A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Applied Electronic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 122)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Automatika : Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications     Open Access  
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Open Access  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
e-Prime : Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 125)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 125)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 114)
Electronics Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Elektronika ir Elektortechnika     Open Access  
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Emitor : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 112)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access  
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 90)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Advanced Electronics and Communication Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Machine Learning with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
npj Flexible Electronics     Open Access  
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sensors International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Superconductivity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access  
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology
Number of Followers: 0  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2469-7249 - ISSN (Online) 2469-7257
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Frontcover

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Presents the front cover for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and
           Biology

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • About this Journal

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Reports on the scope and mission of this publication.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Simultaneous Wireless Power and Data Transfer: Methods to Design Robust
           Medical Implants for Gastrointestinal Tract

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Amir Javan-Khoshkholgh;Aydin Farajidavar;
      Pages: 3 - 15
      Abstract: Implantable medical systems for long-term monitoring of bioelectrical activity of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, known as slow waves, and for treating GI dysmotility and functional disorders through electrical stimulation pulses have emerged over the recent years. These implants construct a bidirectional interface between the clinician and the patient's GI tract, to record and monitor slow waves and to provide electrical therapies. Because of the limited battery life of the implants, wireless power transfer (WPT) is a fundamental requirement to conduct studies and provide treatments for an extended period. Furthermore, the WPT link provides the opportunity to establish near-field data communication over the same link. Currently, there are three main wireless power and data transfer (WPDT) approaches for GI tract implants consisting of resonant inductive, ultrasonic, and capacitive couplings. Each approach provides a tradeoff based on the size of the implant, depth of implantation in vivo, the amount of power received by the implant, and the WPT efficiency. In this review, we present the theory and an overview of the major research works accomplished for each of the aforementioned WPT approaches. In particular, this paper focuses on simultaneous WPDT for systems implanted in the GI tract, while fluctuations of the wireless link efficiency and reliability due to body movements and stomach motility are investigated, and techniques are introduced to improve the WPDT fidelity.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Microwave Auditory Effect

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: James C. Lin;
      Pages: 16 - 28
      Abstract: The microwave auditory effect has been widely recognized as one of the most interesting and significant biological phenomena from microwave exposure. The hearing of pulsed microwaves is a unique exception to sound waves encountered in human auditory perception. The hearing of microwave pulses involves electromagnetic waves. This paper reviews the research in humans and animals leading to scientific documentations that absorption of a single microwave pulse impinging on the head may be perceived as an acoustic zip, click, or knocking sound. A train of microwave pulses may be sensed as buzz, chirp, or tune by humans. It describes neurophysiological, psychophysical, and behavioral observations from laboratory studies involving humans and animals. Mechanistic studies show that the microwave pulse, upon absorption by tissues in the head, launches a pressure wave that travels by bone conduction to the inner ear, where it activates the cochlear receptors via the same process involved for normal sound hearing. Depending on the impinging microwave pulse powers, the level of induced sound pressure could be considerably above the threshold of auditory perception to cause tissue injury. The microwave auditory effects and associated pressures could potentially render damage to brain tissue to cause lethal or nonlethal injuries.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Fractal-RFID Based Sensing Tattoo for the Early Detection of Cracks in
           Implanted Metal Prostheses

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Simone Nappi;Luca Gargale;Federica Naccarata;Pier Paolo Valentini;Gaetano Marrocco;
      Pages: 29 - 40
      Abstract: Manufacturing faults and aging are the main causes for micro-crack generation in implanted prostheses. An early detection of surface defects by means of local sensors can prevent dangerous complications and prompt for a preventive replacement of the medical device. For this purpose, a tattoo-like sensing mechanism based on pre-fractal Space Fulling Curves is wrapped onto the medical device and coupled with a zero-power RFID transponder. The resulting smart prosthesis is capable to identify the early formation of cracks and to communicate with the exterior of the body by backscattering communication. The crack detection method exploits the anti-tamper port of common Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) ICs and a small antenna, acting as harvester, closely integrated with the metal prosthesis. Simulations and tests with a mockup of metallic hip prosthesis and a leg phantom demonstrate that the device can identify surface cracks as small as 0.6 mm and can be wireless interrogated outside the body from up to 70 cm distance. The required geometrical change to the prosthesis is modest and does not hinder its mechanical robustness. Experiments also confirmed that the health status of the prosthesis could be even monitored on-the-fly when the patient crosses a door equipped with a UHF reader. The sensorized prosthesis could hence become an enabler for the emerging Precision Medicine and for the Internet of Bodies paradigm.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Methodology for Remote Microwave Sterilization Applicable to the
           Coronavirus and Other Pathogens Using Retrodirective Antenna Arrays

