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IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.215
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 90  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0885-8993
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics Publication Information

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      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • IEEE Power Electronics Society Information

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      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Administrative Committee

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      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Design and Evaluation of a Face-Down Embedded SiC Power Module With Low
           Parasitic Inductance and Low Thermal Resistance

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      Authors: Xinnan Sun;Min Chen;Bodong Li;Fengze Hou;Dongbo Zhang;Jie Li;Yifei Du;Feng Jiang;
      Pages: 2799 - 2804
      Abstract: This letter proposed an embedded silicon carbide (SiC) power module with low parasitic inductance and low thermal resistance for high-frequency and high-temperature applications. The SiC mosfets were oriented in a face-down configuration with Cu connecting blocks, contributing to better switching performance and heat dissipation. The simulation results showed that the total parasitic inductance was lower than 300 pH. Double pulse test and thermal resistance experiments compared with a commercial package showed that the switching loss and the junction-to-case resistance of the proposed module were reduced by 23% and 35%, respectively.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Integrating Sensing Coil Function into Field Winding for Initial Position
           Estimation of Nonsalient DC Vernier Reluctance Machine

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      Authors: Weiyu Wang;Shuangxia Niu;Xing Zhao;
      Pages: 2805 - 2810
      Abstract: This letter presents a novel mutual inductance detection method by integrating sensing coil function into field winding for the initial position estimation of nonsalient DC-excited vernier reluctance machines (DC-VRM). The key is to reutilize the field winding as a sensing coil by operating the power transistor states, and then the induced currents can be detected from the closed sensing coil when detection pulses are injected into the armature windings. Combined with the established mutual inductance model, reliable position estimation is easily achieved without additional detection circuits. The proposed method has good potential to be applied to a group of nonsalient machines with independent field and armature windings.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • &rft.title=IEEE+Transactions+on+Power+Electronics&rft.issn=0885-8993&rft.date=2023&rft.volume=38&rft.spage=2811&rft.epage=2815&rft.aulast=Perreault;&rft.aufirst=Jessica&rft.au=Jessica+D.+Boles;Joseph+E.+Bonavia;Jeffrey+H.+Lang;David+J.+Perreault;">A Piezoelectric-Resonator-Based DC–DC Converter Demonstrating 1 kW/cm
           Resonator Power Density

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      Authors: Jessica D. Boles;Joseph E. Bonavia;Jeffrey H. Lang;David J. Perreault;
      Pages: 2811 - 2815
      Abstract: Piezoelectric components hold promise for realizing power conversion with unprecedented levels of power handling density at small size scales. Dc-dc converter topologies and operating modes have recently been established for high-efficiency utilization of piezoelectrics, and strategies for piezoelectric material selection and component design have likewise been identified for high-performance power conversion. In this letter, we apply these developments to experimentally demonstrate the extraordinary power density capabilities of piezoelectrics. This 275–150 V, 12 W prototype achieves a piezoelectric resonator power handling density of 1.01 kW/cm$^{3}$ at 493 kHz, greatly exceeding the densities of previous designs and validating the significant miniaturization potential of piezoelectrics for power conversion.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Universal Bridgeless Nonisolated Battery Charger With Wide-Output Voltage
           Range

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      Authors: Harish Karneddi;Deepak Ronanki;
      Pages: 2816 - 2820
      Abstract: The existing onboard battery chargers (OBCs) are incompatible to adopt for different electric vehicle (EV) powertrain configurations owing to different battery pack voltages and input power supplies. This letter proposes a new universal battery charger to charge EV batteries whose output voltage is ranging from 48 to 450 V. A dual-loop distinct current controller with a seamless transition for boost and buck operations is designed, which regulates the output voltage and maintains the unity power factor at the grid side. Furthermore, an active harmonic minimization method is incorporated with the designed controller to attenuate the prominent third-harmonic in the reference current and eradicate subharmonic oscillations. The performance of the proposed OBC is validated through the MATLAB simulations and experiments on a 1.5-kW laboratory prototype with an universal ac power supply and compared with existing OBCs.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Power Decoupling Rectifier With Common-Ground Concept for Lighting
           Applications

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      Authors: Hanlei Tian;Yuan Cao;Wei Han;Guozhuang Liang;
      Pages: 2821 - 2826
      Abstract: The lightweight and the electrolytic capacitor-less are the development trends of microconverters for transportation lighting applications. Some solutions available to address the power fluctuations are caused by electrolytic capacitor-less. However, the leakage currents caused by nonisolated converters have been little studied. Given this, an improved transformerless single-phase rectifier based on the virtual dc-bus concept is proposed in this letter. This solution connects the negative of the LED array directly to the grid neutral, thus shorting the stray capacitance to the ground, suppressing leakage currents, and improving system reliability. In addition, the active pulsating power buffering solution is introduced with only one additional power switch due to the sharing of cells. Finally, the experimental results verify the correctness and superior performance of the proposed solution.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Transient Analytical Model of High-Voltage and High-Power IGBT Device
           Based on Nondual Relationship for the Switching Process

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      Authors: Bin Hao;Yixuan Yang;Xinling Tang;Zhibin Zhao;
      Pages: 2827 - 2832
      Abstract: This letter focuses on the accurate simulation of the turn-off current for high-voltage and high-power IGBT devices and proposes a modeling method of transient analysis model (TAM) for IGBT devices based on the nondual relationship of the switching process. Combined with the structural features of the IGBT chip, the carrier storage effect is analyzed and the analytical expression of di/dt during the turn-off process is corrected. Compared with the existing dual modeling methods, the accuracy of the nondual modeling method for di/dt during the turn-off process has been greatly improved.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Presynchronization Control for Grid-Connected Inverters Without Grid
           Voltage Sensors

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      Authors: Tianqi Liu;Peng Wang;Junpeng Ma;Rui Zhang;Shunliang Wang;Zihao Wu;Ruogu Wang;
      Pages: 2833 - 2838
      Abstract: The grid voltage sensorless control for grid-connected inverters samples the line current to estimate the voltage at the point-of-common-coupling and achieve grid synchronization. The sensorless control tends to enlarge in-rush currents and fails to connect to the grid. For addressing this issue, this letter proposes a presynchronization control strategy to achieve a fast and reliable connection to the grid. By applying periodic pulses with a designed duty cycle, the converter operates in the rectifier mode with unit power factor before being connected to the ac grid as an inverter. The initial phase of the ac grid can thereby be estimated by the sampled current, where a synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop is applied to obtain the current phase. The proposed strategy is validated by experimental tests.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Novel Ultrafast Turn-Off Failure Detection Method of Integrated Gate
           Commutated Thyristor for VSC Application

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      Authors: Ruihang Bai;Biao Zhao;Chen Yang;Zhengyu Chen;Jiapeng Liu;Liang Zhang;Jinpeng Wu;Zhanqing Yu;Rong Zeng;
      Pages: 2839 - 2843
      Abstract: Integrated gate commutated thyristor (IGCT) has prospects in voltage source converter application. However, it has no desaturation characteristic in conducting state like insulated gate bipolar transistor, for which fast turn-off failure detection for blocking converter in deadtime is of great significance. In this letter, an ultrafast IGCT turn-off failure detection method is proposed. First, turn-off process and failure mechanism of IGCT is analyzed. It is clarified that turn-off capacitors of gate driver will continue to discharge in turn-off failure, thus generating a voltage drop on turn-off mosfet, which can be the criterion of failure. Then prototype, threshold and timing sequence are designed. Analog circuit including amplifier, hysteretic comparator and reference circuit is used for fast and accurate measurement of voltage on mosfet. The failure gate current and fall time of turn-off trail current is measured in pulse test. Finally, experiments are carried out to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme. The results show that the proposed scheme can achieve reliable turn-off failure detection within 19 microseconds. Neither false detection nor missed detection occurred. Proposed method has great accuracy and rapidity, and is convenient in implementation. It will greatly decrease the extreme failure rate of IGCT-based converters.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Quadratic Sensitivity Models for Flexible Power Quality Improvement in AC
           Electrified Railways

