. Fite, Christopher D. Holmes, Patrick R. Veres, J. Andrew Neuman, Ian Faloona, Joel A. Thornton, Glenn M. Wolfe, Michael P. Vermeuel, Christopher M. Jernigan, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Chelsea R. Thompson, Ilann Bourgeois, Carsten Warneke, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Mathew M. Coggon, Kanako Sekimoto, T. Paul Bui, Jonathan Dean-Day, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Richard H. Moore, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Edward L. Winstead, Claire Robinson, K. Lee Thornhill, Kevin J. Sanchez, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Maximilian Dollner, Bernadett Weinzierl, Donald R. Blake, Timothy H. Bertram
      Abstract: Oceans emit large quantities of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) to the marine atmosphere. The oxidation of DMS leads to the formation and growth of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with consequent effects on Earth’s radiation balance and climate. The quantitative assessment of the impact of DMS emissions on CCN concentrations necessitates a...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2110472118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Wind turbine icing characteristics and icing-induced power losses to
           utility-scale wind turbines [Engineering]

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      Authors: Linyue Gao; Hui Hu
      Abstract: A field campaign was carried out to investigate ice accretion features on large turbine blades (50 m in length) and to assess power output losses of utility-scale wind turbines induced by ice accretion. After a 30-h icing incident, a high-resolution digital camera carried by an unmanned aircraft system was used...
      Keywords: Engineering, Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2111461118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Sen et al., Sulfhydration of AKT triggers
           Tau-phosphorylation by activating glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} in
           Alzheimer’s disease [Corrections]

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      Abstract: NEUROSCIENCE. Correction for “Sulfhydration of AKT triggers Tau-phosphorylation by activating glycogen synthase kinase 3β in Alzheimer’s disease,” by Tanusree Sen, Pampa Saha, Tong Jiang, and Nilkantha Sen, which was first published February 12, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1916895117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 4418–4427). The authors note that Fig. 2 appeared incorrectly....
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2114879118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • QnAs with Jonathan B. Losos [QnAs]

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      Authors: Tinsley H. Davis
      Abstract: Jonathan B. Losos has long studied island-dwelling species. Elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2018, Losos, an evolutionary ecologist at Washington University, has focused on Anolis lizards since high school. In his Inaugural Article (1), Losos, who is also the director of the Living Earth Collaborative, expands his...
      Keywords: QnAs, QnAs
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2116186118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Correction to Supporting Information for Rouse et al., Vocal learning and
           flexible rhythm pattern perception are linked: Evidence from songbirds [SI
           Correction]

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      Abstract: PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES Correction to Supporting Information for “Vocal learning and flexible rhythm pattern perception are linked: Evidence from songbirds,” by Andrew A. Rouse, Aniruddh D. Patel, and Mimi H. Kao, which published July 16, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2026130118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2026130118). The authors note that Supporting...
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2116558118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Edwards et al., Contact with Child Protective Services is
           pervasive but unequally distributed by race and ethnicity in large US
           counties [Corrections]

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      Abstract: SOCIAL SCIENCES Correction for “Contact with Child Protective Services is pervasive but unequally distributed by race and ethnicity in large US counties,” by Frank Edwards, Sara Wakefield, Kieran Healy, and Christopher Wildeman, which published July 19, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2106272118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2106272118). The authors wish to note...
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2116639118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Preisig et al., Selective modulation of interhemispheric
           connectivity by transcranial alternating current stimulation influences
           binaural integration [Neuroscience]

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      Abstract: NEUROSCIENCE, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES Correction for “Selective modulation of interhemispheric connectivity by transcranial alternating current stimulation influences binaural integration,” by Basil C. Preisig, Lars Riecke, Matthias J. Sjerps, Anne Kösem, Benjamin R. Kop, Bob Bramson, Peter Hagoort, and Alexis Hervais-Adelman, which published February 10, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2015488118 (Proc. Natl. Acad....
      Keywords: Neuroscience, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-10-11T12:40:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2116824118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Reduction in gene expression noise by targeted increase in accessibility
           at gene loci [Cell Biology]

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      Authors: LaTasha C. R. Fraser; Ryan J. Dikdan, Supravat Dey, Abhyudai Singh, Sanjay Tyagi
      Abstract: Many eukaryotic genes are expressed in randomly initiated bursts that are punctuated by periods of quiescence. Here, we show that the intermittent access of the promoters to transcription factors through relatively impervious chromatin contributes to this “noisy” transcription. We tethered a nuclease-deficient Cas9 fused to a histone acetyl transferase at...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:01:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018640118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • T6SS translocates a micropeptide to suppress STING-mediated innate
           immunity by sequestering manganese [Microbiology]

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      Authors: Lingfang Zhu; Lei Xu, Chenguang Wang, Changfu Li, Mengyuan Li, Qinmeng Liu, Xiao Wang, Wenhui Yang, Damin Pan, Lingfei Hu, Yadong Yang, Zhiqiang Lu, Yao Wang, Dongsheng Zhou, Zhengfan Jiang, Xihui Shen
      Abstract: Cellular ionic concentrations are a central factor orchestrating host innate immunity, but no pathogenic mechanism that perturbs host innate immunity by directly targeting metal ions has yet been described. Here, we report a unique virulence strategy of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) involving modulation of the availability of Mn2+, an immunostimulatory metal...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:01:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2103526118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Improving health and economic security by reducing work schedule
           uncertainty [Social Sciences]

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      Authors: Kristen Harknett; Daniel Schneider, Veronique Irwin
      Abstract: Work schedules in the service sector are routinely unstable and unpredictable, and this unpredictability may have harmful effects on health and economic insecurity. However, because schedule unpredictability often coincides with low wages and other dimensions of poor job quality, the causal effects of unpredictable work schedules are uncertain. Seattle’s Secure...
      Keywords: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:01:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107828118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Multiple hops move electrons from bacteria to rocks [Chemistry]

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      Authors: David N. Beratan
      Abstract: The central dogma of bioenergetics is that photons energize electrons in molecules, those electrons push protons, and proton concentration gradients forge chemical bonds. An understanding of how this works—at the level of electrons and atoms—is elusive, especially in organisms that live life on the edge of survival. How do bacteria...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Chemistry, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:01:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2115620118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • A discrete-time infectious disease model for global pandemics [Applied
           Mathematics]

