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Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1558-9250
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Quantifying the effects of external factors on the behavior of vertical
           wicking in a warp stretch woven fabric

    • Authors: Yong Wang, Qifan Qiao, Stuart Gordon, Changlong Li, Fanggang Ning
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Wicking ability of textiles is a key indicator in determining the physiological comfort provided by a fabric. The property is shaped by various factors internal and external to the fabric. Herein, the effects of some external factors such as the degree of (fabric) extension, the wetting liquid’s temperature and relative humidity on the vertical wicking behavior of a previously prepared warp stretch woven fabric were investigated. The fabric, which could be reversibly extended up to 60%, was prepared using a nylon/spandex air-covered yarn in the warp and cotton yarn in the weft. The results indicated that these external factors had a great influence on the vertical wicking equilibrium height with the degree of fabric extension having a more pronounced effect compared with the other two factors. Furthermore, extension and relative humidity were negatively related to the height of the vertical wicking, whilst an increase in liquid temperature resulted in an increase in vertical wicking height. The underlying mechanisms associated with these effects were examined using a specially constructed test chamber and tensioning device. The experimental data were also verified using the classical Laughlin-Davies model, and the results demonstrated the proposed wicking model could be used to predict the changes in fabric wicking height. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of the wicking behavior of stretchable textiles in a comprehensive and objective manner.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-07-19T07:08:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221113483
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Influence of pilling on the quality of flax single jersey knitted fabrics

    • Authors: Koviljka A Asanovic, Aleksandra M Ivanovska, Maja Z Jankoska, Nadiia Bukhonka, Tatjana V Mihailovic, Mirjana M Kostic
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this work, the quality of four plain single jersey weft-knitted fabrics (produced from the same flax yarn) having different structural characteristics (stitch density, weight, and thickness) before and after pilling, was examined. The quality of knitted fabrics was evaluated in terms of their compression (compressibility, thickness loss, and compressive resilience), comfort (air permeability and water retention), and strength (bursting strength and ball traverse elongation) properties. The obtained results revealed that the fabric with the lowest structural characteristic values has the highest compressibility, thickness loss, and air permeability, while the least compressive resilience, water retention, bursting strength, and ball traverse elongation, both before and after pilling. Pilling causes a decrease of compressibility, thickness loss, air permeability, water retention (for three lightweight fabrics), bursting strength, and ball traverse elongation but an increase in compressive resilience and water retention (for the most compact fabric). All studied knitted fabrics have excellent quality before pilling and excellent to good quality after pilling. A pilling leads to a decrease in the quality of all fabrics, especially of those with the least compact structure. Sample with moderate compactness possesses the best overall quality.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T12:21:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221091267
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Classifying colour differences in dyed fabrics using an improved hunger
           games search optimised random vector functional link

    • Authors: Xiaochun Zhang, Zhiyu Zhou
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This study proposes an algorithm for classifying colour differences in dyed fabrics using random vector functional link (RVFL) optimised using an improved hunger games search (HGS) algorithm to replace the inefficient traditional classification methods. First, to prevent the HGS algorithm from easily arriving at the local optimal solution, we used the grey wolf optimiser (GWO) to generate the solution set of the HGS algorithm. Subsequently, to reduce the impact of the randomness of the input weight and hidden layer offset on the classification accuracy of RVFL, we used the improved HGS to optimise these two parameters of RVFL. Finally, the RVFL optimised using the improved HGS algorithm is used for classifying the colour differences of dyed fabrics. The performance of the proposed classification algorithm is compared with HGS algorithms improved using the whale optimiser, sine cosine algorithm, and Harris hawks optimiser. The results revealed that the proposed algorithm possesses several advantages, including the maximum, minimum, and average classification errors; good stability; and fast convergence.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T06:55:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221111508
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Spray and foam application of chemical binders to pulp fiber airlaids

    • Authors: Sara Paunonen, Tuomo Hjelt, Taina Kamppuri, Harri Kiiskinen
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Pulp fiber airlaid nonwovens were bonded with three binder formulations in a spray and foam process. The binders were: a commercial acrylic dispersion binder, a commercial bio-containing acrylic binder; and a citric acid-carboxymethyl cellulose mixture (CACMC) (1:1 by-weight). The binder solutions were applied at same concentrations onto A4-size airlaid sheets (80 gsm) under a vacuum with 2-sided spraying and 1-sided foam coating. The sheet structure, dry and wet tensile properties, and total absorption capacity were compared. The foam application densified and bulk bonded the sheets, whereas the spray application induced surface bonding. These factors fundamentally influenced the measured sheet properties. The dry tensile strength was linearly correlated with the relatively low binder dosages. The CACMC binder exposed the differences in the binder application processes well, and lead to strong sheets with small elongation and highly application method-dependent absorption capacity compared to acrylic binders.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-07-12T06:53:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221111507
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of electrical and comfort properties of conductive knitted
           

    • Authors: Suhyun Lee
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this study, the relationship between the functionality and comfort of conductive fabrics for smart clothing is investigated by examining changes in the mechanical, electrical, and comfort properties of knitted fabrics based on the blending ratio of conductive yarns. Hence, flat knitted fabrics of the same structure are manufactured using polyester and silver-coated polyamide yarns. Subsequently, their weight, thickness, tensile strength, tensile strain, bending rigidity, breathability, surface properties are measured, and their cool touch feeling, surface resistance, and electrical heating performance are evaluated. Because the strength and specific gravity of a silver-coated conductive yarn are high, with an increase in its blending ratio, its weight, tensile strength, and bending rigidity increase, whereas its strain decreases. In terms of the comfort properties, the air permeability increases as the blending ratio of the conductive yarn increases, because the pores on the surface of the knitted fabric are increased structurally owing to the conductive yarns. However, the water vapor transmission rate remains unchanged. Meanwhile, the surface roughness does not change significantly in the wale direction; however, it increases in the course direction as the blending ratio of the conductive yarn increases. The recoverability from compression decreases, and the work of compression increases as the blending ratio of the conductive yarn increases. This implies that the conductive fabric can be compressed easily but is less likely to recover from compression. Changes in the surface roughness and compression property show that the hand value of the knitted fabric is altered by the insertion of the conductive yarn. The electrical properties improved by increasing the blending ratio of the conductive yarns. In particular, even with only 33% insertion of conductive yarns, extremely good electrical properties are obtained, that is, low resistance, sensitive resistance change due to stretching, and heating of 48°C. Therefore, blending conventional and conductive yarns instead of using only conductive yarns improve comfort and wearability when applying conductive knitted fabrics to smart clothing.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-07-08T12:59:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221104474
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Multi-criteria decision analysis for supporting the selection of car
           upholstery fabric under degradation due to UV exposure

