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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
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Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1229-7607 - ISSN (Online) 2092-7592
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • A Novel approach forWearable Antenna Design for Biomedical Applications

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      Abstract: Abstract A low profile wearable antenna for the different applications of Body Area Networks is presented. Wearable microstrip patch antenna for development in different applications in the area of WBAN. Many breakthroughs of wearable devices, together including their flexibility, suggest a real time monitoring with WBAN technology of the human vital signs such as pulse rates, blood pressure, and body temperature. The proposed antenna works in the operating frequency of 2.45 GHz which falls under the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency band. The designed antenna uses the flexible Polyimide substrate with a relative permittivity of 3.5 and thickness of 0.1 mm. The antenna is tested on a three layered human phantom model. The antenna parameters of return loss, VSWR, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), gain and low value are established, while Return lost at 2.45 GHz is approximately − 23.22 dB with a VSWR value of 2.45 GHz being 1.13, which determines improved matching impedance. The 2D and 3D gain, and radiation patterns have been determined. The designed antenna is simulated with a three layered phantom model using a High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).The simulated model is tested using Network Analyzer and Anechoic chamber and fabricated.
      PubDate: 2022-08-03
       
  • Phase Evolution, Microstructure, and Electrical Resistivity of
           CaMnO3-CaZrO3 Composites

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      Abstract: Abstract The phase evolution, microstructure, and electrical resistivity of (1-x) CaMnO3-(x) CaZrO3 composites were investigated. A mixture of the CaMnO3-type and CaZrO3-type phases with an orthorhombic structure was formed with the compositions of x = 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75. The diffraction peaks of the CaZrO3-type phase and those of the CaMnO3-type one were shifted toward the higher angle and the lower one, respectively, indicating that the substitutional solid solution occurred mutually. All the specimens exhibited dense microstructures except the composition of x = 1.0. The value of the linear shrinkage for the compositions of x = 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75, i.e., the mixture of the CaMnO3-type and CaZrO3-type phases, is higher than that for the single phases, i.e., CaMnO3 and CaZrO3. The composition of x = 0.0, i.e., CaMnO3, showed an electrical resistivity of about 1 Ω·cm. Since CaZrO3 is an insulator, the electrical resistivity of (1-x) CaMnO3-(x) CaZrO3 composites can be controlled from about 1 Ω·cm to infinity by changing the x value.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Floating and Grounded Meminductor Using VDTA and Neuromorphic Circuit
           Based On Amoeba Behaviour

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      Abstract: Abstract In this research paper, design of meminductor modes by using Voltage Difference Transconductance Amplifier (VDTA), an MOS based design is proposed. To achieve the two modes of meminductor, two VDTA elements, capacitors and a resistor are used. Also, the proposed meminductor configuration for both decremental and incremental modes are presented. The layout design of VDTA, simulation and performance are evaluated by using Cadence Virtuoso and Cadence Spectre tool. Furthermore, a neuromorphic circuit is implemented as an application of the meminductor. The theoretical justification of the proposed meminductor modes and its applications i.e., neuromorphic circuit is verified by using Cadence Virtuoso Tool.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Design, Analysis and Simulation of RF MEMS Capacitive Shunt Switch with
           Perforations for Ka-Band Applications

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the design and analysis of an RF MEMS Shunt switch with low pull-in voltage and good RF performance. The switch includes a vertically deforming beam which includes perforations and meanders. This switch is developed to run at a Radio Frequency (RF) of 35 GHz. The significant accomplishments in this work are the pull in voltage that is minimized to 3.72 V, and the return loss is listed below − 26.6 dB, the insertion loss is listed less than − 0.22 dB and isolation is − 36.4 dB. The up and down capacitance of the switch is 110 fF, 1.58 pF, and the obtained capacitance ratio is 113.5. The product utilized for the CPW line is Gold (Au). The dielectric product utilized in between the beam and the CPW transmission line is Silicon Nitride (Si3N4). We achieved electromechanical analysis through COMSOL software and RF analysis is done using HFSS software.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Design, Simulation and Analysis of a Slotted RF MEMS Switch

