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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted by number of followers
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 148)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 136)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 135)
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 134)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 92)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
IET Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Electronics Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Machine Learning with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Advanced Electronics and Communication Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Superconductivity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Power Electronic Devices and Components     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Applied Electronic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Sensors International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
e-Prime : Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Materials Today Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Automatika : Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications     Open Access  
npj Flexible Electronics     Open Access  
Elektronika ir Elektortechnika     Open Access  
Emitor : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access  
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2469-7249 - ISSN (Online) 2469-7257
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and
           Biology

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • About this Journal

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Pathway to Demonstrating Clinical Efficacy of Microwave Breast Imaging:
           Qualitative and Quantitative Performance Assessment

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      Authors: Emily Porter;Declan O'Loughlin;
      Pages: 439 - 448
      Abstract: In the last five years alone, there has been an increasing number of operational microwave breast imaging systems used in clinical trials, with increasingly large and diverse patient populations. However, despite this increased activity and volume of clinical evidence motivating research in the modality, large differences exist in how studies evaluate and report their findings. In this work, the qualitative and quantitative metrics used to measure both image quality and clinical effectiveness and efficacy are reviewed in detail. Image quality, effectiveness and efficacy do not have precise or agreed definitions and the differences between these definitions are discussed in detail. Finally, based on these understandings, the current evidence for clinical acceptance of microwave breast imaging is reviewed, with an emphasis on gaps in the trial populations to date.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • IQ Signal Demodulation for Noncontact Vital Sign Monitoring Using a CW
           Doppler Radar: A Review

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      Authors: Fu-Kang Wang;Ji-Xun Zhong;Ju-Yin Shih;
      Pages: 449 - 460
      Abstract: Using a Doppler radar for noncontact detection is a promising way to monitor vital signs of a subject more conveniently than other common contact medical devices, but has many challenges including null-point issue, dc offset, and nonlinear distortion. The wireless property of a radar system easily affects the Doppler signals, so it needs a demodulation method to obtain the vital sign information. Furthermore, detecting precise information for respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) of the subject needs further signal processing to extract the target signals from the demodulated signals at various interference levels. Hence, this study reviews research on continuous-wave (CW) Doppler radar, signal demodulation and subsequent signal processing to address the problems for noncontact vital sign monitoring.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Estimation of Gait Parameters From Trunk Movement Measured by Doppler
           Radar

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      Authors: Kenshi Saho;Keitaro Shioiri;Shoma Kudo;Masahiro Fujimoto;
      Pages: 461 - 469
      Abstract: This study proposes a novel method to estimate biomechanical gait parameters using the monostatic continuous wave Doppler radar data corresponding to trunk movement; the use of trunk movement leads to stable gait parameter estimations when compared to the conventional method which is based on leg movements because the received powers of the trunk echoes are larger and more stable than those of the legs. The proposed gait parameter estimation method employs trunk accelerations extracted from radar spectrograms. The accuracies of the gait parameters, such as the step length, swing time, and stance time, estimated using the proposed methods were evaluated by comparing them with the reference motion capture data. We experimentally demonstrated that the proposed trunk-based method estimated gait parameters with accuracy similar to that of the conventional leg-based method. Additionally, the proposed trunk-based method was able to estimate the swing and stance times, whereas the leg-based method failed to estimate them owing to instability of the ankle echoes. Furthermore, the combined method of the trunk and toe data achieved better accuracy in the estimation of swing and stance times. This study is the first to use data on trunk movements (not leg movements) for temporal gait parameter estimation using radar and demonstrated its practicality for realistic situations in clinical and daily gait assessment to grasp the health status of individuals such as risks of future falls and cognitive impairments.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • A Core Body Temperature Retrieval Method for Microwave Radiometry When
           Tissue Permittivity is Unknown