    • Authors: Magdi El Messiry, Abu Baker Mito, Sherien Issa
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Automotive textiles are one of the most important markets in the technical textile sector. Various types of requirements must be considered in the development of the interior fabrics to satisfy both esthetic and functional demands. Many factors are affecting the properties of the car upholstery fabrics, for instance textile material, yarn specifications, fabric construction, and finishing material as well as combined with UV and light resistance. The influence of UV radiation on the degradation rate involves several parameters such as fabric tenacity, elongation, abrasion resistance, and flammability, under exposure to sunlight for several exposure times. Consequently, it’s important to determine the degradation of the automotive textiles according to area where it will be served. Generally, several properties are prerequisites should be all together considered to selected car upholstery fabric, basis on overseeing several requirements and ranking the candidate fabric properties. In this paper, an approach to choose the optimal material for a given component is described, and fabric properties are classified given each a suitable weight. In a simulation of a car cabin in shape and conditions, a radiation chamber was constructed to expose different fabric specimens to sun light. Two evaluation methods were proposed for the ranking of the car upholstery material, made of different fabrics, according to its property loss due to UV exposure during severability. It was found that polyester and nylon are ranked to be the best materials for automobile upholstery.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-06-30T06:18:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221109934
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Experimental research on the compressive properties of a new type
           three-dimensional angle-interlock woven composite

    • Authors: Zhe Wang, Guohua Li, Jin Fan, Xinyi Cao
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The new three-dimensional angle-interlock woven UHMWPEF/epoxy composite was prepared by the VARIM method, and its mechanical properties were studied. Specifically, quasi-static and dynamic compression tests were carried out by universal testing machine and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) apparatus. Stress-strain curves under the quasi-static and high strain rates (800, 1000, 1400, and 1600 s−1) reveal the destructive characteristics of the composite material. The results indicate that the UHWMPEF/epoxy composite is a strain rate sensitive material and shows different levels of sensitivity at various strain rates. In the quasi-static compression test, when the strain rate was increased from 4.2 × 10−4 to 1.4 × 10−3 s−1, the failure load and ultimate strength increased by about 19.1% and 20.1%, respectively, and the failure strain and specific energy absorption decreased by about 1.53% and 6.1%, respectively. In the dynamic compression test, when the strain rate increased from 800 to 1600 s−1, the failure load and ultimate strength increased by about 16% and 15.9%, respectively, and the failure strain and specific energy absorption decreased by about 64.7% and 60.3%, respectively. The failure fracture surface of the specimen under quasi-static compression was at an angle of 40°–45° with the load direction. The matrix fragmentation at the fracture was obvious, and the warp fiber bundle was broken and peeled off from the matrix. The damage of specimen under dynamic compression develops quickly and the deformation process is short, which shows a relatively symmetrical shear fracture failure morphology.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T12:26:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221105607
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • A study on mechanical properties and thermal properties of UHMWPE/MWCNT
           composite fiber with MWCNT content and draw ratio

    • Authors: Jong Hyun Eun, Do Hyun Kim, In Uk Jang, Sun Min Sung, Min Seong Kim, Bo Kyoung Choi, Sun Woo Kang, Min Soo Kim, Joon Seok Lee
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this study, the mechanical properties and thermal properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composite fiber were investigated with different weight percent of the MWCNT contents and draw ratio. To verified the thermal properties of the MWCNT/UHMWPE composite fiber, DSC and TGA analysis were performed. The addition of MWCNT and the higher draw ratio improved the thermal properties of the UHMWPE composite fiber by improving the crystallinity of the polymer. By adding 2 wt% MWCNT, UHWMPE fibers with tensile strengths of 3.85 GPa and young’s modulus of 27.43 GPa could fabricated. In comparison with the pristine UHMWPE fiber with same draw ratio conditions, there values shows increases of 21% in tensile strength and 16% in young’s modulus value. However, in the case of the specimens in which the MWCNT content of 6wt% and 10wt% was added to the UHMWPE fiber, the tensile strength and tensile modulus gradually decreased. We proved by experimentally that the mechanism of strengthening the tensile strength of UHMWPE fibers with MWCNT content of 2wt% is to block craze stretching and reduce defects inside the amorphous region by improving the crystalline region. However, the MWCNT contents is increased by 6wt% or more, the nanofillers start to agglomerate and act as impurities and stress concentration factors, thereby reducing the mechanical properties of the UHMWPE composite fiber.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T12:23:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221108484
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Extraction of eco-friendly essential oils and their utilization in
           finishing polyester fabrics for fragrant and medical textiles

    • Authors: Mohamed M El-Molla, Ahmed H El-Ghorab
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Eco-friendly fragrances essential oils of Lavender, thyme, and clove were prepared and extracted from natural sources and utilized for finishing polyester fabrics, in order to give them good smell and antibacterial characteristics, that is, medical textile. We developed medical textiles using the essential oils (lavender, thyme, and clove) with β-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds. The fragrance inclusion compounds were fixed onto polyester by drying with a low temperature and then thermo fixed method. The essential oils were studied to prove their structure using various techniques such as IR spectra, GC-MS, . . .etc. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of treated polyester fabrics with, lavender, thyme, and clove essential oils against, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was evaluated. The results show that the finishing polyester fabrics with essential oils have antibacterial properties. The antibacterial activity of treated polyester fabrics with thyme was the highest. A strong odor was detected after 50 days, while a medium odor was detected after 60 days or five pieces of washing. The novelty of this work has arisen from its ability to fit the requirements of economic feasibility of medical textile, achieve the goal of fabrics has at smell good and has antibacterial.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T12:14:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221104475
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Fabric defect detection based on transfer learning and improved Faster
           R-CNN

    • Authors: Zhao Jia, Zhou Shi, Zheng Quan, Mei Shunqi
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Fabric defect detection is an important quality inspection process in the textile industry. A fabric defect detection system based on transfer learning and an improved Faster R-CNN is proposed to solve the problems of low detection accuracy, general convergence ability, and poor detection effect for small target defects in existing fabric defect detection algorithms. The pre-trained weights on the big dataset Imagenet are first extracted for transfer learning. Images are then input into the improved Faster R-CNN network, while the ResNet50 and ROI Align are used to replace the original VGG16 feature extraction network structure and a region of interest (ROI) pooling layer to avoid the problems of region mismatch caused by two quantizations from ROI pooling. The region proposal network (RPN) is combined with the multi-scale feature pyramid FPN to generate candidate regions with richer semantic information and project them onto the feature map to obtain the corresponding feature matrix. Cascaded modules are integrated and different IoU thresholds are used for each level to distinguish positive and negative samples. Finally, the softmax classifier is adopted to identify the image and obtain the predictions. The experimental results show that the detection accuracy and convergence ability of the improved Faster R-CNN are greatly enhanced compared with the current mainstream models, which provides a reference for future fabric defect detection methods.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T12:12:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221086647
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Effect of ultrasonic welding process parameters on peel strength of
           membranes for tents