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      Authors: Yinbo Ge;Haitao Hu;Yi Huang;Ke Wang;Junyu Chen;Zhengyou He;
      Pages: 2844 - 2849
      Abstract: With the development of flexible traction power systems (TPSs), more active and flexible power quality improvement is becoming feasible for ac electrified railways. However, the standard definitions of power quality indexes of electrified railways are strongly nonlinear, which poses challenges to the optimal real-time power quality control of flexible TPSs. Therefore, this letter establishes universal and concise mathematical models that directly link the active and reactive power outputs of the traction transformer to the negative sequence current (NSC) and effective power factor (EPF) of traction substations (TSSs). With that, the quadratic sensitivity models (QSMs) of the power outputs of the traction transformer to the NSC and EPF of TSSs are developed. These QSMs can accurately estimate the varieties of NSC and EPF with the varieties of the power outputs of the traction transformer. To demonstrate their utility, two application schemes of the proposed QSMs for optimal real-time power quality control in flexible TPSs are explored and verified via hardware-in-the-loop experiments.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Low-Cost Realization of Feature Position Estimation Scheme for Switched
           Reluctance Motor

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      Authors: Rajdeep Banerjee;Parthasarathi Sensarma;
      Pages: 2850 - 2854
      Abstract: This letter proposes a low-cost feature position estimation scheme for singly excited SRM without using lookup tables. This scheme uses the particular flux linkage versus current curve, corresponding to the commutation angle, to generate a flux-linkage reference. Phase commutation is executed at the instant when the online estimated flux linkage reaches this reference threshold. So, this letter, initially, proposes a novel analytical method to compute the reference flux linkage from phase currents. Then, a new approach is presented that maps the individual measured phase currents and estimated flux linkages into corresponding unified signals to reduce the computational burden. Thereafter, the mutual coupling among phases is shown as a cause of serious error in the thresholding operation, and a design criterion to avoid this error is derived. Performance of the proposed sensorless scheme is experimentally validated on a 1 kW, 3000 r/min, 6/4 SRM-based laboratory prototype.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Spectrum Estimation of Input Current Ripple on a Wide Class of Multilevel
           Grid-Tied Converters

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      Authors: Davide Biadene;
      Pages: 2855 - 2860
      Abstract: Multilevel (ML) converters are frequently used to implement grid-tied ac–dc conversion systems. Their design may benefit from multiobjective optimization techniques, which typically involves time-consuming circuit simulations in order to obtain input current estimations suitable for input inductor and electromagnetic interference filter design. Herein, a closed-form expression of the input current ripple is derived to ease harmonic content estimations. The proposed approach separates the fundamental grid-current component from its ripple and models the latter like an amplitude modulation, where the modulating signal is its envelope and the carrier is the triangular current waveform. First, a general waveform analysis of ML converters is performed to derive the voltage across the grid-side inductor, then the associated current ripple is modeled. Experimental results on an ML converter prototype are reported to validate the analytical results.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • An Online Diagnosis Method for Sensor Intermittent Fault Based on
           Data-Driven Model

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      Authors: Kun Zhang;Bin Gou;Wei Xiong;Xiaoyun Feng;
      Pages: 2861 - 2865
      Abstract: The intermittent fault (IF) is usually overlooked in power electronic applications. In this letter, an intelligent diagnosis method based on a data-driven model is proposed for sensor IFs. First, the manifestation of IF in the time domain is discussed to explore its distinctive characteristics. Then, a signal predictor is constructed in a data-driven way by utilizing the nonlinear autoregressive exogenous structure with the extreme learning machine algorithm. In addition, the residual is generated online by comparing the output of the devised data-driven predictor and that of the real sensor. The fault diagnosis decision-making scheme is finally designed based on the residual evaluation to identify the sensor IF and permanent fault simultaneously. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by offline tests and real-time experimental tests.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Condition Monitoring of Thermal Fatigue of IGBT Module Using Turning Point
           of Preheating Stage of Case Temperature

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      Authors: Yaoyi Yu;Xiong Du;Junjie Zhou;Hongyu Ren;Qiangqiang Liu;Quanming Luo;
      Pages: 2866 - 2871
      Abstract: This letter utilizes the turning point of preheating stage of case temperature Tc as an efficient indicator for condition monitoring of insulated gate bipolar transistor modules, which could be extracted from dynamic response of Tc. Theoretical analysis shows that the turning point will increase with aging process, and its effectiveness is experimentally verified. This method only requires temperature sensor to measure Tc without strict measurement requirements. Thus, it brings negligible hardware burden, which is low cost and has more flexibility in online application. Besides, the installation of case temperature sensor does not cause intrusive change to the original system, and the measurement does not affect the normal operation of converter. These features make it more practical for noninvasive and real-time monitoring.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Robust Grid-Forming Control With Active Susceptance

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      Authors: Fangzhou Zhao;Xiongfei Wang;Zichao Zhou;Yin Sun;Lennart Harnefors;Tianhua Zhu;
      Pages: 2872 - 2877
      Abstract: This letter proposes a grid-forming control scheme that is robust against a wide range of short-circuit ratio (SCR) of the ac grid. The approach modifies the traditional power synchronization control by adding an active susceptance loop, which enhances system damping for high stability robustness and enables to use a standard voltage-oriented vector current control. The latter can avoid major software changes on a classical grid-following control structure. Both small-signal dynamics analysis and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the approach from ultraweak (SCR = 1, X/R ratio = 7) to stiff (SCR = 38.5) grids.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Simultaneous Power and Data Transmission Technology Based on Coil
           Multiplexing in Domino-Resonator WPT Systems

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      Authors: Yong Li;Xiao Yang;Wenjun Sun;Jiefeng Hu;Zhengyou He;
      Pages: 2878 - 2883
      Abstract: To achieve parallel power and data transmission in domino-resonator wireless power transfer (WPT) systems, a novel simultaneous power, and data transfer (SPDT) technology based on coil multiplexing is proposed in this letter. Benefiting from the magnetic field characteristics of the bipolar coil structure, the power and data can be injected into multiplexed coils with different flow directions, leading to opposite induced voltage polarities in each coupling coil. Subsequently, a corresponding resonator circuit is developed to form independent power and data resonance loops. In addition, an injected data transmission scheme is developed for domino-resonator WPT systems. Compared with traditional SPDT methods, additional wave trappers and coupling structures are avoided by this proposed technology, and the interference between power and data transfer is significantly eliminated. A 23.6 W laboratory prototype with five domino resonators is built to validate the feasibility of this proposed technology. The experimental results show that the power transfer efficiency reaches 70% at 50 kb/s data transfer rate.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Embedded Lightweight Squirrel-Cage Receiver Coil for Drone
           Misalignment-Tolerant Wireless Charging

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      Authors: Pengcheng Cao;Yong Lu;Haigang Zhang;Jiapeng Li;Wenping Chai;Chunwei Cai;Shuai Wu;
      Pages: 2884 - 2888
      Abstract: Wireless charging systems in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) should be compact, lightweight, and misalignment-tolerant. Equipment required for better performance, such as the receiver, cannot be placed outside the drone body, which would cause additional flight power resistance. To satisfy more demanding requirements, a novel squirrel-cage receiver coil embedded in the landing gear of a UAV is proposed. It avoids flight resistance while achieving a lightweight, simplified structure for the transmitter and receiver coils. In the experiments, a main circular transmitter coil with a 440 mm outer diameter was used. The dc–dc efficiency was 78%–80% and the output current was 2.47 ± 0.13 A in a 0–320 mm diameter area. The efficiency was >74% and current was 2.05 ± 0.15 A in a 320–440 mm diameter area. The results show that the squirrel-cage receiver coils combined with a main and a small circular transmitting coil has good misalignment tolerance performance.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Dual Inverter Topology With Quasi-Isolated Power Supplies for More
           Electric Aircraft Applications

