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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
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ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1685-9545
Published by ECTI Association Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Performance Analysis of ML-based Low Complex CFO Estimation for MIMO-OFDMA
           Uplink Systems

    • Authors: Omkar Pabbati, Rutvij Joshi
      Pages: 307 - 314
      Abstract: Carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation in multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system is investigated in this study. MIMO-OFDM is very sensitive to CFOs due to oscillator frequency mismatch and/or Doppler shift. Inaccurate CFO estimation results in intercarrier interference (ICI) through the loss of orthogonality among subcarriers. In this paper, the performance of the ML and APFE algorithm is analyzed for CFO estimation. ML becomes extremely complex due to the multidimensional exhaustive search issue, which is the basic concern in ML estimation. However, making use of the iterative low complex APFE method, here this multidimensional search is replaced with a sequence of mono-dimensional searches. This results in an estimation algorithm of reasonable complexity which is suitable for practical applications. In addition, ML accuracy is compared with the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB).
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.246952
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • Path Planning of AUV Swarms Using a Bio-inspired Multi-Agent System

    • Authors: Sarada Prasanna Sahoo, Bikramaditya Das, Bibhuti Bhusan Pati
      Pages: 315 - 328
      Abstract: This paper uses a multi-agent system (MAS) as the bioinformatics-inspired technique for guiding a team of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) toward the desired destination. An individual AUV is designated as an agent connected by a communication network and assumes full communication. Here, each AUV estimates the position of its neighbor AUVs while moving toward the destination. The proposed multi-AUV system consists of a leader AUV and five follower AUVs. A distributed path consensus (DPC) is proposed to ensure the neighboring agent AUVs maintain a predefined distance between each other while moving toward the predefined destination. Due to the proposed distance constraint between neighboring agents, AUVs stay at a safe distance from each other while maintaining underwater communication using interactive switching topology. The performance of the optimized path is obtained using MATLAB simulation. The proposed algorithm is applied in both, formation using the desired shape, and trajectory tracking, and found to be globally asymptotically stable. The results of the simulation confirm that each agent switches from one state to another and progress over time until the desired coordinated shape is achieved without inter-vehicular collision. The proposed method solves coordination problems among multiple AUVs and increases the coverage of underwater missions like oceanographic surveys.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247509
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • Efficient User Grouping for MU-MIMO Visible Light Communications Based on
           Block Diagonalization

    • Authors: Jariya Panta, Poompat Saengudomlert, Karel L. Sterckx
      Pages: 329 - 338
      Abstract: This paper investigates efficient user grouping methods for multi-user multi-input multi-output (MU-MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) systems. Block diagonalization (BD) precoding is considered for interference avoidance. In addition, time division multiplexing (TDM) is applied to perform user grouping when the number of users exceeds the limit of BD precoding based on the number of light emitting diode (LED) transmitters and the total number of users' photodiodes (PDs). User grouping methods are proposed based on pairwise interference considerations among users in the same group. The proposed methods can be implemented through integer linear programming (ILP), which requires less computation than exhaustive search. The numerical results on the average minimum user throughputs over random scenarios indicate that the proposed hybrid method can significantly outperform random user grouping and performs reasonably well compared to exhaustive search. Finally, this study demonstrates that, when BD precoding greatly attenuates the desired user signals, user grouping can help improve minimum user throughputs even though BD precoding can support all users as a single group.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247510
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • Data Aggregation Methods for IoT Routing Protocols

    • Authors: Parijata Majumdar, Diptendu Bhattacharya, Sanjoy Mitra
      Pages: 339 - 357
      Abstract: Agriculture productivity can be enhanced by IoT- enabled real-time monitoring of weather and soil parameters. Increased volume of sensor data demands a significant amount of memory and power. It also overloads the network, making real-time parameter monitoring very difficult. A large volume of sensor data reduces the lifetime and latency of the network, decreasing the overall throughput. Hence, a reduction in data overload becomes necessary for energy optimization of these energy-constrained sensors. Data aggregation is an effective way of optimizing energy consumption by reducing the volume of redundantly sensed data. Data aggregation helps in designing energy-efficient routing algorithms to transmit information by consuming minimum energy to increase the operational period of the network. This paper surveys different routing algorithms for data aggregation with a focus on energy optimization in precision agriculture. The survey includes IPv6 routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks (RPL) to reduce network overload during data transmission, nature-inspired algorithms for energy-optimized intracluster communication, and energy-efficient compressive sensing (CS) to minimize redundant data by aggregation. It also examines duty-cycling algorithms for reducing average energy consumption by periodically placing sensors into the sleep mode during inactive state to save energy. Different performance benchmarks are evaluated to determine the suitability of the routing algorithms in agriculture.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247511
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • Access Convergence for Heavy Load Markov Ethernet Bursty Traffic Using
           Two-level Statistical Multiplexing

