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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
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Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.274
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1336-1376 - ISSN (Online) 1804-3119
Published by VSB-Technical University of Ostrava Homepage  [2 journals]
  • A New Synergetic Scheme Control of Electric Vehicle Propelled by Six-phase
           Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    • Authors: Mohamed Kabir Billal Boumegouas, Katia Kouzi
      Abstract: Electric Vehicles (EVs) are a promising alternative to conventional vehicles powered by internal combustion motors, of fering the possibility of reducing CO2, pollutants, and noise emissions. As known, the control of such an electric vehicle takes into account several phenomena governing its behavior, which is a complicated problem because of the non-linearities, unmeasured disturbance, and parameters uncertainty of this system. This problem is one of the important challenges facing controller designers. Various control techniques have been proposed to enhance EV’s performance. On this basis, in this research, a new synergetic scheme of electric vehicles propelled by Six-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSMs) is developed. The synthesis of the proposed Synergetic Controller (SC) is based on the selection of four-manifolds of stator current of PMSMs. The SC provides fast response, asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system in wide range operating condition, and decrease the size of modeled system. Also, the principal feature of SC is that it supports parameters variation. Furthermore, to illustrate the improvements and the performances of the proposed controller, a comparison study between various nonlinear controllers such as Integral Action in Sliding Mode (ISMC), Super Twisting Sliding Mode (STSM), using a dynamic model of the lightweight vehicle under New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) was done. The obtained simulation results under several operating conditions show the efficiency and superiority of the proposed control compared with nonlinear controllers; also, it demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed control approach for real systems.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2022)
       
  • A Stochastic Approach for Analysis of Shadowing Effects in Urban Area

    • Authors: Saulius Japertas, Vitas Grimaila, Ruta Jankuniene, Paulius Tervydis
      Abstract: 5G networks are started to be deployed in urban areas in the dynamic spectrum sharing mode. Therefore, the analysis of Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) shadowing effects behind buildings of different heights becomes particularly important. The shadowing of GSM (900 MHz), UMTS (2100 MHz) and LTE (1800 MHz) technologies was investigated in the urban area. The results are examined by using the log-normal path loss model and four different stochastic equations, specifically: normal, log-normal, Rayleigh, and Nakagami. The results showed that the fluctuations of path losses in the urban area correspond to the model of log-normal path losses. However, path losses for individual buildings do not fit this model. Therefore, stochastic methods were used to analyse shadowing effects. A path loss model based on a differential stochastic equation was proposed. This model includes the following values: free space losses, path losses disturbance due to the shadowing effect, standard deviation σ, and a freely chosen parameter b. This model allows a very accurate estimate of the path losses of the three technologies. A clear correlation was observed between parameter b and standard deviation σ.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2022)
       
  • Positioning the Adjacent Buried Objects Using UWB Technology Combine with
           Levenberg Marquardt Algorithm

    • Authors: Nguyen Thi Huyen, Duong Duc Ha, Hiep Thanh Pham
      Abstract: The determination of the buried objects and cracks in building structures is an important issue in real-life. In this paper, we propose a new method called Correlation Function Separation Technique (CFST) combine with the Lervenberg-Marquardt Algorithm (LMA) using the Impulse Radio Ultra-Wide Band (IR-UWB) penetrating system to improve the accuracy in detecting and positioning of the adjacent buried objects in building structures. Based on the UWB signal processing, the proposed method can be used to determine both the relative permittivity of the environment and the position of the buried objects, especially the adjacent objects. The analytical method is validated by mathematical proofs and Matlab simulations, and the position errors are used to assess the performance of proposed method. The numerical results shown that the proposed method can be used for positioning the adjacent buried objects in the homogeneous environment which has an average positioning error of 3.52cm, which is smaller than that of the conventional method based on B-canned radar images processing.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2022)
       
  • A simple Encoding Scheme to Achieve the Capacity of Half-Duplex Relay
           Channel

    • Authors: Zouhair Al-qudah, Khalid Ahmad Darabkh
      Abstract: In this paper, the Half-Duplex Relay Channel (HDRC) is thoroughly investigated. Even though this channel model is widely studied, the capacity is not yet fully understood and particularly has not been tightly expressed. In this work, a new capacity expression of the discrete memoryless HDRC is explicitly established. In particular, a new expression of the achievable rate is derived by taking advantage of the well-known capacity results of both the degraded broadcast channel and the multiple access channel. Specifically, in order to obtain the achievable rate, the transmission from the source to destination is operated over two phases. In the first phase, the broadcast phase, the source broadcasts to both relay and destination. In the second phase, both source and relay transmit to destination to form multiple access channel. Then, we prove that the new achievable rate meets the cut-set outer bound such that the capacity of the discrete memoryless HDRC is attained. Next, the new derived capacity result is extended to the case of additive Gaussian channel. Further, the attained capacity is analytically and then numerically shown to encompass all well-known available findings in the literature. Additional numerical examples are also shown to present the cases in which the relay is beneficial and how the achievable capacity varies with the source-relay and relay-destination channel gains.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2022)
       
