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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
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IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2469-7249 - ISSN (Online) 2469-7257
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Frontcover

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      Abstract: Presents the front cover for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and
           Biology

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      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • About this Journal

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      Abstract: Discusses the mission and scope of the journal.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Skin Phantoms for Microwave Breast Cancer Detection: A Comparative Study

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      Authors: Lena Kranold;Jasmine Boparai;Leonardo Fortaleza;Milica Popović;
      Pages: 175 - 181
      Abstract: The advancement of microwave radar prototypes for breast cancer detection purposes requires stable tissue-mimicking materials (phantoms) that dielectrically represent the breast tissues and allow for repeated experiments in a controlled laboratory environment. In this study, we compare the dielectric properties of three different skin phantoms to assess their suitability for prototype testing in the frequency range of 0.5–10 GHz. First, we verify the properties of two polyurethane-based fat-mimicking phantoms. Then, we evaluate the skin phantoms in larger blocks and as 2-mm thin layers. Finally, we conduct two separate experiments with the 2-mm skin phantoms layered over the two different fat phantoms. All the results are compared to dielectric properties of excised human skin tissue reported in the literature.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Multiple Back Projection With Impact Factor Algorithm Based on Circular
           Scanning for Microwave-Induced Thermoacoustic Tomography

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      Authors: Qian Song;Zhicheng Wang;Baosheng Wang;Lejia Zhang;Xiong Wang;
      Pages: 182 - 188
      Abstract: Back-projection (BP) algorithm is a common image reconstruction method for microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (MITAT). According to the thermoacoustic (TA) signals obtained, which are superimposed with the corresponding time inversion of each pixel in the region of interest (ROI), the BP algorithm can function in a quick response and is suitable for fast real-time MITAT applications. However, high artifacts and background noises caused by incomplete sampling of TA signals seriously affect the image quality. In this paper, a multiple back-projection with impact factor (MBP-IF) algorithm based on circular scanning geometry is proposed to address this problem. Compared with the BP algorithm, the MBP-IF approach calculates not only the initial acoustic pressure of the TA signal of each pixel (i.e., the image obtained by BP), but also the complete acoustic pressure distributions at different time points during the thermoacoustic wave propagation. Then impact factors can be obtained and used to effectively suppress artifacts and eliminate noises. Numerical simulation and phantom experiments prove that the MBP-IF algorithm is advantageous in suppressing image artifacts and noises. Some figures of merit are also obtained to quantify the results. In addition, due to the independence of acoustic pressure distributions at different time points, the MBP-IF can be computed in parallel by GPU, which can be widely used in real-time clinical MITAT system construction.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Relationship Between the Conductivity of Human Blood and Blood Counts

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      Authors: Niko Ištuk;Alessandra La Gioia;Hamza Benchakroun;Aoife Lowery;Barry McDermott;Martin O’Halloran;
      Pages: 184 - 190
      Abstract: Achieving a better characterization of human blood conductivity is of high relevance for medical applications. In this study we measured the complex impedance of N = 10 human whole blood samples (from N = 10 oncology patients) at room temperature (T = 22.6 $pm; 0.8;^circ mathrm{C}$) and at body temperature (T = 36.6 $pm; 0.4;^circ mathrm{C}$). The complex impedance was measured using the measurement setup consisting of a custom made four-electrode probe and a commercially available galvanostat. The measured complex impedance data were used to calculate the conductivity of whole blood over the 631 Hz–100 kHz frequency range. The calculated conductivity data is presented and was compared with the literature data. The data from our study is in good agreement with the data available in the literature. Additionally, full blood counts were provided for N = 8 samples and Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the conductivity and blood counts at different frequencies. The three blood count parameters with the highest correlation coefficient are haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hgb) and red cell count (RBC). The correlation coefficient was shown to decrease as the frequency increases and was the highest at f = 631 Hz, which is the lowest reported frequency. To our knowledge this is the first study to measure low-frequency (i.e. below 1 MHz) conductivity of whole human blood at body temperature using the four-electrode technique. The results of this study represent an important contribution to the literature, which is currently limited in this area and will help further medical device design.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Multi-Band Parity-Time-Symmetric Wireless Power Transfer Systems for
           ISM-Band Bio-Implantable Applications