    • Authors: Muktar Seid Hussen, Yordan Kostadinov Kyosev, Kathrin Pietsch, Stefan Rothe, Abera Kechi Kabish
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Ultrasonic welding is a universal, clean, and secure alternative joining method. Alternative joining technologies are used increasingly to fulfill specific functional requirements of the seam, such as fluid impermeability to achieve positive bonding during the assembly of technical textiles. In this research, the effect of important ultrasonic welding parameters on peel strength and weld seam thickness was investigated for flexible and lightweight textile material, which is a valuable innovative hybrid textile for technical applications like architectural, construction, and protective textiles. Three main welding parameters with three different levels were selected based on the preliminary test results of 6 and 12 mm welding widths, and a superimposed type of seam was applied. Light scanning microscopic images were used to examine the effective weld locations and their morphology at the joining interface. The parametric influence of ultrasonic welding technique on-seam quality and their tendencies in the relationship were analyzed. Optimized peel strength yielding parametric levels were also assessed numerically. The result shows that the optimal peel strength value was obtained at a welding speed of 2.318 m/min, power of 119.382 W, and pressure force of 349.729 N for a 12 mm welding width. The weld seam thickness had an inverse relationship with the peel strength, and a higher amount of thickness was reduced to 12 mm welding width than 6 mm. Microscopic cross-sectional image of weld seam indicated that a compressed yarn between the coating material at higher welding power and pressure force in lower welding speed. A nonlinear quadratic numerical model was developed to predict the peel strength, and their results were close to the regressed diagonal line against the actual points. The statistical analysis was carried out to show the significant effect of process parameters on peel strength, whereby the obtained results were statistically significant.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T12:09:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221101463
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • The effect of ultrasound on environmentally extraction and dyeing of wool
           yarns

    • Authors: Mozhgan Hosseinnezhad, Kamaladin Gharanjig, Shahid Adeel, Shohreh Rouhani, Homan Imani, Narjes Razani
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Reducing pollution in various industries such as textile is very important. In this paper, two parallel methods were used to reduce pollution of the process and application of dye. The first approach was the selection of plant-based dyes (Madder with the botanical name of Rubia tinctorum and Reseda with botanical name of Reseda odorata) and the application of a tannin-based mordant (pomegranate peel with botanical name of Punica granatum). The second approach was extraction and dyeing in ultrasound media. The extraction efficiency of madder, Reseda, and pomegranate peel in water with the ultrasound-assisted method was 23%, 33%, and 29%, respectively. In this paper, the meta-mordanting method was used for mordanting procedure, and to compare the results, Cu (copper) was selected as the mineral mordant. Extracts were identified by FTIR method. Yarns’ changes in the process of mordanting and dyeing are investigated using two methods, FTIR and SEM. The effect of changing the concentration of mordant and dyes with the amount of K/S were evaluated and the K/S value of dyed samples illustrated that increasing the dye concentration of the dye increases the amount of K/S. The color fastness properties of all samples were investigated using the ISO standards.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T09:02:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221104471
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Study on continuous heat treatment of Aramid III

    • Authors: Kejie Liu, Jinsong Liang, Mao Mao, Tao Peng, Mengjin Jiang
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Aramid III is a high-performance fiber obtained by bulk structure modification based on the molecular structure of Kevlar fiber. Unlike the intermittent heat treatment method of Armos, Aramid III is prepared by continuous heat treatment technology. In this paper, the effects of heat treatment temperature, tension, and speed on fiber properties are studied by orthogonal experimental design. It is concluded that temperature is the most critical factor affecting fiber tensile strength and elastic modulus. The effects of different heat treatment temperatures on the chemical structure, surface morphology, aggregation structure, and the fiber’s mechanical properties and thermal properties are studied. Results show that: the chemical structure of the fiber keeps unchanged and surface morphology of the fibers are similar under the different heat treatment temperatures; the crystallinity of the fiber increases with the increase of temperature; the orientation degree of the fiber increases slightly after heat treatment; with the temperature increasing, the elastic modulus of the fiber increases, the tensile strength and elongation at break increase to a peak and then gradually decrease; the thermal decomposition temperature of the fiber is 533°C, and the decomposition rate is slightly different at different heat treatment temperature.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-06-09T09:32:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221096151
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Process analysis and outlook for the development of a new weft yarn inlay
           system for warp knitting

    • Authors: Thomas Mutschler, Marcus O Weber, Marie-Ange Bueno
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The technology of warp knitting is one of the more recently developed processes in knitting technology. Complex machine technology and highly productive machines characterize the process. This principle allows obtaining fabrics with various characteristics and for various applications. It is possible to insert straight weft yarns in the textile structure. The weft yarn can be inserted either over the entire width of the textile surface, that is, full wefts, or only over a specific area of the textile, that is, partial wefts. However, weft insertion is the limiting factor in respect of process speed, even if different methods for traversing yarn positioning in the textile industry with the potential to increase the weft insertion speed had been introduced. This paper aims to analyze the inlay yarn condition in respect of yarn tension and yarn speed during the cyclical process of the state-of-the-magazine inlay yarn insertion system and, based on these findings to propose a solution to increase the laying velocity by developing a new method. The approach used is to reduce the vibration induced by the reciprocating movement of the guide bar during inlay operation by using a continuous movement of the mobile elements. This will allow in the future increasing the production velocity, to reduce the stress on the inlay yarn due to acceleration and deceleration.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-06-07T12:17:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221101388
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Preparation of plasticized spinning polyacrylonitrile fibers using
           1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride: A review

    • Authors: Xiang Li, Xiaonan Dang
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Ionic liquid, as a green solvent, has been widely used in high-tech fields. One of the uses is an excellent plasticizer for polymers, and a good plasticizing effect can be achieved for these polymers. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) is a kind of ionic liquid, it possesses low melting point, strong polarity, high temperature stability, and other characteristics, which can be used as a highly effective plasticizer for polyacrylonitrile (PAN) to achieve plasticized spinning. In this review, for PAN fibers, plasticizing mechanism, raw material preparation, spinning process adjustment, structural chemical change, and fiber properties were summarized. At the same time, the related reports on plasticized spinning PAN composite fibers were reviewed as well. The field that has not yet been studied in depth was also discussed in this paper. It is hoped that this paper will provide an important basis for those people who will be engaged in further study on plasticized spinning PAN (PAN composite) fibers.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-05-31T12:28:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221081852
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Mechanical properties of coated fabric membranes at high temperature

    • Authors: Suduo Xue, Fei Yan, Guojun Sun
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      A model about the strength of polyvinyl chloride coated polyester at high temperature was proposed in this paper. The model can predict the warp-direction strength, weft-direction strength, and off-axis strength at high temperatures according to the uniaxial tensile strength in warp direction at room temperature. In this paper, the strength model of coated fabric membrane bearing biaxial tension was established by off-axis tensile test. Next, the strength of weld joints of coated fabric membrane at normal and high temperature were compared. Then, a strength predicting method for symmetric and asymmetric weld joints at high temperatures was proposed. Finally, the relation between temperature and fracture energy of weld seam was proposed.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T05:28:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221101387
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Removal of indigo carmine (IC) in aqueous solution onto activated
           pomegranate peel (APP) by adsorption process: Kinetic and thermodynamic
           studies

