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Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1229-7607 - ISSN (Online) 2092-7592
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Factors Affecting the Performance of HJT Silicon Solar Cells in the
           Intrinsic and Emitter Layers: A Review

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      Abstract: Abstract Recently, the focus of solar cell research has shifted from Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell and Passivated Emitter and Rear Locally-diffused solar cells to Heterojunction with Intrinsic Thin Layer solar cells. Compared to the already mass-produced Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell and Passivated Emitter and Rear Locally-diffused solar cells, the passivation with the intrinsic thin layer of amorphous on the wafer surface, the continuous improvement of the emitter thickness, and doping concentration have enabled Heterojunction with Intrinsic Thin Layer solar cells to obtain open-circuit voltage above 750 mV while maintaining a short circuit current density of ~ 40 mA/cm2 and an Fill Factor of ~ 84%. This leads to a theoretical conversion efficiency of 27.5% (monolithic) to 29% (tandem), which is much higher than the theoretical final conversion efficiency of ~ 24.5% achieved by Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell and Passivated Emitter and Rear Locally-diffused solar cells at a short-circuit voltage of 706 mV. To further approach the theoretical maximum efficiency, improvements, and optimization of the fabrication process, as well as change in material of the front emitter layer and thus the band gap, conductivity, and defect density can be adopted. Efficiencies of up to 28.27% were achieved using hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon with a bandgap of 1.9 eV as the emitter layer.
      PubDate: 2023-02-04
       
  • Liquid Phase Exfoliation and Characterization of Few Layer MoS2 and WS2
           Nanosheets as Channel Material in Field Effect Transistor

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      Abstract: Abstract Field effect transistors (FETs) are considered as the backbone of electronic industry. In this study, we adopted a simple drop cast method for the fabrication of MoS2 and WS2 channel based FET on commercially available pre-patterned OFET devices. The synthesis of few-layers thick MoS2 and WS2 nanosheets (NSs) has been done by solvent-assisted exfoliation method. FESEM and TEM study reveals that NSs have lateral dimensions in micron and have polycrystalline nature. From XPS, it is observed that MoS2 NSs has 2H phase whereas WS2 have hybrid 1T and 2H phase. The frequency difference in Raman vibrational mode for MoS2 and WS2 NSs is 24.08 cm−1 and 63.84 cm−1 respectively, confirms that number of layers is reduced after sonication. UV–visible spectroscopy reveals that the bandgap is 1.7 eV and 1.8 eV for MoS2 and WS2 NSs respectively. Later, these nanosheets have been drop-casted as the channel material on pre-patterned FETs devices and their output and transfer characteristics have been studied. It found that the current On/Off ratio is 104 and 103 for MoS2 and WS2-FET device respectively. This facile fabrication of FET devices may provide a new stage for researchers who do not have access of lithography facilities for FET fabrication.
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
       
  • Aging Mechanism of p-Type Dopingless JLFET: NBTI and Channel-Hot-Carrier
           Stress

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      Abstract: Abstract In this work, an extensive study of the aging mechanisms of the p-type dopingless JLFET (DL JLFET) structure is reported for the first time. The negative-bias-temperature-instability (NBTI) and channel-hot-carrier (CHC) stress conditions are considered for analyzing the aging behavior of p-type DL JLFET. The variations in electrical characteristics of lightly doped DL JLFET are compared with its conventional counterpart JLFET against NBTL and CHC stress. We have shown that JLFET with heavily doped channel region exhibits higher drain current degradation under CHC stress due to high electric field and large gate leakage current. The JLFET has 19% drain current degradation due to CHC stress which is 1.7 times higher than DL JLFET. However, under NBTI stress, the DL JLFET has slightly higher drain current degradation and almost symmetric shift in \(V_{th}\) than JLFET. Hence, this study suggests that dopingless devices are superior candidate for designing aging-resilient and more reliable circuits.
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
       
  • Dielectric Spectroscopy of A-Site and B-Site Modified
           K0.5Na0.5NbO3–Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 Based Material