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      Authors: Zhilu Ye;Minye Yang;Pai-Yen Chen;
      Pages: 196 - 203
      Abstract: Modern wireless implantable medical devices face escalating demand for lightweight and low-cost wireless solutions exploited to wake up sensors and transfer data. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the efficient, multi-band wireless power transfer (WPT) systems that are symmetric with respect to the combined parity (P) and time reversal (T) transformations (i.e., space-time reflection symmetry). In analogy with non-Hermitian PT-symmetric physical systems that can have branching real eigenfrequencies as a function of the dimensionless non-Hermiticity and the coupling factor, the PT-symmetric WPT system exhibits multi-band and/or wideband operations via adjustment of the non-Hermiticity (i.e., quality-factor of resonant tanks) and their mutual inductive or capacitive coupling strength. Here, we put forward design and implementation for achieving dual-band, tri-band, and wideband PT-symmetric WPT systems, capable of operating in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands (27.12 MHz and 40.68 MHz) with high transmission efficiency. This compact and low-cost WPT technique may be exploited in many practical applications, such as wireless charging of bioimplants and wearables, as well as interrogation of battery-free medical devices and internet-of-things (IoT) sensors to assist smart healthcare.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Millimeter-Wave Radar Cane: A Blind People Aid With Moving Human
           Recognition Capabilities

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      Authors: Emanuele Cardillo;Changzhi Li;Alina Caddemi;
      Pages: 204 - 211
      Abstract: This contribution presents an electronic travel aid for blind and visually-impaired people based on a millimeter wave radar and a traditional white-cane. It not only represents an advanced system able to warn the user of potential obstacles, but also discerns between human and nonhuman targets. Since real scenarios would likely have moving targets, a new range alignment technique has been proposed with the aim of detecting the tiny chest displacement due to the physiological activity as the key sign of the human presence. The proposed system is able to properly recognize humans in complex environments with multiple moving targets, thus providing to the user a complete set of information, namely presence, position and nature of the available targets. The operating principle and the effectiveness of the system are shown both by simulated case studies and by employing a 122 GHz radar board for carrying out suitable measurements.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Graph Attention Network in Microwave Imaging for Anomaly Localization

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      Authors: A. Al-Saffar;L. Guo;A. Abbosh;
      Pages: 212 - 218
      Abstract: So far, numerous learned models have been pressed to use in microwave imaging problems. These models however, are oblivious to the imaging geometry. It has always been hard to bake the physical setup of the imaging array into the structure of the network, resulting in a data-intensive models that are not practical. This work put forward a graph formulation of the microwave imaging array. The architectures proposed is made cognizant of the physical setup, allowing it to incorporate the symmetries, resulting in a less data requirements. Graph convolution and attention mechanism is deployed to handle the cases of fully-connected graphs corresponding to multi-static arrays. The model works with a modular fashion at node level to strike a trade-off between flexibility and efficient capture of mutual information present in measured signals. Additionally, the modular working fashion endows the model with immunity to overfitting. The graph-treatment of the problem is evaluated on experimental setup in context of anomaly localization with imaging array and has shown higher performance as compared to the popular radar technique. The thin model was realized with a feasibly procured reasonably-sized dataset in the order of few hundreds, thus eliminating the need to resort to simulations for augmentation.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Near-Field Circular Array for the Transcutaneous Telemetry of UHF
           RFID-Based Implantable Medical Devices