    • Authors: Moussa Abbas, Zahia Harrache, Tounsia Aksil, Mohamed Trari
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The adsorption of indigo carmine dye onto Activated Pomegranate Peels (APP) from aqueous solutions was followed in a batch system. The adsorbent was characterized by the BET method (specific surface area SBET: 51.0674 m2/g) and point of zero charge (pHpz = 5.2). However, some examined factors were found to have significant impacts on the adsorption capacity of pomegranate peels (APP) such as the initial dye concentration (10–60 mg/L), solution pH (2–12), adsorbent dose (1–10 g/L), agitation speed (100–600 rpm), and temperature (298–308 K). The best adsorption capacity was found at pH 2 with an adsorbent dose 1 g/L, an agitation speed 300 rpm and a contact time of 45 min. The adsorption mechanism of IC onto (APP) was studied by using the first-pseudo order, second-pseudo order, Elovich, and Webber-Morris diffusion models. The adsorptions kinetic were found to follow rather a pseudo-second order kinetic model with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.999. The equilibrium adsorption data for IC onto (APP) were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich, and Temkin models. The results indicate that the Langmuir model provides the best correlation with capacities (qmax of 158.73 mg/g at 298 K). The adsorption isotherms at different temperatures have been used for the determination of thermodynamic parameters like the free energy; enthalpy and entropy to predict the nature of adsorption process. The negative values ΔG° and ΔH° indicate that the overall adsorption is spontaneous and exothermic with a physisorption process. The adsorbent elaborated from pomegranate peels material was found to very effective and suitable for the removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions, due to its availability, low cost preparation, and good adsorption capacity.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T11:55:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250211018195
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Using nano technology for imparting PET/C blended fabric new functional
           performance properties

    • Authors: NG Al-Balakocy, TM Hassan, SY Aly, SH Abd Elsalam, Mahmoud Hamouda Elshakankery
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This article, discuss the effect of finishing polyester/cotton blended fabric (PET/C) with alkali and Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) simultaneously. The treatment conditions such as NaOH and TiO2 NPs concentrations, reaction temperature and duration will be investigated. The effect of addition NPs on alkaline treatment conditions will prove through weight loss and carboxylic content. The ability of PET/C fabrics for loading with NPs during alkaline treatment was investigated by using SEM, EDX, and FTIR measurements. The effect of finishing of PET/C blended fabric with the suggested method on antimicrobial activity and ultraviolet protection was investigated. The simultaneous finishing of PET/C blended fabrics with alkali and TiO2 NPs showed excellent ultraviolet protection and high antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus mycoides), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli), and nonfilamentous fungus (Candida albicans). The functional performance imparted to PET/C fabrics by the suggested approach are durable in repeated laundering processes, even after five Launder-Ometer washes.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T11:49:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221101385
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Oxidized jute as a valuable adsorbent for Congo Red from an aqueous
           solution

    • Authors: Aleksandra Ivanovska, Ivana Branković, Jelena Lađarević, Leposava Pavun, Mirjana Kostic
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The raw jute fabric was oxidized with 0.2% or 0.4% NaIO4 for 60 or 120 min to obtain valuable adsorbents for the textile dye Congo Red (CR). Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of solution pH, contact time, initial CR concentration, and temperature. At an initial CR concentration of 25 mg/L, the raw jute possessed the lowest adsorption due to the lowest availability and content of carboxyl and aldehyde groups capable of binding dye. The fabrics oxidized for 60 min with 0.2% NaIO4 and 120 min with 0.4% NaIO4 reached equilibrium adsorption after 240 and 330 min, respectively. The adsorption of CR onto studied fabrics followed the pseudo-second-order model indicating that the chemisorption process is primarily represented. Within the studied range of CR concentrations (25–100 mg/L), its adsorption onto fabric oxidized for 120 min with 0.4% NaIO4 obeys the Langmuir isotherm model (i.e. adsorption occurs at specific, energetically equivalent adsorbent sites with monolayer coverage of CR over a homogeneous surface), wherein the calculated maximal adsorption capacity is 12.863 mg/g. A thermodynamic study revealed the spontaneous and endothermic character of CR adsorption onto jute fabric. Based on the recorded ATR-FTIR spectra before and after CR adsorption, it is suggested that repulsion, hydrogen bonds, and π-π stacking interactions are involved in the binding of CR onto jute fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T07:26:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221101380
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Utilization of keratin hydrolysate of wool waste fiber for free-salt
           dyeing of viscose fabric

    • Authors: Samiha M Abo El-Ola, Naglaa AA Elsayed
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Viscose dyeing is one of the major pollutants of water due to the large amount of salt in the dyeing effluent. This study paves the way for improving environmentally sustainable wool waste and highlights a promising invaluable application through salt-free viscose dyeing. The keratin hydrolysate (KH) was obtained using microwave (MW) alkaline hydrolysis then applied on the viscose fabric in the finishing bath formulation using the pad-cure technique. The rheology of the hydrolyzed wool fibers and the amino acids composition using high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) was estimated; furthermore, the fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of freeze-drying keratin hydrolysate was evaluated. Microwave-assisted keratin hydrolysis leads to the breakdown of peptide bonds and the release of low molecular weight proteins and peptides. The color strength (K/S) of the dyed post-finished viscose fabric increased 75% compared with that dyed by conventional technique. FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disperse x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) demonstrated and confirmed the effective finishing of keratin hydrolysate. The tensile strength and elongation of viscose fabric did not change after finishing with KH, while the air permeability improved and the light fastness properties for the modified viscose fabrics.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T12:32:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221097079
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Investigate the effect of inlaid yarn on the mechanical properties and
           dimension stability of the weft-knitted double jersey structures for
           protective application

    • Authors: Muhammad Sohaib Anas, Zeeshan Azam, Muhammad Waqas, Zarnab Gull
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Knitted fabrics finds wide applications in functional/protective areas, as the advancements in textile Industry happens. These fabrics were famous for their stretchable structure and soft feel. This study investigates the mechanical performance, stability, and puncture of weft knitted structures with and without inlay yarns. Specimens were developed using Jute and Flax yarn as inlay yarn while Kevlar® (para-aramid) and polyester yarn as main yarn. Main and inlay yarn effect on tensile strength, elongation, stretch and recovery, and puncture resistance was characterized. The results reveal that mechanical performance and stability of fabric were significantly increased with inlay yarn in the course direction. On the other hand, expansion was greatly reduced, but higher growth was observed in rib specimens without inlay yarn.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T06:57:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221096147
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Eco-friendly bio-dyeing of bio-treated nylon fabric using Esfand (P.
           harmala) based yellow natural colorant