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a capacitive RF MEMS switch working in shunt configuration is designed and optimized using FEM software. An electrostatically actuated fixed–fixed type shunt switch is optimised for low pull-in voltage. The thickness of the membrane and the actuating gap is optimized for low pull-in voltage and high capacitance ratio. The effect of different meanders, perforations, slits and device dimensions were also analyzed. The final device has a pull-in voltage of 3.74 V, down capacitance of 28.6 pF, up capacitance of 160 fF and a capacitance ratio of 178.125. The switch shows peak isolation of 43.3 dB at 39.7 GHz and isolation better than 30 dB over the entire Ka band.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Band Structure and Optical Spectra of Bulk, Tri-Layer, Bi-Layer and
           Monolayer CdS System: A Comparative Study

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      Abstract: Abstract A computational study based on the density functional theory calculations is carried out for the band structure and optical spectra of bulk, tri-layer, bi-layer and monolayer CdS system in the hexagonal-wurtzite structure. The aim of this contribution is to see how the electronic and optical properties of CdS change when moving from the bulk form to the monolayer one through tri-layer and bi-layer Cds systems. Our results show that the monolayer form still has a direct (Г-Г) band gap, but with an increased magnitude with respect to that of bulk CdS. The optical properties of the tri-layer, bi-layer and monolayer form are found to be different from those of the bulk form. An anisotropic character has been shown by the optical spectra for light polarized parallel and perpendicular to the x axis of the crystal. Our findings indicate that novel electronic and optical properties may be obtained when passing from bulk to tri-layer, bi-layer and monolayer CdS system.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Sn–1.0Ag–0.5Cu and
           Sn–3.8Ag–0.7cu Lead Free Solder Alloys During Storage and
           Transportation Under Chloride Working Condition

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      Abstract: Abstract The Continuous miniaturization of electronics set stringent requirements of corrosion resistance as imposed by high-density packaging. The present work elucidates electrochemical corrosion behaviours of two conventional lead-free solder alloys, i.e., Low-Ag (Sn–1.0Ag–0.5Cu, SAC105) and High-Ag (Sn–3.8Ag–0.7Cu, SAC387) solder alloys. The Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Potentiodynamic polarization performed in naturally aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution for 1 h, 24 h, 168 h, 336 h, 504 h and 672 h suggest that SAC387 solder offers higher corrosion resistance than SAC105 solder. The SAC105 solder is sparsely cover with fine-fibrous corrosion product, while platelet-like and fibrous mass entirely covers SAC387 solder. Microstructural and elemental characterization of corrosion product revealed the presence of tin oxide, Cu and Ag containing products as several pit, cracks and pore-like structures.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Design and Analysis of a Serpentine Type RF MEMS Shunt Switch with Low
           Pull-in-Voltage

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the design and simulation of the RF MEMS capacitive shunt switch, using FEM and HFSS tools. Here, we have done electromechanical and electromagnetic analysis by varying the materials, thickness, of the beam, gap between the membrane and the dielectric. The Meanders are used to vary the spring constant, which supports changes in pull-in voltage, which is obtained as 6.92 V for gold beam material and the thickness is taken as 0.5 µm, and the switch has a good switching time as 4.9 µs. The up capacitance and stress analysis are obtained as 9.16 fF, 2.69 MPa. The RF performance analysis such as return, insertion loss are analyzed using HFSS software and are obtained as − 26.48 dB and − 0.60 dB at 60 GHz frequency. The maximum isolation of switch is − 41.88 dB at 54.1 GHz, the overall proposed design shows good RF-performance at 45–70 GHz frequency range. Finally, the proposed switch is applicable for high-frequency applications.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Simulation Analysis of Electromagnetic Characteristics of Electric Vehicle
           Cable Under Tensile Condition

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper mainly studies the stress and strain characteristics of electric vehicle cables under tensile state and its influence law on the electromagnetic characteristics. Firstly, the structure and characteristics of new energy vehicle cables are analyzed, and the three-dimensional solid model of the cables is established. The finite element method is used to analyze the deformation law and stress change characteristics of cables under different tensile load conditions, so as to achieve the resistance change law of cables. Then the equivalent modeling method is established to simulate the electromagnetic characteristics of the cable. It is found that the tensile deformation increases the electromagnetic field intensity of some parts of the cable, leading to the irregular distribution of electromagnetic field in the entire cable. Finally, the variation law of electromagnetic field during the cable deformation is summarized.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Effects of Hafnium Oxide on Short Channel Effects and DC Analysis for
           Double Gate Junctionless Transistors