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      Abstract: Abstract We report the results of temperature and frequency dependent dielectric properties of a structural modified K0.5Na0.5NbO3–Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 based material; (Bi0.4La0.1K0.5Nb0.5Fe0.5O3) to attain a lead free alternative for the fabrication of multifunctional devices. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals the formation of rhombohedral crystal structure. The dielectric constant measurements indicate that the transition temperatures were independent of measured frequencies. The frequency dependent dielectric constant and loss tangent showed a decreasing trend. The observed dielectric loss anomalies were relatively weak near the transition temperature. The remnant polarization (Pr) and coercivity (Ec) of the sample were found to be 9.848 µC/cm2, and 0.511 kV/cm respectively.
      PubDate: 2022-12-26
       
  • Impact of Back Gate Bias on Analog Performance of Dopingless Transistor

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      Abstract: Abstract In this brief, the impact of back gate bias \((V_{gb})\) , on analog performance of silicon on insulator dopingless transistor (SOI-DLT) is investigated. It is observed that SOI-DLTs are more immune to \(V_{gb}\) in contrast to its conventional counterpart SOI junctionless transistor (SOI-JLT). When \(V_{gb}\) is increased from − 1.5 V to 1.5 V, the variation in transconductance \((g_m)\) and intrinsic gain ( \(g_mr_O\) ) of SOI-JLT is 1.3 and 21.4 times higher than SOI-DLT. The insignificant variation is observed in \(g_m\) and \(g_mr_O\) of SOI-DLT against \(V_{gb}\) than SOI-JLT due to the use of lightly doped channel. Further, the device reliability of SOI-DLT against impact ionization is evaluated by measuring the electron concentration and electric field near the drain side. We have found that the SOI-DLT is less sensitive to impact ionization in comparison to conventional SOI-JLT. Hence, the simulation results shown in this paper offer an opportunity for future analog integrated circuits designing with SOI-DLT structure under the influence of \(V_{gb}\) .
      PubDate: 2022-12-08
       
  • Design and Analysis of Various Characteristics of a MEMS-Based
           PIB/CNT/LiNbO3 Multilayered SAW Sensor for CO2 Gas Detection

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents the design and analysis of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor with a multilayer nanocomposite to detect carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. SAW resonator impacts the detection and identification of hazardous gases that exist in the environment in an uncontrolled manner. These devices have the operational capability to work in a very extreme elevated temperature, pressure, and inert noxious atmosphere. The proposed work is intended to provide a two-dimensional model of a surface acoustic wave device/sensor and the most prominent solid material, carbon nanotube (CNT), which plays a vital role in the adsorption of volatile organic compounds. However, another miniature sensor has been designed with a potential material, an organic polymer, i.e., poly-isobutylene (PIB). Both the sensor model responses were examined for CO2 gas at room temperature. In this work, we have designed two different resonator structures with the help of COMSOL Multiphysics. The proposed, designed models were patterned with interdigitated transducer electrodes made of aluminum material coated explicitly on top of the structure were used to analyze gas sensing behavior for CO2 gaseous elements. Here the proposed geometry provides resonance of 9.1524 MHz and anti-resonance of 9.2455 MHz for monolayer structure and resonance of 8.6447 MHz, and anti-resonance of 8.5201 MHz for multilayer structure. Comparatively, the second sensor PIB/CNT/LiNbO3 heterostructure pattern was also designed to be the best choice for the accurate and reliable measurement of the concentration of various gaseous elements based on a few parameters are discussed further.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00392-x
       
  • Extensive Analysis of Gate Leakage Current in Nano-Scale Multi-gate
           MOSFETs

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      Abstract: Abstract Excessive gate leakage is crucial for nanoscale metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), resulting in unnecessary static power dissipation and switching delay. Herein, we used three-dimensional modeling to understand the gate leakage behavior of various nanoscale MOSFETs, including fin field-effect transistor and gate all around MOSFET. We used Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation to compute the direct quantum tunneling-based gate leakage current. We performed all computations of quantum transport for gate leakage current through the non-equilibrium Greens function approach. Among the MOSFET structures under study, the gate all around MOSFET demonstrates the most profound gate leakage deviation with the gate material work function and oxide thickness. A detailed analysis of the dependence of the gate leakage on the metal work function is presented, and the charge density model is used to explain this dependence. This work explores the possibilities of controlling the gate leakage through gate material variations in different nanoscale multi-gate MOSFET architectures.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00404-w
       