    • Authors: Shahid Adeel, Mahmood ul Hasan, Fatima Batool, Meral Ozomay, Mozhgan Hosseinnezhad, Nimra Amin, Muhammad Hussaan
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The ongoing age is the time of sustainability, where in the current pandemic scenario, which is getting worse, needs treatment with nature rather than chemical-based products. In this study, microwaves (M.W. rays) treatments as extraction mode for Esfand (P. harmala) have been revived for polyamide (nylon) dyeing. The water solubilized and acid solubilized filtrates and polyamide (nylon fabrics) were treated M.W. rays up to 10 min with an interval of 2 min. Mordanting with chemicals and plant extracts before and after dyeing was done at 60°C–80°C. It has been found the application of M.W. ray treatment for 4 min., to 30 mL of extract of 8 pH containing 4 g/100 mL of Table salt as leveling agent has given desired results when employed at 55°C for 55 min. Statistical analysis of dyeing variables through R.S.M., and two way-Anova shows that the effect of these variables has been observed highly significant. Experimentally it has been observed that the application of extract for dyeing of polyamide (nylon fabric) has given good results when chemical or bio-mordanted at selected conditions. Practically, Esfand seeds has ability for bio-coloration of surface modified polyamide fabric (nylon fabric), and utilization of pomegranate extract as bio-mordant and tannic acid as sustainable chemical mordant has furnished colorfast shades.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-05-07T10:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221091265
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Yarn unevenness prediction using generalized regression neural network
           under various optimization algorithms

    • Authors: Hao Jiang, Jiuxiang Song, Baowei Zhang, Yonghua Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Unevenness is one of the important parameters for evaluating yarn quality, but the current prediction accuracy of yarn unevenness is low. One of the important reasons is that there are few sample dataset for yarn unevenness prediction. For this problem, this paper applies generalized regression neural network to predict the unevenness of the yarn. Then, the generalized regression neural network is optimized by using particle swarm optimization, fruit fly optimization algorithm, and gray wolf optimizer, respectively. Finally, the optimized models were experimentally validated for their effectiveness. The experimental results show that the generalized regression neural network optimized by gray wolf optimizer has the best effect and the fastest optimization speed; the generalized regression neural network optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm has the middle optimization speed; the generalized regression neural network optimized by fruit fly optimization algorithm has the worst effect and the slowest optimization speed.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T10:52:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221093019
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Development of an ergonomic protective suit for physiotherapists during
           the COVID-19

    • Authors: Eva Lapkovska, Inga Dāboliņa, Liene Siliņa, Ausma Viļumsone
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      During the COVID-19 pandemic, the provision of appropriate protective clothing for medical staff who must continue to perform their duties at this period is of particular importance. Physiotherapists are not allowed to suspend working during this time either, and the specifics of their work is close contact with the patient within various movements during the therapy process. Inadequate (intended for general use) protective clothing affects work capacity in the aspects of movement restriction, thermal comfort and thereby increasing energy consumption. For the design and supply of personal protective equipment (PPE) and protective clothing of the best possible quality, PPE should be explored in a systemic approach (holistics) to assess anthropometric fit and ergonomics, material properties and thermal performance. This study investigated anthropometric characteristics of target group representatives; sizing, fit and design flaws of protective suits for physiotherapists; provision of mobility in the protective clothing of physiotherapists; the protective suit fabric layer interaction with the human body and the importance of subjective evaluation of fit and ergonomics of PPE (made by specialists and wearers). The results of the study promote the usage of objective knowledge of anthropometry and ergonomics as well as subjective assessment findings in the development of protective suits for physiotherapists.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T10:48:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221091819
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • The influence of interaction between orthogonal magnetic fibers on the
           capture of Fe-based fine particles by each fiber

    • Authors: Li’an Zhang, Yongfa Diao, Minghao Chu, Jie Jiang, Henggen Shen
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this work, an existing method of capturing Fe-based fine particles by magnetic fiber is improved, and a weaving method for the fiber filter material is further determined. Different combinations of magnetic fields could form around the magnetic fibers, which change the interaction between orthogonal magnetic fibers when a uniform magnetic field is applied along the X-, Y-, and Z-axes. Therefore, the process of particle capture by the orthogonal magnetic fibers under three configurations was compared using the computational fluid dynamics-discrete phase model (CFD-DPM) and a special user-defined function (UDF) of the magnetic force. The results show that the interaction between orthogonal magnetic fibers could either inhibit or promote the capture of Fe-based fine particles by adjacent magnetic fibers. In industrial production, the magnetic filter material is suitable for the weaving method for the alternate use of magnetic and traditional fibers. When a uniform magnetic field is applied along the X-axis, this weaving method makes the capturing performance of orthogonal magnetic fiber best. Moreover, the magnetic characteristics, flow characteristics, and combination sequence of magnetic fields should be considered. This study provides scientific researchers with new insights for the development of novel high-efficiency fibrous filters to reduce particulate pollutants emissions.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-04-23T06:06:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221093030
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Low-velocity impact damages of filament-wound composite overwrapped
           pressure vessel (COPV)

    • Authors: Bing Long, Ning Yang, Xia Cao
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Low-velocity impact tests were carried out on filament-wound composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) specimens at different impact energies and impact points to determine the low-velocity impact damages of wound composite structures. The anti-impact performance of the filament-wound COPV was compared with that of composite laminated and filament-wound composite plates. Different impact damage modes and damage mechanisms inside the wound COPV were investigated through ultrasound scanning, X-ray, and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the impact force–time response curve of the wound COPV can be divided into an ascending area, a plateau area, and a descending area. The duration of the plateau area increased with the increase in impact energies. The impact resistance of the filament-wound COPV was the best, followed by that of the composite laminated plate, and the filament-wound composite plate was the worst. The major damage modes of the filament-wound COPV under low-velocity impact included matrix breakage, delamination, and fiber breakage. Delamination in the COPV tube section mainly occurred between the spiral wound and hoop layers. Delamination at the head of the COPV occurred between different winding layers. Fiber breakage inside the COPV mainly developed in the fiber overlapping zone inside the spiral layer. Results indicated that the fiber overlapping zone was the weak part in the filament-wound composite structure.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T12:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221088895
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Numerical and experimental study of buckling behavior of delaminated plate
           in glass woven fabric composite laminates