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Konstantinos Kossenas;Symon K. Podilchak;Davide Comite;Pascual D. Hilario Re;George Goussetis;Sumanth K. Pavuluri;Samantha J. Griffiths;Robert J. Chadwick;Chao Guo;Nico Bruns;Christine Tait-Burkard;Jürgen G. Haas;Marc P.Y. Desmulliez;
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: This paper describes an innovative remote surface sterilization approach applicable to the new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The process is based on the application of a liquid film on the surface or object under sterilization (OUS). A beacon signal is used to self-steer the transmitted power from the designed retrodirective antenna array (RDA) towards the OUS using circularly polarized fields; then, the sterilization is completed by raising and maintaining the required temperature for a certain time. Results suggest that the process takes 5 minutes or less for an angular coverage range over 60 degrees whilst abiding by the relevant safety protocols. This paper also models the power incident onto the OUS, providing consistent results with full-wave simulations. A practical RDA system is developed using a 2 × 1 microstrip patch array operating at 2.5 GHz and tested through the positioning of a representative target surface. Measurements, developed by sampling the power transmitted by the heterodyne RDA, are reported for various distances and angles, operating in the near-field of the system. To further validate the methodology, an additional experiment investigating virus deactivation through microwave heating was also developed. Measurements have been performed with an open cavity microwave oven on the Coronavirus (strain 229E) and egg white protein in a cuvette. This demonstrates that the temperature increases of aqueous films up to 70 $^{circ }$C by remote microwave-induced heat can denature proteins and deactivate viruses. Possible applications of the method include sterilization of ambulances, medical equipment, and internet of things (IoT) devices.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Systematic Method to Explore Radio-Frequency Non-Thermal Effect on the
           Growth of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: D. Ye;G. Cutter;T. P. Caldwell;S. W. Harcum;P. Wang;
      Pages: 52 - 60
      Abstract: Radio frequency (RF) non-thermal (NT) bio-effects have been a subject of debate and attracted significant interests due to potential health risks or beneficial applications. In this work, we report a systematic method for broadband investigation of RF NT effects on Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast growth. The method includes a transverse electro-magnetic (TEM) device and a dielectric spectroscopy technique for RF frequency selection. A stripline-based TEM device has two 240-μL chambers 3D printed for cell cultures. The fabricated device operates up to a few GHz and produces uniform RF fields for cell exposure testing. A vector network analyzer (VNA) was used to provide −20 dBm continuous-wave (CW) RF power. The heating effects on cell growth were estimated to be negligible. Frequency regions, where large permittivity differences between the medium and yeast cultures were obtained and used to select RF testing frequencies, e.g., 1.0 MHz, 3.162 MHz, 10 MHz. These differences may indicate RF field gradients near cell membrane, and the gradients may affect local nutrient transport. Additionally, RF at 905 MHz is tested for comparison purpose. Yeast cells in the exponential growth phase were examined at four RF frequencies and compared with two controls. One control device held at the same temperature as the test device, while the other control was held at a temperature 1 °C higher. The results showed that the RF fields at 3.162 MHz reduced yeast growth rates by 15.1%; however, the RF fields at 1.0 MHz enhanced cell growth by 13.7%, while the observed 4.3% growth rate increase at 10 MHz is insignificant and the RF fields at 905 MHz had no effects on the cell growth. These results showed a clear RF NT effects on S. cerevisiae growth that was frequency dependent. The hypothesized mec-anisms of these effects, i.e., non-uniform RF fields near cell membranes and fluidic diodes in cell membrane ion channels may play important roles in nutrient transport, need to be further investigated.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Microwave Imaging of the Breast: Consistency of Measurements Over Time