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      Authors: Abdul-Aziz Yakubu
      Abstract: The ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has raised concerns about the effectiveness of current preventive pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical interventions (1). In addition, the upward global trends in the numbers of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, as evidenced...
      Keywords: Applied Mathematics, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:01:37-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2116845118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • A mutation-mediated evolutionary adaptation of Zika virus in mosquito and
           mammalian host [Microbiology]

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      Authors: Xi Yu; Chao Shan, Yibin Zhu, Enhao Ma, Jinglin Wang, Penghua Wang, Pei-Yong Shi, Gong Cheng
      Abstract: Zika virus (ZIKV) caused millions of infections during its rapid and expansive spread from Asia to the Americas from 2015 to 2017. Here, we compared the infectivity of ZIKV mutants with individual stable substitutions which emerged throughout the Asian ZIKV lineage and were responsible for the explosive outbreaks in the...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T12:36:56-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2113015118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • No evidence for colonization of oral bacteria in the distal gut in healthy
           adults [Microbiology]

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      Authors: Armin Rashidi; Maryam Ebadi, Daniel J. Weisdorf, Massimo Costalonga, Christopher Staley
      Abstract: The microbial communities in the mouth and colon are anatomically connected via the saliva. However, the extent to which oral microbes reach and successfully colonize the distal gut has been debated. To resolve this long-standing controversy, we used exact amplicon sequence variants generated from concurrently collected saliva/stool microbiota in 66...
      Keywords: Microbiology, Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T11:25:31-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2114152118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Oldenkamp et al., Filling the gaps in the global prevalence
           map of clinical antimicrobial resistance [Corrections]

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      Abstract: MICROBIOLOGY, SOCIAL SCIENCES Correction for “Filling the gaps in the global prevalence map of clinical antimicrobial resistance,” by Rik Oldenkamp, Constance Schultsz, Emiliano Mancini, and Antonio Cappuccio, which published December 28, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2013515118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2013515118). The authors note that on page 2, left column, first...
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:46-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2116827118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Highly active engineered IgG3 antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 [Applied
           Biological Sciences]

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      Authors: Somanath Kallolimath; Lin Sun, Roman Palt, Karin Stiasny, Patrick Mayrhofer, Clemens Gruber, Benjamin Kogelmann, Qiang Chen, Herta Steinkellner
      Abstract: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that efficiently neutralize SARS-CoV-2 have been developed at an unprecedented speed. Notwithstanding, there is a vague understanding of the various Ab functions induced beyond antigen binding by the heavy-chain constant domain. To explore the diverse roles of Abs in SARS-CoV-2 immunity, we expressed a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein...
      Keywords: Applied Biological Sciences, Brief Reports, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T11:27:16-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107249118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Targeting the coronavirus nucleocapsid protein through GSK-3 inhibition
           [Microbiology]

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      Authors: Xiaolei Liu; Anurag Verma, Gustavo Garcia Jr, Holly Ramage, Anastasia Lucas, Rebecca L. Myers, Jacob J. Michaelson, William Coryell, Arvind Kumar, Alexander W. Charney, Marcelo G. Kazanietz, Daniel J. Rader, Marylyn D. Ritchie, Wade H. Berrettini, David C. Schultz, Sara Cherry, Robert Damoiseaux, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Peter S. Klein
      Abstract: The coronaviruses responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV, and other coronavirus infections express a nucleocapsid protein (N) that is essential for viral replication, transcription, and virion assembly. Phosphorylation of N from SARS-CoV by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is required for its function...
      Keywords: Microbiology, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-09-30T12:14:11-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2113401118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • Computational prediction of the effect of amino acid changes on the
           binding affinity between SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD and human ACE2 [Biophysics
           and Computational Biology]

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      Authors: Chen Chen; Veda Sheersh Boorla, Deepro Banerjee, Ratul Chowdhury, Victoria S. Cavener, Ruth H. Nissly, Abhinay Gontu, Nina R. Boyle, Kurt Vandegrift, Meera Surendran Nair, Suresh V. Kuchipudi, Costas D. Maranas
      Abstract: The association of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) represents the first required step for cellular entry. SARS-CoV-2 has continued to evolve with the emergence of several novel variants, and amino acid changes in the...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-09-29T11:08:19-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2106480118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 42 (2021)
       
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

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      Abstract: ECOLOGY An elephant (Loxodonta africana) eating an Acacia brevispica tree at Mpala Research Centre, Kenya. Large herbivores and lianas in African savannas Large herbivores influence populations of grasses and trees in tropical African savannas. However, the effects of herbivores on other types of vegetation, such as lianas, or woody vines,...
      Keywords: In This Issue
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T08:10:23-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/iti4121118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Selective promiscuity in the binding of E. coli Hsp70 to an unfolded
           protein [Biochemistry]

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      Authors: Eugenia M. Clerico; Alexandra K. Pozhidaeva, Rachel M. Jansen, Can Ozden, Joseph M. Tilitsky, Lila M. Gierasch
      Abstract: Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) chaperones bind many different sequences and discriminate between incompletely folded and folded clients. Most research into the origins of this “selective promiscuity” has relied on short peptides as substrates to dissect the binding, but much less is known about how Hsp70s bind full-length client proteins....
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:00:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016962118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Multiparameter persistent homology landscapes identify immune cell spatial
           patterns in tumors [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

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      Authors: Oliver Vipond; Joshua A. Bull, Philip S. Macklin, Ulrike Tillmann, Christopher W. Pugh, Helen M. Byrne, Heather A. Harrington
      Abstract: Highly resolved spatial data of complex systems encode rich and nonlinear information. Quantification of heterogeneous and noisy data—often with outliers, artifacts, and mislabeled points—such as those from tissues, remains a challenge. The mathematical field that extracts information from the shape of data, topological data analysis (TDA), has expanded its capability...
      Keywords: Applied Mathematics, Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:00:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102166118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide promotes host defense against enteric
           pathogens by modulating the recruitment of group 3 innate lymphoid cells
           [Immunology and Inflammation]