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a silicon based two dimensional (2D) double gate junctionless transistor (JLT) is analyzed for its functional understanding and performance optimization feasibility. The DC characteristics and short channel effects (SCEs) analysis are performed for the proposed JLT structure. JLT with different structural parameter variation like gate length (10–80 nm), oxide thickness (1–5 nm), doping concentration (1 × 1015–1 × 1019 cm−3), and raising source and drain thickness are investigated. The effect of these parameters and dielectric variation on the threshold voltage, drain current, transconductance, drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and subthreshold swing (SS) of the junctionless transistor also evaluated and analyzed. The analysis shows that the threshold voltage of JLT can be tuned by controlling device structural parameters. Further variation in gate oxide shows that JLT with hafnium oxide (HfO2) gives better device characteristics compare to JLTs with silicon nitride (Si3N4) and silicon-dioxide (SiO2). Use of high-k dielectric in gate oxide improves the JLT with respect to DIBL and SS. By choosing the proper channel doping, gate dielectric and their thickness combinations, the desired device characteristics could be obtained for junctionless transistor.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Analytical Modelling and Simulation Analysis of Junctionless Nanotube (JL
           NT) MOSFET

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, an analytical model for junctionless nanotube (JL NT) MOSFET has been developed. The analytical model for minimum central potential, threshold voltage and drain current has been developed by using variable separation method. These model expressions are further applied to analyse the Short Channel Effects (SCEs) of JL NT MOSFET. The electrical performance of proposed device has been investigated by varying different process parameters such as silicon nanotube thickness, gate oxide thickness, and gate length. All the results of developed models have been validated by comparing with so obtained simulated results from genius 3D device simulator of VisualTCAD for different device parameters. JL NT MOSFET with appropriate design parameters can be further explored for circuit applications.
      PubDate: 2022-08-01
       
  • Grain Size Effect on the Electric Properties of Gd/Nb Substituted Barium
           Titanate-Lithium Ferrite at High Frequency Region

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      Abstract: Abstract Gd/Nb substituted BaTiO3–Li0.5Fe2.5O4 (BLF) composite ceramics are prepared using conventional solid state technique. The structural properties like XRD to identify the structure of composites, morphological studies to describe surface morphology, estimate grain size of the composites and electric properties at high frequencies are investigated. The XRD reveals Gd/Nb substituted BLF composite confirm the tetragonal crystal structure without phase change. The morphology studies confirm that the BLF composite exhibit larger grains which are surrounded by smaller grains in different angular shapes with low pores. The impedance of all composites shows maximum followed by complex behaviour which is due to relaxation of domain motion. The capacitance of BLF composite decrease by doping with Gd/Nb in BLF over the frequency region between 1 MHz and 1 GHz. The conductance peak of composite shifted towards lower and higher frequencies due to substitution of Gd/Nb. The real part of electric modulus (M′) shows complex behaviour beyond 1 GHz. The imaginary part of Electric Modulus (M′′) of all composites are frequency independent from 1 MHz to 1 GHz.
      PubDate: 2022-07-30
       
  • A Novel Design of High-Efficiency Multi-junction Solar Cell with
           Quantum/Barrier Wells (QBW-SC) Using Drift–Diffusion Mothod

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      Abstract: Abstract To achieve the best results of quantum well systems, a solar cell with the best output results is required. This field of study is important because of the capacity to increase the efficiency of the solar cell, which can absorb most of the solar spectrum, which conventional transparent or crystal solar cells cannot do. In this paper, a novel multi-junction solar cell with 13 layers of barrier wells and 14 layers of quantum wells are included in the middle part of the reference solar cell is designed and simulated. To have the best outputs from the Quantum/Barrier Wells Solar Cell (QBW-SC), the thickness of the window, emitter, and base layers are selected as 550, 50, and 50 nm, respectively. In the best case, the short-circuit current is JSC = 71.8594 mA/cm2 and the open-circuit voltage is VOC = 0.99 V. The rate of fill factor and efficiency are FF = 87.3472% and ƞ = 59.9674%, respectively, which seems to be acceptable compared to other cases and can be implemented empirically, and of course, it is predicted that the cost has a lower build than the samples provided. Finally, to prove the superiority and optimization of the proposed solar cell structure, it is compared with other similar structures in recent years.
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
       