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: K. Smith;J. Bourqui;D. Garrett;S. Zarnke;M. Owjimehr;D. Deutscher;T. Fung;E. Fear;
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: Microwave imaging is of increasing interest for monitoring breast health and treatment. In these applications, the consistency of results over time is important to characterize so that relevant changes can be distinguished from normal measurement and tissue variation. In this paper, we analyze the consistency of microwave imaging when scanning frequently over several weeks, similar to the treatment monitoring timeframe. A custom microwave transmission system was used to acquire 15 scans from a breast phantom and 14-15 scans from each of 5 volunteers. As expected, the breast phantom showed high similarity when comparing signals, property estimates, and images at different time points. Scans of each volunteer also generally demonstrated consistency over time, as well as between right and left breasts. The characterization of consistency from scanning healthy women provides a baseline from which significant changes due to disease or treatment can be identified.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Experimental Evaluation of an Axillary Microwave Imaging System to Aid
           Breast Cancer Staging

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daniela M. Godinho;João M. Felício;Carlos A. Fernandes;Raquel C. Conceição;
      Pages: 68 - 76
      Abstract: The number of metastasised Axillary Lymph Nodes (ALNs) is a key indicator for breast cancer staging. Its correct assessment affects subsequent therapeutic decisions. Common ALN screening modalities lack high enough sensitivity and specificity. Level I ALNs produce detectable backscattering of microwaves, opening the way for Microwave Imaging (MWI) as a complementary screening modality. Radar-based MWI is a low-cost, non-invasive technique, widely studied for breast cancer and brain stroke detection. However, new specific challenges arise for ALN detection, which deter a simple extension of existing MWI methods. The geometry of the axillary region is more complex, limiting the antenna travel range required for maximum resolution. Additionally, unlike breast MWI setups, it is impractical to use liquid immersion to enhance energy coupling to the body; therefore, higher skin reflection masks ALNs response. We present a complete study that proposes dedicated imaging algorithms to detect ALNs dealing with the above constraints, and evaluate their effectiveness experimentally. We describe the developed setup based on a 3D-printed anthropomorphic phantom, and the antenna-positioning configuration. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first ALN-MWI study involving a fully functional anatomically compliant setup. A Vivaldi antenna, operating in a monostatic radar mode at 2-5 GHz, scans the axillary region. Pre-clinical assessment in different representative scenarios shows Signal-to-Clutter Ratio higher than 2.8 dB and Location Error lower than 15 mm, which is smaller than considered ALN dimensions. Our study shows promising level I ALN detection results despite the new challenges, confirming MWI potential to aid breast cancer staging.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Classification of Alzheimer's Disease Using RF Signals and Machine
           Learning

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Imran M. Saied;Tughrul Arslan;Siddharthan Chandran;
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: Objectives: Alzheimer's disease is one of the most fastest growing and costly diseases in the world today. It affects the livelihood of not just patients, but those who take care of them, including care givers, nurses, and close family members. Current progression monitoring techniques are based on MRI and PET scans which are inconvenient for patients to use. In addition, more intelligent and efficient methods are needed to predict what the current stage of the disease is and strategies on how to slow down its progress over time. Technology or Method: In this paper, machine learning was used with S-parameter data obtained from 6 antennas that were placed around the head to noninvasively capture changes in the brain in the presence of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Measurements were conducted for 9 different human models that varied in head sizes. The data was processed in several machine learning algorithms. Each algorithm's prediction and accuracy score were generated, and the results were compared to determine which machine learning algorithm could be used to efficiently classify different stages of Alzheimer's disease. Results: Results from the study showed that overall, the logistic regression model had the best accuracy of 98.97% and efficiency in differentiating between 4 different stages of Alzheimer's disease. Clinical or Biological Impact: The results obtained here provide a transformative approach to clinics and monitoring systems where machine learning can be integrated with noninvasive microwave medical sensors and systems to intelligently predict the stage of Alzheimer's disease in the brain.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Glucose and
           Albumin in Multicomponent Aqueous Solution