  • A Novel approach forWearable Antenna Design for Biomedical Applications

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      Abstract: Abstract A low profile wearable antenna for the different applications of Body Area Networks is presented. Wearable microstrip patch antenna for development in different applications in the area of WBAN. Many breakthroughs of wearable devices, together including their flexibility, suggest a real time monitoring with WBAN technology of the human vital signs such as pulse rates, blood pressure, and body temperature. The proposed antenna works in the operating frequency of 2.45 GHz which falls under the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency band. The designed antenna uses the flexible Polyimide substrate with a relative permittivity of 3.5 and thickness of 0.1 mm. The antenna is tested on a three layered human phantom model. The antenna parameters of return loss, VSWR, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), gain and low value are established, while Return lost at 2.45 GHz is approximately − 23.22 dB with a VSWR value of 2.45 GHz being 1.13, which determines improved matching impedance. The 2D and 3D gain, and radiation patterns have been determined. The designed antenna is simulated with a three layered phantom model using a High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).The simulated model is tested using Network Analyzer and Anechoic chamber and fabricated.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00409-5
       
  • A Large Signal GaN HEMT Transistor Based on the Angelov Model Parameters
           Extraction Applied to Single Stage Low Noise Amplifier

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      Abstract: Abstract This article consists of two research parts. The first one presents results of calculation and optimization of Angelov model parameters compared to the experimental values of the intrinsic elements and the Ids–Vds model of a Gaussian signal transistor HEMT. The device has two fingers gate of 0.25 mm of each one. The gate width is also equal to 0.5 mm and the gate length is of 0.5 μm. The calculation and optimization of Angelov model parameters show that obtained results, give a good agreement with the experimental values, as well as for the large-signal validation of the HEMT/GaN transistor. These parameters can be implemented on microwave various simulators as such ADS Software. The second part consists of using this large-signal transistor in the design of a low noise amplifier at 3 GHz (S-band). Its power maximum output Pout equal to 36.16 dBm for the voltages Vds = 30 V and Vgs= − 3.5 V, in AB class amplifier configuration. The results of the amplifier summarized as a noise factor of 1.11 dB, and a stability factor of 1.03 that show a good agreement with the literature.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00390-z
       
  • Energy Harvest System Research for High Precision Electronic Voltage
           Transformer based on Coupling Capacitance

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      Abstract: Abstract High quality power is the prerequisite for high precision measurement of an electronic voltage transformer. In order to ensure a compact structure and stable operation of the transformer, this paper proposes a circuit and high voltage energy harvest of high precision electronic voltage transformer based on coupling capacitance. The energy extraction circuit is directly connected with the high voltage terminal through a capacitor, and the low DC voltage is obtained through the diode rectifier bridge. A self-holding duty cycle regulating circuit is installed on the DC side, and the power required by the load can be automatically adjusted to match the load. Because the overall load of the power extraction circuit is capacitive, there is no ferro-resonance problem. Furthermore, there is also no MCU in the device, so that the whole circuit has the advantages of small power loss, small volume, strong anti-interference ability, and can provide a stable DC power for the metering device. The proposed method is verified in simulations using PSCAD/EMTDC.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00395-8
       
  • The Effect of Electronic Characteristics of Molecules in Ester Insulating
           Oils on Streamer Propagation