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      Authors: Katrina Tisdale;Alexandra Bringer;Asimina Kiourti;
      Pages: 470 - 476
      Abstract: This paper presents a novel method for core temperature retrieval using microwave radiometry when complex permittivity and heat transfer parameters of the tissue layers of the human subject are unknown. Previous works present methods for core temperature retrieval, but these methods do not account for population variation in the relevant electromagnetic and thermal parameters, which can increase measurement error beyond the clinically acceptable limit of 0.5 °C. Pennes’ bioheat model of a six-tissue-layer human head model combined with a coherent electromagnetic model simulate experimental data. To retrieve core temperature, nonlinear least squares optimization is then used to minimize the difference between the simulated experimental data and an exponential model for physical temperature and the coherent electromagnetic model. By using 20 frequencies spanning from 1-5 GHz, core temperature is retrieved while accounting for population variation in the permittivity and thermal parameters. A Monte Carlo simulation in which the thermal parameters and permittivity vary according to literature derived, population-representative distributions and the core body temperature varies from 18 to 46 °C is used to assess the utility of the retrieval method. Different antenna patterns are tested to explore the effect on retrieval accuracy. The retrieval method has a retrieval error of
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Combating Coronavirus Using Resonant Electromagnetic Irradiation

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      Authors: Khalil H. Sayidmarie;Beadaa Mohammed;Asmaa J. Mohammed;Amin Abbosh;
      Pages: 477 - 484
      Abstract: The interaction of electromagnetic (EM) waves with the COVID-19 virus is studied to define the frequencies that cause maximum energy absorption by the virus and the power level needed to cause a lethal temperature rise. The full-wave EM simulator is used to model the virus and study the effects of its size and dielectric properties on the absorbed power across a wide range of frequencies. The results confirm potential resonance conditions, where specific frequencies produce maximum absorption and subsequent temperature rise that can destroy the virus. Furthermore, the study confirms that maximum power deposition in the virus occurs at specific wavelengths depending on its size. Also, the simulation is used to find the power required to destroy the virus and determine the total power required to destroy it in an oral activity, such as coughing, made by infected individuals. Furthermore, the study explained why irradiation by UV-C band is effective to decrease virus activity or even eradicate it.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Investigation and Analysis of EM Pulse Propagation Inside Human Head for
           High-Resolution UWB Elliptical SAR Imaging

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      Authors: Amir H. Naghavi;Hamid R. Hassani;Daniel Oloumi;
      Pages: 485 - 493
      Abstract: In this paper, an ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave imaging system based on an elliptical synthetic aperture radar (ESAR) is proposed as a possible solution for human head imaging. The system along with the image reconstruction method operates in the time domain. We have adopted the global back-projection technique to an elliptical trajectory of data acquisition, to shape around the head. A miniaturized, low profile custom-designed, UWB patch antenna capable of operating in the proximity of the head tissues is used as a sensor. The antenna aperture impedance is matched to the head tissues to enable pumping radiating electromagnetic waves into the human head needles of any coupling liquid. The impact of operational bandwidth and radiated power on system key performance factors i.e., penetration depth, range-resolution, and safety aspects are fully investigated based on calculations as well as full-wave simulations. It is observed that by increasing the bandwidth of radiated pulse from 0.8∼2.8 GHz (which was used in most of the previous works) to 1.0∼5.2 GHz, the range resolution can be improved remarkably from 23.0 mm to 16.0 mm deep inside the head. However, further increase in operational bandwidth will not improve the resolution of the system and a significant fraction of the radiated power will be dissipated in the brain tissues. To demonstrate the system performance, a constellation of 12 antenna elements is placed in an elliptical shape directly attached to the 3D phantom to acquire the raw data using full-wave simulations. Finally, an image from a 3D MRI-derived phantom is reconstructed to validate the imaging capability of the designed system. The proposed system can be used as a tool for early diagnosis as well as for treatment monitoring while getting therapy like chemo or radiotherapies.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Contrast Source Inversion Enhanced Confocal Imaging for Highly
           Heterogeneous Breast Media in Microwave Mammography