    • Authors: Hadi Dabiryan, Mona Jesri, Hamid Reza Ovesy, Zinat Sadat Mazloomi
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In the present study, the buckling behavior of delaminated plate in woven fabric composite laminates was studied. For this purpose, at first, the structure of woven fabrics was defined as shape functions. Then, the continuous analysis was used to study the bucking of delaminated plates. Based on the Rayleigh–Ritz method, the related formulations were developed to predict the critical buckling load of composite laminates. Three types of woven fabrics (viz. Plain, Twill, and Satin architecture) were used as reinforcements for polyester composites. The 8-ply laminated composites were fabricated using Vacuum Infusion Process (VIP). The results of buckling test showed that the critical buckling loads of laminates reinforced with Plain, Twill, and Satin woven fabrics are 1.35, 1.12, and 1.48 kN, respectively. Also, the results of analytical method are compared with experimental results and those achieved by the finite element method of analysis using ABAQUS software. Compared with experimental results, the maximum error of analytical and FE models is about 17% and 10%, respectively.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T11:57:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221091268
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Mélange fabric image retrieval based on soft similarity learning

    • Authors: Jun Xiang, Ruru Pan, Weidong Gao
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Fabric image retrieval, a special case in Content Based Image Retrieval, has high potential application value in many fields. Compared with common image retrieval, fabric image retrieval has high requirements for results. To address the actual needs of the industry for Mélange fabric retrieval, we propose a novel framework for efficient and accurate fabric retrieval. We first introduce a quantified similarity definition, soft similarity, to measure the fine-grained pairwise similarity and design a CNN for fabric image representation. An objective function, which consists of three losses: soft similarity loss for preserving the similarity, cross-entropy loss for image representation, and quantization loss for controlling the quality of hash code, is used to drive the learning of the model. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only achieve effective feature learning and hashing learning, but also effectively work on smaller datasets. Comparative experiments illustrate that the proposed method outperforms the compared methods.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-04-19T10:38:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221088896
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Experimental investigation on stab-resistant properties of
           co-woven-knitted fabric

    • Authors: Wen Zhang, Shuai Liu, Pibo Ma
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Using glass fiber and polyester fiber as raw materials, stab-resistant properties of co-woven-knitted fabric are explored in this paper. A quasi-static stab-resistant performance test was conducted to study the stab-resistant characteristic of co-woven-knitted fabric pierced by a knife according to the puncture, displacement of puncture and puncture strength, and other parameters, recorded during the experiment. Three angles, 0°, 45°, and 90°, were chosen to explore the relationship between angles and puncture strength. Results indicate that the continuous shear resistance of multiple fibers in woven fabric and the weft-knitted yarns gathered after the locking effect in knitted fabrics work together during the experiment. It shows an increase of anti-shear effect of the fabric and an improvement of the anti-puncture ability. The puncture angles influence the puncture strength, and 45° shows the largest puncture force.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-04-12T05:35:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221090502
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Extraction of keratin from wool and its use as biopolymer in film
           formation and in electrospinning for composite material processing

    • Authors: Sahil Goyal, Marius Dotter, Elise Diestelhorst, Jan Lukas Storck, Andrea Ehrmann, Boris Mahltig
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Keratin is one of the most important protein materials and can act as a sustainable biopolymer for manifold applications. This paper reports on a sustainable extraction method for keratin from wool fiber materials. The use of this extracted keratin for polymer film preparation and preparation of nano-composite materials by electrospinning is investigated. The preparation of keratin films is done in combination with the both biopolymers alginate and pectin. Keratin nanofibers are prepared in combination with the polymer polyacrylonitrile PAN. A view on antibacterial properties of the prepared films is given. As further analytic methods, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used. Finally, the preparation of new keratin containing materials is described, which may be used in future for biomedical applications.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T06:20:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221090499
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Combined scouring-bleaching of cotton fabric from wild yam root

    • Authors: Lami Amanuel
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The conventional single-stage pre-treatment technique requires more electricity, is more expensive, polluting, harmful, and unhealthy because it uses artificial chemical compounds and auxiliaries. This research focuses on environmentally friendly and cost-effective textiles scouring-bleaching of cotton fabric with saponin and wild yam (Dioscorea villosa L.) root powder. The root of the wild yam contains alkaloids, amylose starch, and saponin. The investigations discovered important findings in cotton wet processing by developing a safe, water- and electricity-saving scouring method. Cotton fabric, along with the utilization of wild yam roots resulted in a significant cost effective method. As a result, it was used as a natural surfactant, foam stabilizer, and emulsifier in this scouring. The single stage Bot scouring was optimized with 40 g of untamed yam and a weight to volume (MLR in W/V) (weight of fabric to water) ratio of 1:10 at 80°C for 60 min on a pH of 5–7. The treatment’s effectiveness was measured using a weight reduction percentage and an absorbency test (a drop of water, capillary upward thrust, sinking time). In terms of weight reduction, water absorbency, capillary boost, as well as amazing friendliness, scouring cotton fabric with wild yam powder at optimized scouring conditions is comparable to scouring cotton fabric with 30% (at the weight of cloth) caustic soda. To verify the fabric samples’ resistance to microbiological development and strength maintenance, wild yam and Caustic soda scoured cotton fabrics were subjected to a soil burial test. The fabric sample scoured with wild yam has a much lesser standard deviations of toughness and elongation at break than the caustic soda scoured and untreated control samples. The Single stage scouring of cotton fabric with wild yam powder met the requirements for green scouring while also providing antibacterial qualities.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-03-15T12:09:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221085538
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Plant-based fibres in cement composites: A conceptual framework

    • Authors: Wafa Abdelmajeed Labib
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The pursuit of sustainability has necessitated more renewable resources in construction materials. Plant-based natural fibres, which can be found globally, are abundant, low-cost and renewable. Moreover, plant-based fibres can improve the mechanical properties of construction materials as a low-cost, environmentally friendly renewable option. Accordingly, a thorough understanding of the characteristics and drawbacks of plant fibres, focussing on their use in cement-based composites, is needed to explore their potential in structural applications. Therefore, this study developed a conceptual framework to assess the factors affecting plant-based natural fibres and cement composites. The paper further demonstrates the application of the proposed framework to predict associated challenges and offers appropriate solutions. Finally, date palm fibres are suggested for future applications of the proposed conceptual framework.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T11:56:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221078922
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Polypyrrole coating on aramid fabrics for improved stab resistance and
           multifunction

    • Authors: Zhenqian Lu, Danyang Li, Zishun Yuan
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      As an epoch of intelligent clothing is coming, soft body armor is required to possess not only improved mechanical performance but more functions, such as electronic conductivity, anti-ultraviolet capability, electrical heating property, etc. In this work, polypyrrole (PPy) is coated on Twaron fabrics to enhancing their stabbing resistance and simultaneously endowing them with multifunction. The resultant PPy-coated Twaron fabric exhibits better tensile strength. The strength of the PPy-coated fiber is increased by 12.03% and the maximum friction between the yarns in the PPy-coated fabric increases by 8.96 times. The quasi-static stab resistance of the PPy-coated fabric is also significantly improved in comparison with that of the neat counterpart. Furthermore, PPy-coated fabric exhibits anti-ultraviolet capability, high electrical conductivity, and stable electrical heating properties. The saturation temperature from the electrical heating is tunable by adjusting the applied voltage. These functions ensure that the treated fabrics can be applied in more areas and facilitate relieving the adverse effects from the external environment (rainstorm, blizzard, insolation, etc.) for the soft body armor. This study offers the potential of developing the novel generation of smart soft body armor with both excellent protective performance and intelligent wearable properties.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T11:49:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221081856
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Recognize highly similar sewing gestures by the robot