    • Authors: Samuel Nlend, Theo G. Swart, Bekhisipho Twala
      Pages: 358 - 370
      Abstract: A method for modeling aggregated heavy Markov bursty Ethernet traffic from different sources is proposed in this paper, particularly that prevailing between gateway services and internet routing devices, with the aim of achieving rate accommodation. In other words, to accommodate different rates while filtering out delays in the queue, to achieve access network convergence. Although gateway functions can be used to achieve this by adapting service rates, as many gateways as services are required. Instead of considering the distributed gateway services method, statistical multiplexing is chosen for this study for cost efficiency in network resources. Unfortunately, statistical multiplexing exhibits greater packet variation (jitter) and transfer delay. These delays, basically resulting from positive correlations or time dependency in the queue system, are addressed through infinitesimal queue modeling, based on the diffusion process approximated by Ornstein-Uhlenbeck, which deals with infinitesimal changes in the Markov queue. The related analysis has resulted in an exponential queueing model for univariate and/or multivariate servers obtained through Markov Gaussian approximation. An experiment based on two different voice algorithms shows rate accommodation, and a fluid solution, which is dynamically outputted according to the transmission link availability during each transition time, without any significant delay. Hence, better transfer delay and rate control is obtained through the proposed two multiplexing levels within an Ethernet LAN
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247512
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • A Predictive Lossless Queue for Extremely Large Dataset Transfer in Markov
           Communication Systems

    • Authors: Samuel Nlend, Theo G. Swart, Bekhisipho Twala
      Pages: 371 - 382
      Abstract: In this paper, a parametric prediction model is proposed for a queuing system driven by the Markov process. The aim of the model is to minimize the packet loss caused by time dependency characterized by the queue tail being too long, resulting in a time-out during the transfer of a large dataset. The proposed technique requires the key parameters influencing the queue content to be determined prior to its occupation regardless of the server capacity definition, using Bayesian inference. The subsequent time elapsing between the arrival and departure of a packet in the system is given, as well as the system load. This queue content planning is considered as the Markov birth-death chain; a type of discretization that characterizes almost all queuing systems, leading to an exponential queue, and captured herein using beta distribution. The inference results obtained using this exponential queue indicate that the queue with predictive parameters employing beta distribution, even when dealing with a loss system queue, involves less transition time and a greater load than a queue with coarse parameters; hence, preventing a long tail in the queue which is the cause of packet loss.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247513
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • Observability Enhancement of Smart Grid Based on Optimal Placement of PMUs