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      Authors: Carolina Miozzi;Giovanni Saggio;Emanuele Gruppioni;Gaetano Marrocco;
      Pages: 219 - 227
      Abstract: Wireless communication with Implantable Medical Devices (IMDs) based on Radiofrequency Identification in the UHF band suffers from the constraints on the maximum power absorbed by the body tissues. Accordingly, an interrogating antenna placed onto the skin is capable to monitor only a limited region just below its footprint. In some applications like the hand prosthesis controlled by Electromyographic signals emitted by muscle contractions, multiple IMDs have to be used to increase the degrees of freedom in driving the actuators. An array of interrogators, working in the near-field can mitigate this bottleneck by greatly extend the read region inside the body. Sequentially- and simultaneously-fed arrays by a same reader are here investigated to optimize the multi-sensor backscattering modulated links. The conditions (feeding scheme and alignment) to guarantee a robust interrogation of a relevant number of implanted sensors with no battery onboard are identified also accounting for the safety constraints related to the SAR. Numerical simulations and experimentation with a cylindrical phantom resembling human limbs, hosting reference antennas, demonstrate that the simultaneous feed permits to interact with eight IMDs by using nearly all the available power from typical readers (30 dBm, 22 dBm as a minimum) without exceeding the SAR limit with a power margin (w.r.t. sensor-oriented ICs with −10 dBm power sensitivity) of more than 5 dB for any angular alignment between the array and the sensors.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Editorial: Special Issue - IMBioC 2021

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      Authors: Alessandra Costanzo;Milica Popović;
      Pages: 228 - 229
      Abstract: This special issue is dedicated to dear colleagues, Mojgan Daneshmand (Professor, Electrical and Computer Engineering) and Pedram Mousavi (Professor, Mechanical Engineering) from the University of Alberta, and their daughters, Daria and Dorina. We lost them too early, in a plane crash on January 8, 2020. Their creativity in research and dedication to teaching remain with us through the work they left behind, and students whose career paths they have helped form and inspire.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Correlation Radiometry for Subcutaneous Temperature Measurements

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      Authors: Rob Streeter;Gabriel Santamaria Botello;Kaitlin Hall;Zoya Popović;
      Pages: 230 - 237
      Abstract: This paper addresses microwave radiometry for passive noninvasive subcutaneous temperature measurements at a few centimeter depth. A correlation radiometer is designed from off-the-shelf parts to operate in the quiet 1.4-GHz band and tested on aqueous phantoms. The radiometer is first tested with a matched load, and then with a near-field planar probe antenna, both with two water phantoms of different volumes. The measurement resolution, sensitivity and long-term stability is quantified in terms of integration time for a simple three-point calibration. The lowest measured absolute error compared to a ground-truth thermocouple measurement is $pm 0.25,$K over one hour of data collection with a single calibration. Measurements show that an integration time>1 s results in an absolute error limited by the radiometer gain fluctuations. A probe on a seven-layer tissue stack is designed for measuring brain temperature.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • A Capacitive Microwave Sensor With Guard Electrode for Single-Cell
           Characterization

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      Authors: Aleksandar Savić;Fabian Freiberger;Ralf Pörtner;Arne F. Jacob;
      Pages: 232 - 238
      Abstract: A capacitive microwave sensor with homogeneous field distribution is presented. It relies on a high-impedance parallel-plate arrangement and a properly positioned guard electrode to mitigate fringing field effects. The distance between the capacitor plates can be as large as their diameter. Such an arrangement allows permittivity measurements of irregularly shaped objects like individual biological cells. This is demonstrated with a microchip sensor in a microfluidic setup. The calibration requires only a single reference fluid.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Super-Regenerative Oscillator Integrated Metamaterial Leaky Wave Antenna
           for Multi-Target Vital Sign and Motion Detection

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      Authors: Yichao Yuan;Chung-Tse Michael Wu;
      Pages: 238 - 245
      Abstract: A new kind of metamaterial (MTM) leaky wave antenna (LWA) integrated with a super-regenerative oscillator (SRO) architecture is proposed for the first time. As a proof of concept, the proposed radar sensor, including a one-dimensional (1D) MTM LWA and a tunable voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), is designed to perform frequency-dependent space mapping with the main-beam angle sweeping from −50 $^circ $ to +30 $^circ $ with respect to the varying frequency from 1.85 to 2.85 GHz. The proposed SRO-integrated MTM LWA system is operated in the logarithmic mode with a quench signal imposed at the drain port of transistor. Experiments have been conducted to show that vital sign information for two human targets can be successfully detected when they are located along different scanning angles of −10 $^circ $ and −30 $^circ $, respectively. Furthermore, compared with MTM LWA radar sensor based on the self-injection-locked (SIL) architecture, vibrating motion at a farther distance can be detected accurately using the proposed radar sensor, indicating a higher sensitivity with reduced system complexity.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Respiratory Activity Monitoring by a Wearable 5.8 GHz SILO With Energy
           Harvesting Capabilities