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      Authors: Jiaxing Lei;Guoli Feng;Chuanhao Liu;Yihui Xia;Wei Hua;
      Pages: 2889 - 2895
      Abstract: Open-end load system fed by the dual inverter (DI) is a promising technique for more electric aircraft (MEA) applications. Yet, two isolated power supplies preferred by the DI are hardly available in most MEAs. To address this issue, a novel DI topology with quasi-isolated power supplies is proposed in this letter. A simple nonisolated H-bridge boost converter is adopted to generate the second power supply and, moreover, to compensate for the load zero-sequence voltage generated by the DI. The operating principle and the applicability of the proposed DI topology are presented. Besides, a simple decoupled system control strategy is proposed. It is revealed that the proposed DI topology can generate a very high output voltage from the single power supply, while the load control performance is hardly affected by the zero-sequence current. This is a prominent advantage for MEA applications. The experimental results have verified the validity of the proposed topology.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Discrete-Time Algorithm for Real Time Energy Management in DC Microgrids

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      Authors: Fei Gao;Jiahao Yu;Daniel J. Rogers;
      Pages: 2896 - 2909
      Abstract: A microgrid will often be characterized by very low embedded system inertia when operating fully islanded. In this state, management of the embedded stored energy in the microgrid over timescales of milliseconds is of critical importance as even short periods of mismatch between generation and consumption will cause voltage collapse on the network. This article proposes a discrete-time (sampling-based) energy management algorithm that uses the rapid controllability of power-electronics interfaced loads to manage the internal stored energy of loads with the aim of minimizing the use of bulk storage and dispatchable generation. Fast interconverter communication is used to balance storage demand across the network and to dispatch generation. A lab-scale microgrid with 10 nodes and a sampling time of 10 ms is used to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management algorithm.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Performance Analysis of Energy Balancing Methods for Matrix Modular
           Multilevel Converters

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      Authors: Philippe Bontemps;Stefan Milovanovic;Drazen Dujic;
      Pages: 2910 - 2924
      Abstract: Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) achieve voltage scalability through the series connection of cells, each with its own capacitance. However, this converter structure using floating energy storage elements increases the control complexity significantly. The voltages of each capacitance must be controlled to their respective setpoints to ensure the correct operation of the converter. Relying on the use of circulating currents, which are unobservable at the converter terminals, the energy can be exchanged among the branches. Three control principles resulting in three different implementations are thoroughly explained and their dynamic performance is compared. The results are verified using a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) platform simulating a hydro power plant using a matrix modular multilevel converter connected between a 6.6 kV grid and a 6 kV synchronous machine.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Virtual Admittance Reshaping Based Input Current Phase Shift Suppression
           Method for Totem-Pole Bridgeless PFC Converter

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      Authors: Binxing Li;Dawei Ding;Qiwei Wang;Guoqiang Zhang;Gaolin Wang;Dianguo Xu;
      Pages: 2925 - 2939
      Abstract: Grid-side current phase shift (GCPS) is an important issue in totem-pole bridgeless power factor correction (TBPFC) converters. In this article, a virtual admittance reshaping based GCPS suppression method is proposed based on the establishment of the admittance model of the TBPFC converter including the EMI filter. The virtual admittance reshaping does not need additional current and voltage sensors and can realize complex admittance through a control algorithm. Thus, the current phase error can be adjusted to zero with the optimal design. The inherent admittance of the system is analyzed from the perspective of system frequency characteristics to extract leading-phase admittance. Then, the parallel admittance is produced through the inductance current for canceling it. The current reference and the modulation voltage are combined to realize obtaining the equivalent virtual admittance and meanwhile reduce the burden of the current regulator. The sensitivity of the system parameters is analyzed, and the saturation effect of the inductor and the error of the EMI filter parameters have little effect on admittance reshaping. Besides, the research method does not need to adjust parameters according to the load. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experiments on a TBPFC converter platform.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Design and Control of a Novel Wireless Energy Router With Independent
           Power Transmission Channels

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      Authors: Yuxin Liu;Chunhua Liu;Senyi Liu;Yongcan Huang;
      Pages: 2940 - 2955
      Abstract: Energy routers are intelligent power electronic systems that enable energy sharing and flexible power flow regulation among various distributed energy sources. Combining the excellent feature of wireless power transfer technology for contactless transmission of electrical energy, this article proposes a novel wireless energy router to realize the power exchange of multiple energy storage devices, such as various mobile electronics, electric vehicles, and energy storage stations. Independent power transmission channels with specific operating frequencies are built between any two of the power-exchanging units. The multiple resonating decoupling compensations are designed and implemented, which offer each power-exchanging unit and various resonate operating frequencies while suppressing the frequency components from irrelevant channels. Moreover, through generation by the bidirectional multilevel converter, the drive voltage of each unit can naturally realize the synthesis of multiple-frequency voltage components. In addition, the decoupled dual-side phase-shift control with capacitor voltage balancing strategy is proposed to regulate the power flow in each power channel. As a result, simultaneous energy sharing among power storage devices can be achieved. And the power flows can be adjusted independently without cross interference. Finally, both simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed wireless energy router.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Low-Complexity Dual-Vector Model Predictive Control for Single-Phase
           Nine-Level ANPC-Based Converter

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      Authors: Ibrahim Harbi;Mostafa Ahmed;Christoph M. Hackl;Jose Rodriguez;Ralph Kennel;Mohamed Abdelrahem;
      Pages: 2956 - 2971
      Abstract: This article proposes a dual-vector finite-control-set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) with reduced complexity for a novel nine-level active neutral point clamped (ANPC) converter. This topology considerably reduces the used number of power switches compared to other topologies. Only nine power switches and two flying capacitors (FCs) are used to generate nine voltage levels. The proposed MPC scheme notably reduces the computational burden by directly locating the best two vectors without the need for multiple evaluations of the cost function as in the conventional method. Using one weighting factor in the cost function, three objectives are considered, namely, current tracking, FCs voltage control, and dc-link stabilization, reducing the heavy effort of coordinating weighting factors. Mathematical analyzes were carried out to determine the optimal duration of the selected voltage vectors. While the sequence of the two voltage vectors is identified based on the total harmonic distortion (THD) definition to minimize its value. Compared with standard FCS-MPC, lower steady-state errors, lower THDs, better harmonic distribution, and shorter execution times are achieved. The proposed MPC method is validated and compared with other prior-art control methods through experimental implementation.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Settling Angle-Based Stability Criterion for Power-Electronics-Dominated
           Power Systems

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      Authors: Shan Jiang;Ye Zhu;Georgios Konstantinou;
      Pages: 2972 - 2984
      Abstract: Impedance-based analysis methods are widely applied to the small-signal stability analysis of grid-connected converters. As the initial step to carry out the impedance-based stability analysis, it is critical to select whether to represent the converter as a Norton or Thevenin equivalent circuit. However, there is lack of definition on the representation of converters, and inappropriately selected impedance model choice leads to improper stability analysis. Moreover, existing impedance-based stability analysis methods, e.g., return-ratio matrix (RRM)-based method, only apply to minimum phase systems where the RRM does not contain right-half-plane poles. In complex and power-electronics-dominated power systems, interactions between multiple converters lead to nonminimum phase power systems, where current methods can no longer be directly applied. To address these problems, a stability criterion is proposed by introducing the concept of settling angle. As the main contribution of this article, the settling angle of total admittance is proven as the intrinsic hallmark of power systems and directly reflects the system stability. The proposed settling-angle-based stability criterion is validated by control hardware-in-the-loop experimental results for a three-terminal system that integrates grid-forming and grid-following converters through a common bus.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Autonomous Input Voltage Sharing Control and Triple Phase Shift Modulation
           Method for ISOP-DAB Converter in DC Microgrid: A Multiagent Deep
           Reinforcement Learning-Based Method

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      Authors: Yu Zeng;Josep Pou;Changjiang Sun;Suvajit Mukherjee;Xu Xu;Amit Kumar Gupta;Jiaxin Dong;
      Pages: 2985 - 3000
      Abstract: This article proposes a multiagent (MA) deep reinforcement learning (DRL) based autonomous input voltage sharing (IVS) control and triple phase shift modulation method for input-series output-parallel (ISOP) dual active bridge (DAB) converters to solve the three challenges: the uncertainties of the dc microgrid, the power balance problem, and the current stress minimization of the converter. Specifically, the control and modulation problem of the ISOP-DAB converter is formed as a Markov game with several DRL agents. Subsequently, the MA twin-delayed deep deterministic policy gradient (MA-TD3) algorithm is applied to train the DRL agents in an offline manner. After the training process, the multiple agents can provide online control decisions for the ISOP-DAB converter to balance the IVS, and minimize the current stress among different submodules. Without accurate model information, the proposed method can adaptively obtain the optimal modulation variable combinations in a stochastic and uncertain environment. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed MA-TD3-based algorithm.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Steady-State Indeterminacy in Lossless Switched-Mode Power Converters