    • Authors: Sijie Yang, Xiaohua Wang, Wenjie Wang
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The autonomous and efficient learning of sewing gestures by robots will bring great convenience to the garment industry. To improve the accuracy of robots in detecting sewing gestures with high similarity, three detection models based on deep learning are proposed in the paper. First, in order to improve the detection accuracy and detection speed of sewing gestures under complex backgrounds, we added a dense connection layer to the low-resolution network layer of YOLO-V3 to enhance the transmission and reuse rate of image features. Secondly, a deeper ResNet50 residual network is introduced to replace the VGG16 basic network in the original SSD model. The feature pyramid structure is used to fuse high-level semantic features and low-level semantic features, which can improve the detection accuracy of small-sized sewing gestures. Finally, the parallel spatial-temporal dual-stream network separately extracts the temporal feature and the spatial feature of sewing gestures. The fusion of time feature and space feature improves the detection accuracy of the coherent sewing gesture. The results show that the suggested three models can effectively detect four sewing gestures with high similarity. Among them, the spatial-temporal two-stream convolutional neural network has the highest detection accuracy. The improved SSD model has faster detection speed than the improved YOLO-V3 model and other mainstream algorithms.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-03-04T11:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221077267
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • The quantitative detection of botanical trashes contained in seed cotton
           with near infrared spectroscopy method

    • Authors: Wanhuai Zhou, Hao Li, Houjun Liang
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This study is performed to investigate the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the detection of botanical trashes content of seed cotton harvested by cotton-picker (SCHCP). Large quantity of trashes become comingled with cotton fiber in the harvesting process, especially when the cotton is harvested with cotton-picker. In China, trashes content of seed cotton (SC) has to be detected when farmers sell the SC to ginneries because trashes reduce the prices of SC and it should be deducted from the whole weight. The conventional instrumental method used to detect the trashes content of SC, ginning and trashes analysis, is complex and time consuming. In this study, 353 SC samples were collected from three ginneries, the NIR spectra bands from 12,000 to 4000 cm−1 were collected with the FT-NIR spectrometer Nexus. Models between NIR spectra and the trashes contents of these SC samples have been developed with the method of partial least square regression (PLSR), bands of 12,000–4000 cm−1, multiplicative signal correction (MSC) was used to eliminate the negative effects caused by sample shapes, second derivative spectra were used to eliminate the translation and the rotation in the spectral baseline. And the parameters of optimized model: R2 is up to 0.985 (calibration set) and 0.973 (prediction set), RMSEC is as low as 0.072 g and RMSEP is 0.158 g. Results of ANOVA also certified the trashes contents calculated with the models are consistent with the actual trashes contents.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T11:37:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221078921
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Impact of MW rays on extraction and application of Ficus religiosa bark
           based natural colourant for cotton dyeing

    • Authors: Waseem Akram, Shahid Adeel, Nimra Amin, Noman Habib, Asma Inayat, Somayeh Mirnezhad
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The present study aims to extract a natural brown colourant from Ficus religiosa for cotton dyeing using the microwave radiation process. The colourant was isolated in aqueous and acidic media before and after microwave treatment (MW) for up to 6 min. The dye variables have been optimised for the development of new shades with good fastness characteristics, 1–5 g/100 mL of sustainable chemical and bio-mordants have been used. It has been found that irradiated aqueous extract (RE) containing 3 g/100 mL of salt at 55°C for 45 min has given high colour yield onto cotton fabric (RS) after microwave treatment for 4 min. The utilization of 2% of Al, 2% of Fe, 3% of tannic acid (T.A.) as pre chemical mordant whereas 4% of Al, 5% of Fe, 2% of tannic acid as post chemical mordant has given good colour characteristics. In comparison 3% of acacia and 4% pomegranate while 4% of Acacia and 2% of pomegranate extracts as post-bio-mordant have given excellent colour characteristics. It is concluded that MW treatment has an excellent sustainable efficacy to isolate colourant from Ficus Religiosa bark powder for cotton dyeing, whereas the inclusion of bio-mordants has made the process more sustainable and environmental friendly.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T12:05:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221078927
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Experimental analysis on the effect of ring and rotor spun yarns for
           comfort characteristics of weft knitted fabric structures

    • Authors: Mekdes Gedilu, Sakthivel Santhanam, Meseret Bogale, Senthil Kumar Selvaraj
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This research study experimentally analyzed the effect of ring and rotor yarns which are 100% cotton spun yarn with 30s Ne count on the physical and comfort characteristics of single jersey, rib, and interlock knitted fabrics. The physical characteristics such as fabric Thickness, Tightness factor, Bursting strength, Abrasion resistance, and Pilling behavior were studied according to the ASTM Standard and statistically analyzed using Minitab software with ANOVA analysis. The Comfort characteristics were Thermal Insulation behavior (TIV), Water Vapor Permeability, and Air permeability; they were experimentally studied and reported. The results revealed that rotor spun yarn knitted fabrics demonstrated higher Thermal insulation behavior in the knitted structures when compared to ring spun yarn knitted fabrics. Ring spun yarn has better Abrasion resistance than rotor spun yarn, but the air permeability of the knitted fabric made from rotor spun yarn has better air permeability than ring spun yarn. The low stress mechanical properties are shear and compression behavior of ring and rotor spun yarn knitted fabrics were also critically analyzed. The results show that in a few cases the differences between regular fabric properties and the rotor and ring yarn fabric properties are quite significant, while marginal in other cases. However, the surface roughness values showed some interesting features of the knitted fabric structures.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-02-23T11:09:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221078944
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Structure and properties of bast fiber of Alchornea Davidii Franch based
           on chemical alkali degumming and biological enzyme degumming