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      Authors: Hong Bing Yu; Hyungjun Yang, Joannie M. Allaire, Caixia Ma, Franziska A. Graef, Arthur Mortha, Qiaochu Liang, Else S. Bosman, Gregor S. Reid, James A. Waschek, Lisa C. Osborne, Harry Sokol, Bruce A. Vallance, Kevan Jacobson
      Abstract: Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) control the formation of intestinal lymphoid tissues and play key roles in intestinal defense. They express neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor 2 (VPAC2), through which VIP modulates their function, but whether VIP exerts other effects on ILC3 remains unclear. We show that VIP...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:00:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2106634118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Making ab initio QED functional(s): Nonperturbative and photon-free
           effective frameworks for strong light-matter coupling [Physics]

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      Authors: Christian Schafer; Florian Buchholz, Markus Penz, Michael Ruggenthaler, Angel Rubio
      Abstract: Strong light–matter coupling provides a promising path for the control of quantum matter where the latter is routinely described from first principles. However, combining the quantized nature of light with this ab initio tool set is challenging and merely developing as the coupled light–matter Hilbert space is conceptually different and...
      Keywords: Applied Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:00:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2110464118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Genomics serology to inform therapies and vaccines for arthritogenic
           alphaviruses [Microbiology]

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      Authors: Adolfo Garcia–Sastre
      Abstract: In PNAS, Malonis et al. (1) isolate and characterize several human monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) that neutralize infection with arthritogenic alphaviruses. Alphaviruses represent a large group of positive-strand RNA viruses, some of which cause infections in humans. They are widely distributed, are transmitted by mosquitoes, and have been clinically classified as...
      Keywords: Microbiology, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:00:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2114687118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Education’s role in China’s demographic future [Social
           Sciences]

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      Authors: Philip H. Rees
      Abstract: The aim of this commentary is to illuminate, for a wider audience, the essential features of the analysis described in the paper on “China’s low fertility may not hinder future prosperity” (1), to place the paper in the context of the program of work on the role of education in...
      Keywords: Social Sciences, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:00:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2115618118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Wang et al., Genome-wide screen identifies curli amyloid
           fibril as a bacterial component promoting host neurodegeneration
           [Corrections]

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      Abstract: NEUROSCIENCE Correction for “Genome-wide screen identifies curli amyloid fibril as a bacterial component promoting host neurodegeneration,” by Chenyin Wang, Chun Yin Lau, Fuqiang Ma, and Chaogu Zheng, which published August 19, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2106504118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2106504118). The authors note that two references were omitted from the...
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T12:00:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2116257118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Capacity of soil bacteria to reach the phyllosphere and convergence of
           floral communities despite soil microbiota variation [Ecology]

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      Authors: Julien Massoni; Miriam Bortfeld-Miller, Alex Widmer, Julia A. Vorholt
      Abstract: Leaves and flowers are colonized by diverse bacteria that impact plant fitness and evolution. Although the structure of these microbial communities is becoming well-characterized, various aspects of their environmental origin and selection by plants remain uncertain, such as the relative proportion of soilborne bacteria in phyllosphere communities. Here, to address...
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T12:36:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100150118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Hinfp is a guardian of the somatic genome by repressing transposable
           elements [Genetics]

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      Authors: Niraj K. Nirala; Qi Li, Prachi N. Ghule, Hsi-Ju Chen, Rui Li, Lihua Julie Zhu, Ruijia Wang, Nicholas P. Rice, Junhao Mao, Janet L. Stein, Gary S. Stein, Andre J. van Wijnen, Y. Tony Ip
      Abstract: Germ cells possess the Piwi-interacting RNA pathway to repress transposable elements and maintain genome stability across generations. Transposable element mobilization in somatic cells does not affect future generations, but nonetheless can lead to pathological outcomes in host tissues. We show here that loss of function of the conserved zinc-finger transcription...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T12:36:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100839118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Phytoplankton exudates and lysates support distinct microbial consortia
           with specialized metabolic and ecophysiological traits [Microbiology]

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      Authors: Brandon Kieft; Zhou Li, Samuel Bryson, Robert L. Hettich, Chongle Pan, Xavier Mayali, Ryan S. Mueller
      Abstract: Blooms of marine phytoplankton fix complex pools of dissolved organic matter (DOM) that are thought to be partitioned among hundreds of heterotrophic microbes at the base of the food web. While the relationship between microbial consumers and phytoplankton DOM is a key component of marine carbon cycling, microbial loop metabolism...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T12:36:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101178118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Identification of fluoxetine as a direct NLRP3 inhibitor to treat atrophic
           macular degeneration [Medical Sciences]

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      Authors: Meenakshi Ambati; Ivana Apicella, Shao-bin Wang, Siddharth Narendran, Hannah Leung, Felipe Pereira, Yosuke Nagasaka, Peirong Huang, Akhil Varshney, Kirstie L. Baker, Kenneth M. Marion, Mehrdad Shadmehr, Cliff I. Stains, Brian C. Werner, Srinivas R. Sadda, Ethan W. Taylor, S. Scott Sutton, Joseph Magagnoli, Bradley D. Gelfand
      Abstract: The atrophic form of age-related macular degeneration (dry AMD) affects nearly 200 million people worldwide. There is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapy for this disease, which is the leading cause of irreversible blindness among people over 50 y of age. Vision loss in dry AMD results from degeneration...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T12:36:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102975118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Structural and mechanistic insights into the complexes formed by Wolbachia
           cytoplasmic incompatibility factors [Microbiology]

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      Authors: Yunjie Xiao; Hongli Chen, Haofeng Wang, Mengwen Zhang, Xia Chen, Jason M. Berk, Lilin Zhang, Yi Wei, Wenling Li, Wen Cui, Fenghua Wang, Qianfan Wang, Can Cui, Ting Li, Cheng Chen, Sheng Ye, Lei Zhang, Xiaoyun Ji, Jinhai Huang, Wei Wang, Zefang Wang, Mark Hochstrasser, Haitao Yang
      Abstract: Wolbachia bacteria, inherited through the female germ line, infect a large fraction of arthropod species. Many Wolbachia strains manipulate host reproduction, most commonly through cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI, a conditional male sterility, results when Wolbachia-infected male insects mate with uninfected females; viability is restored if the female is similarly infected...
      Keywords: Microbiology
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T12:36:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107699118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Integrated spatial multiomics reveals fibroblast fate during tissue repair
           [Cell Biology]