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      Authors: Luca Corradini;Dragan Maksimović;
      Pages: 3001 - 3013
      Abstract: In this article, it is shown for the first time that lossless switched-mode power converters may not possess a unique steady-state solution. Rather, they can exhibit an inherent indeterminacy in their steady-state behavior, and a unique solution is only found when losses are included in the analysis. Even more interestingly, it is shown that lossless converters of odd order never possess a unique steady-state solution. Indeterminate converters can be intrinsically sensitive to parasitic resistances and other nonideal effects, a phenomenon that practically manifests itself in the form of undesirable voltages or circulating currents possessing, in general, both dc and ac components. This article first sets a general mathematical framework for a systematic assessment of steady-state indeterminacy. This is subsequently linked to the geometry of the state vector periodic motion in the converter's n-dimensional state space. On the basis of the developed theory, odd-order converters are shown to always be affected by the indeterminacy issue. Besides inherent theoretical importance in the power electronics field, the results of this article provide a deeper justification for the observed behavior of several converter topologies of significant practical relevance, the most notable being multiphase and multilevel dc–dc converters, examples of which are discussed as case studies.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Multiobjective Model-Free Predictive Control for Motor Drives and
           Grid-Connected Applications: Operating With Unbalanced Multilevel Cascaded
           H-Bridge Inverters

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      Authors: Paul Gistain Ipoum-Ngome;Daniel Legrand Mon-Nzongo;Rodolfo César Costa Flesch;Jinquan Tang;Tao Jin;Mengqi Wang;Chunyan Lai;
      Pages: 3014 - 3028
      Abstract: A multiobjective model-free predictive control (MO-MFPC) strategy is proposed in this article for multilevel cascaded H-bridge (MLCHB) inverters with unbalanced conditions. The compensated current variation (CCV), which allows the inclusion of the proportional and integral terms into the cost function, is generalized to improve the accuracy of MFPC over a wide range of applications. The new extended CCV is used to define the voltage control objective without involving the output voltage model of MLCHB. This voltage control objective is used to evaluate all state candidates to achieve a suitable subset for the current control objective. To achieve a better tradeoff between the current accuracy and the injected common-mode voltage (CMV), CMV is added to the cost function. Simulations and experimental evaluations show that, compared to existing MFPCs and classic model predictive control for MLCHB inverters, MO-MFPC achieves a better current accuracy over a wide range of applications and unbalanced MLCHB operating conditions.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Systematic Stability Enhancement Method for Microgrids With
           Unknown-Parameter Inverters

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      Authors: Yang Li;Xiangyang Wu;Zhikang Shuai;Quan Zhou;Haojie Chen;Zheng John Shen;
      Pages: 3029 - 3043
      Abstract: With massive electronic inverters, microgrids are threatened by the instability problems caused by the impedance interactions among inverters and the network. For the microgrids with black-box inverters (whose parameters are unknown due to industry secrets), it is hard to assess, much less enhance, the stability of such systems. This article proposes a systematic impedance-based stability assessment and enhancement method for the microgrids with black-box inverters. First, the return-ratio matrix Gnet of the system with both current-controlled and voltage-controlled inverters is formulated based on the nodal admittance matrix. And then, the sensitivities of the critical eigenvalues of Gnet are calculated with respect to individual admittances/impedances of inverters, which can identify the “trouble maker(s).” Moreover, the low voltage active damper (LVAD) is proposed for the stability enhancement of the system. An eigenvalue perturbation sensitivity analysis method is presented to calculate the sensitivities of the critical eigenvalues with respect to nodal parallel admittances, which identifies the optimal installation position for LVAD, and accordingly provides the guidance for the design of LVAD. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified using a modified IEEE 6-bus system in PSACD/EMTDC and RT-Lab platforms.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Virtual Voltage Field-Weakening Scheme of Trajectory Correction for PMSM
           Model Predictive Control

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      Authors: Qinghua Dong;Bo Wang;Liqun Xia;Yong Yu;Minghe Tian;Dianguo Xu;
      Pages: 3044 - 3056
      Abstract: The finite-control-set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) is an effective control method for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives with multiple constraints. However, it suffers from the trajectory deviation in the field-weakening region due to the model mismatch. In addition, the inherent discreteness of FCS-MPC further hinders the continuous prescribed trajectory in the field-weakening region. To address this problem, a field-weakening scheme with virtual voltage is studied to realize trajectory correction through the feedback mechanism. The concept of virtual voltage is proposed and constructed with continuous, excess, and perturbed components. The three components are extracted from the model characteristics, the predicted current error, and the disturbing current, which provide continuity, field-weakening trigger, and parametric immunity for the virtual voltage, respectively. Comparison experiments are conducted on the FPGA+ARM-based PMSM test rig to validate the dynamic performance and trajectory deviation immunity in the field-weakening region.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Small-Signal Modeling of Phase-Shifted Digital PWM in Interleaved and
           Multilevel Converters

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      Authors: Ruzica Cvetanovic;Ivan Z. Petric;Paolo Mattavelli;Simone Buso;
      Pages: 3057 - 3068
      Abstract: In this article, small-signal modeling of digital pulsewidth modulators (DPWMs) used in multicell voltage source converters (VSCs) is addressed. In addition to sampling and computation, DPWM introduces delay, which impairs VSC's dynamic performance and robustness. In order to take into account the influence of modulation delay, an accurate small-signal representation of DPWM is necessary. Here, modeling of multisampled bipolar and unipolar phase-shifted DPWMs for single-, double-, and multi-update strategies is presented. The simplest multilevel modulation of single-cell full-bridge VSCs, unipolar DPWM, is also covered by the analysis. The derived operating-point-dependent small-signal DPWM models are verified using simulated and experimental frequency response measurements up to four times the Nyquist frequency. Comparisons are also made with the models conventionally considered in the literature. Additionally, an approximate method is presented to model the influence of dead time on DPWM's small-signal dynamics. For the purposes of showcasing the importance of the proposed DPWM models, high-frequency admittance of a VSC employing multisampled multiupdate unipolar DPWM is modeled and verified in simulations and experiments.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • An Ensemble Regulation Principle for Multiobjective Finite-Control-Set
           Model-Predictive Control of Induction Machine Drives

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      Authors: Haotian Xie;Wei Tian;Xiaonan Gao;Fengxiang Wang;José Rodríguez;Ralph Kennel;
      Pages: 3069 - 3083
      Abstract: Finite-control-set model-predictive control (FCS-MPC) has been widely investigated in the electrical drive systems, thanks to its merits of intuitive concept, straightforward implementation, and fast transient response. Owing to the flexible inclusion of constraints, a combination of weighting parameters is derived in the objective function to balance the relationship between the control targets. However, it is a challenging and time-consuming task to optimize a series of weighting parameters. To cope with this issue, this article proposes an FCS-MPC scheme with an ensemble regulation principle for the removal of all the weighting parameters. On the basis of the dimension reduction of the optimization problem, the ensemble regulation principle initially selects the suboptimal solutions for all the control targets. The optimal solution is determined according to a high consistency with the suboptimal solutions via an adaptive mechanism, which not only achieves a decent performance but also avoids a worst case for all the control criteria. The experimental implementation is conducted on a 2.2-kW induction machine platform, which verifies that the proposed scheme outperforms a group of existing weighting factorless FCS-MPC schemes at both the steady state and the transient state.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Power Decoupling Method for Voltage Source Inverters Using Grid Voltage
           Modulated Direct Power Control in Unbalanced System

