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IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2644-1241
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • [Front cover]

    • Abstract: Presents the front cover for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Industry Applications Society

    • Abstract: Provides a listing of current staff, committee members and society officers.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications Instructions for Authors

    • Abstract: Provides instructions and guidelines to prospective authors who wish to submit manuscripts.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Real-Time Implementation of Long-Horizon Direct Model Predictive Control
           on an Embedded System

    • Authors: Eyke Liegmann;Petros Karamanakos;Ralph Kennel;
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: This paper deals with the real-time implementation of a long-horizon finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) algorithm on an embedded system. The targeted application is a medium-voltage drive system which means that operation at a very low switching frequency is needed so that the switching power losses are kept relatively low. However, a small sampling interval is required to achieve a fine granularity of switching, and thus ensure superior system performance. This renders the real-time implementation of the controller challenging. To facilitate this, a high level synthesis (HLS) tool, which synthesizes C++ code into VHDL, is employed to enable a higher level of abstraction and faster prototype development of the real-time solver of the long-horizon FCS-MPC problem, namely the sphere decoder. Experimental results based on a small-scale prototype, consisting of a three-level neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter and an induction machine, confirm that the algorithm can be executed in real time within the targeted control period of 25 $mu$s.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • State of the Art of Repetitive Control in Power Electronics and Drive
           Applications

    • Authors: Mi Tang;Marco di Benedetto;Stefano Bifaretti;Alessandro Lidozzi;Pericle Zanchetta;
      Pages: 13 - 29
      Abstract: Power electronic systems present a non-linear behavior mainly due to their switching nature. This is often combined with their interaction with non-linear systems, such as other switching converters, diode rectifiers, motor drives, etc. and with possible non linearities of the power grid in the case of grid connected systems. The major effect of these non-linear interactions is the generation of harmonic distortion on voltages and currents (both in DC and AC), which needs to be compensated to achieve high power quality systems. The use of passive filters is often the simplest and most immediate solution; however, this decreases converter efficiency and increases its weight and volume. Thus, the use of a control strategy capable of tracking periodic signals, rejecting periodic disturbance and largely improving steady state behavior and harmonic distortion with a limited bandwidth is a very desirable feature. Repetitive Control (RC) represents an extremely practical and efficient solution for the aforementioned issues, and it is widely employed in many different applications. This paper focuses on state of the art of RC used in power electronics and drives. RC basic concepts, different control structures, design methods, fixed and variable frequency operating conditions, etc. are investigated. Furthermore, many example applications and existing control approaches developed in recent years for power electronics and drive systems based on RC, have also been discussed in detail.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • On Real-Time Hybrid Testing of Ocean Wave Energy Conversion Systems: An
           Experimental Study

    • Authors: Ali S. Haider;Ted K. A. Brekken;Ryan G. Coe;Giorgio Bacelli;Alan McCall;
      Pages: 30 - 40
      Abstract: The growing wave energy sector requires an efficient and flexible testing process for the development phase of wave energy systems. Real-time hybrid testing is a promising technique for the accelerated testing of wave energy conversion systems. This article presents an experimental study on developing a hybrid testing platform for wave energy systems at the Wallace Energy System and Renewables Facility (WESRF) at Oregon State University. The wave energy conversion system is broken down into numeric (i.e., virtual) and physical (i.e., hardware) components. The numeric component involves software components such as the control algorithm for Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and controller for the power electronic converters and numerical models for the WEC device hydrodynamics. The hardware involves an ocean wave emulator testbed, Power Take-Off (PTO) mechanism, power electronics, and instrumentation. The numeric components are implemented in a real-time target machine and are interfaced with the experimental system. A case study implementation of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) is presented for a single degree of freedom heaving nonlinear WEC model with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) as a PTO system. A Field-Oriented Control (FOC) algorithm controls the PMSG-PTO generation using a three-phase Integrated Intelligent Power (IIP) module converter. A demonstration of the proposed hybrid testing setup is provided.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Energy-Management Method to Reduce the Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries
           in Hybrid-Voltage-Source Three-Level Inverter for DC-Electrified Railway
           Vehicles

