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Batteries
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2313-0105
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 75: Numerical Parametric Investigation of
           Nonaqueous Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    • Authors: Shaopei Huang, Yujuan Lu
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Nonaqueous redox flow batteries are promising candidates for large-scale energy storage technologies. However, the effect of structural design and key factors limiting the performance are still not thoroughly understood. In this work, we constructed a physical model to study the effect of various design parameters on the performance of such a battery. It was found that the kinetics of redox reaction was improved with active material concentration and electrode surface area. The modeling results also showed that the local current density was much higher in the vicinity of membrane than near the current collector due to relatively low ionic conductivity of electrolytes. Furthermore, decreasing the electrode thickness and increasing the membrane conductivity both reduced the voltage loss associated with ohmic resistance, thereby resulting in improved battery performance. The obtained numerical simulation results would be helpful not only for understanding the physicochemical process in nonaqueous vanadium flow batteries but also for future structural optimization of these batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8080075
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 76: Life Cycle Assessment of a Lithium-Ion
           Battery Pack Unit Made of Cylindrical Cells

    • Authors: Morena Falcone, Nicolò Federico Quattromini, Claudio Rossi, Beatrice Pulvirenti
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Saving energy is a fundamental topic considering the growing energy requirements with respect to energy availability. Many studies have been devoted to this question, and life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly acquiring importance in several fields as an effective way to evaluate the energy demand and the emissions associated with products’ life cycles. In this work, an LCA analysis of an existent lithium-ion battery pack (BP) unit is presented with the aim to increase awareness about its consumption and offering alternative production solutions that are less energy intensive. Exploiting the literature data about cradle-to-grave and cradle-to-gate investigations, and after establishing reasonable approximations, the main BP sub-elements were considered for this study, such as the plastic cells support, the Li-ion cells brick, the PCBs for a battery management system (BMS), the liquid-based battery thermal management system (BTMS) and the BP container. For each of these components, the impacts of the extraction, processing, assembly, and transportation of raw materials are estimated and the partial and total values of the energy demand (ED) and global warming potential (GWP) are determined. The final interpretation of the results allows one to understand the important role played by LCA evaluations and presents other possible ways of reducing the energy consumption and CO2 emissions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8080076
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 77: Characteristics of Open Circuit Voltage
           Relaxation in Lithium-Ion Batteries for the Purpose of State of Charge and
           State of Health Analysis

    • Authors: David Theuerkauf, Lukas Swan
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Open circuit voltage relaxation to a steady state value occurs, and is measured, at the terminals of a lithium-ion battery when current stops flowing. It is of interest for use in determining state of charge and state of health. As voltage relaxation can take several hours, a representative model and curve fitting is necessary for practical usage. Previous studies of lithium-ion voltage relaxation investigate four characteristics: relationship between voltage relaxation magnitude and state of charge; length of relaxation required; model complexity for state of charge estimation; and model complexity for state of health evaluation. However, previous studies have inconsistent methodology or use only one type of lithium-ion cell, making comparison and generalization difficult. To address this, we conducted 3 h and 24 h voltage relaxation experiments over a range of states of charge on three different lithium ion chemistries (nickel cobalt aluminum NCA; nickel manganese cobalt NMC532; lithium iron phosphate LFP) and fitted them with a new voltage relaxation equivalent circuit model. It was found that a 3 h relaxation period was sufficient for NMC and LFP for state of charge and state of health investigations. Voltage relaxation of the NCA cell continued to evolve past 24 h. It was shown that voltage relaxation shape and magnitude changes as a function of state of charge, and the accuracy of estimating state of charge was explored. Strategically choosing a state of charge for state of health assessment can be optimized to accentuate voltage relaxation magnitude and this differs by chemistry. This suggested technique and experimental findings can be paired with battery degradation studies to determine accuracy of assessing state of health.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8080077
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 78: How the Sodium Cations in Anode Affect the
           Performance of a Lithium-ion Battery

    • Authors: Dan Shao, Dewei Rao, Aihua Wu, Xiangyi Luo
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Large cations such as potassium ion (K+) and sodium ion (Na+) could be introduced into the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery system during material synthesis or battery assembly. However, the effect of these cations on charge storage or electrochemical performance has not been fully understood. In this study, sodium ion was taken as an example and introduced into the lithium titanium oxide (LTO) anode through the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder. After the charge/discharge cycles, these ions doped into the LTO lattice and improved both the lithium-ion diffusivity and the electronic conductivity of the anode. The sodium ion’s high concentration (>12.9%), however, resulted in internal doping of Na+ into the LTO lattice, which retarded the transfer of lithium ions due to repulsion and physical blocking. The systematic study presented here shows that large cations with an appropriate concentration in the electrode would be beneficial to the electrochemical performance of the Li-ion battery.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8080078
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 79: Influence of the Ambient Storage of
           LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 Powder and Electrodes on the Electrochemical
           Performance in Li-ion Technology

    • Authors: de Meatza, Landa-Medrano, Sananes-Israel, Eguia-Barrio, Bondarchuk, Lijó-Pando, Boyano, Palomares, Rojo, Grande, Urdampilleta
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Nickel-rich LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) is one of the most promising Li-ion battery cathode materials and has attracted the interest of the automotive industry. Nevertheless, storage conditions can affect its properties and performance. In this work, both NMC811 powder and electrodes were storage-aged for one year under room conditions. The aged powder was used to prepare electrodes, and the performance of these two aged samples was compared with reference fresh NMC811 electrodes in full Li-ion coin cells using graphite as a negative electrode. The cells were subjected to electrochemical as well as ante- and postmortem characterization. The performance of the electrodes from aged NM811 was beyond expectations: the cycling performance was high, and the power capability was the highest among the samples analyzed. Materials characterization revealed modifications in the crystal structure and the surface layer of the NMC811 during the storage and electrode processing steps. Differences between aged and fresh electrodes were explained by the formation of a resistive layer at the surface of the former. However, the ageing of NMC811 powder was significantly mitigated during the electrode processing step. These novel results are of interest to cell manufacturers for the widespread implementation of NMC811 as a state-of-the-art cathode material in Li-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8080079
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 80: Nanomechanical, Structural and
           Electrochemical Investigation of Amorphous and Crystalline MoO3 Thin-Film
           Cathodes in Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Wissem Methani, Edit Pál, Sándor Lipcsei, Dávid Ugi, Zoltán Pászti, István Groma, Péter Jenei, Zoltán Dankházi, Robert Kun
      First page: 80
      Abstract: In this work, a comprehensive investigation of amorphous and crystalline modification of identical electrode active material as a thin-film electrode for a future all-solid-state Li-ion battery application is presented and discussed. Using the proposed micro-battery system, we aim to unravel the effect of the crystallinity of the positive electrode material on the intrinsic durability of all-solid-state thin-film Li-ion batteries during prolonged electrochemical cycling. We demonstrate the preparation, structural-, nanomechanical and electrochemical characteristics of molybdenum (VI) oxide (MoO3) thin-film cathodes based on their different crystallinity. The nanomechanical properties of the electrode layers were determined using nanoindentation along with acoustic emission studies. Based on the electrochemical test results, as-prepared thin films that did not go under any heat treatment showed the best performance and stability throughout cycling around 50 μAh initial capacity when cycled at C/2. This suits well their nanomechanical properties, which showed the highest hardness but also the highest flexibility in comparison with the heat-treated layers with lower hardness, high brittleness, and numerous cracks upon mechanical loads. According to our results, we state that amorphous-type electrode materials are more durable against electro-chemo-mechanical-aging related battery performance loss in all-solid-state Li-ion batteries compared to their crystalline counterparts.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8080080
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 81: Influence of Growth Parameters on the
           Electrochemical Performance of Electrodeposited Carbons