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      Authors: Zhen Gong;Chengxi Liu;Yonghao Gui;Filipe Faria da Silva;Claus Leth Bak;
      Pages: 3084 - 3099
      Abstract: The grid voltage modulated direct power control (GVM-DPC) is a novel power regulation method for grid-connected voltage source inverters (VSI). However, interactions between real and reactive powers still exist in GVM-DPC under unbalanced grid voltage condition, which may deteriorate its transient performance. This article proposes a power decoupling method for GVM-DPC-based VSI in unbalanced systems based on the dynamic feedforward power compensation strategy, which can reduce the coupling magnitudes of real and reactive powers in the transient stages. First, the power coupling mechanism of positive and negative sequence real and reactive powers of VSI under the unbalanced voltage condition is analyzed. Then, the power coupling magnitudes (PCM) are derived according to relationships among the positive sequence components of real power, reactive power and point of common coupling (PCC) voltages. Next, the PCM are compensated into the GVM-DPC for the better decoupling performance. Furthermore, a stability analysis of the proposed control system is studied based on the impedance model, and a comparison with the traditional power decoupling method based on virtual impedance is conducted to show the superiority of the proposed method. Finally, simulations, hardware-in-loop test and experiment are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Compact High-Efficiency Boost Converter With Time-Based Control, RHP
           Zero-Elimination, and Tracking Error Compensation

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      Authors: Mauro Leoncini;Alessandro Dago;Alessandro Bertolini;Alessandro Gasparini;Salvatore Levantino;Massimo Ghioni;
      Pages: 3100 - 3113
      Abstract: Time-based signal processing has been recently demonstrated to be more area- and power-efficient compared with traditional analog based, making it an interesting approach for the design of compact high-efficiency dc–dc converters for portable applications. This work presents a novel boost converter, with a time-based control, a scheme for right-half plane (RHP) zero mitigation requiring no extra power switch nor external capacitor, and a pulse frequency modulation (PFM) operating mode with steady-state error correction and seamless PFM-to-continuous conduction mode (CCM) transition. The prototype implemented in a 0.18-$mu$m bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) process generates an output voltage of 5 V from an input voltage ranging between 2.5 and 4.5 V, and has an 800-mA load current capability. The controller area occupation is 0.27 mm $^{2}$ and the quiescent current in CCM is 300 $mu$ A for the controller and 40 $mu$A for the tracking error compensation. The peak efficiency is 96$%$ at 4.5-V input and above 90$%$ at light loads down to 50 mA current. Compared with a peak-current mode control, both the controller area and the current consumption of the proposed time-based architecture are lower by about 40%. The achieved closed-loop bandwidth of 130 kHz is six times larger than in a conventional boost converter with RHP zero.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Fixed Switching Frequency Hybrid Modulation With ZVS for Single-Phase
           Inverter

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      Authors: Jiayu Hu;Qianming Xu;Peng Guo;Hongliang Wang;Zhixing He;Yandong Chen;An Luo;
      Pages: 3114 - 3126
      Abstract: Soft switching technology is an effective way to reduce the switching loss of the single-phase inverter to improve efficiency. Because of the ease of implementing soft switching, inverter works in boundary conduction mode (BCM) is widely used. On the contrary, BCM causes wide variation in switching frequency and large inductor current ripple. In this article, a fixed switching frequency hybrid modulation method for the inverter is proposed, which can achieve zero-voltage switching without changing the switching frequency and reduce the peak value of inductor current. The modulation achieves good tracking of the output current with different loads by switching mode between the triangular mode and the trapezoidal mode accurately. For implementing modulation, the operation states of the inverter with different conditions are analyzed in detail, the number of operation states is deduced and the state machine about mode switching is summarized. In addition, a single-phase inverter prototype is designed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed modulation. Compared with BCM, the efficiency of the inverter at both light load and full load is increased.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Stability Analysis of Bidirectional Dual Active Bridge Converter With
           Input and Output LC Filters Applying Power-Feedback Control

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      Authors: Yasushi Eto;Yuichi Noge;Masahito Shoyama;Tadatoshi Babasaki;
      Pages: 3127 - 3139
      Abstract: This article analyzes the dynamic characteristics of a dual active bridge (DAB) converter with input/output LC filters connected and power-feedback control applied, and then discusses an impedance stability criterion about both side LC filters and the converter. Power control is suitable as a control method for grid-connected converters because of its affinity with the energy management system, which is being introduced as a new way to operate power systems in recent years. In order to provide stable power supply, it is necessary to ensure the stability of the converter, and information on dynamic characteristics is essential for the design and development of converters. Since there are no previous papers found yet where the impedance stability criterion is applied when LC filters are connected to both ends of a bidirectional DAB converter, this article discusses the procedures and key points to be considered to apply the criterion. Based on the analysis, the design guidelines of the system will be discussed.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Smart Plug 2.0: A Solid-State Smart Plug Device Preventing Fire and Shock
           Hazards

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      Authors: Zhixi Deng;Yuanfeng Zhou;Ahmad Kamal;Risha Na;Ian P. Brown;Z. John Shen;
      Pages: 3140 - 3151
      Abstract: Electrical faults cause fire or shock hazards in homes and offices. Flexible power cords are particularly susceptible to metal or insulation degradation that may lead to a variety of electrical faults. This article introduces a new Smart Plug 2.0 device which offers all-in-one protection against short-circuit, overload, arc, and ground faults in addition to the wireless power control and monitor function of conventional smart plug devices. It offers microsecond-scale time resolution to detect and respond to a fault condition, and significantly reduces the electrothermal stress on household electrical wires and loads. A new arc fault detection method is developed using machine learning models based on load current di/dt events. Comparing to other solid-state circuit breaker designs which typically respond to overcurrent conditions only, Smart Plug 2.0 integrates additional protective functions into the same hardware structure with minimal cost penalty. A 120 V/10 A solid-state Smart Plug 2.0 prototype using power mosefts is designed and tested. It has experimentally demonstrated the comprehensive protection features against all types of electrical faults.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Model Predictive Current Control With Model-Aid Extended State Observer
           Compensation for PMSM Drive

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      Authors: Huanli Liu;Weiyang Lin;Zhitai Liu;Concettina Buccella;Carlo Cecati;
      Pages: 3152 - 3162
      Abstract: Model predictive current controller is a popular and effective technique to provide fast dynamic response in the field of motor control. However, conventional predictive controllers are susceptible to deteriorating control performance when model mismatch exists, such as changes in motor parameters due to the temperature variations. Therefore, this article proposes a precise model-aid extended state observer (MAESO) compensation-based real-time model predictive current controller with enhanced parameter robustness performance and high bandwidth. The predictive controller is converted into the form of multiparameter quadratic programming for online solution using numerical computational method and the constraints are linearized. In addition, the disturbances estimated by MAESO are fed back to the controller in the form of parameters for cycle-by-cycle compensation without extra controller design. Comparative simulations and experiments under different operating conditions are carried out to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • &rft.title=IEEE+Transactions+on+Power+Electronics&rft.issn=0885-8993&rft.date=2023&rft.volume=38&rft.spage=3163&rft.epage=3179&rft.aulast=Salapaka;&rft.aufirst=Soham&rft.au=Soham+Chakraborty;Sourav+Patel;Murti+V.+Salapaka;">-Synthesis-Based Generalized Robust Framework for Grid-Following and
           Grid-Forming Inverters

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      Authors: Soham Chakraborty;Sourav Patel;Murti V. Salapaka;
      Pages: 3163 - 3179
      Abstract: Grid-following and grid-forming inverters are integral components of microgrids and for integration of renewable energy sources with the grid. For grid following (GFL) inverters, which need to emulate controllable current sources, a significant challenge is to address the large uncertainty of the grid impedance. For grid forming (GFM) inverters, which need to emulate a controllable voltage source, large uncertainty due to varying loads has to be addressed. This article presents a generalized control framework by leveraging the voltage-current duality in the plant dynamic model of GFL and GFM inverters. The modeling of uncertainties is also generalized under the control framework by quantifying the uncertainties in grid impedance parameters and the uncertainties in equivalent loading parameters for GFL and GFM inverters, respectively. Based on the generalized control framework, a $boldsymbol{mu}$-synthesis-based robust control design methodology is proposed for both GFL and GFM inverters. The control objectives, while designing the proposed optimal controllers, are reference tracking, disturbance rejection, and harmonic compensation capability with ${i})$ sufficient ${LCL}$ resonance damping under large variations of grid impedance uncertainty for GFL inverters and ${ii})$ with enhanced dynamic response under large variations of equivalent loading uncertainty for GFM inverters. A combined system-in-the-loop, controller hardware-in-the-loop, and power hardware-in-the-loop based experimental validation on $mathbf {10}$-kVA microgrid system with two physical inverter systems is conducted in order to evaluate the effic-cy and viability of the proposed controllers.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • New Acoustic Noise Reduction Method for Signal-Injection-Based IPMSM
           Sensorless Drive