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      Abstract: Abstract Ester insulating oils are the preferred dielectric fluids of choice for oil-immersed transformers because of their superior fire safety, environmental friendliness, sustainability, and satisfying operating efficiency compared with traditional mineral insulating oil. However, the ease of streamer propagation and low breakdown voltage in ester fluids at positive lightning impulse (LI) voltage pose a crucial challenge to the safe operation of transformers, significantly limiting their use in power transformers. Currently, most available studies have focused on the morphological analysis of streamers without further investigation at the molecule level. In this work, we investigated the effect of ionization potential (IP) and electron affinity (EA) of molecules in three types of ester fluids—palm fatty acid ester (PFAE), soybean (FR3) and rapeseed (RDB) insulating oils—on streamer propagation at positive LI voltage. The calculated IP of PFAE oil (8.8 eV) is higher than the other two oils (7.5 eV). 66% faster streamer propagation and 25% lower positive LI breakdown voltage were found in PFAE oil compared with FR3 and RDB oils under positive LI voltage. Under the same applied voltage, the streamer in PFAE oil travelled faster and stopped at a farther distance than in FR3 and RDB oils. The lower EA and viscosity of PFAE oil equipped electrons with higher kinetic energy, leading to a fiercer collision between electrons and molecules and thus a large number of excited molecules. In contrast, relatively higher EAs and viscosities of FR3 and RDB oils limited electron-molecule collision, resulting in a lack of excited molecules for streamer propagation.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00402-y
       
  • Design and Performance Analysis of Micropump for Drug Delivery Using
           Normal and Stacked Ring Type Piezoelectric Actuator

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      Abstract: Abstract In drug delivery systems micropump plays a very important role for controlled drug delivery. This paper presents the analysis of three designs of micropumps for drug delivery application, where each micropump design is analyzed with normal ring type piezo actuator (NPZT) and Stacked ring type piezo actuator (SPZT) individually. Now totally six different micropump designs are analyzed in this paper. The main objective of this paper is to distinguish the performance of micropump using NPZT and SPZT actuators on various designs, and advantage of using Ring type Piezoelectric (PZT) element over the use of conventional PZT disc as an actuator. With the use of ring type PZT element on membrane the uncovered region of the membrane undergoes more flexular displacement at center due to the radial contraction or expansion. All these micropumps are given a sinusoidal excitation of 90 V peak-to-peak at 100 Hz frequency. All performance parameters of micropump such as membrane deflection, flow rate, chamber pressure, settling time are analyzed as a function of time. In every design, micropumps actuated with SPZT shown improved flow rate without any further increase in voltage. Among all these designs the best one given an outlet flow rate of 800 μl/min, at a maximum flow velocity of 50 mm/sec, with a settling time of 60 ms.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00407-7
       
  • Performance Assessment and Optimization of Vertical Nanowire TFET for
           Biosensor Application

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper reports the performance assessment of vertical silicon nanowire TFET (V-siNWTFET) design for biosensor applications using dielectric-modulation and gate underlap technique. The sensitivity of the V-siNWTFET is recognizing by immobilizing the different biological molecules such as lipids, biotin, uricase, protein, Gox, streptavidin, uriease, zein etc. in the cavity region which is created under the gate electrode and source oxide. The performance analysis is observed by varying the relative permittivity of the different biomolecules and analyzes the parametric variation both for neutral and charged biomolecules. The sensitivity of the biosensor has been detecting in the terms of drain current (ID), threshold voltage (VTH), subthreshold slope (SS), transconductance (gm), and ION/IOFF ratio. The proposed device structure has capable to reduce the leakage currents and high sensitivity biosensor design in the nanoscale regimes. The obtained best optimum parameters of the proposed devices are ION (1.37E−08 A/µm), IOFF (9.44E−19 A/µm), SS (29.97 mV/dec) and ION/IOFF (4.29E + 10) ratio with gate work-function (ϕgate = 4.8 eV) and uniformly doped (1 × 10–19 cm−3) silicon nanowire at drain to source voltage (VDS = 1.0 V). The higher sensitivity of the proposed V-siNWTFET for Biosensor is observed for Zein biomolecules (K = 5).
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00405-9
       
  • Design and Investigation of Dual Dielectric Recessed-Gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT
           as Gas sensor Application