  • Capacitance Characteristics Behavior of 0.5 Order FC Using CFOA Based FC
           Multiplier

    • Authors: Rakesh Verma, Neeta Pandey, Rajeshwari Pandey
      Abstract: This paper presents a method for capacitance scaling of Fractional Capacitor (FC) which is implemented using Current Feedback Operational Amplifiers (CFOA) based Capacitance Multipliers (C Multipliers). The circuit facilitates the change in FC value without changing component values in R-C network used for FC modelling or fabricating a new FC. The performance of the proposed circuit is examined for non ideal effects of CFOA. Effective impedance of scaled FC is examined through MATLAB simulations. The functionality of the realized scalers is verified using SPICE simulations where the FC is modelled using domino RC ladder network. Simulation results for impedance magnitude and phase responses are presented for various scaling factors and are compared with theoretical counterparts. The circuit application of proposed FC scaler is demonstrated through implementation of fractional order lossy and lossless integrators; and may be extended to fractional order filters, oscillators, controllers etc.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2022)
       
  • Early Area and Power Estimation Model for Rapid System Level Design and
           Design Space Exploration

    • Authors: Abhishek Narayan Tripathi, Arvind Rajawat
      Abstract: Power and area estimation in the early stage of designing is very critical for a system. This paper presents the neural network-based early area and power estimation model. The flow starts with the training of the neural network model from the selected behavioral level parameters, which imposes to provide accurate estimations. The model accuracy is validated against ITC99 benchmark programs. The run-times are faster than the synthesis run-times. For the ASIC-based designs, the proposed model took 5 seconds, while Synopsys Design Compiler took 5 minutes. In terms of timing, the estimation speed is more than the order of magnitude faster than the conventional synthesis-based approach. The modeling methodology provides a better, accurate, and fast area and power estimations, at an early stage of the Very-Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) design. In addition, the model eliminates the need for synthesis-based exploration and provides the design picking before synthesis.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2022)
       
  • ESD Stress Analysis and Suppression in a Single-Junction Thermal Converter

    • Authors: Thato Ernest Kgakatsi, Eugene Golovins, Johan Venter
      Abstract: This article presents an outline of Electric Transient Disturbances (ETDs), represented by the ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) in accordance with the Human-Body Model (HBM), on the AC-DC transfer measurement standard, represented by the Single-Junction Thermal Converter (SJTC) Thermal Element (TE). Mitigation technique against the power dissipation build-up, higher than the operational margins recommended by a manufacturer, on the TE were proposed and modelled using Laplace Transform (LT) analysis. A mathematical model and an optimization algorithm were developed to determine the equivalent circuit model parameters of a Transient Overload Protection Module (TOPM) that would offer adequate protection against destructive power dissipation levels build-up on the TE. The mathematical model was developed using an 8 kV ESD, which was expected to deliver short-circuit current with a peak value of approximately 5.33 A through a load impedance of approximately 1 m\varOmega. The ESD stress signal was injected into the TOPM connected in parallel with the TE. The active power dissipated by the SJTC TE per period of transient response was calculated from the current and voltage obtained from the mathematical analysis, and the results indicate a power dissipation of 10 mW by the TE. From the algorithm, the model parameter that noticeably influences the power dissipation capabilities of the TOPM is the inductance and it must be smaller than 1.2 nH. A CAD based simulation model was developed and analysed. The simulation results agreed with the mathematical model.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2022)
       
  • Impact of Work Function Tunability on Thermal and RF Performance of P-type
           Window based Junctionless Transistor

    • Authors: Priyansh Tripathi, Narendra Yadava, Mangal Deep Gupta, Rajeev Kumar Chauhan
      Abstract: The choice of gate metal technology for junctionless transistors needs to have diverse characteristics as metals have distinct work functions and hence, they show incompatibility while tailoring threshold of the device. In such a scenario, bimetallic stacked gate can be a promising candidate to present wide range of tunable work functions required for nano-regime junctionless transistors. This paper explores the electronic phenomena occurring at metal-metal interface and the impact of Platinum (Pt)/Titanium (Ti) bimetallic stacked gate-based work function tunability on the RF and thermal performances of p-type window-based Silicon on Insulator Junctionless Transistor (SOI JLT) using numerical simulator SILVACO ATLAS. The parameters considered for performance evaluation are ON-state current (I_{ON}), OFF-state current (I_{OFF}), I_{ON}/I_{OFF} ratio, transconductance (g_m),\linebreak cutoff frequency (f_T), Transconductance Frequency Product (TFP), Intrinsic Gate Delay (IGD), intrinsic gain (A_V), and Global Device Temperature (GDT). The g_m, f_T, TFP, A_V and GDT improve for modified over conventional in the ON state at higher work function, while IGD improves at lower work function. The improvements of 11.7% and 2.21% are obtained in maximum g_m and f_T, respectively, for modified transistor over conventional. The findings suggest that bimetallic stacked gate modified SOIJLT is a better option than conventional for low-power RF application.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2022)
       