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      Authors: Gaku Umezu;Yoshihiro Yamauchi;Shouhei Kidera;
      Pages: 494 - 500
      Abstract: This study introduces accuracy-enhanced confocal imaging (CI) algorithm for highly heterogeneous breast media that can be used in microwave mammography. In the presence of heterogeneous backgrounds, such as breast media, CI accuracy highly depends on several background assumptions, such as homogeneity, multilayered structure, and adipose-dominant tissue. In the case of a highly dense breast dominated by fibroglandular tissue, the traditional CI suffers from inaccuracy due to a large discrepancy between the actual and assumed backgrounds. In this study, we used contrast source inversion (CSI) known as a promising inverse scattering approach, which could provide an accurate estimation of total fields in the region of interest. This feature enables us to generate accurate propagation models as the Green's functions. The numerical tests using realistic breast phantoms show that our method significantly enhances reconstruction accuracy without any prior knowledge of the background media, thus highly contributing to cancer tissue detection.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Detection of Extremely Weak and Wideband Bio-Magnetic Signals in
           Non-Shielded Environments Using Passive Coil Sensors

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      Authors: Keren Zhu;Asimina Kiourti;
      Pages: 501 - 508
      Abstract: We report a coil-based passive sensing system and associated Digital Signal Processing (DSP) capable of detecting extremely weak and wideband bio-magnetic signals without the need for shielding. Our previous work showed potential in this direction but was limited to detecting magnetocardiography (MCG) signals that are the strongest emanated by the human body as well as narrowband. In a major step forward, we advance our DSP with notch and Empirical Mode Decomposition filters, in addition to bandpass filtering and averaging utilized in the past and refine our coil design. We characterize the system's noise performance, analyze effectiveness of the DSP methods, and validate performance in vitro. The proposed system considerably outperforms our previous design: noise levels at 10 Hz and 100 Hz are reduced by ∼46% and ∼92%, respectively, while detection sensitivity is improved by ∼94% across a ∼3333% wider signal bandwidth. That is, signals as low as magnetomyography (MMG) and evoked Compound Action Potentials (eCAP) and of frequency range comparable to magnetoneurography (MNG) can now be retrieved passively, in non-shielded environments. As a proof-of-concept, we utilize a single sensor and 24 minutes of recording; however, these parameters are scalable, as is the strength and frequency range of detectable bio-magnetic signals. To this end, we include discussions on how the hardware and DSP components can be parameterized and adjusted to fit diverse clinical needs. The proposed system can empower seamless detection of MCG, MMG, eCAP, and MNG, among others, opening unexplored opportunities for the future of medical diagnostics, monitoring, and treatment.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • A Regenerative RF Sensing System for Improved Detection of Microwave
           Emission From Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

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      Authors: Kamal Sarabandi;Menglou Rao;
      Pages: 509 - 515
      Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) radiation from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilms has been recently detected in the 3.16 – 3.2 GHz frequency range. In this work, a regenerative RF sensing system is designed and implemented to enhance the detection of signals generated by biofilms. The system utilizes the concept of regeneration (also known as positive feedback) for the amplification of emitted signals at a desired frequency (3.18 GHz). Comparative experiments were conducted, where the power measured from peptone-NaCl-glucose (PNG) media with biofilms (biofilm samples) was compared with that measured from fresh PNG media void of biofilms (PNG samples). The measured power level differences between the biofilm samples and the PNG samples are many orders of magnitude higher than what was previously reported using the wideband near-zone radiative system. Furthermore, illumination experiments were conducted to examine biofilms’ response to external EM stimuli. A sinusoidal signal at the emission frequency of 3.18 GHz was used to illuminate the biofilms. It is shown that biofilm samples exhibited stronger radiation behavior after being exposed to the external 3.18 GHz signal. For comparison, a similar setup was constructed at a different frequency (6.3 GHz), and the same experiments were carried out. No radiation is identified in the other band for both illuminated and unilluminated biofilm samples, which is consistent with the results reported in previous studies. This work not only confirms the existence of EM radiation generated by biofilms, but also demonstrates that cells actively respond to external EM signals at the same frequency as the signal they generate. This discovery is a major step toward understanding cell communications.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Computation of Absorbed Power Densities in High-Resolution Head Models by
           Considering Skin Thickness in Quasi-Millimeter and Millimeter Wave Bands