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      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents a highly sensitive Recessed Gate/source/drain AlGaN/GaN HEMT (RG-AlGaN/GaN HEMT) based Carbon Monoxide gas sensors. Many types of Carbon Monoxide (CO) gas sensor have already been demonstrated experimentally. The deeply etched recessed gate based HEMT form highly sensitive 2DEG for small change in gate metal oxide. Copper Oxide and Cerium Oxide are used as a gate electrode in CO gas detection and these metal oxides are reactively sensitive to CO gas molecules. Because of the change in the work function of gate metal oxide due to the presence of gas deposition on it, there is the change in Ioff, Ion, SS and Vth which can be taken as sensitivity parameter for sensing the gas molecules. For a change in work function till 700meV using various steps sizes, RG-AlGaN/GaN HEMT based CO gas sensor shows highly sensitivity with respect to device characteristics parameters.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00391-y
       
  • Studies on Structural, Dielectric, and Optical Properties of the Lanthanum
           Modified BF-BNT Perovskite for the Thermistor and Photovoltaic
           Applications

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      Abstract: Abstract The modified structure of BF-BNT (Bi0.5La0.5Fe)0.25(Bi0.5Na0.5Ti)0.75O3) single perovskite is prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction technique. The structural analysis suggests a tetragonal crystal with space group P4bm (JCPDS file No. 01-070-4760). The average crystallite and lattice strains are 87.2 nm and 0.116% respectively. The dielectric study predicts negative temperature coefficient of resistance character while the presence of low dielectric loss makes the materials useful for energy storage devices. The analysis of the modulus study suggests the presence of a non-Debye type of relaxation process while a thermally activated relaxation process is confirmed from the study of ac conductivity. The presence of the depressed semicircular arcs in both Nyquist and Cole–Cole plots confirms the semiconductor nature of the sample. The study of the Raman spectrum confirms the presence of all atomic vibrations. The UV visible study provides the energy bandgap of 1.67 eV, suitable for the different optoelectronic devices.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00396-7
       
  • Transformation of the Coplanar Waveguide Bandpass Filter to Band Stop
           Filter by Serpentine Shape Shunt/Open Stubs

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the design and simulation of a new compact bandpass filter (BPF) has been implemented with serpentine meandershunt stub on coplanar waveguide technology. The inductive loading is improved by serpentine meander, thus the size of the BPF is reduced. The size of the proposed BPF structure is 4 × 2.6 mm2. The behaviour of the proposed structure and effects on the frequency response of BPF while changing the dimensions is carried out with an electromagnetic (EM) simulator. The equivalent circuit model describes the proposed BPF and exhibits the center frequency, bandwidth, and insertion loss of 20, 8 GHz, and< 0.1 dB respectively. The device-level and equivalent lumped model simulations are done by using the HFSS and ADStools. The proposed BPF is transformed into the bandstop filter, while the serpentine shunt type meander is convertedinto an open stuband also the coupling capacitance gap has vanished. The frequency response of bandstop filter (BSF) is also carried out with both EM and equivalent simulations, these simulations are disclosed the excellent agreement between the electromagnetic (EM) and lumped equivalent model simulations for both BPF and BSF over a frequency range of (15–30) GHz. Hence the proposed structure is recommended for K band (18–26) GHz applications.
      PubDate: 2022-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00403-x
       
  • Wear-Induced Attenuation on Transmission Lines and Their Causes

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      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, the radio frequency (RF) behavior of mechanically stressed coaxial and for the first time also twisted-pair transmission lines is investigated over their service life. The main goal is to enable predictive maintenance for cables in moving applications and avoid preventive replacement. This also reduces the use of high-cost resources. For this purpose, stranded and solid-core variants of coaxial and twisted-pair type cables are mechanically loaded on the two-pulley apparatus according to EN 50396. Their RF transmission (S21) behavior is measured using a vector network analyzer and presented over bending cycles. For the first time, the phase response of mechanically loaded transmission lines is evaluated with respect to their service life. Two significant causes for the increasing attenuation and altered phase response are identified: breakage in foil screen and increasing surface roughness on the copper conductors. The identified causes are supported with literature evidence. Through measurements and theoretical calculations, it is proven that the phase is much more suitable for an assessment of the remaining service life than the amplitude. The findings can be used to implement a cable monitoring system in industrial environments which monitors the lines in-situ and reminds the user to replace them, whenever a certain wear-level is reached.
      PubDate: 2022-11-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00423-7
       