  • The Effect of Electronic Characteristics of Molecules in Ester Insulating
           Oils on Streamer Propagation

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      Abstract: Abstract Ester insulating oils are the preferred dielectric fluids of choice for oil-immersed transformers because of their superior fire safety, environmental friendliness, sustainability, and satisfying operating efficiency compared with traditional mineral insulating oil. However, the ease of streamer propagation and low breakdown voltage in ester fluids at positive lightning impulse (LI) voltage pose a crucial challenge to the safe operation of transformers, significantly limiting their use in power transformers. Currently, most available studies have focused on the morphological analysis of streamers without further investigation at the molecule level. In this work, we investigated the effect of ionization potential (IP) and electron affinity (EA) of molecules in three types of ester fluids—palm fatty acid ester (PFAE), soybean (FR3) and rapeseed (RDB) insulating oils—on streamer propagation at positive LI voltage. The calculated IP of PFAE oil (8.8 eV) is higher than the other two oils (7.5 eV). 66% faster streamer propagation and 25% lower positive LI breakdown voltage were found in PFAE oil compared with FR3 and RDB oils under positive LI voltage. Under the same applied voltage, the streamer in PFAE oil travelled faster and stopped at a farther distance than in FR3 and RDB oils. The lower EA and viscosity of PFAE oil equipped electrons with higher kinetic energy, leading to a fiercer collision between electrons and molecules and thus a large number of excited molecules. In contrast, relatively higher EAs and viscosities of FR3 and RDB oils limited electron-molecule collision, resulting in a lack of excited molecules for streamer propagation.
      PubDate: 2022-07-02
       
  • Performance Assessment and Optimization of Vertical Nanowire TFET for
           Biosensor Application

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper reports the performance assessment of vertical silicon nanowire TFET (V-siNWTFET) design for biosensor applications using dielectric-modulation and gate underlap technique. The sensitivity of the V-siNWTFET is recognizing by immobilizing the different biological molecules such as lipids, biotin, uricase, protein, Gox, streptavidin, uriease, zein etc. in the cavity region which is created under the gate electrode and source oxide. The performance analysis is observed by varying the relative permittivity of the different biomolecules and analyzes the parametric variation both for neutral and charged biomolecules. The sensitivity of the biosensor has been detecting in the terms of drain current (ID), threshold voltage (VTH), subthreshold slope (SS), transconductance (gm), and ION/IOFF ratio. The proposed device structure has capable to reduce the leakage currents and high sensitivity biosensor design in the nanoscale regimes. The obtained best optimum parameters of the proposed devices are ION (1.37E−08 A/µm), IOFF (9.44E−19 A/µm), SS (29.97 mV/dec) and ION/IOFF (4.29E + 10) ratio with gate work-function (ϕgate = 4.8 eV) and uniformly doped (1 × 10–19 cm−3) silicon nanowire at drain to source voltage (VDS = 1.0 V). The higher sensitivity of the proposed V-siNWTFET for Biosensor is observed for Zein biomolecules (K = 5).
      PubDate: 2022-06-27
       
  • Transformation of the Coplanar Waveguide Bandpass Filter to Band Stop
           Filter by Serpentine Shape Shunt/Open Stubs

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the design and simulation of a new compact bandpass filter (BPF) has been implemented with serpentine meandershunt stub on coplanar waveguide technology. The inductive loading is improved by serpentine meander, thus the size of the BPF is reduced. The size of the proposed BPF structure is 4 × 2.6 mm2. The behaviour of the proposed structure and effects on the frequency response of BPF while changing the dimensions is carried out with an electromagnetic (EM) simulator. The equivalent circuit model describes the proposed BPF and exhibits the center frequency, bandwidth, and insertion loss of 20, 8 GHz, and< 0.1 dB respectively. The device-level and equivalent lumped model simulations are done by using the HFSS and ADStools. The proposed BPF is transformed into the bandstop filter, while the serpentine shunt type meander is convertedinto an open stuband also the coupling capacitance gap has vanished. The frequency response of bandstop filter (BSF) is also carried out with both EM and equivalent simulations, these simulations are disclosed the excellent agreement between the electromagnetic (EM) and lumped equivalent model simulations for both BPF and BSF over a frequency range of (15–30) GHz. Hence the proposed structure is recommended for K band (18–26) GHz applications.
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
       