    • Authors: Tadashi Mizobuchi;Keiichiro Kondo;Yosuke Dairaku;Takeshi Shinomiya;Katsumi Ishikawa;
      Pages: 41 - 55
      Abstract: The hybrid-voltage-source three-level inverter is a traction circuit system aimed at realizing energy savings with lithium-ion batteries for direct-current-electrified railway vehicles. However, this system has the limitation of being unable to freely control the power flow of the batteries owing to the pulse width modulation. However, because this system has batteries, energy management is required for the batteries. Therefore, it is necessary to propose an energy-management method that achieves the required energy-saving effect while considering the constraints of the battery power control. In this paper, a management method is proposed to control the power flow of the batteries by determining the pulse mode of the inverter and the modulation wave offset based on the state of the charge and inverter frequency. In a 0.75-kW class mini-model verification, the effectiveness of the proposed energy-management method is then confirmed based on the state of the charge, inverter frequency, offset, and battery power. Subsequently, we evaluate the energy-saving effect of this hybrid system using a numerical simulation while considering an actual railway vehicle. In addition, the optimal capacity of the batteries is investigated. As a result, the best energy-saving effect is obtained when two of the assumed batteries are connected in series and three in parallel, and the power consumption is reduced by approximately 21%.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • On Medium Frequency Differential Mode Resonance Effects in Doubly Fed
           Induction Machines

    • Authors: Hans Bärnklau;Jens Proske;
      Pages: 56 - 65
      Abstract: During synchronization phase of a doubly fed induction machine prototype abnormal high voltages were recorded at stator terminals. By evaluating the measured curves, and the frequency response of a similar machine, these overvoltages could be traced back to differential mode resonance effects within the machine itself. The effect of differential mode resonance is not restricted to doubly fed induction machines but also occurs in other machine types such as squirrel cage induction machines. If not considered in the insulation design, such abnormal voltages will lead to a premature ageing of the insulation. Depending on the operating conditions, premature failures may occur. The measured data presented in the article give an illustrative example what could happen if windings of electric machines are excited near series resonance frequency. As the occurence of this effect becomes more probable the higher the switching frequency of the converter, it is thoroughly important to be aware of it.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Data-Driven Adaptive Torque Oscillation Compensation for Multi-Motor Drive
           Systems

    • Authors: Anian Brosch;Johann Rauhaus;Oliver Wallscheid;Detmar Zimmer;Joachim Böcker;
      Pages: 66 - 78
      Abstract: Multi-motor drive systems (MMDS) combine several drives that work together to fulfill one task. Compared to conventional single-motor drive systems modular product concepts can be realized with MMDS thanks to additional degrees of freedom. Because of their mechanical structure consisting of several shafts, clutches, and gear pairings, complex deflection shapes arise which lead to unintended torque oscillations.To compensate for these torque oscillations a data-driven adaptive multiple-input single-output scheme based on two cascaded recursive least squares estimators is proposed. Here, weights (manipulable amplitudes) for each order (multiple of a fundamental frequency) to be compensated are multiplied with unit amplitude harmonic signals of a reference oscillator and added as reference torques to the torque controllers of the MMDS’s drives. These weights are continually adapted by an online identification of transfer paths and disturbances. Furthermore, the torque contribution of the individual drives concerning the compensation task can be changed at runtime utilizing a weighting matrix as tuning parameter by analytically solving a quadratic program with a linear equality constraint. Hence, the proposed algorithm is suitable for automatic self-commissioning requiring only marginal expert intervention. Experimental investigations prove the compensation capability of the approach whereby a reduction of the output torque’s total harmonic distortion (THD) of up to $80%$ from $26.8%$ to $5.4%$ for a representative operation point is achieved.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • A Recommender System for Predictive Control of Heating Systems in Economic
           Demand Response Programs