  • Utilize the UV-Visible Region for Reduction of NO by Methylene Blue-Doped
           TiO2 for Photocatalysis

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      Abstract: Abstract A photocatalyst that can adsorb particulate matter (PM) with an electric charge is a popular method for PM reduction. Some commonly used photocatalysts comprise single metal oxides such as TiO2 and ZnO, which could be utilized under ultraviolet (UV) region. However, because UV region constitutes a very small part of the total wavelength of sunlight, technology needs to be developed that allows the utilization of the visible region as well. Herein, we developed a new organic material that activated under not only UV region but also visible region by utilizing methylene blue (MB) with TiO2. To make the TiO2–MB film adsorb well, we discuss various solvents, concentration controls, and even coating methods. By conducting NO removal test, we showed that it is possible to reduce the PM more effectively by using TiO2–MB film than that achieved using TiO2 alone.
      PubDate: 2022-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00417-5
       
  • Temperature Dependency of Piezoelectric Properties in
           0.99Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3–0.01Bi(Y1 −xFex)O3 Ceramics for Application of
           Energy-Harvesting Devices

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      Abstract: Abstract Piezoelectrics of 0.99Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3–0.01Bi(Y1 − xFex)O3 (PZT-BYFx, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6) samples were investigated for energy-harvesting devices. In the sintering processes, the pre-synthesized PZT and BYFx powders were used to increase the piezoelectric properties. Compared with the PZT-BY samples, the PZT-BYFx specimens showed the larger grain size. The piezoelectric charge coefficient showed the maximum value at the Fe concentration of 0.3 molar ratio. Therefore, we checked the temperature dependency of the piezoelectric properties with the PZT-BYF03 composition. The ceramics were well sintered at the temperatures of 800–1200 °C and showed the maximum sintering density of 98.3% of the theoretical value. The transduction coefficient showed the maximum value of 2.0⋅10− 15 m2/N in the samples sintered at 1170 °C. And the values were decreased with decreasing the sintering temperature. The large transduction coefficient means that the PZT-BYF03 composition is a suitable material for energy harvesting applications.
      PubDate: 2022-09-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00416-6
       
  • Total Shielding Efficiency, Reflection Loss and Absorption Loss of
           Nanoparticles/Paraffin Wax Absorber in the Shielding of Electromagnetic
           Pollution

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      Abstract: Abstract The extensive development of diverse electronic/electrical systems has led to increased exposure to electromagnetic field and can result in many adverse effects on humans, other living beings, safety operation of various equipment, etc. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials are in greater demand to suppress this electromagnetic pollution. The present study investigates the factors affecting the shielding efficiency of carbon black-based nanocomposite shields. Fe3O4/carbon black nanocomposite (CBN) with paraffin wax were fabricated by melt mixing methods in different weight percentages of the dispersants. The EMI shielding properties of the nanocomposites were measured using a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 8.2 to 12.5 GHz (X band) based on the transfer/reflection method. The total shielding efficiency was used to assess the shield's protection performance. Based on the weight percentages of nanocomposite constituents, four samples were obtained. The highest average of total shielding efficiency in equal thickness belonged to the sample with 50% CBN and 15% Fe3O4 nanoparticles in weight. At different thicknesses, the highest average total shielding efficiency was related to the minimum thickness of 0.8 mm. Also, in with increasing the frequency decreased the mean total shielding efficiency in the samples. Depending on the type and weight percentage of nanocomposite compounds, one of the absorption or reflection mechanisms can be the main mechanism in reducing or eliminating electromagnetic waves in nanocomposite shields. The shield thickness and frequency of electromagnetic waves affect the protective performance of the shield.
      PubDate: 2022-08-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s42341-022-00406-8
       
 
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