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      Authors: Giacomo Paolini;Mazen Shanawani;Diego Masotti;Dominique M. M.-P. Schreurs;Alessandra Costanzo;
      Pages: 246 - 252
      Abstract: In this work, the design and the realization of a pocket-size sensor for breath rate detection are presented. Exploiting the self-injection locking radar technique, it is possible to perform FM-to-AM demodulation that allows the detection of the voltage peaks at the output of the sensor's receiving part. If compared with existing solutions, this device is of reduced dimensions and fully wearable; in fact, it can be worn by the user at a certain distance from the body at the chest position, and work without the need of any dedicated remotely synchronized anchor nodes nor bulky analyzers to be carried close by. As a more distinctive peculiarity, the receiving circuit is designed as an RF-to-DC rectifier in order to also enable the possibility to harvest energy that can be exploited, for instance, to feed a microcontroller unit and a transceiver with the aim of sending wirelessly the breath rate data to a laptop or a smartphone. Circuit simulations are corroborated by measurements in order to ensure the feasibility of the proposed solution.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Thermal Analysis of a Transcutaneous Energy Transfer System for a Left
           Ventricular Assist Device

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      Authors: Tommaso Campi;Silvano Cruciani;Francesca Maradei;Andrea Montalto;Francesco Musumeci;Mauro Feliziani;
      Pages: 253 - 259
      Abstract: This study deals with the thermal analysis of a transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) system, based on the magnetic resonant coupling technology, to wirelessly power a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The transmitting planar coil is placed on the skin, just in front of the subcutaneously implanted receiving planar coil. The TET system permits to eliminate the infection due to the exit site of the percutaneous driveline cable that connects the LVAD with the external power supply and control system. Since the LVAD continuously requires high power (typically around 5 W as average value), the thermal aspects must be carefully kept under control. Aim of this paper is an extensive thermal analysis to properly design a suitable TET system.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Improved Sensing Volume Estimates for Coaxial Probes to Measure the
           Dielectric Properties of Inhomogeneous Tissues

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      Authors: Ali Farshkaran;Emily Porter;
      Pages: 253 - 259
      Abstract: Accurate knowledge of the dielectric properties of biological tissues is fundamental for the design of electromagnetic medical devices. The open-ended coaxial probe technique is commonly used to measure the complex permittivity of tissues at microwave frequencies. Since the open-ended coaxial probe technique provides an average complex permittivity for the tissues within its sensing volume, when measuring heterogeneous tissues, a post-measurement histological analysis is often conducted to accurately associate the measured dielectric properties to the tissue content. Subsequently, it is crucial to quantify the sensing volume of the probe accurately. Sensing volume is generally defined as a cylindrical volume (rectangular cross-section) based on sensing depth and sensing radius. In this article, the sensing volume is modified based on the field distribution of the probe. Since in practice defining the sensing depth and sensing radius for a given probe is straightforward, the resulting sensing volume is defined as an ellipsoid based on sensing depth and sensing radius values. Considering a finite heterogeneity in a homogeneous background, it is shown that the ellipsoidal sensing volume is a more accurate representation than the typical cylindrical volume for open-ended coaxial probes, and therefore, results in a more accurate dielectric characterization of heterogeneous tissues.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Narrowband Microwave Breast Screening: Repeatability Study With Phantoms