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      Authors: Kenji Taguchi;Sachiko Kodera;Akimasa Hirata;Tatsuya Kashiwa;
      Pages: 516 - 523
      Abstract: The fifth-generation wireless communications system has been increasingly deployed by telecommunication companies worldwide. This system uses a high-frequency band ranging from 24 GHz to 28 GHz. However, the number of studies assessing the human protection from the electromagnetic fields is limited in this frequency band. In addition, two main international bodies—the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and IEEE—have revised their guidelines and standard in 2020 and 2019, respectively. One primary change is the exposure metric and corresponding exposure limit at frequencies>6 GHz because the penetration depth of the electromagnetic waves in biological tissues is 1 cm or less for these frequencies. Therefore, modeling of the skin and subcutaneous tissues is important. This study evaluated the total absorbed power (TAP), the absorbed power density (APD), and variations in APD owing to skin thickness in seven types of realistic human head models with different skin thicknesses. Our results showed that the model without surface smoothing resulted in higher TAP than the model with smoothing. The amount of the TAP change in frequency domain in the model with realistically varied skin thickness was less than that in the model with uniform skin thickness because of the suppression of strong standing waves. The maximum variations in the APD, averaging over 4 cm2 or 1 cm2 with respect to skin thickness, were approximately 20% and 10%, respectively. For the limit of incident power density, APDs were below the guideline. These results will be useful for future revisions of international guidelines.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Electromagnetic-Based Deformation Monitoring for PANI-CA Breath Acetone
           Sensors

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      Authors: Balaji Dontha;Michael Faltas;Pelagia-Irene Gouma;Asimina Kiourti;
      Pages: 524 - 531
      Abstract: We report a novel electromagnetic (EM) based mechanism for quantifying bending in PANI-CA chemo-actuators that detect breath acetone and validate feasibility in a proof-of-concept in vitro setup. Breath acetone serves as a biomarker of human metabolism, yet previously reported techniques are invasive, non-continuous, and/or operate at high temperatures. To overcome these limitations, we rely on previously reported polyaniline and cellulose acetate (PANI-CA) chemo-actuators that are known to flex up to 30° in response to breath acetone levels (i.e., up to 1250 ppm) in a reversible process. Our approach comprises of resonant loops placed in proximity to as well as embedded in 4 cm × 3 mm PANI-CA strips and operates at room temperature. To minimize impact to the strip's mechanical performance, loops are realized on lightweight conductive threads. Using Faraday's law as the strip deforms and the loops misalign, the sensor is shown to monitor acetone-headspace concentration at a limit of detection and resolution of 26.1 ppm experimentally and 1 ppm through interpolation. We also demonstrate that our EM mechanism in conjunction with PANI-CA strips: (a) is suitable for acetone sensing up to 2610 ppm (70° flexion) relevant to other applications beyond breath, and (b) can be modified to monitor deformation of up to 170° shall more sensitive chemo-actuating strips be implemented in the future. This technology can be integrated into a wearable device for-instance mask or mouthpiece. Personalized, non-invasive and continuous sensing of acetone biomarker can bolster monitoring of various health diagnostics, such as fat-metabolism, weight loss, and ketosis.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Wearable Loop Sensor for Unambiguous and High-Resolution Joint Kinematics
           Monitoring