    • Authors: David Toquica;Kodjo Agbossou;Roland Malhamé;Nilson Henao;Sousso Kelouwani;Michaël Fournier;
      Pages: 79 - 89
      Abstract: Flexibility from demand-side resources is increasingly required in modern power systems to maintain the dynamic balance between demand and supply. This flexibility comes from elastic users managing controllable loads. In this context, controlling Electric Space Heaters (ESHs) is of particular interest because it can leverage building inner thermal storage capacity to shift consumption while maintaining comfort conditions. Some economic Demand Response (DR) programs have considered exploiting EHSs flexibility potentials in recent years. However, these programs still struggle to engage customers due to the complexity of processing price signals for inexpert users. Therefore, it is necessary to develop automated tools for helping users to operate their loads. Accordingly, this paper presents a recommender system based on Gaussian processes to discover users’ valuations of thermal comfort and perform the predictive control of their ESHs. The proposed method enables customers to participate in DR programs and impose their preferences through straightforward queries instead of directly changing control parameters. Validation results demonstrate that users maximize their utility by supplying noiseless and consistent data to the recommender system. Additionally, the suggested approach achieves a higher acceptance rate than other methods from the literature, such as persistency and support vector machines.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Performance Evaluation of Si/SiC Hybrid Switch-Based Three-Level Active
           Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter

    • Authors: Haichen Liu;Tiefu Zhao;Xuezhi Wu;
      Pages: 90 - 103
      Abstract: In this paper, two types of Silicon (Si) IGBT and Silicon Carbide (SiC) hybrid switch (Si/SiC HyS) based three-level active neutral-point-clamped (3L-ANPC) inverter are proposed for high efficiency and low device cost. The proposed Si/SiC HyS-based 3L-ANPC inverters are compared with the full Si IGBT, full SiC MOSFET, and Si with SiC devices-based hybrid 3L-ANPC solutions on the inverter efficiency, power capacity, and device cost. It is shown that compared with the full Si IGBT 3L-ANPC solution, the inverter efficiency improvement by Si/SiC HyS is 2.4% and 1.8% at light load condition and heavy load condition, respectively. Compared to the full SiC MOSFET solution and 2-SiC MOSFET hybrid scheme, the device cost of 2-Si/SiC HyS-based 3L-ANPC is reduced by 78% and 50% with 0.28% and 0.21% maximum inverter efficiency sacrifices. The testing results show that the proposed Si/SiC HyS-based 3L-ANPC inverter is a cost-effective way to realize high inverter efficiency. Between the two proposed Si/SiC HyS-based 3L-ANPC inverters, the 2-Si/SiC HyS-based 3L-ANPC inverter has lower device cost which makes it more suitable for cost-sensitive and high efficiency applications. While the 4-Si/SiC HyS-based 3L-ANPC inverter has higher output power capacity, making it a better candidate for high power density, high power capacity, and high efficiency applications.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Decentralised Droopless Control of Islanded Radial AC Microgrids Without
           Explicit Communication

    • Authors: Dmitry Miller;Galina Mirzaeva;Christopher David Townsend;Graham C. Goodwin;
      Pages: 104 - 113
      Abstract: A microgrid is a proven effective way to integrate renewable resources. This study presents an innovative control concept for decentralized AC microgrids, which is based on the architectural advantage of a radial microgrid structure. Under the proposed concept, power sharing between the distributed sources is achieved without droop control. Thus the need for a secondary control level is eliminated. Moreover, the use of explicit communication is replaced in the paper by a novel coordination mechanism based on the locally measured currents. The paper shows that, with a special design of the current control of grid-feeding converters, the proposed microgrid automatically provides equitable sharing of the load demand amongst the distributed generators (DGs). Moreover, the dynamic responses of the DGs are identical and decoupled from one another. It is further shown that the proposed AC microgrid is stable in the presence of any type of load. The findings of the paper are validated by simulations and laboratory experiments.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Robust Model Predictive Control for AFE-Inverter Drives With Common Mode
           Voltage Elimination