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      Authors: Deshka S. Foster; Michael Januszyk, Kathryn E. Yost, Malini S. Chinta, Gunsagar S. Gulati, Alan T. Nguyen, Austin R. Burcham, Ankit Salhotra, R. Chase Ransom, Dominic Henn, Kellen Chen, Shamik Mascharak, Karen Tolentino, Ashley L. Titan, R. Ellen Jones, Oscar da Silva, W. Tripp Leavitt, Clement D. Marshall, Heather E. des Jardins-Park, Michael S. Hu, Derrick C. Wan, Gerlinde Wernig, Dhananjay Wagh, John Coller, Jeffrey A. Norton, Geoffrey C. Gurtner, Aaron M. Newman, Howard Y. Chang, Michael T. Longaker
      Abstract: In the skin, tissue injury results in fibrosis in the form of scars composed of dense extracellular matrix deposited by fibroblasts. The therapeutic goal of regenerative wound healing has remained elusive, in part because principles of fibroblast programming and adaptive response to injury remain incompletely understood. Here, we present a...
      Keywords: Cell Biology
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T12:36:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2110025118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Switchover phenomenon induced by epidemic seeding on geometric networks
           [Applied Mathematics]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Gergely Odor; Domonkos Czifra, Julia Komȷathy, Laszlo Lovasz, Marton Karsai
      Abstract: It is a fundamental question in disease modeling how the initial seeding of an epidemic, spreading over a network, determines its final outcome. One important goal has been to find the seed configuration, which infects the most individuals. Although the identified optimal configurations give insight into how the initial state...
      Keywords: Applied Mathematics
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T12:36:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2112607118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Broad tiger stripes in a small habitat patch [Population Biology]

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      Authors: Eduardo Eizirik
      Abstract: Genetic, molecular, and genomic analyses have revolutionized all the fields within the life sciences, revealing the intricate mechanisms underlying the functioning of living organisms, as well as the historical processes that continuously shape them. Among the myriad phenotypes whose physical (heritable) basis and evolutionary significance have been scrutinized with genetic...
      Keywords: Population Biology, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T12:36:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2114685118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Cryo-EM structure determination of small proteins by nanobody-binding
           scaffolds (Legobodies) [Biochemistry]

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      Authors: Xudong Wu; Tom A. Rapoport
      Abstract: We describe a general method that allows structure determination of small proteins by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The method is based on the availability of a target-binding nanobody, which is then rigidly attached to two scaffolds: 1) a Fab fragment of an antibody directed against the nanobody and 2) a...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T12:36:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2115001118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Pathways to parasitic strategies in ants [Evolution]

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      Authors: Heikki Helantera
      Abstract: Evolutionary biologists find delight in tracing their study topics back to Charles Darwin, and ant researchers are no exception. The dulotic habit of many ant species was highlighted by Darwin as one of the most sophisticated adaptive outcomes of natural selection (1). Dulotic ants raid nests of other ant species...
      Keywords: Evolution, Commentaries
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T12:36:48-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2115607118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Structural basis of rotavirus RNA chaperone displacement and RNA annealing
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

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      Authors: Jack P. K. Bravo; Kira Bartnik, Luca Venditti, Julia Acker, Emma H. Gail, Alice Colyer, Chen Davidovich, Don C. Lamb, Roman Tuma, Antonio N. Calabrese, Alexander Borodavka
      Abstract: Rotavirus genomes are distributed between 11 distinct RNA molecules, all of which must be selectively copackaged during virus assembly. This likely occurs through sequence-specific RNA interactions facilitated by the RNA chaperone NSP2. Here, we report that NSP2 autoregulates its chaperone activity through its C-terminal region (CTR) that promotes RNA–RNA interactions...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T12:01:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2100198118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Continuous variable responses and signal gating form kinetic bases for
           

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      Authors: Namrata Shukla; Shantanu Kadam, Ranjith Padinhateeri, Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam
      Abstract: Understanding kinetic control of biological processes is as important as identifying components that constitute pathways. Insulin signaling is central for almost all metazoans, and its perturbations are associated with various developmental disorders, metabolic diseases, and aging. While temporal phosphorylation changes and kinetic constants have provided some insights, constant or variable...
      Keywords: Systems Biology
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T12:01:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2102560118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Attractive forces slow contact formation between deformable bodies
           underwater [Applied Physical Sciences]

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      Authors: Mengyue Sun; Nityanshu Kumar, Ali Dhinojwala, Hunter King
      Abstract: Thermodynamics tells us to expect underwater contact between two hydrophobic surfaces to result in stronger adhesion compared to two hydrophilic surfaces. However, the presence of water changes not only energetics but also the dynamic process of reaching a final state, which couples solid deformation and liquid evacuation. These dynamics can...
      Keywords: Applied Physical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T12:01:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104975118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Single-cell profiling reveals the importance of CXCL13/CXCR5 axis biology
           

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      Authors: Tomohiro Aoki; Lauren C. Chong, Katsuyoshi Takata, Katy Milne, Ashley Marshall, Elizabeth A. Chavez, Tomoko Miyata-Takata, Susana Ben-Neriah, Doria Unrau, Adele Telenius, Merrill Boyle, Andrew P. Weng, Kerry J. Savage, David W. Scott, Pedro Farinha, Sohrab P. Shah, Brad H. Nelson, Christian Steidl
      Abstract: Lymphocyte-rich classic Hodgkin lymphoma (LR-CHL) is a rare subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma. Recent technical advances have allowed for the characterization of specific cross-talk mechanisms between malignant Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells and different normal immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of CHL. However, the TME of LR-CHL has not yet...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T12:01:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2105822118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • High-risk human papillomavirus-18 uses an mRNA sequence to synthesize
           oncoprotein E6 in tumors [Biochemistry]

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      Authors: Aleȷandra Garcia; Giovanna Maldonado, Jose L. Gonzalez, Yuri Svitkin, David Cantu, Aleȷandro Garcia–Carranca, Nahum Sonenberg, Greco Hernandez
      Abstract: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer in women worldwide in terms of both incidence and mortality. Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV), namely 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68, constitute a necessary cause for the...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T12:01:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108359118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Spillover, hybridization, and persistence in schistosome transmission
           dynamics at the human-animal interface [Population Biology]