    • Authors: Jimmy Wu, Matthew A. Hughes, Neeraj Sharma, Jessica Allen
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Generating useful chemicals from CO2 is driving research into carbon capture and utilization. In this work, hard carbons are electrodeposited on various substrates from molten carbonate melts in CO2 atmospheres. These electrodeposited carbons are subsequently used as anodes in sodium-ion batteries, with preliminary investigations into their performance in potassium-ion batteries. The hard carbons were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Hard carbons grown on graphite substrates produced initial reversible capacities of 405 ± 29 mAh/g and capacity retention of 85.2 ± 1.1% after 50 cycles when cycled at 10 mA/g which are amongst the highest capacities reported for hard carbons to date. This work clearly illustrates that the carbons generated via CO2 mediated electrodeposition are suitable for application in next generation batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8080081
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 82: Synergistic Effect of Dual-Ceramics for
           Improving the Dispersion Stability and Coating Quality of Aqueous Ceramic
           Coating Slurries for Polyethylene Separators in Li Secondary Batteries

    • Authors: Ssendagire Kennedy, Jeong-Tae Kim, Jungmin Kim, Yong Min Lee, Isheunesu Phiri, Sun-Yul Ryou
      First page: 82
      Abstract: We demonstrate that dispersion stability and excellent coating quality are achieved in polyethylene (PE) separators by premixing heterogeneous ceramics such as silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) in an aqueous solution, without the need for functional additives such as dispersing agents and surfactants. Due to the opposite polarities of the zeta potentials of SiO2 and Al2O3, SiO2 forms a sheath around the Al2O3 surface. Electrostatic repulsion occurs between the Al2O3 particles encapsulated in SiO2 to improve the dispersion stability of the slurry. The CCSs fabricated using a dual ceramic (SiO2 and Al2O3)-containing aqueous coating slurry, denoted as DC-CCSs, exhibit improved physical properties, such as a wetting property, electrolyte uptake, and ionic conductivity, compared to bare PE separators and CCSs coated with a single ceramic of Al2O3 (SC-CCSs). Consequently, DC-CCSs exhibit an improved electrochemical performance, in terms of rate capability and cycle performance. The half cells consisting of DC-CCSs retain 93.8% (97.12 mAh g−1) of the initial discharge capacity after 80 cycles, while the bare PE and SC-CCSs exhibit 22.5% and 26.6% capacity retention, respectively. The full cells consisting of DC-CCSs retain 90.9% (102.9 mAh g−1) of the initial discharge capacity after 400 cycles, while the bare PE and SC-CCS exhibit 64.7% and 73.4% capacity retention, respectively.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-08-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8080082
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 83: A Techno-Economic Model for Benchmarking the
           Production Cost of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    • Authors: Orangi, Strømman
      First page: 83
      Abstract: In response to the increasing expansion of the electric vehicles (EVs) market and demand, billions of dollars are invested into the battery industry to increase the number and production volume of battery cell manufacturing plants across the world, evident in Giga-battery factories. On the other side, despite the increase in the battery cell raw material prices, the total production cost of battery cells requires reaching a specific value to grow cost-competitive with internal combustion vehicles. Further, obtaining a high-quality battery at the end of the production line requires integrating numerous complex processes. Thus, developing a cost model that simultaneously includes the physical and chemical characteristics of battery cells, commodities prices, process parameters, and economic aspects of a battery production plant is essential in identifying the cost-intensive areas of battery production. Moreover, such a model is helpful in finding the minimum efficient scale for the battery production plant which complies with the emergence of Giga-battery plants. In this regard, a process-based cost model (PBCM) is developed to investigate the final cost for producing ten state-of-the-art battery cell chemistries on large scales in nine locations. For a case study plant of 5.3 GWh.year−1 that produces prismatic NMC111-G battery cells, location can alter the total cost of battery cell production by approximately 47 US$/kWh, which is dominated by the labor cost. This difference could decrease by approximately 31% at the minimum efficient scale of the battery production plant, which is 7.8 GWh.year−1 for the case study in this work. Finally, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the final prices of battery cell chemistries due to the changes in commodities prices, economic factors of the plant, battery cell production parameters, and production volume. The outcomes of this work can support policy designers and battery industry leaders in managing production technology and location.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8080083
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 84: Multi-Functional Potassium Ion Assists
           Ammonium Vanadium Oxide Cathode for High-Performance Aqueous Zinc-Ion
           Batteries

    • Authors: Dan He, Tianjiang Sun, Qiaoran Wang, Tao Ma, Shibing Zheng, Zhanliang Tao, Jing Liang
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Ammonium vanadium oxide (NH4V4O10) is a promising layered cathode for aqueous zinc-ion batteries owing to its high specific capacity (>300 mA h g−1). However, the structural instability causes serious cycling degradation through irreversible insertion/extraction of NH4+. Herein, a new potassium ammonium vanadate Kx(NH4)1−xV4O10 (named KNVO) is successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method. The inserted of K+ can act as structural pillars, connect the adjacent layers closer and partially reduce the de-insertion of NH4+. Due to the multi-functional of K+, the prepared KNVO presents a high specific discharge capacity of 432 mA h g−1 at a current density of 0.4 A g−1, long cycle stability (2000 cycles, 94.2%) as well as impressive rate performance (200 mA h g−1 at 8 A g−1).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8080084
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 85: Model for Rating a Vanadium Redox Flow
           Battery Stack through Constant Power Charge–Discharge
           Characterization