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      Authors: Myeong-Won Kim;Junhyuk Lee;Mriganka Biswas;Jung-Wook Park;
      Pages: 3180 - 3190
      Abstract: Many signal-injection-based sensorless methods have been developed to drive the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor without a position sensor at low speed. By these methods, rotor position can be estimated by measuring the output current ripple of inverter caused by the injected signal. However, this ripple is able to generate the undesirable acoustic noise, which decreases the usefulness and practicality of method while preventing the increase of signal-to-noise ratio. This article proposes the new acoustic noise reduction method by injecting signals to both d- and q-axes, respectively, to reduce torque ripple components for position estimation. In particular, the frequency of injected signals is matched with the pulsewidth modulation switching frequency to maximize the bandwidth for position estimation. By the proposed method, the sensorless drive with high performance can be achieved while suppressing the acoustic noise caused by injecting signals. The compensation for signal distortion is first studied by simulation with the analysis of nonlinear properties of high-frequency signal. Then, the practical effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experimental results.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Simultaneous Power and Data Transmission Using Combined Three Degrees of
           Freedom Modulation Strategy in DC–DC Converters

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      Authors: Jinghui Chen;Keming Liu;Jiande Wu;Ruichi Wang;Wanying Weng;Xiangning He;
      Pages: 3191 - 3200
      Abstract: Power and signal dual modulation (PSDM) modulates both power and data at the same time, making it an appropriate communication method for power electronics’ applications. While the conventional PSDM schemes use either duty cycle control or phase/frequency control of the gate signal for switching devices, which achieve limited bitrate performances, this article proposes a novel PSDM scheme that combines the control of the three degrees of freedom (DoF) to further improve the bitrate. The scheme's feasibility is shown by examining the compatibility between the control of different DoFs from the perspective of communication. Then, a practical scheme is determined based on the analysis of the influence between signal carriers with different frequencies and the upper limit of M-ary modulation for each carrier. Finally, a 230 W experimental prototype, which achieves independence between power and communication control as well as a bitrate of 41.7 kb/s under the switching frequency of 100 kHz/83.3 kHz, demonstrates the correctness of the proposed scheme and the pertinent theoretical analysis.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Accurate SiC MOSFET Chip Extraction Based on Parasitic Parameter Impact
           Compensation

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      Authors: Yang Li;Yuan Gao;Yan Zhang;Jinjun Liu;Cheng Nie;
      Pages: 3201 - 3212
      Abstract: With the growing use of SiC mosfet in power electronic equipment, it is meaningful to extract precise typical waveforms and characteristics for device manufacture, converter design, and operating evaluation. Many solutions have been proposed to improve measurement precision by equipment and essential techniques. However, the measured object should also be accurately identified as the existing measurement result consisting of the expected gate-source voltage (vGS) and voltage drops on parasitic parameters between measuring points. This article, first, reveals the vGS measurement deviation of TO-247-4 and TO-247-3 devices during the switching process and crosstalk, based on the equivalent circuit model and simulation waveforms. According to the clarification of the measured object, an improved vGS extraction method is proposed to eliminate this deviation. Voltage drops on parasitic parameters are compensated, with the help of high-precision equipment and the proven parasitic parameter extraction technique. Experiments are constructed to verify the analysis of measurement deviation and the availability of the proposed method. Comparison between various operating conditions emphasizes its necessity, especially in high-capacity and low-driving-resistor applications, contributing to characterization, operating condition monitoring, protection design, and measurement understanding of wide band-gap devices.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Real-Time FPGA Simulation of High-Voltage Silicon Carbide MOSFETs

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      Authors: Gard Lyng Rødal;Dimosthenis Peftitsis;
      Pages: 3213 - 3234
      Abstract: This article presents a real-time field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based dynamic model of high-voltage and high-current silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (mosfet) half-bridge power modules. The dynamic switching model utilizes the Shichman and Hodges equations using voltage-dependent nonlinear device capacitances and module electrical parameters to obtain an accurate dynamic model of the device switching transients. The key device states gate-source voltage, drain current, and drain-source voltage are modeled and discretized using forward Euler discrete integration method. Analysis of synthesizing the discrete-time model into real-time FPGA-based system with real-time data output from the on-board digital-to-analog converter is presented in detail. The model is utilized in modeling a 320-kW, medium-voltage dc/dc dual-active bridge converter and verified using dynamic experimental results from a 3.3-kV SiC mosfet half-bridge power module. It has been shown that the presented discrete-time dynamic switching model accurately describes the turn-on and turn-offswitching transients of the SiC power module at various voltage and current levels. Such models are useful for rapid and cost effective design and prototyping of SiC-based power electronic systems by defining key design and operating parameters, such as deadtime, switching frequency, and switching losses.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • An Adaptive Method to Reduce Undershoots and Overshoots in Power Switching
           Transistors Through a Low-Complexity Active Gate Driver

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      Authors: Erica Raviola;Franco Fiori;
      Pages: 3235 - 3245
      Abstract: Active gate drivers lend themselves well to reducing over- and undervoltages during the commutations of hard switched power transistors, as well as to damping resonances. However, their control strategy is a major challenge, as it should account for variations of operating condition, parameter spread, and nonlinearities of the driven transistor. This article proposes an effective control method to reduce overshoots and undershoots in a power transistor driven by an active gate driver. The modulation pattern is modified on-the-fly and none a priori characterization is required. The presented method modifies the timing parameter to attain almost zero over- and undervoltages with the lowest power losses. This is achieved by combining a low-complexity active gate driver with the measurements of peak values of the drain–source voltage. The technique was experimentally assessed for a 48–12 V dc–dc converter, and resulted in better switching performance than standard solutions and open-loop control.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • &rft.title=IEEE+Transactions+on+Power+Electronics&rft.issn=0885-8993&rft.date=2023&rft.volume=38&rft.spage=3246&rft.epage=3256&rft.aulast=Wang;&rft.aufirst=Junping&rft.au=Junping+He;Pengyang+Zhao;Weixin+Wang;Han+Wang;">Far-Field Radiation Prediction and Analysis of a Power Converter With
           V-Shaped Flat Cables Based on PEEC

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      Authors: Junping He;Pengyang Zhao;Weixin Wang;Han Wang;
      Pages: 3246 - 3256
      Abstract: The far-field radiation generated by a power electronic converter with V-shaped cables is a key theoretical problem with engineering application significance. The irregular V-shaped antenna is very difficult to calculate analytically, making a precise prediction of the power converter's far-field radiation very challenging. In this work, the far-field radiation of a power converter with flat shielded cables is modeled and predicted using the retarded partial element equivalent circuit (${mathbf{tau}}$PEEC) theory. The τPEEC modified node analysis circuit model of a metal radiator is introduced first, and then the radiator's input impedance formula is deduced. The τPEEC computation model of the V-shaped radiator, which includes the ground plane reflection effect, is developed for the typical far-field radiation test configuration, and the numerical calculation of the far-field radiation transfer function is obtained using the field strength sensor method. To test the suggested τPEEC approach, a 30-MHz low-side buck converter with flat shielded cables is built, and its 10-m far-field radiation strength is predicted. The V-shaped radiator's radiation characteristics are also investigated, and a design for suppression is proposed and demonstrated.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Novel Phase-Shift Pulsewidth Modulation Method for Light-Load
           Bidirectional Resonant Converter