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      Authors: Anna Borlase; James W. Rudge, Elsa Leger, Nicolas D. Diouf, Cheikh B. Fall, Samba D. Diop, Stefano Catalano, Mariama Sene, Joanne P. Webster
      Abstract: Zoonotic spillover and hybridization of parasites are major emerging public and veterinary health concerns at the interface of infectious disease biology, evolution, and control. Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of global importance caused by parasites of the Schistosoma genus, and the Schistosoma spp. system within Africa represents a key...
      Keywords: Population Biology
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T12:01:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2110711118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Voltage cycling process for the electroconversion of biomass-derived
           polyols [Chemistry]

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      Authors: Dohyung Kim; Chengshuang Zhou, Miao Zhang, Matteo Cargnello
      Abstract: Electrification of chemical reactions is crucial to fundamentally transform our society that is still heavily dependent on fossil resources and unsustainable practices. In addition, electrochemistry-based approaches offer a unique way of catalyzing reactions by the fast and continuous alteration of applied potentials, unlike traditional thermal processes. Here, we show how...
      Keywords: Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T12:01:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2113382118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Science and Culture: Looking to “ȷunk” food to design healthier
           options [Applied Biological Sciences]

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      Authors: Amy McDermott
      Abstract: The now-famous plant protein patty known as the Impossible Burger is designed to mimic the taste, texture, and even bloodiness of real meat. Raw, it looks just like red ground beef. Grilled medium rare, the soy-based burger firms up but keeps its soft, pink center. “We’re replicating the entire sensory...
      Keywords: Science and Culture, Applied Biological Sciences, Front Matter
      PubDate: 2021-10-06T12:01:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2116665118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Human islet T cells are highly reactive to preproinsulin in type 1
           diabetes [Immunology and Inflammation]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Amanda M. Anderson; Laurie G. Landry, Aimon A. Alkanani, Laura Pyle, Alvin C. Powers, Mark A. Atkinson, Clayton E. Mathews, Bart O. Roep, Aaron W. Michels, Maki Nakayama
      Abstract: Cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes play a central role in the tissue destruction of many autoimmune disorders. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), insulin and its precursor preproinsulin are major self-antigens targeted by T cells. We comprehensively examined preproinsulin specificity of CD8 T cells obtained from pancreatic islets of organ donors with...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T11:25:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107208118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Hurricane annual cycle controlled by both seeds and genesis probability
           [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Wenchang Yang; Tsung-Lin Hsieh, Gabriel A. Vecchi
      Abstract: Understanding tropical cyclone (TC) climatology is a problem of profound societal significance and deep scientific interest. The annual cycle is the biggest radiatively forced signal in TC variability, presenting a key test of our understanding and modeling of TC activity. TCs over the North Atlantic (NA) basin, which are usually...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T11:25:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108397118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Understanding cytoskeletal avalanches using mechanical stability analysis
           [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

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      Authors: Carlos Floyd; Herbert Levine, Christopher Jarzynski, Garegin A. Papoian
      Abstract: Eukaryotic cells are mechanically supported by a polymer network called the cytoskeleton, which consumes chemical energy to dynamically remodel its structure. Recent experiments in vivo have revealed that this remodeling occasionally happens through anomalously large displacements, reminiscent of earthquakes or avalanches. These cytoskeletal avalanches might indicate that the cytoskeleton’s structural...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T11:25:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2110239118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Interventional real-time optical imaging guidance for complete tumor
           ablation [Medical Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xuefeng Kan; Feng Zhang, Guanhui Zhou, Hongxiu Ji, Wayne Monsky, Christopher Ingraham, Chuansheng Zheng, Xiaoming Yang
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop an interventional optical imaging (OI) technique for intraprocedural guidance of complete tumor ablation. Our study employed four strategies: 1) optimizing experimental protocol of various indocyanine green (ICG) concentrations/detection time windows for ICG-based OI of tumor cells (ICG cells); 2) using the optimized...
      Keywords: Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T11:25:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2113028118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • The Strategic Council for Research Excellence, Integrity, and Trust
           [Social Sciences]

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      Authors: Marcia McNutt; France A. Cordova, David B. Allison
      Abstract: We announce the creation of a new body within the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine called the Strategic Council for Research Excellence, Integrity, and Trust, charged with advancing the overall health, quality, and effectiveness of the research enterprise across all domains that fund, execute, disseminate, and apply scientific...
      Keywords: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-05T11:25:08-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2116647118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Slowed canonical progress in large fields of science [Social Sciences]

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      Authors: Johan S. G. Chu; James A. Evans
      Abstract: In many academic fields, the number of papers published each year has increased significantly over time. Policy measures aim to increase the quantity of scientists, research funding, and scientific output, which is measured by the number of papers produced. These quantitative metrics determine the career trajectories of scholars and evaluations...
      Keywords: Social Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021636118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Detecting insulitis in type 1 diabetes with ultrasound phase-change
           contrast agents [Engineering]

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      Authors: David G. Ramirez; Mark Ciccaglione, Awaneesh K. Upadhyay, Vinh T. Pham, Mark A. Borden, Richard K. P. Benninger
      Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from immune infiltration and destruction of insulin-producing β cells within the pancreatic islets of Langerhans (insulitis). Early diagnosis during presymptomatic T1D would allow for therapeutic intervention prior to substantial β-cell loss at onset. There are limited methods to track the progression of insulitis and β-cell...
      Keywords: Engineering, Medical Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2022523118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Relict inland mangrove ecosystem reveals Last Interglacial sea levels
           [Ecology]

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      Authors: Octavio Aburto-Oropeza; Carlos Manuel Burelo-Ramos, Exequiel Ezcurra, Paula Ezcurra, Claudia L. Henriquez, Sula E. Vanderplank, Felipe Zapata
      Abstract: Climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene played a major role in shaping the spatial distribution and demographic dynamics of Earth's biota, including our own species. The Last Interglacial (LIG) or Eemian Period (ca. 130 to 115 thousand years B.P.) was particularly influential because this period of peak warmth led to the...
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024518118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Global urban population exposure to extreme heat [Sustainability Science]