    • Authors: Pavan Kumar Vudisi, Sreenivas Jayanti, Raghuram Chetty
      First page: 85
      Abstract: A method for estimating the stack rating of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) through constant power characterization was developed. A stack of 22 cells, each with 1500 cm2 of nominal electrode area, was constructed and tested using constant current and constant power protocols. Typical ratios of charging to discharging power that prevail in various applications (e.g., peak shaving, wind power/solar photovoltaic power integration) were employed in the test protocols. The results showed that fractional energy storage capacity utilization and round-trip energy efficiency varied linearly with the power at which the energy was charged or discharged. A zero-dimensional electrochemical model was proposed based on the area-specific resistance to account for the energy stored/extracted during constant power discharge in the state of charge (SoC) window of 20% to 80%. It was shown that this could be used to rate a given stack in terms of charging and discharging power from the point of view of its application as a power unit. The proposed method enables stack rating based on a single polarization test and can be extended to flow battery systems in general.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8080085
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 86: A Novel Evaluation Criterion for the Rapid
           Estimation of the Overcharge and Deep Discharge of Lithium-Ion Batteries
           Using Differential Capacity

    • Authors: Peter Kurzweil, Bernhard Frenzel, Wolfgang Scheuerpflug
      First page: 86
      Abstract: Differential capacity dQ/dU (capacitance) can be used for the instant diagnosis of battery performance in common constant current applications. A novel criterion allows state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) monitoring of lithium-ion batteries during cycling. Peak values indicate impeding overcharge or deep discharge, while dSOC/dU = dU/dSOC = 1 is close to “full charge” or “empty” and can be used as a marker for SOC = 1 (and SOC = 0) at the instantaneous SOH of the aging battery. Instructions for simple state-of-charge control and fault diagnosis are given.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-08-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8080086
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 8 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 60: Determination of Internal Temperature
           Differences for Various Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Batteries Using a Pulse
           Resistance Approach

    • Authors: Sebastian Ludwig, Marco Steinhardt, Andreas Jossen
      First page: 60
      Abstract: The temperature of lithium-ion batteries is crucial in terms of performance, aging, and safety. The internal temperature, which is complicated to measure with conventional temperature sensors, plays an important role here. For this reason, numerous methods exist in the literature for determining the internal cell temperature without sensors, which are usually based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This study presents a method in the time domain, based on the pulse resistance, for determining the internal cell temperature by examining the temperature behavior for the cylindrical formats 18650, 21700, and 26650 in isothermal and transient temperature states for different states of charge (SOCs). A previously validated component-resolved 2D thermal model was used to analyze the location of the calculated temperature TR within the cell, which is still an unsolved question for pulse resistance-based temperature determination. The model comparison shows that TR is close to the average jelly roll temperature. The differences between surface temperature and TR depend on the SOC and cell format and range from 2.14K to 2.70K (18650), 3.07K to 3.85K (21700), and 4.74K to 5.45K (26650). The difference decreases for each cell format with increasing SOC and is linear dependent on the cell diameter.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070060
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 61: Thermal Stability and the Effect of Water on
           Hydrogen Fluoride Generation in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes
           Containing LiPF6

    • Authors: Ji Yun Han, Seungho Jung
      First page: 61
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been used as electrochemical energy storage devices in various fields, ranging from mobile phones to electric vehicles. LIBs are composed of a positive electrode, a negative electrode, an electrolyte, and a binder. Among them, electrolytes consist of organic solvents and lithium ion conducting salts. The electrolytes used in LIBs are mostly linear and cyclic alkyl carbonates. These electrolytes are usually based on their combinations to allow the use of Li as the anodic active component, resulting in the high power and energy density of batteries. However, these organic electrolytes have high volatility and flammability that pose a serious safety issue when exposed to extreme conditions such as elevated temperatures. At that time, these electrolytes can react with active electrode materials and release a considerable amount of heat and gas. In this study, a simultaneous thermal analysis-mass spectrometry analysis was performed on six different organic solvents to examine the effect of water on hydrogen fluoride (HF) generation temperature in the electrolyte of a LIB. The electrolytes used in the experiment were anhydrous diethyl carbonate, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, ethylene carbonate, 1,3-dioxolane, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran, each containing LiPF6. The HF formation temperature was observed and compared with that when water entered the electrolyte exposed to high-temperature conditions such as fire.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070061
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 62: Transition Metal Dichalcogenides for
           High−Performance Aqueous Zinc Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Baishan Liu
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Aqueous zinc ion batteries (ZIBs) with cost—effectiveness, air stability, and remarkable energy density have attracted increasing attention for potential energy storage system applications. The unique electrical properties and competitive layer spacing of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide dramatical freedom for facilitating ion diffusion and intercalation, making TMDs suitable for ZIB cathode materials. The recently updated advance of TMDs for high−performance ZIB cathode materials have been summarized in this review. In particular, the key modification strategies of TMDs for realizing the full potential in ZIBs are highlighted. Finally, the insights for further development of TMDs as ZIB cathodes are proposed, to guide the research directions related to the design of aqueous ZIBs while approaching the theoretical performance metrics.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070062
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 63: Effect of x on the Electrochemical
           Performance of Two-Layered Cathode Materials
           xLi2MnO3–(1−x)LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2

    • Authors: Renny Nazario-Naveda, Segundo Rojas-Flores, Luisa Juárez-Cortijo, Moises Gallozzo-Cardenas, Félix N. Díaz, Luis Angelats-Silva, Santiago M. Benites
      First page: 63
      Abstract: In our study, the cathodic material xLi2MnO3–(1−x)LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 was synthesized by means of the co-precipitation technique. The effect of x (proportion of components Li2MnO3 and LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2) on the structural, morphological, and electrochemical performance of the material was evaluated. Materials were structurally characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the morphological analysis was performed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique, while charge–discharge curves and differential capacity and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to study the electrochemical behavior. The results confirm the formation of the structures with two phases corresponding to the rhombohedral space group R3m and the monoclinic space group C2/m, which was associated to the components of the layered material. Very dense agglomerations of particles between 10 and 20 µm were also observed. In addition, the increase in the proportion of the LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 component affected the initial irreversible capacity and the Li2MnO3 layer’s activation and cycling performance, suggesting an optimal chemical ratio of the material’s component layers to ensure high energy density and long-term durability.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070063
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 64: Upgrading the Properties of Ceramic-Coated
           Separators for Lithium Secondary Batteries by Changing the Mixing Order of
           the Water-Based Ceramic Slurry Components