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Masahito Nakamura;Takuro Tajima;Michiko Seyama;
      Pages: 86 - 93
      Abstract: We show the measurement of the physiological range of glucose in a multicomponent aqueous solution through multivariate analysis of broadband dielectric spectra from 500 MHz to 50 GHz. To obtain higher glucose selectivity, we apply spectral preprocessing to the dielectric loss spectra to extract feature values of glucose. Using regression models derived from different concentrations of glucose in a solution with bovine serum albumin (BSA), we analyze solutions considering the physiological range of both components. Prediction errors for the glucose and BSA concentrations are estimated to be 54 and 83 mg/dL, respectively, even for varied concentrations of each component. We also investigate the dependence of the glucose prediction error on the solution temperature. The prediction error for the glucose concentrations is estimated to be 99 mg/dL at a difference of ±1 K. This technique will be ease to implement with a broadband microwave sensor or with biomedical sensors that require the capability to analyze multiple components in solutions.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Electrical Impedance Myography for Evaluating Muscle Fatigue Induced by
           Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Bin Zhou;Yuandong Zhuang;Yueming Gao;Željka Lučev Vasić;Ivana Čuljak;Mario Cifrek;Min Du;
      Pages: 94 - 102
      Abstract: Objectives: During Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES), a real-time monitoring method is urgently needed to reduce the negative effect induced by muscle fatigue. Technology or Method: A novel method named electrical impedance myography (EIM) is proposed to evaluate muscle fatigue degree during NMES. The experiments were performed on the anterior tibialis muscle on several voluunteers. Two EIM parameters: impedance amplitude (|Z|) and phase (θ), were measured in real time, while applying six NMES parameter combinations. The mean power frequency (MPF) of the surface electromyography (sEMG) was selected for verification of the proposed method. Results: |Z| and θ of EIM signals decreased significantly after NMES (p < 0.05). They also both showed a linear downward trend during NMES, which was also observed in MPF of sEMG signals. At the measurement frequency of 20 kHz, steady-state fatigue was achieved when |Z| decreased to approximately 14% of the initial value. Clinical or Biological Impact: This study provides a method for monitoring muscle fatigue induced by NMES, which is beneficial to the application of NMES.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Modeling and Simulation of Needle Electrical Impedance Myography in
           Nonhomogeneous Isotropic Skeletal Muscle

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xuesong Luo;Shaoping Wang;Benjamin Sanchez Terrones;
      Pages: 103 - 110
      Abstract: Objective: Needle electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a recently developed technique for neuromuscular evaluation. Despite its preliminary successful clinical application, further understanding is needed to aid interpreting EIM outcomes in nonhomogeneous skeletal muscle measurements. Methods: The framework presented models needle EIM measurements in a bidomain isotropic model. Finite element method (FEM) simulations verify the validity of our model predictions studying two cases: a spherical volume surrounded by tissue and a two-layered tissue. Results: Our models show that EIM is influenced by the vicinity of tissue with different electrical properties. The apparent resistance, reactance and phase relative errors between our theoretical predictions and FEM simulations in the spherical volume case study are $leq$0.2%, $leq$1.2% and $leq$1.0%, respectively. For the two-layered tissue model case study, the relative errors are $leq$2%. Conclusions: We propose a bio-physics driven analytical framework describing needle EIM measurements in a nonhomogeneous bidomain tissue model. Clinical impact: Our theoretical predictions may lead to new ways for interpreting needle EIM data in neuromuscular diseases that cause compositional changes in muscle content, e.g. connective tissue deposition within the muscle. These changes will manifest themselves by changing the electric properties of the conductor media and will impact impedance values.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Enhancement of Remote Vital Sign Monitoring Detection Accuracy Using
           Multiple-Input Multiple-Output 77 GHz FMCW Radar