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      Authors: Cascade Tuholske; Kelly Caylor, Chris Funk, Andrew Verdin, Stuart Sweeney, Kathryn Grace, Pete Peterson, Tom Evans
      Abstract: Increased exposure to extreme heat from both climate change and the urban heat island effect—total urban warming—threatens the sustainability of rapidly growing urban settlements worldwide. Extreme heat exposure is highly unequal and severely impacts the urban poor. While previous studies have quantified global exposure to extreme heat, the lack of...
      Keywords: Sustainability Science
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2024792118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Eighteen-month-old infants represent nonlocal syntactic dependencies
           [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

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      Authors: Laurel Perkins; Jeffrey Lidz
      Abstract: The human ability to produce and understand an indefinite number of sentences is driven by syntax, a cognitive system that can combine a finite number of primitive linguistic elements to build arbitrarily complex expressions. The expressive power of syntax comes in part from its ability to encode potentially unbounded dependencies...
      Keywords: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2026469118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Decreasing Phanerozoic extinction intensity as a consequence of Earth
           surface oxygenation and metazoan ecophysiology [Earth, Atmospheric, and
           Planetary Sciences]

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      Authors: Richard G. Stockey; Alexandre Pohl, Andy Ridgwell, Seth Finnegan, Erik A. Sperling
      Abstract: The decline in background extinction rates of marine animals through geologic time is an established but unexplained feature of the Phanerozoic fossil record. There is also growing consensus that the ocean and atmosphere did not become oxygenated to near-modern levels until the mid-Paleozoic, coinciding with the onset of generally lower...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101900118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Context-specific regulation of lysosomal lipolysis through network-level
           diverting of transcription factor interactions [Genetics]

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      Authors: Vinod K. Mony; Anna Drangowska–Way, Reka Albert, Emma Harrison, Abbas Ghaddar, Mary Kate Horak, Wenfan Ke, Eyleen J. O’Rourke
      Abstract: Plasticity in multicellular organisms involves signaling pathways converting contexts—either natural environmental challenges or laboratory perturbations—into context-specific changes in gene expression. Congruently, the interactions between the signaling molecules and transcription factors (TF) regulating these responses are also context specific. However, when a target gene responds across contexts, the upstream TF identified...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2104832118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Recent increases in tropical cyclone precipitation extremes over the US
           east coast [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Justin T. Maxwell; Joshua C. Bregy, Scott M. Robeson, Paul A. Knapp, Peter T. Soule, Valerie Trouet
      Abstract: The impacts of inland flooding caused by tropical cyclones (TCs), including loss of life, infrastructure disruption, and alteration of natural landscapes, have increased over recent decades. While these impacts are well documented, changes in TC precipitation extremes—the proximate cause of such inland flooding—have been more difficult to detect. Here, we...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2105636118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Releasing incompatible males drives strong suppression across populations
           of wild and Wolbachia-carrying Aedes aegypti in Australia [Applied
           Biological Sciences]

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      Authors: Nigel W. Beebe; Dan Pagendam, Brendan J. Trewin, Andrew Boomer, Matt Bradford, Andrew Ford, Catherine Liddington, Artiom Bondarenco, Paul J. De Barro, Joshua Gilchrist, Christopher Paton, Kyran M. Staunton, Brian Johnson, Andrew J. Maynard, Gregor J. Devine, Leon E. Hugo, Gordana Rasic, Helen Cook, Peter Massaro, Nigel Snoad, Jacob E. Crawford, Bradley J. White, Zhiyong Xi, Scott A. Ritchie
      Abstract: Releasing sterile or incompatible male insects is a proven method of population management in agricultural systems with the potential to revolutionize mosquito control. Through a collaborative venture with the “Debug” Verily Life Sciences team, we assessed the incompatible insect technique (IIT) with the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti in northern Australia...
      Keywords: Applied Biological Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2106828118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Evidence for massive and recurrent toxic blooms of Alexandrium catenella
           in the Alaskan Arctic [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

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      Authors: Donald M. Anderson; Evangeline Fachon, Robert S. Pickart, Peigen Lin, Alexis D. Fischer, Mindy L. Richlen, Victoria Uva, Michael L. Brosnahan, Leah McRaven, Frank Bahr, Kathi Lefebvre, Jacqueline M. Grebmeier, Seth L. Danielson, Yihua Lyu, Yuri Fukai
      Abstract: Among the organisms that spread into and flourish in Arctic waters with rising temperatures and sea ice loss are toxic algae, a group of harmful algal bloom species that produce potent biotoxins. Alexandrium catenella, a cyst-forming dinoflagellate that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning worldwide, has been a significant threat to human...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Environmental Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107387118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Eicosanoid regulation of debris-stimulated metastasis [Immunology and
           Inflammation]

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      Authors: Jianjun Deng; Haixia Yang, Victoria M. Haak, Jun Yang, Franciele C. Kipper, Chantal Barksdale, Sung Hee Hwang, Allison Gartung, Diane R. Bielenberg, Selvakumar Subbian, Koc-Kan Ho, Xiang Ye, Daidi Fan, Yongkui Sun, Bruce D. Hammock, Dipak Panigrahy
      Abstract: Cancer therapy reduces tumor burden via tumor cell death (“debris”), which can accelerate tumor progression via the failure of inflammation resolution. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop treatment modalities that stimulate the clearance or resolution of inflammation-associated debris. Here, we demonstrate that chemotherapy-generated debris stimulates metastasis by up-regulating...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107771118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Climate change facilitated the early colonization of the Azores
           Archipelago during medieval times [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary
           Sciences]