    • Authors: Ssendagire Kennedy, Jeong-Tae Kim, Yong Min Lee, Isheunesu Phiri, Sun-Yul Ryou
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Developing uniform ceramic-coated separators in high-energy Li secondary batteries has been a challenging task because aqueous ceramic coating slurries have poor dispersion stability and coating quality on the hydrophobic surfaces of polyolefin separators. In this study, we develop a simple but effective strategy for improving the dispersion stability of aqueous ceramic coating slurries by changing the mixing order of the ceramic slurry components. The aqueous ceramic coating slurry comprises ceramics (Al2O3), polymeric binders (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC), surfactants (disodium laureth sulfosuccinate, DLSS), and water. The interaction between the ceramic slurry components is studied by changing the mixing order of the ceramic slurry components and quantitatively evaluating the dispersion stability of the ceramic coating slurry using a Lumisizer. In the optimized mixing sequence, Al2O3 and DLSS premixed in aqueous Al2O3-DLSS micelles through strong surface interactions, and they repel each other due to steric repulsion. The addition of CMC in this state does not compromise the dispersion stability of aqueous ceramic coating slurries and enables uniform ceramic coating on polyethylene (PE) separators. The prepared Al2O3 ceramic-coated separators (Al2O3–CCSs) exhibit improved physical properties, such as high wettability electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity, compared to the bare PE separators. Furthermore, Al2O3–CCSs exhibit improved electrochemical performance, such as rate capability and cycling performance. The half cells (LiMn2O4/Li metal) comprising Al2O3–CCSs retain 90.4% (88.4 mAh g−1) of initial discharge capacity after 150 cycles, while 27.6% (26.4 mAh g−1) for bare PE. Furthermore, the full cells (LiMn2O4/graphite) consisting of Al2O3–CCSs exhibit 69.8% (72.2 mAh g−1) of the initial discharge capacity and 24.9% (25.0 mAh g−1) for bare PE after 1150 cycles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070064
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 65: Identification of Typical Sub-Health State of
           Traction Battery Based on a Data-Driven Approach

    • Authors: Cheng Wang, Chengyang Yu, Weiwei Guo, Zhenpo Wang, Jiyuan Tan
      First page: 65
      Abstract: As the core component of an electric vehicle, the health of the traction battery closely affects the safety performance of the electric vehicle. If the sub-health state cannot be identified and dealt with in time, it may cause traction battery failure, pose a safety hazard, and cause property damage to the driver and passengers. This study used data-driven methods to identify the two typical types of sub-health state. For the first type of sub-health state, the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) method was used to determine whether there was an inconsistency between the voltage of a single battery and the overall voltage of the battery pack. In order to determine the threshold, the ICC value of each vehicle under different working conditions was analyzed using box plots, and a statistical ICC threshold of 0.805 was used as the standard to determine the first sub-health type. For the second type of sub-health state, the Z-score and the differential area method were combined to determine whether the single cell voltage deviated from the overall battery pack voltage. A battery whose voltage differential area exceeds the range of u ± 3σ is regarded as having a sub-health state. The results show that both methods can accurately judge the sub-health state type of a single battery. Furthermore, combined with the one-month operation data of the vehicle, we could calculate the sub-health state frequency of each single battery and take single batteries with a high frequency as the key object of attention in future vehicle operations.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070065
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 66: Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as an
           Analytical Tool for the Prediction of the Dynamic Charge Acceptance of
           Lead-Acid Batteries

    • Authors: Sophia Bauknecht, Julia Kowal, Begüm Bozkaya, Jochen Settelein, Eckhard Karden
      First page: 66
      Abstract: The subject of this study is test cells extracted from industrially manufactured automotive batteries. Each test cell either had a full set of plates or a reduced, negative-limited set of plates. With these test cells the predictability of the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is investigated. Thereby, the DCA was performed according to EN 50342-6:2015 standard. The micro cycling approach was used for the EIS measurements to disregard any influencing factors from previous usage. During the evaluation, Kramers-Kronig (K-K) was used to avoid systematic errors caused by violations of the stationarity, time-invariance or linearity. Furthermore, the analysis of the distribution of relaxation times (DRT) was used to identify a usable equivalent circuit model (ECM) and starting values for the parameter prediction. For all cell types and layouts, the resistance R1, the parameter indicating the size of the first/high-frequency semicircle, is smaller for cells with higher DCA. According to the literature, this semicircle represents the charge transfer reaction, thus confirming that current-enhancing additives may decrease the pore diameter of the negative electrode.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070066
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 67: Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of
           Space Fillers to Enhance Volumetric Energy Density of NMC811 Cathode
           Material for Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Irina Skvortsova, Aleksandra A. Savina, Elena D. Orlova, Vladislav S. Gorshkov, Artem M. Abakumov
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Ni-rich layered transition metal (TM) oxides are considered to be the most promising cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries because of their high electrochemical capacity, high Li+ ion (de)intercalation potential, and low cobalt content. However, such materials possess several drawbacks including relatively low volumetric energy density caused by insufficient values of tap density. Herein, we demonstrate an exceptionally rapid and energy-saving synthesis of the mixed hydroxide precursor for the LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) positive electrode (cathode) material through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. The obtained material further serves as a space-filler to fill the voids between spherical agglomerates in the cathode powder prepared via a conventional co-precipitation technique boosting the tap density of the resulting mixed NMC811 by 30% up to 2.9 g/cm3. Owing to increased tap density, the volumetric energy density of the composite cathode exceeds 2100 mWh/cm3 vs. 1690 mWh/cm3 for co-precipitated samples. The crystal structure of the obtained materials was scrutinized by powder X-ray diffraction and high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM); the cation composition and homogeneity of TM spatial distribution were investigated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in a STEM mode (STEM-EDX). Well-crystallized NMC811 with a relatively low degree of anti-site disorder and homogeneous TM distribution in a combination with the co-precipitated material delivers a reversible discharge capacity as high as ~200 mAh/g at 0.1C current density and capacity retention of 78% after 300 charge/discharge cycles (current density 1C) within the voltage region of 2.7–4.3 V vs. Li/Li+.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070067
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 68: Design and Development of Cathode Materials
           for Rechargeable Batteries

    • Authors: Byunghoon Kim
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Over the past two decades, rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LIBs) have been the de facto standard power source for electronic devices [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070068
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 69: Integration of Computational Fluid Dynamics
           and Artificial Neural Network for Optimization Design of Battery Thermal
           Management System