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Toan K. Vo Dai;Kellen Oleksak;Tsotne Kvelashvili;Farnaz Foroughian;Chandler Bauder;Paul Theilmann;Aly E. Fathy;Ozlem Kilic;
      Pages: 111 - 122
      Abstract: Remote non-contact monitoring of human vital signs has recently received lots of attention due to the advancement and availability of millimeter wave (mmWave) radars. These sensors are significantly reduced in size, but still face serious electromagnetic (EM) propagation loss and signal obstructions resulting in lower signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). As mmWave received signals also have higher sensitivity to body motions, these effects typically degrade the accuracy of heart rate (HR) detection. To overcome this challenge, MIMO configuration can be used to improve the SNR level by taking advantage of its channel diversity. We use here a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar from Texas Instruments (TI) at 77 GHz to collect data from 192 channels. Additionally, vital sign information is extracted using Arctangent Demodulation (AD) and Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) combined with an adapted-wavelet Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) are utilized to demonstrate improvement of HR estimation accuracy.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Microwave-Induced Thermoacoustic Imaging of Small Animals Applying
           Scanning Orthogonal Polarization Excitation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Baosheng Wang;Naping Xiong;Yifei Sun;Lejia Zhang;Chenzhe Li;Jianian Li;Zhicheng Wang;Ziling Chen;Yifeng Zhang;Xiong Wang;
      Pages: 123 - 130
      Abstract: The traditional microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging (MITAI) technique usually suffers from the problem of inhomogeneous microwave power distribution in the sample under test, which in turn renders the loss of some features of the sample in the image. To address this problem, circularly polarized antennas (CPA) have been used in MITAI to improve the image quality. However, the advantage of CPA in homogenizing the field distribution has been only validated using small samples with very simple structures. For complicated biological samples like small animals or human breasts featured with highly inhomogeneous tissue distributions, the performance of CPA-based MITAI is significantly worse than expected. Moreover, the applied CPAs generally have low efficiency, limited power capacity and narrow bandwidth. Thus, a more feasible and efficient method for homogenizing the power distribution is demanded. This work proposes a novel MITAI modality to homogenize the microwave power deposition in the sample and improve the image quality for small animal imaging via scanning orthogonal polarization (SOP) excitation, which uses a linearly polarized antenna. Two small animal samples, a small mouse and a frog, are experimentally investigated by the MITAI-SOP method. The results indicate that the SOP excitation mechanism can completely reveal the structure of the small animals due to improved power homogeneity and the proposed technique is superior to circularly polarized antenna (CPA) based modality since the former avoids the deficiency of CPA in bandwidth, power capacity and efficiency. This work presents a practical and easy-to-implement paradigm for high-quality imaging of small animals and big biological samples using MITAI.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Electromagnetic Characterization of Breast Tissue Phantoms in D-Band
           Regime

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Priyansha Kaurav;Shiban Kishen Koul;Ananjan Basu;
      Pages: 131 - 138
      Abstract: The potential of higher band millimeter waves to characterize different types of breast tissues based on the dielectric contrast between normal and malignant tissues has been reported. Low–cost phantom samples of normal and malignant tissues have been prepared using naturally occurring components, i.e., agar, water, olive oil, and pectin. A waveguide probe-based calibration technique was used to extract the complex permittivities of the two-component (water–agar) and three-component (water-oil–agar) phantoms. The two-component phantoms were used to study the change in the dielectric properties of phantom with change in agar concentration. Water, agar, and varying proportions of oil were used to develop three-component phantom mixtures to mimic the dielectric properties of fat, fibrous and malignant breast tissues. Finally, the reflection and transmission properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms were tested using the waveguide probe calibration-based measurement setup. The difference in the S parameters between the three types of phantoms demonstrates the potential utility of D band-based data acquisition setups for tumor margin assessment applications.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Diagnostic Performance of Machine Learning in Breast Microwave Sensing
           on an Experimental Dataset