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      Authors: Yuzhen Xu;Xiangyang Dai;Zhongyi Zhang;Zhiwei Kang;Tao Jin;
      Pages: 3257 - 3267
      Abstract: For the bidirectional full-bridge CLLC resonant converter, soft switching of primary side and secondary side switches and bidirectional power transmission are its obvious advantages. However, in the pulse frequency modulation control under light-load conditions, the converter will have the disadvantages of output voltage imbalance and low transmission efficiency. In order to improve the range of voltage regulation and efficiency of CLLC resonant converter under light-load conditions, a novel phase-shift pulsewidth modulation method is proposed in this article. There is low voltage gain regulation and low operation losses can be achieved under light load. Considering the parasitic parameters and dead time of the switches, the voltage gain of the proposed control method under light load is precise research by using the time domain analysis method. Finally, an experimental prototype of a bidirectional full-bridge CLLC resonant converter with 200 V input voltage, 200 V output voltage, and a rated power of 800 W is designed. According to the simulation and experimental results, it can be shown that the proposed control method is effective under light-load operation.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Capacitor Voltage Balancing for Alternate Arm Converter Based on
           Conduction Angle and Zero-Sequence Voltage

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      Authors: Rui Zhang;Shunliang Wang;Junpeng Ma;Peng Wang;Kejun Qin;Tianqi Liu;
      Pages: 3268 - 3280
      Abstract: The alternate arm converter (AAC) owns additional advantages over the traditional modular multilevel converter, such as reduced number and capacitance of submodules (SMs), and dc fault ride-through capability. The capacitor voltage balance of the AAC has always been a hot and difficult research topic. The balance performance of the conventional short-overlap control is limited by the maximum circulating currents, which may also lead to additional power losses. In this article, the conduction angle of the direction switches is employed to balance the SM capacitor voltage and a modified SM energy balance condition is developed. As the upper and lower arms are strictly alternatively conducted, the circulating currents no longer exist, leading to an improvement in system efficiency. The operation range of the AAC is also expanded under this method, so the AAC can operate far away from the sweet spot, such as grid voltage sags. A three-layer closed-loop control method based on conduction angle, zero-sequence voltage, and nearest-level modulation is further proposed, which enables the voltage balance of all SMs even under unbalanced conditions. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed methods is verified by the simulation and hardware-in-the-loop tests.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • An Accurate Analytical Model of SiC MOSFETs for Switching Speed and
           Switching Loss Calculation in High-Voltage Pulsed Power Supplies

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      Authors: Zaojun Ma;Yunqing Pei;Laili Wang;Qingshou Yang;Zhiyuan Qi;Guanghui Zeng;
      Pages: 3281 - 3297
      Abstract: Nanosecond output pulse and high efficiency are achieved in high-voltage pulsed power supplies (HVPPSs) by applying silicon carbide (SiC) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (mosfets), whose switching speed and switching loss are two vital characteristic parameters. However, the existing research on switching characteristics of SiC mosfets is mainly based on the double pulse test circuits with inductive loads, which is not suitable for assessing the devices in HVPPSs with resistive loads. Besides, some simplified analytical methods in HVPPSs lead to poor precision. To accurately predict the switching behavior of SiC mosfets in HVPPSs for guiding the design of gate driving circuits and power loops, this article proposes an accurate analytical model considering parasitic inductances, nonlinear parasitic capacitances, transfer characteristic, and output characteristics of SiC mosfets. High-precision fitting of transfer characteristic is realized by using the Gaussian function. Besides, the dynamic parasitic gate-drain capacitance is measured by experiment, and three-dimensional curve fitting is performed on the output characteristics to exactly represent on-resistance. Furthermore, switching speed and switching loss can be directly calculated according to the solved state variables. Finally, the analytical model is verified by experiment, and the effects of gate driving circuits and power loops on switching characteristics are researched in detail.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Parameters Influences Analysis and Optimization Design Method for
           Synchronous Transformer of Switched-Capacitor MMC-SST

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      Authors: Zemin Bu;Jiang Wang;Xin Li;Xiaofeng Sun;
      Pages: 3298 - 3314
      Abstract: In the switched-capacitor-based modular multilevel converter-solid state transformer scheme, the switched-capacitor circuit plays a key role in power transfer, electric isolation, voltage clamping, and low-frequency voltage ripple decoupling. However, the operational performances of switched-capacitor circuits are depended on the distribution parameters of synchronous transformers. To explore the parameter constraints, the mathematical model is established, the relationship between the active power transmission capacity and the transformer time constant is studied, the dynamic inrush current stress is also given. The analysis results show that the distribution resistance should be minimally designed to reduce the voltage clamping error, however, a large distribution resistance is good for suppressing the inrush current. Moreover, if the distribution resistance is large and the leakage inductance is small, the time constant is small, which benefits the power transfer. So, there are some contradictions in the transformer design, which needs to make a tradeoff. For coordinating the parameter optimization, the design criteria and influence factors of distribution parameters for the synchronous transformer are analyzed. Then the transformer optimization design flow considering distribution parameter constraints is proposed. Finally, the toroidal transformer prototype and the switched-capacitor experimental platform are developed to verify the correctness of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Butterfly Interleaving Winding Arrangements for Multiphase Coupled
           Inductors

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      Authors: Mingxiao Li;Yunfeng Liu;Ziwei Ouyang;Michael A. E. Andersen;
      Pages: 3315 - 3327
      Abstract: Multiphase coupled inductors in pulse-width modulated (PWM) converters benefit from the reduced steady-state current ripple and fast transient performance. This article proposes a magnetic core geometry together with a butterfly interleaving winding arrangement to integrate the four-phase negative coupled inductors. It adopts the interleaving winding strategy usually used in planar transformers to reduce the proximity effect. Basically, each winding has two overlapped areas with other two windings. The two currents in the overlapped area are in opposite directions. The proximity effect is, therefore, reduced. Compared with the conventional nonoverlapped winding arrangement, finite element analysis simulation indicates more than 60% ac resistance reduction and almost 30% footprint minimization. Both design considerations and design guidelines for the multiphase buck converter with coupled inductors are presented. The magnetic core and winding structure are demonstrated in a 36–75 V (nominal at 48 V) to 30 V four-phase negative coupled buck converter as a front stage for datacenter applications. It is implemented on a six-layer printed circuit board (PCB) without any parallel winding connections, and can operate up to 1165 W. The experiment shows the prototype achieves 99.3% peak efficiency with 912 W/in3 power density.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Family of Bipolar High Step-Up Zeta–Buck–Boost Converter Based on
           “Coat Circuit”

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      Authors: BinXin Zhu;Yu Liu;Shubo Zhi;Kaihong Wang;Jiaxin Liu;
      Pages: 3328 - 3339
      Abstract: A family of bipolar high step-up zeta–buck–boost converters based on the “coat circuit” is proposed, which can be used to connect a low-voltage dc source and a bipolar dc bus. Like the basic zeta or buck–boost converter, it contains only one active switch, so its control method and drive circuit are simple to achieve. The conversion ratio of the proposed converter is effectively increased through a “coat circuit,” and the voltage stress of the devices is reduced. In addition, the positive and negative voltages of the bipolar output voltage of the converter can be automatically equalized. Working principle and performance analysis of the proposed converter has been given in this article in detail, and a 400 W experimental prototype has been built to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Decomposed Nearest Level PWM Method With Reduced Switching Frequency for
           MMC

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      Authors: Zhen Wang;Li Peng;Jiawei Zhang;
      Pages: 3340 - 3351
      Abstract: For modular multilevel converters in medium-voltage applications, the nearest level pulse width modulation (NL-PWM), which combines the nearest level modulation (NLM) with pulse width modulation (PWM), has the advantage of better harmonic characteristics over conventional NLM. However, the introduction of high-frequency PWM also results in a significant increase in switching frequency. To solve this issue, a decomposed NL-PWM method is proposed in this article. By properly allocating the rising edge and falling edge of PWM to two different SMs, the capacitor voltage differences can be decreased more efficiently. On this basis, the allocation priority of different switching transitions is quantitatively analyzed, and then a new voltage-balancing strategy involving five switching modes is proposed. Moreover, to achieve a good tradeoff between voltage-balancing effect and switching loss, the relationship between voltage threshold and switching frequency under the proposed method is also derived. Finally, the comparative simulation and experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in different aspects of performance.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Control of Regenerative CHB Motor Drives at Fundamental Switching
           Frequency