    • Authors: S.M. Muslem Uddin;Galina Mirzaeva;Graham C. Goodwin;
      Pages: 114 - 124
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel and robust version of Model Predictive Control scheme for AC drives based on Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) with Active Front End (AFE). The main feature of the proposed MPC is elimination of Common Mode Voltage (CMV) without imposing a penalty on the corresponding term in the cost function, but rather by a smart utilisation of the restricted set of switching states in a computationally efficient algorithm. Furthermore, the paper proposes to split the conventional MPC scheme into separate Control and Modulation stages, and to enhance the Control stage by integral action, and the Modulation stage - by a Feedback Quantizer. The resulting AC drive scheme provides high tracking accuracy over the full speed range, robustness to disturbances and parameters error, coupled with practically zero CMV and consequently - very low levels of conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI). This makes the proposed scheme a competitive alternative to the existing AC drive solutions in the most challenging industrial applications. The benefits of the proposed scheme are validated by simulation and experiment.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Online Auto-Tuning Method in Field-Orientation-Controlled Induction Motor
           Driving Inertial Load

    • Authors: Masaki Nagataki;Keiichiro Kondo;Osamu Yamazaki;Kazuaki Yuki;Yosuke Nakazawa;
      Pages: 125 - 140
      Abstract: Feed-forward current control, which employs a single-pulse mode of inverters over a wide speed range, is applied in inertial load drive applications such as electric vehicles and electric railway vehicles. It is necessary to identify both primary and secondary motor parameters to realize sophisticated torque control in the feed-forward current control region, wherein the current controller cannot compensate for motor parameter errors. An online auto-tuning method that is based on the fundamental components of motor voltages during acceleration with an inertial load is proposed in this study. The convergence of the proposed auto-tuning is discussed, and a calculation method for correction gains is proposed to compensate for the motor parameters. The proposed method is verified via numerical simulation and experiments with a 750 W induction motor and an inertial load.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Torque Ripple Minimization Control Strategy in Synchronous Reluctance
           Machines

    • Authors: Anant K Singh;Ramakrishnan Raja;Tomy Sebastian;Kaushik Rajashekara;
      Pages: 141 - 151
      Abstract: Torque smoothness is an essential requirement for high-performance motor drive applications. Synchronous reluctance machines (SyRM) have high torque ripple due to non-linear magnetic circuit and saturation. Typically, in Permanent magnet machines the active torque ripple compensation is achieved by injecting a compensating ripple current in the q-axis. For SyRM, the current injection method for active torque ripple cancellation can be used in both the d-axis and q-axis. However, the saturation of the motor parameters with the changing current can result in varied performance between the two methods. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of both of these methods for torque ripple cancellation. For evaluation, the impact of parameter saturation with ripple current injection on the d-axis and the q-axis is studied. The mathematical conclusions obtained are evaluated by both the simulation and the experimental results performed on a 4 pole 1200W Synchronous reluctance machine.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Analytical Investigation and Heuristic Optimization of Surface Mounted
           Permanent Magnet Machines With Hybrid Magnetic Structure

    • Authors: Bikrant Poudel;Ebrahim Amiri;Parviz Rastgoufard;
      Pages: 152 - 163
      Abstract: Cogging torque causes major operational setbacks for Permanent Magnet (PM) machine operation, particularly in applications where a quiet performance is desired. This paper presents a heuristic optimization framework to optimize the cogging torque in Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SPM) machines consisting of a hybrid magnetic structure (i.e., rare-earth and ferrite magnets). To avoid excessive computational time and volume associated with Finite Element (FE)-based optimization solutions, analytical approach is paired up with the optimization algorithm to determine the optimal design while FE is utilized for verification and validation purposes. First, analytical expressions are established for individual objective functions (i.e., airgap PM flux distribution, and cogging torque), and their corresponding spatial harmonics are identified using the air-gap field modulation theory. Next, the presented analytical model is utilized to optimize the system (i.e., minimize the cogging torque) to the desired target level via two different solutions (i.e., Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)), and their respective performance are compared. To determine the efficacy of the presented solutions, the optimal hybrid machine response is compared against the baseline structure.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • In-Situ Measurement and Investigation of Winding Loss in High-Frequency
           Cored Transformers Under Large-Signal Condition