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      Authors: Vigyanshu Mishra;Asimina Kiourti;
      Pages: 532 - 538
      Abstract: We have recently introduced wearable loop sensors that are based on Faraday's law to seamlessly monitor real-world kinematics while overcoming shortcomings in the state-of-the-art. The latest sensor of this wearable ecosystem employs loops in longitudinal configuration (LC) to monitor joint flexion and rotation, but its resolution degrades due to ambiguities (more than one states of motion for the same sensor reading). Here, we demonstrate that resolution degradation exacerbates in the presence of noise, and report a new wearable sensor that eliminates ambiguities to improve resolution. The sensor entails a longitudinal-transmitter placed above the joint and a transverse-receiver, followed by a longitudinal-receiver, placed below the joint (namely, longitudinal-transverse-longitudinal configuration, LTLC). These two receivers help segregate flexion and rotation, thereby eliminating ambiguities in deciphering angles and boosting resolution manifolds as compared to LC. Proof-of-concept simulation and in vitro experimental results show excellent agreement. Compared to LC, flexion angle resolution improves by up to 153.8 times (0.013° to 2°) under low noise and 38.4 times (0.13° to 5°) under high noise. Improvement for rotation angles is similar/higher. Specific absorption rate results also confirm excellent electromagnetic safety. LTLC is the first in the wearable loop ecosystem that can monitor both joint flexion/rotation without ambiguities, improving resolution even in the presence of noise. LTLC shows high promise for monitoring clinically relevant kinematics in real-world settings that are, unavoidably, subject to noise. Its high resolution also empowers the monitoring of fine movements that could not be previously captured outside the lab.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Super-Resolution Spectral Approach for the Accuracy Enhancement of
           Biomedical Resonant Microwave Sensors

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      Authors: Sandra Costanzo;Giovanni Buonanno;Raffaele Solimene;
      Pages: 539 - 545
      Abstract: Super-resolution spectral methods are applied and compared to improve the estimation result provided by biomedical microwave resonant sensors. In particular, the resolution of resonant sensors is revealed to be significantly improved, despite their intrinsic low quality factor. Excellent robustness against noise is also demonstrated. Algorithms are first validated on ad hoc synthetic data mimicking the response of a resonant sensor. Additionally, experimental validation is carried out by using data coming from a microwave resonant sensor, which is specifically designed for blood-glucose monitoring.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Portable Electromagnetic Device for Steatotic Liver Detection Using Blind
           Source Separation and Shannon Wavelet Entropy

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      Authors: Azin S. Janani;Sasan Ahdi Rezaeieh;Amin Darvazehban;Shelley E. Keating;Amin M. Abbosh;
      Pages: 546 - 554
      Abstract: Hepatic steatosis is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Symmetric placement of sensors is the main challenge of previous electromagnetic hepatic steatosis techniques as they require signals from the left side of the torso as a healthy reference. To tackle this issue, this study proposes an electromagnetic technique to assist in observation and detection of hepatic steatosis only by measuring electromagnetic signals from the right side of the torso where liver is located. The combination of blind source separation and wavelet transform techniques is used for detection. Firstly, the principal component analysis is applied to the time-domain converted electromagnetic signals to sphere the measured data. Secondly, the sphered signals are modelled as a linear mixture of different components and separated utilizing independent component analysis technique. Thirdly, the liver response signal is isolated based on its lowest cross-correlation with the average of input signals. Finally, Shannon wavelet entropy and wavelet energy of the estimated liver signal is evaluated by considering the excitation electromagnetic Gaussian pulse as the mother wavelet. Healthy livers can be differentiated from the steatotic ones based on their higher level of wavelet entropy. The method is validated by realistic numerical models and human measurements. In both scenarios, the wavelet entropy of estimated liver response is significantly lower and distinguishable in steatotic livers. The proposed method can detect HS cases with more than 16% diffused fat. Compared to previous techniques, it requires significantly less scanning time, is independent of antennas symmetrical placement, and is thus more reliable.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Morphology Transformation and Content Selection of Near-Field RF Sensing
           by Complex Vector Injection