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      Authors: Pedro M. Raposeiro; Armand Hernandez, Sergi Pla–Rabes, Vitor Goncalves, Roberto Bao, Alberto Saez, Timothy Shanahan, Mario Benavente, Erik J. de Boer, Nora Richter, Veronica Gordon, Helena Marques, Pedro M. Sousa, Martin Souto, Miguel G. Matias, Nicole Aguiar, Catia Pereira, Catarina Ritter, Maria Jesus Rubio, Marina Salcedo, David Vazquez–Loureiro, Olga Margalef, Linda A. Amaral–Zettler, Ana Cristina Costa, Yongsong Huang, Jacqueline F. N. van Leeuwen, Pere Masque, Ricardo Prego, Ana Carolina Ruiz–Fernandez, Joan–Albert Sanchez–Cabeza, Ricardo Trigo, Santiago Giralt
      Abstract: Humans have made such dramatic and permanent changes to Earth's landscapes that much of it is now substantially and irreversibly altered from its preanthropogenic state. Remote islands, until recently isolated from humans, offer insights into how these landscapes evolved in response to human-induced perturbations. However, little is known about when...
      Keywords: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Environmental Sciences
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108236118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Cis-acting lnc-Cxcl2 restrains neutrophil-mediated lung inflammation by
           inhibiting epithelial cell CXCL2 expression in virus infection [Immunology
           and Inflammation]

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      Authors: Shuo Liu; Jiaqi Liu, Xue Yang, Minghong Jiang, Qingqing Wang, Lianfeng Zhang, Yuanwu Ma, Zhongyang Shen, Zhigang Tian, Xuetao Cao
      Abstract: Chemokine production by epithelial cells is important for neutrophil recruitment during viral infection, the appropriate regulation of which is critical for restraining inflammation and attenuating subsequent tissue damage. Epithelial cell expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), RNA-binding proteins, and their functional interactions during viral infection and inflammation remain to be...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108276118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • BRCA1/Trp53 heterozygosity and replication stress drive esophageal cancer
           development in a mouse model [Genetics]

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      Authors: Ye He; Joshua Rivera, Miklos Diossy, Haohui Duan, Christian Bowman-Colin, Rachel Reed, Rebecca Jennings, Jesse Novak, Stevenson V. Tran, Elizabeth F. Cohen, David Szuts, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Roderick T. Bronson, Adam J. Bass, Sabina Signoretti, Zoltan Szallasi, David M. Livingston, Shailja Pathania
      Abstract: BRCA1 germline mutations are associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Recent findings of others suggest that BRCA1 mutation carriers also bear an increased risk of esophageal and gastric cancer. Here, we employ a Brca1/Trp53 mouse model to show that unresolved replication stress (RS) in BRCA1 heterozygous...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108421118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Cerebral and systemic physiological effects of wearing face masks in young
           adults [Physiology]

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      Authors: Jonas B. Fischer; Lisa Kobayashi Frisk, Felix Scholkmann, Raquel Delgado-Mederos, Mercedes Mayos, Turgut Durduran
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic led to widespread mandates requiring the wearing of face masks, which led to debates on their benefits and possible adverse effects. To that end, the physiological effects at the systemic and at the brain level are of interest. We have investigated the effect of commonly available face...
      Keywords: Applied Physical Sciences, Physiology, Brief Reports, Coronavirus Related
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2109111118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Cis-acting mutation affecting GJA5 transcription is underlying the
           Melanotic within-feather pigmentation pattern in chickens [Genetics]

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      Authors: Jingyi Li; Mi-Ok Lee, Junfeng Chen, Brian W. Davis, Benjamin J. Dorshorst, Paul B. Siegel, Masafumi Inaba, Ting-Xin Jiang, Cheng-Ming Chuong, Leif Andersson
      Abstract: Melanotic (Ml) is a mutation in chickens that extends black (eumelanin) pigmentation in normally brown or red (pheomelanin) areas, thus affecting multiple within-feather patterns [J. W. Moore, J. R. Smyth Jr, J. Hered. 62, 215–219 (1971)]. In the present study, linkage mapping using a back-cross between Dark Cornish (Ml/Ml) and...
      Keywords: Genetics
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2109363118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Robust and prototypical immune responses toward influenza vaccines in the
           high-risk group of Indigenous Australians [Immunology and Inflammation]

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      Authors: Luca Hensen; Thi H. O. Nguyen, Louise C. Rowntree, Timon Damelang, Marios Koutsakos, Malet Aban, Aeron Hurt, Kim L. Harland, Maria Auladell, Carolien E. van de Sandt, Anngie Everitt, Cath Blacker, Damian A. Oyong, Jessica R. Loughland, Jessica R. Webb, Bruce D. Wines, P. Mark Hogarth, Katie L. Flanagan, Magdalena Plebanski, Adam Wheatley, Amy W. Chung, Stephen J. Kent, Adrian Miller, E. Bridie Clemens, Peter C. Doherty, Jane Nelson, Jane Davies, Steven Y. C. Tong, Katherine Kedzierska
      Abstract: Morbidity and mortality rates from seasonal and pandemic influenza occur disproportionately in high-risk groups, including Indigenous people globally. Although vaccination against influenza is recommended for those most at risk, studies on immune responses elicited by seasonal vaccines in Indigenous populations are largely missing, with no data available for Indigenous Australians...
      Keywords: Immunology and Inflammation
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2109388118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Adolescent civic engagement: Lessons from Black Lives Matter [Social
           Sciences]

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      Authors: Arielle Baskin-Sommers; Cortney Simmons, May Conley, Shou-An Chang, Suzanne Estrada, Meghan Collins, William Pelham, Emil Beckford, Haley Mitchell-Adams, Nia Berrian, Susan F. Tapert, Dylan G. Gee, B. J. Casey
      Abstract: In 2020, individuals of all ages engaged in demonstrations condemning police brutality and supporting the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. Research that used parent reports and trends commented on in popular media suggested that adolescents under 18 had become increasingly involved in this movement. In the first large-scale quantitative survey...
      Keywords: Social Sciences, Brief Reports
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2109860118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Asymmetric protonation of glutamate residues drives a preferred transport
           pathway in EmrE [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

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      Authors: Jianping Li; Ampon Sae Her, Nathaniel J. Traaseth
      Abstract: EmrE is an Escherichia coli multidrug efflux pump and member of the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family that transports drugs as a homodimer by harnessing energy from the proton motive force. SMR family transporters contain a conserved glutamate residue in transmembrane 1 (Glu14 in EmrE) that is required for binding...
      Keywords: Biophysics and Computational Biology
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2110790118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Phospholipase C{gamma}2 regulates endocannabinoid and eicosanoid networks
           in innate immune cells [Biochemistry]