    • Authors: Ao Li, Anthony Chun Yin Yuen, Wei Wang, Timothy Bo Yuan Chen, Chun Sing Lai, Wei Yang, Wei Wu, Qing Nian Chan, Sanghoon Kook, Guan Heng Yeoh
      First page: 69
      Abstract: The increasing popularity of lithium-ion battery systems, particularly in electric vehicles and energy storage systems, has gained broad research interest regarding performance optimization, thermal stability, and fire safety. To enhance the battery thermal management system, a comprehensive investigation of the thermal behaviour and heat exchange process of battery systems is paramount. In this paper, a three-dimensional electro-thermal model coupled with fluid dynamics module was developed to comprehensively analyze the temperature distribution of battery packs and the heat carried away. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results of the lumped battery model were validated and verified by considering natural ventilation speed and ambient temperature. In the artificial neural networks (ANN) model, the multilayer perceptron was applied to train the numerical outputs and optimal design of the battery setup, achieving a 1.9% decrease in maximum temperature and a 4.5% drop in temperature difference. The simulation results provide a practical compromise in optimizing the battery configuration and cooling efficiency, balancing the layout of the battery system, and safety performance. The present modelling framework demonstrates an innovative approach to utilizing high-fidelity electro-thermal/CFD numerical inputs for ANN optimization, potentially enhancing the state-of-art thermal management and reducing the risks of thermal runaway and fire outbreaks.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070069
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 70: On the Current and Future Outlook of Battery
           Chemistries for Electric Vehicles—Mini Review

    • Authors: Mohamed S. E. Houache, Chae-Ho Yim, Zouina Karkar, Yaser Abu-Lebdeh
      First page: 70
      Abstract: As the electrification of the transportation industry is accelerating, the energy storage markets are trying to secure more reliable and environmentally benign materials. Advanced materials are the key performance enablers of batteries as well as a key element determining the cost structure, environmental impact, and recyclability of battery cells. In this review, we analyzed the state-of-the-art cell chemistries and active electrode and electrolyte materials for electric vehicles batteries, which we believe will dominate the battery chemistry landscape in the next decade. We believe that major breakthroughs and innovations in electrode materials such as high-nickel cathodes and silicon and metallic lithium anodes, along with novel liquid electrolyte formulations and solid-state electrolytes, will significantly improve the specific capacity of lithium batteries and reduce their cost, leading to accelerated mass-market penetration of EVs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070070
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 71: A True Non-Newtonian Electrolyte for
           Rechargeable Hybrid Aqueous Battery

    • Authors: Tuan K. A. Hoang, Longyan Li, Jian Zhi, The Nam Long Doan, Wenhan Dong, Xiaoxiao Huang, Junhong Ma, Yahong Xie, Menglei Chang, P. Chen
      First page: 71
      Abstract: The rechargeable aqueous hybrid battery is a unique system in which the Li-ion mechanism dominates the cathode while the first-order metal reaction of stripping/depositing regulates the anode. This battery inherits the advantages of the low-cost anode while possessing the capability of the Li-ion cathode. One of the major challenges is to design a proper electrolyte to nourish such strengths and alleviate the downsides, because two different mechanisms are functioning separately at the node–electrolyte and the cathode–electrolyte interfaces. In this work, we design a non-Newtonian electrolyte which offers many advantages for a Zn/LiMn2O4 battery. The corrosion is kept low while almost non-dendritic zinc deposition is confirmed by chronoamperometry and ex situ microscopy. The gel strength and gelling duration of such non-Newtonian electrolytes can be controlled. The ionic conductivity of such gels can reach 60 mS×cm−1. The battery exhibits reduced self-discharge, 6–10% higher specific discharge capacity than the aqueous reference battery, high rate capability, nearly 80% capacity retention after 1000 cycles, and about 100 mAh×g−1 of specific discharge capacity at cycle No. 1000th. Negligible amorphization on the cathode surface and no passivation on the anode surface are observed after 1000 cycles, evidenced by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy on the post-run battery electrodes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070071
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 72: Recent Health Diagnosis Methods for
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Yaqi Li, Jia Guo, Kjeld Pedersen, Leonid Gurevich, Daniel-Ioan Stroe
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have good performance and environmentally friendly characteristics, so they have great potential. However, lithium-ion batteries will age to varying degrees during use, and the process is irreversible. There are many aging mechanisms of lithium batteries. In order to better verify the internal changes of lithium batteries when they are aging, post-mortem analysis has been greatly developed. In this article, we summarized the electrical properties analysis and post-mortem analysis of lithium batteries developed in recent years and compared the advantages of varieties of both destructive and non-destructive methods, for example, open-circuit-voltage curve-based analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. On this basis, new ideas could be proposed for predicting and diagnosing the aging degree of lithium batteries, at the same time, further implementation of these technologies will support battery life control strategies and battery design.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070072
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 73: The Application of Fuel-Cell and Battery
           Technologies in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): A Dynamic Study

    • Authors: Hossein Pourrahmani, Claire Marie Isabelle Bernier, Jan Van herle
      First page: 73
      Abstract: The harmful impacts of fossil-fuel-based engines on the environment have resulted in the development of other alternatives for different types of vehicles. Currently, batteries and fuel cells are being used in the automotive industry, while promising progress in the maritime and aerospace sectors is foreseen. As a case study in the aerospace sector, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was considered. The goal and the novelty of this study are in its analysis of the possibility of providing 960 W of power for a UAV with a weight of 14 kg using a hybrid system of a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The dynamic performance of the system was analyzed considering three different load profiles over time in an optimized condition. PEMFC was the main supplier of power, while the battery intervened when the power load was high for the PEMFC and the system demanded an immediate response to the changes in power load. Additionally, the impacts of the operating temperature and the C-rate of the battery were characterized by the state of the charge of the battery to better indicate the overall performance of the system.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070073
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 74: Highly Flexible Stencil Printed Alkaline
           Ag2O-Zn Battery for Wearable Electronics

    • Authors: Akash Kota, Lenin W. Kum, Kavya Vallurupalli, Ashish Gogia, Amy T. Neidhard-Doll, Vamsy P. Chodavarapu
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Flexible power sources such as batteries are essential to realize wearable and conformable electronic devices. The mechanical stability of the electrodes plays an important role in determining the overall flexibility of the battery. Styrene block copolymers-based elastomers have the potential to be used as binder materials in the electrodes for retaining their structural integrity under flexing during regular use. In this work, we demonstrate a stencil-printed flexible primary Ag2O-Zn battery on a nonconductive nylon mesh substrate that uses styrene-butadiene rubber as the anodic binder. A polyacrylic acid-based alkaline polymer gel is used as an electrolyte. The flexible alkaline battery achieved discharge capacities of and without and with a bend radius of 0.8 , respectively, under a constant current load condition of .
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070074
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 49: Impact of Full Prelithiation of Si-Based
           Anodes on the Rate and Cycle Performance of Li-Ion Capacitors