  • The Influence of Repetitive UIS on Electrical Properties of Advanced
           Automotive Power Transistors

    • Authors: Juraj Marek, Jozef Kozarik, Michal Minarik, Ales Chvala, Lubica Stuchlikova
      Abstract: This paper investigates a degradation of three types of automotive power MOSFETs through repetitive Unclamped Inductive Switching (UIS) test typically used to evaluate the avalanche robustness of power devices. It is not uncommon in switching applications that greater than the planned voltage for voltage spikes can occur, so even the best electronic designs may encounter frequent avalanche events. Hence, there is a need to analyse the impact of repetitive avalanching on the electrical performance of power transistors. This article focused on the shift of main electrical parameters: on-resistance R_{ON}, breakdown voltage V_{BR}, threshold voltage V_{TH}, and corresponding characteristics, as well as capacitances. Analysis proved that DMOS transistors are less vulnerable to repetitive avalanching. The most impacted parameter was on-resistance R_{DSon}, where a 14 % increase was observed after 6 x 10^7 stress pulses. The parameters shift is attributed to hot carrier injection in the space charge region of blocking PN junction and involves mainly defects generation/activation in the drain side region of the gate oxide. For the TrenchMOS transistor, a significant shift of I-V curves was observed with considerable impact on the R_{ON} where an increase of 22 % was observed. The trench corner is verified to be the mainly degraded region by Synopsys Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulations. Degradation of drain-gate capacitance C_{DG} and input capacitance C_{in} was observed in all three types of analysed structures. DLTS was used to verify the generation/activation of defects invoked by stress. An increase of DLTS signal corresponding to energy levels of oxygen vacancies and impurities in SiO_2 and on interfaces were detected on stressed samples.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2022)
       
  • BEMD Based Cross Bilateral Filtering Technique for Speckle Reduction in
           Ultrasound Images

    • Authors: Bhawna Gupta, Vineet Khandelwal
      Abstract: In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) based Cross Bilateral Filter (CBF) technique for speckle reduction in ultrasound images has been proposed. The reference image is obtained by denoising the noisy image using pixel-wise Wiener filtering. Then, both the noisy image and the reference image are decomposed into a set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) and the residue image using BEMD technique. CBF is applied between noisy image IMFs and the corresponding reference image IMFs. The image is reconstructed back with these modified IMFs and the residue. The proposed method exploits the edge information in the reference image for improving the quality of the denoised image. The performance of the proposed method has been tested for real ultrasound images and simulated images having noise of different variance. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than other state-of-art methods in terms of Edge Keeping Index (EKI), Correlation Coefficient (CC), Figure of Merit (FOM), Structural Similarity (SSIM), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) for synthetic images. The algorithm gives better performance for real ultrasound images in terms of Mean to Variance Ratio (MVR) and Equivalent Number of Looks (ENL).
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2022)
       
  • Photo-induced Electron Emission of Nanostructured Carbon Thin Film Based
           Transmission Photocathodes at Different Electric Field

    • Authors: Jozef Huran, Vlasta Sasinkova, Mikhail Alexandrovich Nozdrin, Eva Kovacova, Alexander Pavlovich Kobzev, Angela Kleinova
      Abstract: Very thin nanostructured carbon films were deposited on quartz substrate by reactive magnetron sputtering using graphite target and gas mixture of Ar and reactive gas N_2 or N_2+H_2. Film thicknesses were in the range of 20-25 nm. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and Elastic recoil detection analytical method determined the concentration of elements in the films. Scanning electron microscopy scanned the surface morphology of carbon films. Raman spectroscopy was used for chemical structural properties determination of very thin carbon films. Raman spectra intensities were fitted with Gaussian peaks. The photo-induced (pulsed laser - 266 nm) electron emission properties of very thin nanostructured carbon films were investigated by the measurement of cathode bunch charge at different electric field and calculate quantum efficiency. The influence of different electric field on the photo-induced electron emission characteristics of prepared transmission photocathodes are discussed.
      PubDate: 2022-03-28
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2022)
       
 
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