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      Authors: Hui Jing; Alex Reed, Olesya A. Ulanovskaya, Jan-Sebastian Grigoleit, Dylan M. Herbst, Cassandra L. Henry, Haoxin Li, Sabrina Barbas, Jason Germain, Kim Masuda, Benjamin F. Cravatt
      Abstract: Human genetic studies have pointed to a prominent role for innate immunity and lipid pathways in immunological and neurodegenerative disorders. Our understanding of the composition and function of immunomodulatory lipid networks in innate immune cells, however, remains incomplete. Here, we show that phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2 or PLCG2)—mutations in which are...
      Keywords: Biochemistry
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2112971118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Tubular lysosomes harbor active ion gradients and poise macrophages for
           phagocytosis [Chemistry]

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      Authors: Bhavyashree Suresh; Anand Saminathan, Kasturi Chakraborty, Matthew Zajac, Chang Cui, Lev Becker, Yamuna Krishnan
      Abstract: Lysosomes adopt dynamic, tubular states that regulate antigen presentation, phagosome resolution, and autophagy. Tubular lysosomes are studied either by inducing autophagy or by activating immune cells, both of which lead to cell states where lysosomal gene expression differs from the resting state. Therefore, it has been challenging to pinpoint the...
      Keywords: Cell Biology, Chemistry
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2113174118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Intestinal dysbiosis in celiac disease: Decreased butyrate production may
           facilitate the onset of the disease [Biological Sciences]

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      Authors: Jiezhong Chen; Luis Vitetta
      Abstract: The intestinal microbiota is critical in the ontology of early-life immunity. The intestinal microbiota stimulates immune development through microbial-associated molecular patterns which bind and activate pattern recognition receptors (1). Meanwhile there is codevelopment of numerous antiinflammatory mechanisms that prevent excessive immune responses. Intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with metabolic diseases...
      Keywords: Letters, Medical Sciences, Letters and Replies
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2113655118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Reply to Chen and Vitetta: Unraveling the complex interactions among
           organisms in the microbiome is necessary to identify unique signatures
           predicting CD onset [Biological Sciences]

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      Authors: Maureen M. Leonard; Rita R. Colwell, Alessio Fasano
      Abstract: We agree with the comments from Chen and Vitetta (1), who suggest that a potential reduction in butyrate-producing bacteria and, subsequently, the metabolite butyrate itself may be of critical importance in the development of celiac disease (CD). Indeed, our previous work in a single subject that went on to develop...
      Keywords: Letters, Medical Sciences, Letters and Replies
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2114053118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Froitzheim et al., Methane release from carbonate rock
           formations in the Siberian permafrost area during and after the 2020 heat
           wave [Corrections]

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      Abstract: EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, AND PLANETARY SCIENCES Correction for “Methane release from carbonate rock formations in the Siberian permafrost area during and after the 2020 heat wave,” by Nikolaus Froitzheim, Jaroslaw Majka, and Dmitry Zastrozhnov, which published August 2, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2107632118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2107632118). The authors note that...
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2115789118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Correction to Supporting Information for Walton et al., In vitro selection
           of ribozyme ligases that use prebiotically plausible
           2-aminoimidazole-activated substrates [SI Correction]

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      Abstract: BIOCHEMISTRY Correction to Supporting Information for “In vitro selection of ribozyme ligases that use prebiotically plausible 2-aminoimidazole–activated substrates,” by Travis Walton, Saurja DasGupta, Daniel Duzdevich, Seung Soo Oh, and Jack W. Szostak, which was first published March 2, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.1914367117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 5741–5748). The authors note...
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2115968118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Correction for Whitworth et al., Elevated cerebrospinal fluid cytokine
           levels in tuberculous meningitis predict survival in response to
           dexamethasone [Corrections]

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      Abstract: MEDICAL SCIENCES, STATISTICS Correction for “Elevated cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels in tuberculous meningitis predict survival in response to dexamethasone,” by Laura J. Whitworth, Rajan Troll, Antonio J. Pagán, Francisco J. Roca, Paul H. Edelstein, Mark Troll, David M. Tobin, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Duc Bang, Guy E. Thwaites, Nguyen Thuy...
      Keywords: Corrections
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T12:00:50-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2116316118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • The overlap gap property: A topological barrier to optimizing over random
           structures [Perspectives]

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      Authors: David Gamarnik
      Abstract: The problem of optimizing over random structures emerges in many areas of science and engineering, ranging from statistical physics to machine learning and artificial intelligence. For many such structures, finding optimal solutions by means of fast algorithms is not known and often is believed not to be possible. At the...
      Keywords: Mathematics, Perspectives
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T11:26:38-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108492118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Large herbivores suppress liana infestation in an African savanna
           [Ecology]

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      Authors: Tyler C. Coverdale; Ryan D. O’Connell, Matthew C. Hutchinson, Amanda Savagian, Tyler R. Kartzinel, Todd M. Palmer, Jacob R. Goheen, David J. Augustine, Mahesh Sankaran, Corina E. Tarnita, Robert M. Pringle
      Abstract: African savannas are the last stronghold of diverse large-mammal communities, and a major focus of savanna ecology is to understand how these animals affect the relative abundance of trees and grasses. However, savannas support diverse plant life-forms, and human-induced changes in large-herbivore assemblages—declining wildlife populations and their displacement by livestock—may...
      Keywords: Ecology
      PubDate: 2021-09-27T12:04:29-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2101676118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
  • Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamic in vivo using reporter-expressing
           viruses [Microbiology]

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      Authors: Chengjin Ye; Kevin Chiem, Jun-Gyu Park, Jesus A. Silvas, Desarey Morales Vasquez, Julien Sourimant, Michelle J. Lin, Alexander L. Greninger, Richard K. Plemper, Jordi B. Torrelles, James J. Kobie, Mark R. Walter, Juan Carlos de la Torre, Luis Martinez-Sobrido
      Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic, is one of the biggest threats to public health. However, the dynamic of SARS-CoV-2 infection remains poorly understood. Replication-competent recombinant viruses expressing reporter genes provide valuable tools to investigate viral infection. Low levels of reporter...
      Keywords: Microbiology, Coronavirus (COVID-19)
      PubDate: 2021-09-24T11:17:55-07:00
      DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2111593118
      Issue No: Vol. 118, No. 41 (2021)
       
 
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