    • Authors: Takuya Eguchi, Ryoichi Sugawara, Yusuke Abe, Masahiro Tomioka, Seiji Kumagai
      First page: 49
      Abstract: The impact of full prelithiation on the rate and cycle performance of a Si-based Li-ion capacitor (LIC) was investigated. Full prelithiation of the anode was achieved by assembling a half cell with a 2 µm-sized Si anode (0 V vs. Li/Li+) and Li metal. A three-electrode full cell (100% prelithiation) was assembled using an activated carbon (AC) cathode with a high specific surface area (3041 m2/g), fully prelithiated Si anode, and Li metal reference electrode. A three-electrode full cell (87% prelithiation) using a Si anode prelithiated with 87% Li ions was also assembled. Both cells displayed similar energy density levels at a lower power density (200 Wh/kg at ≤100 W/kg; based on the total mass of AC and Si). However, at a higher power density (1 kW/kg), the 100% prelithiation cell maintained a high energy density (180 Wh/kg), whereas that of the 87% prelithiation cell was significantly reduced (80 Wh/kg). During charge/discharge cycling at ~1 kW/kg, the energy density retention of the 100% prelithiation cell was higher than that of the 87% prelithiation cell. The larger irreversibility of the Si anode during the initial Li-ion uptake/release cycles confirmed that the simple full prelithiation process is essential for Si-based LIC cells.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060049
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 50: Advanced Electrochemical Impedance
           Spectroscopy of Industrial Ni-Cd Batteries

    • Authors: Nawfal Al-Zubaidi R-Smith, Manuel Kasper, Peeyush Kumar, Daniel Nilsson, Björn Mårlid, Ferry Kienberger
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Advanced electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to characterize industrial Ni-Cd batteries and to investigate the electrochemical redox processes. A two-term calibration workflow was used for accurate complex impedance measurements across a broad frequency range of 10 mHz to 2 kHz, resulting in calibrated resistance and reactance values. The EIS calibration significantly improved the measurements, particularly at high frequencies above 200 Hz, with differences of 6–8% to the uncalibrated impedance. With an electromagnetic finite element method (FEM) model, we showed that the impedance is strongly influenced by the cable fixturing and the self-inductance of the wire conductors due to alternating currents, which are efficiently removed by the proposed calibration workflow. For single cells, we measured the resistance and the reactance with respect to the state-of-charge (SoC) at different frequencies and a given rest period. For Ni-Cd blocks that include two cells in series, we found good agreement of EIS curves with single cells. As such, EIS can be used as a fast and reliable method to estimate the cell or block capacity status. For electrochemical interpretation, we used an equivalent electric circuit (EEC) model to fit the impedance spectra and to extract the main electrochemical parameters based on calibrated EIS, including charge-transfer kinetics, mass transport, and ohmic resistances. From the charge-transfer resistance, we computed the exchange current density, resulting in 0.23 A/cm2, reflecting high intrinsic rates of the redox electron transfer processes in Ni-Cd cells.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060050
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 51: Comparison of the Properties of Ni–Mn
           Hydroxides/Oxides with Ni–Mn Phosphates for the Purpose of Hybrid
           Supercapacitors

    • Authors: Lyubomir Soserov, Delyana Marinova, Violeta Koleva, Antonia Stoyanova, Radostina Stoyanova
      First page: 51
      Abstract: This study aims to quantify the synergistic effect of Ni2+ and Mn2+ ions on the capacitive performance of oxide, hydroxide and phosphate electrodes in alkaline electrolytes. Three types of phases containing both nickel and manganese in a ratio of one-to-one were selected due to their stability in alkaline media: oxides with ilmenite and spinel structures (NiMnO3 and Ni1.5Mn1.5O4); hydroxides with layered structures (β-Ni1/2Mn1/2(OH)2); and phosphates with olivine and maricite structures (LiNi1/2Mn1/2PO4 and NaNi1/2Mn1/2PO4). In the mixed hydroxides and phosphates, Ni2+ and Mn2+ ions randomly occupied one crystallographic site, whereas in the ilmenite oxide, a common face was shared by the Ni2+ and Mn4+ ions. The electrochemical parameters of the Ni–Mn compositions were evaluated in asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor cells working with alkaline electrolytes and activated carbon as a negative electrode. A comparative analysis of oxides, hydroxides and phosphates enabled us to differentiate the effects of nickel and manganese ions, structures and morphologies on their capacitive performance. Thus, the best performed electrode was predicted. The electrode composition should simultaneously contain Ni and Mn ions, and their morphologies should comprise spherical aggregates. This was an ilmenite NiMnO3, which delivers high energy and power density (i.e., 65 W h kg−1 at 3200 W kg−1) and exhibits a good cycling stability (i.e., around 96% after 5000 cycles at a current load of 240 mA g−1).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060051
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 52: Effect of Mechanical Activation and Carbon
           Coating on Electrochemistry of TiNb2O7 Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Nina V. Kosova, Dmitry Z. Tsydypylov
      First page: 52
      Abstract: TiNb2O7 anode material with a Wadsley–Roth crystallographic shear structure was prepared by solid-state synthesis at a relatively low temperature (1000 °C) and a short calcination time (4 h) using preliminary mechanical activation of the reagent mixture. The as-prepared final product was then ball milled in a planetary mill with and without carbon black. The crystal structure and morphology of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance was studied in a galvanostatic mode in varied voltage intervals and at different cycling rates in combination with in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The resistance measured using in situ EIS had the highest values at the end of the discharge and the lowest when charging. The lithium diffusion coefficient, determined by galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), in samples milled with and without carbon black was an order of magnitude higher than that for the pristine sample. It was shown that improved electrochemical performance of the carbon composite TiNb2O7/C (reversible capacity of 250 mAh g−1 at C/10 with Coulomb efficiency of ~99%) was associated with improved conductivity due to the formation of a conductive carbon matrix and uniform distribution of submicron particles by size.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060052
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 53: A Switch-Reduced Multicell-to-Multicell
           Battery Equalizer Based on Full-Bridge Bipolar-Resonant LC Converter