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      Authors: Leonardo Fortaleza;Milica Popović;
      Pages: 260 - 266
      Abstract: This work presents experimental results on measurement variability obtained with carbon-based tissue-mimicking phantoms using a prototype microwave breast cancer detection system on narrowband (2012.5 – 2100 MHz), adapted to use 16 flexible monopole antennas previously designed for ultrawideband (2 – 4 GHz). The use of narrowband permits a more accessible and compact system with the final goal of a wearable device for frequent scans, targeting early detection through tracking alterations on patients over time. This motivates the research of phantom measurement repeatability. Our narrowband system is described and results are presented for five measurement dates using two phantoms with skin layers and similar low percentages of glands, along with interchangeable plugs for all-fat and three tumor cases. Preliminary clutter rejection uses average trace subtraction on antenna pairs with same distance in-between. Significant signal distinction is noted between baseline and tumors on specific antenna pairs and some distinction is found on central tendencies over all signals. This is promising as the presence of skin and glands can heavily attenuate microwave signals. High variability is found on distinct measurement dates, increasing the standard deviation across all dates considerably. The measurement noise includes comparatively high and easier to remove systematic offsets as well as other confounders that occasionally increase standard deviation, which may mask signal features. This highlights the need to research further techniques to mitigate this variability between measurements in order to increase reliability of microwave breast screening devices and, even more generally, other biomedical devices based on similar principles.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Ultra-Wideband Impedance Spectroscopy of the Nucleus in a Live Cell

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      Authors: Xiaotian Du;Caroline Ferguson;Xiao Ma;Xuanhong Cheng;James C. M. Hwang;
      Pages: 267 - 272
      Abstract: This paper describes the first application of a double-shell model in ultra-wideband impedance spectroscopy of a live cell. The impedance spectrum measured from 9 kHz to 9 GHz is analyzed by using the double-shell cell model to separate the contribution of the nucleus from that of the cytoplasm. The model parameters include the nucleus-to-cell radius ratio (r) and a parallel R-C circuit for each of the four cell compartments: the cell membrane (CM), the cytoplasm (CP), the nuclear membrane (NM), and the nucleoplasm (NP). In general, the extracted radius ratio agrees with that measured by optical microscopy, and the extracted resistances and capacitances agree with the literature and order-of-magnitude estimates. For example, for a human lymphocytes cell with r ≈ 0.8, the nuclear contribution is approximately linear. Therefore, the membrane parameters are constant so that RCM = 1.5 MΩ, CCM = 1.5 pF, RNM = 0.05 MΩ, and CNM = 1.2 pF, but the plasma parameters are linearly scaled so that RCP → 0.5(1 − r) MΩ, CCP → 6.7/(1 − r) fF, RNP → 0.12r MΩ, and CNP → 9.4/r fF. Because morphological and structural changes of a cell nucleus are important screening, diagnostic, and prognostic markers, these results suggest that ultra-wideband impedance spectroscopy may be a fast, compact, and label-free technique in cancer cytology.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Use of a Set of Wearable Dielectric Scatterers to Improve Electromagnetic
           Transmission for a Body Power Transfer System

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      Authors: Ludovica Tognolatti;Cristina Ponti;Giuseppe Schettini;
      Pages: 280 - 286
      Abstract: In this paper we present an accurate analytical solution of the scattering of a plane-wave by dielectric cylinders placed above a multilayered medium. An analytical approach is used to solve the scattered field by the cylinders in each medium through expansions into cylindrical waves, expressed through plane-wave spectra. The multilayer models a biological tissue consisting of skin, fat and muscle covered by a cotton textile. Several numerical examples are presented considering the electrical parameters of the biological and textile tissues at the millimeter frequency range (24 GHz). The results show that it is possible to obtain an intensification of the electric field in the underlying tissues in case of TM polarization of the incident wave, finding an interesting application for the charging of implantable or wearable devices.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Response Sharpening of Resonant Sensors for Potential Applications in
           Blood Glucose Monitoring

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      Authors: Giovanni Buonanno;Adriana Brancaccio;Sandra Costanzo;Raffaele Solimene;
      Pages: 287 - 293
      Abstract: A method to improve the response resolution of microwave biomedical resonant sensors is discussed. Resonant sensors often do not show very sharp resonance peak, due also to losses which reduce the quality factor. Moreover, since the sensor response is collected over a discrete set of frequencies, the actual resonance peak may not be properly captured. To overcome these drawbacks, an algorithm is presented in this paper which aims at sharpening the microwave sensors response, and mitigating the mentioned frequency discretization problem so to eventually estimate the resonance frequency more accurately. The algorithm is first explained and checked against synthetic data mimicking the response of a resonant sensor. Then, as a further validation, measured data collected by a microwave resonant sensor, properly designed for blood glucose monitoring, just located in contact to human fingers are considered.
      PubDate: June 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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