    • Authors: Navid Rasekh;Jun Wang;Xibo Yuan;
      Pages: 164 - 177
      Abstract: This paper presents an in-situ measurement method to accurately characterize the winding loss in high-frequency (HF) transformers, which is challenging to quantify in power electronics applications. This approach adapts the reactive voltage cancellation concept to measure the complete winding loss in HF transformers with the presence of the magnetic core and the load on the secondary side, while this concept was originally brought up for core loss measurement. As an in-situ method, the proposed testing method can factor in the non-linear winding loss elements impacted by the magnetic field interaction between the windings and the core under the large-signal operation, which are not properly assessed in existing approaches. The presented method significantly reduces the sensitivity of the measurement errors linked to the probe phase discrepancy, since the resistive winding loss is well separated out from the core loss. The acquired experimental results are compared and verified with other common empirical measurement methods and three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA). As the finding, the measured winding AC resistance is found to be correlated with the load level. Furthermore, treating the complex winding loss and core loss as a black-box problem, this paper proposes a “total loss map” as an engineering solution to practically distribute the measured loss data of magnetic components to the end-users to enable quick and accurate loss estimation/modelling.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Minimum Energy Adaptive Load Sharing of Parallel Operated Compressors

    • Authors: Ayman Al Zawaideh;Khalifa Al Hosani;Igor Boiko;Mohammad Luai Hammadih;
      Pages: 178 - 191
      Abstract: Compressors operating in parallel are widely used in compressor stations on natural gas pipelines to address the required flow demands. This paper presents a design of a new control structure and a load sharing optimal adaptive controller for multiple compressors connected in parallel and equipped with variable speed drives. The load sharing optimization (LSO) controller computes the split factor to distribute the flow among the compressors which depends on the current operating conditions, with the optimization's objective being to minimize the total energy consumption. In addition, the compressor maps are continuously updated to account for any changes due to external and untraceable factors resulting in an enhancement of the LSO. The presented control structure includes a common single controller for parallel compressors, which eliminates the need for loop-decoupling. Thus, ensuring a better stability and a faster dynamics with respect to the flow or pressure process variable. The proposed control structure and the adaptive LSO performance is evaluated through simulations and a lab hardware setup. The results show an improvement of more than 4% in the total energy consumption compared to an equal load sharing scheme and more than 2.5% compared to the equal distance to surge industrial scheme. This efficiency improvement leads to significant energy cost saving over large periods of time.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Very Low-Frequency Oscillation Source Localization on Ireland's
           Power System

    • Authors: Connor Duggan;Xueqin Liu;Paul Brogan;Robert Best;D John Morrow;
      Pages: 192 - 201
      Abstract: This paper presents an approach for studying Very Low-Frequency Oscillations (VLFOs) between 0.03 and 0.08 Hz that have been observed on Irelands All-Island transmission system. Previous work by Ireland's TSO has found that the occurrence of the VLFO is linked to the generation dispatch of synchronous machines with governor control. This study verifies previous research by Ireland's TSO and analyses sensitivities such as inertia, system frequency and online generator status that causes an increase in VLF mode magnitude. This paper's results are based on 1-second resolution system frequency, metered generation and power system metric data from 1/1/2018 to 1/10/2020. This analysis demonstrates that the VLF oscillatory mode's stability is highly correlated if governors that consistently provide positive damping torque to the VLF mode are not synchronized. The findings from the study are demonstrated on several events on the Irish system using PMU data. The governor-based dissipating energy flow method is used to validate the relationships found from the generator status and system frequency case study.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • A Control Concept for Battery Emulators Using a Reference Governor With a
           Variable PT1-Element for Constraint Handling