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      Authors: Zhituo Ni;Ahmed H. Abuelnaga;Sarah Badawi;Shaoyi Yuan;Yue Pan;Mehdi Narimani;Zhongyuan Cheng;Navid R. Zargari;
      Pages: 3352 - 3362
      Abstract: To handle the high-power regeneration power in coal and mine industry applications, the regenerative version of the cascaded H-bridge (CHB) drives is made possible by replacing the diode-front-end rectifier with a three-phase IGBT-based active-front-end (AFE) rectifier in each power cell. However, the IGBT switching devices introduce extra switching losses to the system that must be properly handled due to the thermal constraints in high power medium voltage drive applications. In this article, a novel fundamental switching frequency control strategy is proposed for the AFEs in the regenerative CHB drive. With the proposed control strategy, the main harmonic contents generated by the AFEs are well-reshaped at a low-order harmonics range which can be further eliminated by the existing front-end phase-shifting transformer. This allows accomplishing the meeting of the IEEE std 519-2014 at the fundamental switching frequency fsw = 60. Moreover, with the proposed switching pattern, IGBTs can be turned off at zero current and therefore it can reduce switching losses simultaneously. The feasibility of the proposed control strategy is verified by experimental results on a seven-level regenerative CHB drive, which can be extended to regenerative CHB drives with any voltage levels.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A New Shared Module Soft Open Point for Power Distribution Network

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      Authors: Haixi Zhao;Wu Chen;Guohao He;Jiangfeng Wang;
      Pages: 3363 - 3374
      Abstract: The soft open point (SOP), as a sort of promising flexible power electronic device in place of the normal open point, can improve the operating flexibility of a distribution network. However, the traditional cascaded-H-bridge (CHB)-based SOP requires a large number of H-bridge modules and high-frequency transformers, which are costly and bulky. In this article, a shared module SOP (SMSOP) topology is proposed based on CHB. The modules of the SMSOP topology are divided into shared modules and nonshared modules. Both the input and output stages of the nonshared modules are connected in series with the terminals of the shared modules to connect two ac grids. Compared with the traditional CHB-based SOP, this topology can reduce the number of H-bridge modules and high-frequency transformers. Mathematical models are derived, and control strategies as well as feasible areas are discussed. A design method is proposed to minimize the number of modules. Finally, the correctness and validity of the proposed SMSOP are verified by simulation and experimental results.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Enhanced Performance of Series Microexploding Bridge Planar Discharge
           Switch Integrated With Exploding Foil

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      Authors: Kehua Han;Wanjun Zhao;Xin Zeng;Enyi Chu;Qingjie Jiao;
      Pages: 3375 - 3384
      Abstract: To achieve the low energy, miniaturization, and low cost of the exploding bridge foil initiator, single and series microexploding bridge planar discharge switch (MEB-PDS) coplanar and cocathode integrated with exploding bridge foil is fabricated by magnetron sputtering and photolithography forming etching in this work. The maximum electrostatic field strength and breakdown voltage of the MEB-PDS are calculated by multiphysics field theory. The breakdown voltage, conduction performance, MEB electrical explosion performance, and integrated exploding foil initiator (EFI) of the MEB-PDS have been tested. The relationship between breakdown voltages and design parameters, variation law between conduction time and design parameters, operating voltages and trigger voltages, and the matching between operating voltages and trigger voltages of MEB-PDS are analyzed. The results show that the breakdown voltages of single-bridge and three-series MEB-PDS can meet the insulation requirements at the operating voltage. The plasma clouds generated by the three-series MEB-PDS converge and superimpose, which results in its better conduction performance and operating reliability than single MEB-PDS. Based on the optimization of MEB structure parameters, the breakdown voltage of the three-series MEB-PDS is 2.848 kV at a trigger voltage of 0.600 kV. The 50% ignition voltage sensitivity U (50%) of the corresponding integrated exploding foil initiator is 1.191 kV, and the 99.9% ignition voltage sensitivity U (99.9%) is 1.269 kV. Compared with other types of spark gap discharge switches, U (99.9%) is reduced by 11.07%. The trigger voltage of the switch is reduced from ∼1.5 to 0.6 kV.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Dual-Output Extended-Power-Range Quasi-Resonant Inverter for Induction
           Heating Appliances

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      Authors: Hector Sarnago;Jose M. Burdio;Oscar Lucia;
      Pages: 3385 - 3397
      Abstract: Induction heating technology provides efficient and reliable heating processes that outperform other classical heating methods based on fossil fuels or resistive heating. Among its many industrial, domestic, and biomedical applications, domestic induction heating appliances are a popular choice due to these advantages. This technology requires high-performance and cost-effective inverters that take most of the power devices and the converter topology. Depending upon the desired performance and output-power range, different power converters are employed. However, currently, most platforms rely on the well-known series resonant half-bridge topology. Single-switch topologies offer a cost-effective implementation but are limited to the low-cost low-performance markets due to their limitations in terms of output power and power control. In this context, this paper proposes a high-performance dual-output quasi-resonant inverter for modern induction heating appliances. Unlike state-of-the-art proposals, this converter achieves a full-output-power operating range of up to 3.6 kW. Consequently, it provides a high-performance cost-effective alternative to current implementations. The proposed converter is analyzed in this paper and experimentally verified using a dual-output 3.6-kW induction heating appliance prototype.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Low-Cost and Compact Asymmetrical Unidirectional-Current Modular
           Multilevel Converters

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      Authors: Zhengxuan Li;Bojin Tang;Qiang Song;Lifeng Gou;Biao Zhao;Na Jia;Fang Cai;
      Pages: 3398 - 3411
      Abstract: Although the modular multilevel converters (MMCs) that contain submodules (SMs) with negative voltage capability have various advantages, they usually demand many more semiconductors than the conventional half-bridge SM-based MMC (HB-MMC). This study proposes a unidirectional-current clamp-double submodule (UC-CDSM) by combining two unidirectional-current full-bridge SMs (UC-FBSMs) using a shared switching device. The sharing design enables the UC-CDSM-based MMC (UC-CD-MMC) to have 25% fewer switching devices compared with the UC-FBSM-based MMC. The quantity of switching devices is rather similar to that in a conventional HB-MMC while the UC-CD-MMC still retains the advantages, such as low capacitor usage, dc fault clearing capability, and wide-range dc voltage adjustability. Moreover, a unidirectional-current hybrid MMC composed of UC-CDSMs and UC-FBSMs (UC-HYB-MMC) is presented to further enlarge the adjustable range of dc voltage. Detailed comparisons indicate that the UC-CD- and UC-HYB-MMCs can reduce the valve costs by 32% and 25%, respectively, and volumes by 39% and 34%, respectively, compared with HB-MMCs. Simulation and experimental results verify the steady-state and dc-fault clearance of the proposed topologies, and that the capacitor voltages in the UC-FBSMs and UC-CDSMs are well maintained and balanced in the UC-HYB-MMC.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Corrections to “Direct Charge Control for Mixed Conduction Mode
           Grid-Connected Inverter”

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      Authors: Pu Zhao;Yu Zhang;Qingxin Guan;Josep M. Guerrero;
      Pages: 3412 - 3413
      Abstract: Unfortunately, due to omissions in the proof of the paper, Figs. 10(c), 16, 22, 27(a) and (b), and 30 have some mistakes that confuse the normal reading.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Comment on “Series Loss-Free Resistor: Analysis, Realization, and
           Applications”

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      Authors: Alon Kuperman;
      Pages: 3414 - 3416
      Abstract: In the paper by Barbi (2021), the concept of series loss-free resistor (SLFR) was presented. The SLFR was realized by novel circuitry derived by topological variation of classical noninverting buck–boost converter operated in discontinuous-conduction mode. The purpose of this note is complementing the work of Barbi (2021) by demonstrating that SLFR may also be realized by classical converters employing dedicated current loops. Validation is carried out by realizing the capacitors balancer example by Barbi (2021) by means of a classical noninverting buck–boost converter, demonstrating the results similarity.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 38, No. 3 (2023)
       
 
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