    • Authors: Peng Xu, Longyun Kang, Di Xie, Xuan Luo, Hongye Lin
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Many battery equalizers have been proposed to achieve voltage consistency between series connected battery cells. Among them, the multicell-to-multicell (MC2MC) equalizers, which can directly transfer energy from consecutive more-charged cells to less-charged cells, can enable fast balancing and a high efficiency. However, due to the limitations of the equalizers, it is not possible to achieve fast equalization and reduce the size of the circuit at the same time. Therefore, a MC2MC equalizer based on a full-bridge bipolar-resonant LC Converter (FBBRLCC) is proposed in this paper, which not only implements MC2MC equalization, but also greatly reduces the circuit size by reducing the number of switches by nearly half. A mathematical model and simulation comparison with conventional equalizers are used to illustrate the high-speed equalization performance of the proposed equalizer and excellent balancing efficiency. An experimental prototype for eight cells is built to verify the performance of the proposed FBBRLCC equalizer and the balancing efficiencies in different operating modes are from 85.19% to 88.77% with the average power from 1.888 W to 14.227 W.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060053
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 54: Water-Soluble Conductive Composite Binder for
           High-Performance Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Zikai Li, Anru Guo, Dong Liu
      First page: 54
      Abstract: The design of novel and high-performance binder systems is an efficient strategy to resolve the issues caused by huge volume changes of high-capacity anodes. Herein, we develop a novel water-soluble bifunctional binder composed of a conductive polythiophene polymer (PED) and high-adhesive polyacrylic acid (PAA) with abundant polar groups. Compared with conventional conductive additives, the flexible conductive polymer can solve the insufficient electrical contact between active materials and the conductive agent, thus providing the integral conductive network, which is extremely important for stable electrochemical performance. Additionally, the polar groups of this composite binder can form double H-bond interactions with the hydroxyl groups of SiO2 layers onto the silicon surface, keeping an integral electrode structure, which can decrease the continuous formation of SEI films during the repeated cycles. Benefiting from these bifunctional advantages, the Si electrodes with the composite binder delivered a high reversible capacity of 2341 mAh g−1 at 1260 mA g−1, good cycle stability with 88.8% retention of the initial reversible capacity over 100 cycles, and high-rate capacity (1150 mAh g−1 at 4200 mA g−1). This work opens up a new venture to develop multifunctional binders to enable the stable operation of high-capacity anodes for high-energy batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060054
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 55: Production and Characterisation of
           Fibre-Reinforced All-Solid-State Electrodes and Separator for the
           Application in Structural Batteries

    • Authors: Daniel Vogt, Peter Michalowski, Arno Kwade
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The electrification of the air transport sector demands for an energy storage that adds as little volume and weight to the overall system as possible. Regarding this so-called structural battery, composites enable the storage of electrical energy in commonly used load bearing fibre composite structures. A structural battery composite can store electrical energy while bearing mechanical loads, thus reducing parasitic mass and volume. In this study, structural cathodes were prepared by slurry coating carbon fibres with lithium iron phosphate (LFP), polyethylene oxide (PEO), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and carbon black. For the structural anodes, the carbon fibres were utilised as active material and slurry coated with PEO and LiTFSI. These structural electrodes as well as a structural separator were characterised by electrochemical cycling. With 139mAh/g, the structural cathodes demonstrated good utilisation of the active material. The carbon fibres used in the anode exhibited capacities of up to 92mAh/g. High irreversible lithium losses were observed, which are attributed to the poor electrolyte wetting behaviour of the carbon fibres. A structural battery demonstrator with a lithium metal anode was realised and reached a maximum specific energy of 64Wh/kg with respect to electrode and separator weight.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060055
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 56: Metal Substitution versus Oxygen-Storage
           Modifier to Regulate the Oxygen Redox Reactions in Sodium-Deficient
           Three-Layered Oxides

    • Authors: Mariya Kalapsazova, Rositsa Kukeva, Ekaterina Zhecheva, Radostina Stoyanova
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Sodium-deficient nickel-manganese oxides with three-layered stacking exhibit the unique property of dual nickel-oxygen redox activity, which allows them to achieve enormous specific capacity. The challenge is how to stabilize the oxygen redox activity during cycling. This study demonstrates that oxygen redox activity of P3-Na2/3Ni1/2Mn1/2O2 during both Na+ and Li+ intercalation can be regulated by the design of oxide architecture that includes target metal substituents (such as Mg2+ and Ti4+) and oxygen storage modifiers (such as CeO2). Although the substitution for nickel with Ti4+ amplifies the oxygen redox activity and intensifies the interaction of oxides with NaPF6- and LiPF6-based electrolytes, the Mg2+ substituents influence mainly the nickel redox activity and suppress the deposition of electrolyte decomposed products (such as MnF2). The CeO2-modifier has a much stronger effect on the oxygen redox activity than that of metal substituents; thus, the highest specific capacity is attained. In addition, the CeO2-modifier tunes the electrode–electrode interaction by eliminating the deposition of MnF2. As a result, the Mg-substituted oxide modified with CeO2 displays high capacity, excellent cycling stability and exceptional rate capability when used as cathode in Na-ion cell, while in Li-ion cell, the best performance is achieved for Ti- substituted oxide modified by CeO2.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060056
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 57: Revisiting Polytetrafluorethylene Binder for
           Solvent-Free Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Fabrication

    • Authors: Yang Zhang, Frederik Huld, Song Lu, Camilla Jektvik, Fengliu Lou, Zhixin Yu
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Solvent-free (SF) anodes with different carbon materials (graphite, hard carbon, and soft carbon) were fabricated to investigate the stability of different anodes with polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) degradation. The graphite anode with large volume variation during the charge/discharge process showed poor cycle life performance, while hard carbon and soft carbon with low-volume expansion showed good cycle life. The SF hard carbon electrodes with a high loading of 10.7 mg/cm2 revealed good long-term cycling performance similar to conventional slurry-casting (CSC) electrodes. It demonstrated nearly 90% capacity retention after 120 cycles under a current of 1/3 C with LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) as cathode in coin cell. The rate capability of the high-loading SF electrodes also is comparable to the CSC electrodes. The high stability of SF hard carbon and soft carbon anodes was attributed to its low-volume variation, which could maintain their integrity even though PTFE was defluorinated to amorphous carbon irreversibly. However, the reduced amorphous carbon cannot tolerate huge volume variation of graphite during cycling, resulting in poor stability.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060057
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 58: Impact of Sulfur Infiltration Time and Its
           