    • Authors: Michael Zauner;Christoph Hametner;Oliver König;Stefan Jakubek;
      Pages: 202 - 210
      Abstract: This paper presents a method for highly dynamic nonlinear control of DC-DC converters with constraints used in battery emulators. Controlling this system is particularly challenging as the connected units-under-test often behave like constant power loads (CPLs), which introduce unstable system dynamics and render the system nonlinear. In order to achieve fast output dynamics with the DC-DC converters over a large operating range, a special control architecture is proposed where feedback equivalence is established between a nonlinear system description and a linear description. The nonlinear system dynamics can then be transformed into linear ones for controller synthesis by exploiting the flatness property of the system. Additionally, constraints have to be met at any time during operation to prevent damage to components. In order to satisfy the constraints, a reference governor (RG) is added to the loop. This novel RG concept uses a low-pass filter in the shape of a PT1-element to modify the voltage reference. By changing the time constant of the PT1-element, the RG is able to generate smooth constraints-aware trajectories for setpoint changes. Finally, the capabilities of the control concept are demonstrated and discussed based on high-fidelity simulations.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Power Relay Based Multiple Device Cryogenic Characterization Method and
           Results

    • Authors: Yuqi Wei;Maksudul Hossain;Dereje Woldegiorgis;Xia Du;H. Alan Mantooth;
      Pages: 211 - 223
      Abstract: Cryogenic power electronics is a promising technology due to their high efficiency and high power density characteristics. As the key element of power electronic systems, semiconductor performance should be evaluated under cryogenic temperatures. Liquid nitrogen or liquid helium are usually adopted to achieve cryogenic temperatures. Traditionally, only one semiconductor can be evaluated at one time under different temperatures, which is time-consuming and not energy-friendly. To enable multiple-device characterization at one time under different temperatures, a novel power relay based characterization circuit and corresponding control strategy are described. With the aid of the proposed circuit, multiple devices can be characterized by controlling the power relays. The introduced parasitics by the power relays are minimized through paralleling, which has negligible influence on the device under test (DUT). Cryogenic characterization results of the gate driver, power relay, and semiconductors are presented. Both silicon (Si) metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs are characterized and their performances are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Impact of Power Converters and Battery Lifetime on Economic Profitability
           of Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    • Authors: Monika Sandelic;Ariya Sangwongwanich;Frede Blaabjerg;
      Pages: 224 - 236
      Abstract: The installations of the residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with integrated battery energy storage are strongly dependent on their economic profitability. The Net Present Value (NPV), which is a metric to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PV-battery systems, can be strongly influenced by the replacement cost. Thus, the lifetime of the reliability-critical components such as power converters and battery plays an important role and needs to be considered during the economic evaluation. In this paper, an impact of power converters and battery lifetime on the economic profitability of the PV-battery system for different installation sites is analyzed. A comprehensive model, consisting of system performance, lifetime, and economic profitability aspects as well as their interconnections is developed in this paper. A case study reveals that the NPV can be significantly over-estimated if the power converters and battery need to be replaced several times during the entire lifespan of the PV-battery system. Hence, the lifetime analysis should be included in the economic assessment and reflected with a more realistic component replacement cost during the planning stage of the residential PV-battery projects.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
  • Design and Optimization Strategy to Size Resilient Stand-Alone Hybrid
           Microgrids in Various Climatic Conditions

    • Authors: Norma Anglani;Giovanna Oriti;Ruth Fish;Douglas L. Van Bossuyt;
      Pages: 237 - 246
      Abstract: This paper presents an original two-steps methodology to size DERs (Distributed Energy Resources) in stand-alone microgrids, to be installed in different areas, featuring different meteorological conditions, but same kind of loads. Design examples are simulated to analyze how an increased level of resilience, considered in terms of number of days of autonomy after an initial incident, affects the sizing of a PV field and its storage. A practical tool to support strategic choices is methodologically illustrated and applied to two case studies to find the best configuration, which is identified by a trade-off among fuel consumption, sizes of PV arrays and resilience. Key design parameters help in designing the best system according to the location, by focusing on the newly identified key performance indicator $NPV^{s}$, the simplified net present value of specific scenarios of interest, where a penalty is introduced to account for less than the ideal target of autonomy. The model-based design used to create the microgrid simulations is validated by experimental measurements on a test-bed hybrid microgrid.
      PubDate: 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2022)
       
 
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