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Tyson Reimer;Stephen Pistorius;
      Pages: 139 - 145
      Abstract: Objective: This paper assesses the diagnostic performance of deep learning methods for tumour detection in breast microwave sensing (BMS). Methods: A convolutional neural network (CNN) was used to predict the presence of a cancerous lesion in data from experimental scans of MRI-derived phantoms. An experimental dataset containing data from 1257 scans was used. The CNN was compared to a similarly sized dense neural network (DNN) and logistic regression classifier. Results: The CNN was able to exploit the sinogram data structure to achieve diagnostic performance significantly better than random classification, while neither the DNN nor logistic regression classifiers could generalize to unseen test data. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve of the CNN classifier was estimated to be between (78 $pm$ 3)% and (90 $pm$ 3)%, where the upper estimate was obtained when the testing set was constrained to consist of phantoms with breast volumes that are within the volume bounds of the training set and when the tumour was located at the same vertical position as the system antennas. Conclusion: The results obtained in this investigation demonstrate the potential of combining deep learning and BMS systems for breast cancer detection. Impact: This paper provides an estimate of the diagnostic performance of an air-based BMS system using deep learning methods for automatic tumour detection on a sizable experimental dataset. The performance was found to be comparable to that of AI-assisted mammography and marks a first step toward larger-scale investigations in BMS.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Comparison of Time and Frequency Domain Solvers for Magnetic Resonance
           Coils at Different Field Strengths Using a Single Computational Platform

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Matthias Malzacher;Lothar R. Schad;Jorge Chacon-Caldera;
      Pages: 146 - 152
      Abstract: Rapid prototyping and safety assessments are essential in the modern development of radio frequency coils for magnetic resonance imaging. The use of 3D electromagnetic simulations can avoid expensive physical coil prototyping while providing quantities to determine local patient safety which is not measurable in vivo. Currently, 3D electromagnetic simulations are mostly solved on variations of two solver types, namely the time domain and the frequency domain solver. In this work, we compared these solvers and tested key simulation parameters using a single computational platform with state-of-the-art computational methods and computational human models. Our analysis included computational cost, B$_1^+$-field and power loss density for a range of common radio frequency setups used at different Larmor frequencies (field strengths, respectively) in magnetic resonance imaging systems. We found that a coarse mesh in a time solver has large unpredictable focal errors ($>$50%) due to partial volume artifacts while the frequency solver showed more linearity in the errors when reducing computational cost which could allow for more efficient simulations with reduced safety concerns. We expect our work to provide further insights into parameter and solver selection and contribute towards standardization in coil simulation in magnetic resonance imaging.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Microwave-Thermography Hybrid Technique for Breast Cancer Detection

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Dawood Alsaedi;Alexander Melnikov;Khalid Muzaffar;Andreas Mandelis;Omar M. Ramahi;
      Pages: 153 - 163
      Abstract: This paper proposes a hybrid breast cancer detection modality consisting of microwaves as a radiation source and an infrared thermography method as a heat-imaging recorder, supported by a Convolution Neural Network (CNN). This hybrid method is based on the difference in the transmitted electromagnetic power between healthy and tumorous breasts. This variation in transmitted power results from the electrical property variance between healthy and cancerous tissues. Under microwave radiation, the power of the transmitted waves leads to a heat distribution pattern on a sensitive screen placed under the breast. This work utilizes the change in the heat pattern to indicate the presence of abnormality inside the breast. Involving a CNN elevates the proposed technique’s detection capability and extracts quantitative data that characterize the tumor’s location and size. The proposed modality shows a capability to detect and determine the size and location of an artificial tumor with a 5 mm radius and a 2:1 permittivity contrast with normal tissue.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF, and Microwaves in Medicine and
           Biology 2021 Reviewers

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Pages: 164 - 165
      Abstract: Presents a listing of reviewers who contributed to this publication in 2021.
      PubDate: March 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.238.136.36
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-