    • Authors: Alok Priyadarshi, Vishal Rathore, Krishna Bihari Yadav
      Pages: 383 - 391
      Abstract: This paper presents an efficient observation concerning the enhancement of smart grid (SG) based on the optimal placement of phasor measurement units (OPP) using nonlinear programming (NLP). The proposed algorithm tries to achieve two objectives: (i) to ascertain the minimum number of phasor measurement units (PMUs) and (ii) to increase the redundancy of the SG at all the buses. Synchronized current and voltage phasors are obtained to enhance the accuracy of the state estimation results—a minimum number of PMUs results in a lack of communication facilities at the substation. PMU losses will lead to unobservable buses at the SG. Therefore, PMU losses and communication constraints should be considered during the design process. Limited channel capacity, conventional measurement, and zero-injection bus measurements are also included in the proposed PMU formulation. The proposed algorithm is examined on IEEE~14-, 30-, 57-, 118-, and 300-bus test systems in MATLAB to verify its effectiveness. Furthermore, the results are compared with the simplex linear programming and mixed linear programming methods to prove the efficacy of the presented algorithm. The output thus obtained reveals that the NLP algorithm obtains approximately the same PMUs as other methods.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247514
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • Performance Analysis and Evaluation of a Multi-Hop Routing Protocol for
           Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    • Authors: Madyen M. Saleem, Salah Abdulghani Alabady
      Pages: 392 - 402
      Abstract: Researchers in wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) are constantly interested in designing and developing energy-efficient routing protocols. Numerous clustering routing protocols have been developed in recent years to overcome the limitation of consuming less energy and prolong the lifetime of sensor nodes in homogeneous and heterogeneous WMSNs. Existing approaches depend on single-hope communication, in which sensor nodes consume more energy and die faster. Inter-communication nodes can play an important role in reducing energy by transmitting data in a multi-hope fashion to the sink. An energy-efficient multi-path clustering with load balancing routing protocol for wireless multimedia sensor networks (EEMCL) is proposed in this study. In this protocol, the main cluster heads (MCHs) are preselected in each network cluster and filled with more energy than normal sensor nodes. The two secondary cluster heads (SCHs) with the highest energy nodes will be selected by the main cluster head algorithm. Moreover, inter-cluster multi-hop routing with the help of MCHs can enhance the network lifetime when the sink is located at the corner of the sensing field. The simulation results verify that the proposed multi-hop technique provides better performance than existing LEACH, LEACH-C, SEEN, and IEE-LEACH routing protocols in scenario 1 and when compared with CPMA in scenario 2. The last node dead (LND) for the proposed protocol is at round 5721, 2225 for LEACH, 2300 for LEACH-C, 2900 for SEEN, and 3160 for IEE−LEACH in scenario 1, while in scenario 2, the LND for the proposed protocol is at round 3820 and 435 for the CPMA routing protocol.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247515
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • Audio Feature and Correlation Function-Based Speech Recognition in FM
           Radio Broadcasting

    • Authors: Narathep Phruksahiran
      Pages: 403 - 413
      Abstract: The analysis and classification of audio signals are becoming increasingly important, especially in the age of communication and dissemination of information through radio broadcasting systems. It is therefore essential that systems and platforms are available to monitor the spread of fake or fraudulent news. A speech feature-based correlation (SFC) algorithm and a speech recognition framework are developed in this study, combining specific speech features and performance correlation to monitor real-time radio broadcasting and recognize specific speech based on human samples. The speech features include the Mel frequency cepstral coefficient, gammatone cepstral coefficient, spectral entropy, and pitch. The results illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each feature applied to the various speech sound groups. Furthermore, each feature combined with the design of SFC further enhances system performance and increases accuracy.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247516
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • Fault Diagnosis in the Brushless Direct Current Drive Using Hybrid Machine
           Learning Models

    • Authors: K.V.S.H. Gayatri Sarman, Tenneti Madhu, Mallikarjuna Prasad
      Pages: 414 - 426
      Abstract: The brushless direct current (BLDC) motor drive is gaining popularity due to its excellent controllability and high efficiency. This paper introduces a fault diagnosis method for open circuit (OC) and short circuit (SC) BLDC motor drives using a hybrid classifier with hybrid optimization. Features such as current, voltage, speed, and torque are considered as the training data. The features are extracted by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and then employed to train the classifiers to distinguish between fault types and values of response parameters using the support vector machine and Naive Bayes classifier (SVM-NB). To further improve the performance of the system, hybrid chaotic particle swarm optimization (CPSO) algorithms and teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) are used. This method is capable of detecting and recognizing the type of faults in the BLDC motor. The developed approach is implemented on the MATLAB/SIMULINK for OC, SC, and no-fault conditions. These hybrid algorithms provide better performance compared to existing approaches with respect to sensitivity, accuracy, and specificity. This improved model achieves about 98.8% accuracy.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247517
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • Effect of Partial Shading on the Performance of Various 4×4 PV Array

    • Authors: Dharani Kumar Narne, T. A. Ramesh Kumar, Rama Koteswara Rao Alla
      Pages: 427 - 437
      Abstract: Electrical energy usage has drastically increased in recent decades, resulting in significant demand for renewable energy sources, especially solar. With the development of technology, extracting energy from photovoltaic (PV) modules has become easier and more economical. The performance of PV array decreases under an intermittent environment such as partial shading conditions (PSCs), causing fluctuations in PV array power output. This paper presents the analysis of a 4×4 PV array configuration under different PSCs. The power output of PV array depends on factors such as the type of configuration, size of array, and shading patterns. The performance of various types of 4×4 PV array configurations under different shading situations are compared and analyzed in this study, and the results presented.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247518
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • The Design of a Two-Wheeled Auto-Balancing Robot under Impulse