    • Authors: Lei Zhao, Jumei Zhao, Weiqing Jiang, Guixiang Yao, Bin Zhou, Hongtao Zhou, Li Wei
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      In this work, the effects of degumming treatment on the structure and properties of OS-BADF were discussed. Alkali degumming and biological enzyme degumming were used to obtain AD-BADF and BED-BADF respectively. Spinnability index, thermal property, macromolecular structure, bending property and antibacterial property of OS-BADF (Original Sample of Bast Fiber of Alchornea Davidii Franch), AD-BADF (Alkali Degummed Bast Fiber of Alchornea Davidii Franch), and BED-BADF (Biological Enzyme degummed Bast Fiber of Alchornea Davidii Franch) were tested. The surface morphology of the above three kinds of fiber was analyzed by SEM. The results showed that the main component of degummed OS-BADF was cellulose, and the fiber had stripes in longitudinal direction, and kidney ellipsoid, irregular polygon in the cross section. After degumming treatment, the fineness of fiber decreased obviously and reached the spinnability index. Non-cellulose substances in OS-BADF can be removed by degumming. SEM observation showed that AD-BADF and BED-BADF became smoother after degumming. Compared with AD-BADF, BED-BADF had finer linear density, better thermal stability and higher antibacterial property. The equivalent flexural modulus and flexural rigidity of AD-BADF and BED-BADF were decreased compared with OS-BADF. In particular, the equivalent flexural modulus and the flexural rigidity of BED-BADF were mostly reduced, which indicated that BED-BADF became thinner and softer. The initial thermal decomposition temperature and the highest thermal decomposition temperature of AD-BADF and BED-BADF had been significantly increased. And -OH (free group) decreased significantly after degumming treatment. The testing results of the antibacterial properties of the three blended fabrics showed that the antibacterial properties of AD-BADF and BED-BADF were improved. Compared with AD-BADF, the antibacterial properties of BED-BADF were improved significantly. On the one hand, this research can provide a basis for technological research for the development of ADF (Alchornea Davidii Franch) bast fiber blended yarn and its textile product development. On the other hand, because of the high mechanical properties of ADF bast fiber, it also provides new development idea for the development of natural high-performance fiber reinforcement composites.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-02-18T06:12:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250211073916
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of the package diameter in winding processes by image analysis
           and a linear regression model

    • Authors: Simone Gramsch, Erik Gordon Bell, Ali Moghiseh, Andre Schmeißer
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Currently, industrial winding processes are often optimized by trial and error. A digital twin of winding processes could be helpful in order to assist industry to optimize the winding processes. Formulating the kinematic equations that form the basis of such a simulation of the winding process is straightforward in principle. However, a major challenge is to model the increase of the package diameter as a function of time or length of wound up yarn, respectively. In this paper, a kinematic model for the winding process is first outlined. The focus of the paper is the description of a workflow in order to find a model for the package diameter increase dependent on the wound yarn length. For that purpose, a new image analysis method is presented to derive the general class of the model function for the diameter increase. Then, the measurement results of a series of experiments are analyzed to find a parameterization of the model function. Here, the input process parameters winding tension, cradle pressure, winding speed, and traverse ratio are varied at two levels. Finally, the linear regression model for the package diameter increase is presented.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T07:52:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250211073249
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Erratum to “Mechanical properties and durability assessment of nylon
           fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete”

    • Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.

      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-01-28T11:16:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221079939
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Erratum to “Mechanical performance of concrete reinforced with
           polypropylene fibers (PPFs)”

    • Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.

      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-01-27T12:49:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250221078718
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Integrity and crack resistance of hybrid polypropylene fiber reinforced
           cemented soil

    • Authors: Jun Zhang, Wei Xu, Peiwei Gao, Lihai Su, Bai Kun, Li Yueyuan, Yang Bohan
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      Cement is commonly used in the rapid construction of emergency airports; however, cemented soils have issues with integrity and crack resistance. For example, cemented soils can crack easily, and overall stability is insufficient. To address these problems, cemented soil is reinforced with hybrid polypropylene fiber, and the anti-flying property, anti-wear property, and crack resistance of polypropylene fiber reinforced cemented soil with varying fiber lengths, fiber contents, and fiber combinations are examined through flying tests, wear tests, and crack tests. Results show that the reinforcement of fiber can significantly improve the anti-flying property, anti-wear property, and crack resistance of cemented soil. The content and fiber length have a great impact on properties of fiber reinforced cemented soil. The ideal length and content of fine polypropylene fiber are 12 mm and 0.3%, respectively. The ideal combination of hybrid polypropylene fiber reinforced cemented soil is 0.3% coarse polypropylene fiber with the length of 38 mm and 0.3% fine polypropylene fiber with the length of 12 mm. In addition, hybrid polypropylene fiber reinforced cemented soil mechanical properties exceed those of single polypropylene fiber reinforced cemented soil.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-01-21T11:52:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250211068428
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Predicting the tensile strength of bleach washed denim garments by using
           fuzzy logic modeling

    • Authors: Joy Sarkar, Niaz Morshed Rifat, Md Abdullah Al Faruque
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      The prime intention of this study is to develop and validate the efficiency of a fuzzy logic model to predict the tensile strength of bleach washed denim garments. Denim washing is nowadays a widely used technology to give a worn-out appearance to denim garments and thus add esthetic to that garments’ appearance and outlook. In the case of regular overall fading of denim, bleach washing is very popular. At the same time, it is also a matter of concern that the process optimization of bleach washing is critical as bleaching agents have an adverse effect on the fabrics. Among others, bleach concentration, time, and temperature are the primary process parameters in bleach washing, which directly impact the final strength of the treated denim garments. Though their relationship is nonlinear, a fuzzy expert-based system has been constructed to model and illustrate the complex relationship among bleach concentration, time, and temperature in the input side, whereas tensile strength is the output. Strength is the most critical parameter of the final denim product, as it dominates the serviceability of that garments. Therefore, predicting the tensile strength without the trial-and-error method, which is being practiced now, can be a blessing for industrial practitioners. With the help of a laboratory trial, the developed model has been evaluated, and it has been found that the mean relative error was 2.82 and 3.92 for warp and weft direction tensile strength, respectively. On the other hand, the comparison exhibited a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.99 for both warp and weft direction tensile strengths. The authors found that the performance of the developed model is satisfactory enough to predict the tensile strength of the bleach washed denim garments.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T08:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250211069602
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
  • Review of the study of relation between the thermal protection performance
           and the thermal comfort performance of firefighters’ clothing

    • Authors: Zhongxiang Lei
      Abstract: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, Volume 17, Issue , January-December 2022.
      This paper reviews the current evaluation methods of thermal protection performance and thermal comfort performance for fabric and clothing from standard and non-standard tests. The test environment includes thermal radiation, thermal convection, flash fire, and so on. The research of this paper will promote the formulation and improvement of the new standard of Fire clothing. The future researches on thermal protection performance, and thermal comfort performance should be closer to the real fire environment. At the same time, the study of relation between the thermal protection performance and the thermal comfort performance of fire-fighters’ clothing is reviewed. The shortcomings of current researches and the focus of future researches are expounded. This study not only provides guidelines and suggestions for the research, development, design and selection of fire-fighters’ clothing, but also helps to better understand the relationship between thermal protection performance and thermal comfort performance of fire fighter clothing. Meanwhile, it provides a reference for improving the testing methods and establishing the testing standards of fire fighter clothing.
      Citation: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
      PubDate: 2022-01-19T08:30:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/15589250211068032
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2022)
       
 
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