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      Authors: Jianlin Zhou;Thomas B. Conroy;Guoyi Xu;Edwin C. Kan;
      Pages: 555 - 565
      Abstract: Near-field radio-frequency(RF) sensing can realize wearable touchless vital-sign sensors with touchless and flexible deployment. By placing a transmitter (Tx) antenna in the near-field region of dielectric boundary motion, both the magnitude and phase of the Tx signal will be modulated and be recorded as a complex signal at the receiver (Rx). Direct-path interference (DPI) from Tx to Rx without motion modulation often dominates and can vary due to different environmental factors and initial transceiver conditions, which can lead to inconsistent waveform morphology of the magnitude and phase at Rx, sometimes even yielding low signal quality or phase reversal. Here we proposed a complex vector injection (CVI) method, which adds a constant complex phasor to the Rx quadrature signal to regularize the waveform morphology selectively. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the CVI algorithm, we designed a torso phantom for sensor benchmarking. By using different objective functions to select the optimal injection vector, we can enhance different features in the real-number waveform. Furthermore, we applied the algorithm in the study of 21 human subjects for heartbeat monitoring, and showed that we could effectively enhance the signal quality and regularize the waveform morphology which is critical for time-domain feature recognition in physiological and pathological studies.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Spectroscopic Analysis of Candida Species, Viability, and Antifungal Drug
           Effects With a Microwave Flow Cytometer

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      Authors: Neelima Dahal;Jeffrey A. Osterberg;Benjamin Braun;Tom P. Caldwell;Ralu Divan;Sarah W. Harcum;Pingshan Wang;
      Pages: 566 - 573
      Abstract: New methods to rapidly detect and identify Candida cells in patients’ blood is needed for proper candidemia treatment. In this work, a tunable microwave interferometer was used to measure single Candida cells of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei at multiple frequencies between 0.265 GHz and 7.76 GHz. The obtained permittivity values Δϵ' and Δϵ” of non-budding Candida were colinear with cell volumes and had a coefficient that depends on measurement frequency, cell species and viability. Viable and non-viable cells had significant permittivity differences at lower frequency spectrum, but with substantial overlap at 7.76 GHz. For single non-budding cells, measurements at 1.32 GHz and 1.85 GHz enabled a minimum 0.875 classification accuracy with quadratic discriminate analysis (QDA). However, cell budding induced significant microwave property overlaps. Further work is needed to achieve better cell species discrimination. Additionally, it was determined that treating these yeast cells with Caspofungin (CSP) diacetate in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 10 minutes significantly altered cell microwave properties. This change was likely due to damaged cell wall and membranes, and the level of change was Candida species dependent. Therefore, broadband microwave measurement is a promising new approach for physicians to provide personalized candidemia therapy.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Rectifier Design for Highly Loaded Inductive Wireless Power Transfer
           Systems for Biomedical Applications

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      Authors: Manjunath Machnoor;Pragya Kosta;Manuel Monge;Gianluca Lazzi;
      Pages: 574 - 579
      Abstract: Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and harmonics are crucial performance parameters of the resonant rectifier design for low/medium coupling inductive wireless power transfer (WPT) systems used in wireless biomedical implants. The performance of a resonant rectifier degrades under higher loading and lower coupling conditions as the voltage available to the rectifier at the output of the receiver coil becomes low. As the diode turn-on impedance increases, diodes turn on incompletely, leading to non-linearities that reduce rectifier efficiency and output voltage. This work proposes a new rectifier design to increase efficiency and reduce harmonics by decreasing the diode turn-on impedance compared to traditional rectifier designs, such as resonant Half Wave Rectifier (HWR). The proposed rectifier design offers individual paths for RF and rectification signals, which reduces the non-linear loading on the receiver coil and improves diode turn-on performance. Measurement and SPICE simulation results show efficiency enhancement of 50% and reduction of harmonics by 6 dB for the proposed rectifier compared to HWR.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • 2022 Index IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine
           and Biology Vol. 6

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      Pages: 580 - 594
      Abstract: Presents the 2022 author/subject index for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2022)
       
 
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