    • Authors: Kanchit Pawananont, Kritchanan Charoensuk
      Pages: 438 - 449
      Abstract: The innovation of two-wheeled balancing robots affects human life in different ways. Immense research continues to be undertaken to make such robots cheap, efficient, and reliable. Essentially, autonomous mobile robots are two-wheeled, vertical, and self-balancing. The robot’s control system and automation application are intergraded with daily human life. Autonomy is applied to vehicles such as mobile robots, referred to as a vehicle capable of independent motion. Mobile robots can be used in various applications such as exploration, the food industry, home service, security, logistics, and many more. Moreover, it can be classified into four types: locomotion, perception, cognition, and navigation. In this work, the two-wheel, auto-balancing robot is investigated. The two-wheeled robot cannot operate without a controller and is susceptible to interruption and lean-to plunging outside the field. The PD controller, linear quadratic Regulator (LQR), sliding mode control (SMC), and fuzzy logic control (FLC) can be used to set the robot into a stable upright position in the rotation angle condition. In this research, four control strategies are compared to obtain the solid validation of a two-wheeled balancing robot. These models are investigated in this study to find the best controller among the PD, LQR, SMC, and FLC and achieve solid validation. The PD and LQR show a convergence response time of 1.2–2.0 seconds to the equilibrium state for distance and time, which is slower than the SMC and FLC. The intersection to the equilibrium zone is 1.8 seconds and 1.2 seconds, respectively. The angle position response of the PD is 2.5 seconds, which is slower than the others. Whereas the LQR, SMC, and FLC reach equilibrium in 1.5, 1.5, and 1.25 seconds, respectively. According to the results, the FLC performed better in two-wheeled auto-balancing under the pendulum within the linear distance in centimeters and angle positions in radian.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247520
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • Mother Wavelet Performance Evaluation for Noise Removal in Partial
           Discharge Signals

    • Authors: Isara Sornsen, Chatchai Suppitaksakul, Pollakrit Toonkum
      First page: 450
      Abstract: This article aims to study the pattern of partial discharge (PD) signals occurring on the insulators of high-voltage systems. A mother wavelet comparison and wavelet decomposition are presented to detect and locate PD signals by dividing them into three processes: 1) Signal test generation, employing RC and RLC impedance circuits whereby the output voltage pulses in the RC impedance circuit are expressed as damped exponential pulses (DEPs) and those of the RLC as damped oscillatory pulses (DOPs). White Gaussian noise (AWGN) is then added, which mimics the effect of many random processes in measurement systems. The concept involves applying noise to the original signal and removing it with wavelet transform using various wavelet templates such as Daubechies, Coiflet, Symlet, and biorthogonal to separate the signal components. The experiment results are then compared, and a performance evaluation performed using mean square error (MSE) as in the first two signals. 2) DEPs and DOPs are added with a sine wave to simulate a virtual measurement from a measuring instrument according to the superposition principle using a band-pass filter with the frequency range specified by the two elements to determine the frequency of the resulting PD. 3). The results of the PD signal experiments developed in the laboratory are also evaluated for efficiency by subjective measurement by a PD signal specialist. Therefore, partial discharge denoizing is evaluated using the mother wavelet as a preprocessing step for feature extraction and classification.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247521
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
  • Creation of a Rigorous Human Head Model from MRI Images with Reports on
           SAR Caused by 2.6 GHz 5G Mobile Handset Radiation

    • Authors: Terapass Jariyanorawiss, Komsan Kanjanasit, Wachira Chongburee
      First page: 461
      Abstract: This research work proposes a method to rigorously model a 3D human head from the informative data in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The approach is based on each slice of 53 MRI resized to a 64 × 64 grayscale image to enable a practical simulation. The optimized unit cell of 5.6 × 5.6 × 5.6 mm3 is identified as a particular type of tissue. It corresponds to the average size of an actual human brain. The material properties are assigned to various tissues of the entire structure of the human head. The computational model of this will then be used as a virtual object to study the specific absorption rate (SAR) with electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at 2.6 GHz as a 5G mid-band frequency. A commonly known finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method is used as a tool in the SAR simulation. The key results show that a handset with a power of less than 0.8 W (Watts), operating at a handset to head separation distance of 1.12 cm, will meet the FCC SAR1g limit of 1.6 W/kg.
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.37936/ecti-eec.2022203.247522
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2022)
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