  • Development and Driving Characteristics Analysis of the Drive System for
           the Pesticide Control Robot

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      Abstract: Abstract In order to prevent agricultural pesticide poisoning accidents, the Drive System for the Pesticide Control Robots was developed and the driving characteristics were analyzed. The control robot's drive system used the Flight Controller (FC) for automatic and remote control, and the tracks were used to respond to environmental changes on agricultural roads. The driving part of the control robot performed driving tests on paved roads, unpaved roads and hills. As a result of the driving test, the average speed was 0.91 m/s and the battery current consumption was 8.9 A on the paved road, the average speed was 0.9 m/s and the battery current consumption was 10.59A on the unpaved road, and the average speed was 0.67 m/s, battery current consumption averaged 18.39 A on the hill. As road conditions worsened, the average speed decreased and the average current consumption increased. Considering the average speed, it is expected to secure sufficient time for pesticide control despite various changes in the agricultural environment.
      PubDate: 2022-06-13
       
  • Effect of ZnO Interlayer on Pt/4H–SiC Schottky Contact

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      Abstract: Abstract In this study, atomic layer deposition of ZnO on an n-type 4H–SiC was performed, and the electrical characteristics of Pt/4H–SiC Schottky junctions with the ZnO interlayer (IL) were investigated. The analysis of the forward current characteristics using the thermionic emission model revealed a higher Schottky barrier height and ideality factor for the Pt/SiC contact with the ZnO IL. The thermionic field emission model was found to suitably explain the forward current conduction for samples with and without the ZnO IL. Furthermore, the Pt/SiC contact with the ZnO IL exhibited higher densities of surface states and fixed oxide charges. It could be inferred from the results that the interfacial dipole formed at the Pt/ZnO interface blocked the current transport and shifted the minimum current position towards negative voltages.
      PubDate: 2022-05-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00400-0
       
  • A Brief Review on III-V/Si Tandem Solar Cells

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      Abstract: Abstract Single-junction (SJ) silicon (Si)-based solar cells are currently widely used in the photovoltaic (PV) industry due to their low cost and rapid industrialization, but their low efficiency (theoretical efficiency limit of 29.4%) is the most significant factor preventing their further expansion. Multi-junction (MJ) solar cells may be a key way to break the efficiency limit of SJ Si-based solar cells since the approach can take full advantage of different PV materials. To overcome the disadvantages of other types of solar cells and improve the cell efficiency of solar cells, a new MJ solar cell, the III-V/Si tandem solar cell, was fabricated. This article reviews the development of III-V/Si tandem solar cells and briefly describes the three major terminal configurations and the three growth mechanisms of III-V compounds on Si substrates. Finally, we present four methods that characterize the performance of III-V/Si tandem solar cells and compare the advantages and disadvantages of these four methods.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00398-5
       
  • Two-Stage De-binding for Cu Electrode Application to PZT-PZNN Multilayer
           Actuator

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      Abstract: Abstract To fabricate a multilayer actuator by applying Cu paste by the tape casting method, the correlation between the amount of residual carbon from the de-binding process and the sinterability was reviewed and the effect of the former on the piezoelectric properties was observed. The Cu electrode must be fired in a reducing atmosphere to prevent oxidation, but a preliminary de-binding process was performed in an oxidizing atmosphere for effective binder burn-out. After performing a preliminary de-binding process for 24 h in an oxidizing atmosphere, the residual carbon amount was measured with a variation of the main de-binding temperatures in a reducing atmosphere to find the optimal binder burn-out process conditions. As a result of co-firing the specimens (obtained from the two-stage de-binding) in a reducing atmosphere at 900 °C, the maximum sintered density was 7.65 g/cm3. When the final residual carbon amount increased from 0.02 to 0.09 wt%, the capacitance value showed a tendency to decrease from 23.16 to 12.26 nF, and the electrical resistance value increased from 0.2 to 0.8 Ω.
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00399-4
       
 
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