    • Authors: Jennifer Laverde, Nataly C. Rosero-Navarro, Akira Miura, Robison Buitrago-Sierra, Kiyoharu Tadanaga, Diana López
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Li-S batteries are ideal candidates to replace current lithium-ion batteries as next-generation energy storage systems thanks to their high specific capacity and theoretical energy density. Composite electrodes based on carbon microstructures are often used as a host for sulfur. However, sulfur lixiviation, insoluble species formation, and how to maximize the sulfur-carbon contact in looking for improved electrochemical performance are still major challenges. In this study, a nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon is used as a host for sulfur. The S/C composite electrodes are prepared by sulfur melting-diffusion process at 155 °C. The effect of the sulfur melting-diffusion time [sulfur infiltration time] (1–24 h) and sulfur content (10–70%) is investigated by using XRD, SEM, TEM and TGA analyses and correlated with the electrochemical performance in Li-S cells. S/C composite electrode with homogeneous sulfur distribution can be reached with 6 h of sulfur melting-diffusion and 10 wt.% of sulfur content. Li-S cell with this composite shows a high use of sulfur and sufficient electronic conductivity achieving an initial discharge capacity of 983 mA h g−1 and Coulombic efficiency of 99% after 100 cycles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060058
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 59: Recent Progress and Challenges of Flexible
           Zn-Based Batteries with Polymer Electrolyte

    • Authors: Funian Mo, Binbin Guo, Wei Ling, Jun Wei, Lina Chen, Suzhu Yu, Guojin Liang
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Zn-based batteries have been identified as promising candidates for flexible and wearable batteries because of their merits of intrinsic safety, eco-efficiency, high capacity and cost-effectiveness. Polymer electrolytes, which feature high solubility of zinc salts and softness, are especially advantageous for flexible Zn-based batteries. However, many technical issues still need to be addressed in Zn-based batteries with polymer electrolytes for their future application in wearable electronics. Recent progress in advanced flexible Zn-based batteries based on polymer electrolytes, including functional hydrogel electrolytes and solid polymer electrolytes, as well as the interfacial interactions between polymer electrolytes and electrodes in battery devices, is comprehensively reviewed and discussed with a focus on their fabrication, performance validation, and intriguing affiliated functions. Moreover, relevant challenges and some potential strategies are also summarized and analyzed to help inform the future direction of polymer-electrolyte-based flexible Zn-based batteries with high practicability.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060059
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 38: Evaluation of the Accuracy of the Identified
           Equivalent Electrical Circuit of LiPePO4 Battery through Verified
           Measurements

    • Authors: Michal Frivaldsky, Marek Simcak
      First page: 38
      Abstract: In this paper, the system procedure for the identification of the equivalent electrical circuit diagram of electrochemical cells is being given. Due to the fact that energy storage systems (ESS) penetrate within many applications, the availability of their accurate and simple simulation models for time–domain analysis is very desirable. This paper describes the configuration of the laboratory measuring systems required for data acquisition, curation, and analysis of received measured data required for development of equivalent electrical circuit models (EECM) of electrochemical cells. Nowadays, various types of electrochemical cells are available for packaging technology. Therefore, the evaluation of presented identification methodology is validated through measurements of two different types of LiFePO4 cells. The first cell type is prismatic labeled LFP040AHA, and the second type is NPB 60 AH of the same manufacturer. The main aim of this paper is the determination of the elements of equivalent electrical circuit schematics of selected electrochemical cells. Consequently, the development of a simulation model is described, together with the evaluation of its accuracy through comparisons with experimental measurements. From achieved results, the relative error of simulation model varies at 2%, and thus the presented methodology is suitable for identification of EECM, and consequent design of accurate and fast computing simulation models of ESS systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050038
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 39: An Incremental Capacity Parametric Model
           Based on Logistic Equations for Battery State Estimation and Monitoring

    • Authors: Matthieu Maures, Romain Mathieu, Armande Capitaine, Jean-Yves Delétage, Jean-Michel Vinassa, Olivier Briat
      First page: 39
      Abstract: An incremental capacity parametric model for batteries is proposed. The model is based on Verhulst’s logistic equations and distributions in order to describe incremental capacity peaks. The model performance is compared with polynomial models and is demonstrated on a commercial lithium-ion cell. Experimental data features low-current discharges performed at temperatures ranging from −20 °C to 55 °C. The results demonstrate several advantages of the model compared to empirical models. The proposed model enables a clear description of the geometric features of incremental capacity peaks. It also doubles as an open circuit voltage model as the voltage curve can be fully recovered from parameterization on incremental capacity curves. The study of temperature sensitivity show that peak geometric parameters can be modelled as a function of temperature. An example of practical application is then displayed by using the model to estimate battery state-of-charge from voltage and temperature measurements. This example can expand to other practical applications for battery management systems such as state-of-health monitoring.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050039
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 40: Identifying Anode and Cathode Contributions
           in Li-Ion Full-Cell Impedance Spectra

    • Authors: Marco Heinrich, Nicolas Wolff, Steffen Seitz, Ulrike Krewer
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Measured impedance spectra of Li-ion battery cells are often reproduced with equivalent circuits or physical models to determine losses due to charge transfer processes at the electrodes. The identified model parameters can usually not readily or unambiguously be assigned to the anode and the cathode. A new measurement method is presented that enables the assignment of features of impedance spectra of full cells to single electrodes. To this end, temperature gradients are imprinted perpendicular to the electrode layers of a single-layered Li-ion battery cell while impedance spectra are measured. The method exploits different dependences of the charge transfer processes at the electrodes on temperature. An equivalent circuit model of RC-elements and the effect of temperature on the related electrode properties is discussed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A reliable assignment of the change of impedance spectra to the electrode processes is shown to be possible. The assignment can be used to identify if changes in an impedance spectrum originate from the anode or the cathode.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050040
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 41: An Experimental Investigation of Thermal
           Runaway and Gas Release of NMC Lithium-Ion Pouch Batteries Depending on
           the State of Charge Level

    • Authors: Kofi Owusu Ansah Amano, Sarah-K. Hahn, Rico Tschirschwitz, Tim Rappsilber, Ulrich Krause
      First page: 41
      Abstract: In this study, 19 experiments were conducted with 25 pouch cells of NMC cathode to investigate thermal runaway and the release of gases from lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Single cells, double cells, and a four-cell battery stack were forced to undergo thermal runaway inside an air-tight reactor vessel with a volume of 100 dm3. The study involved two series of tests with two types of ignition sources. In the Series 1 tests, a heating plug was used to initiate thermal runaway in LIBs in the ranges of 80–89% and 90–100% SOC. In the Series 2 tests, a heating plate was used to trigger thermal runaway in LIBs in the ranges of 30–50%, 80–89%, and 90–100% SOC. Thermal runaway started at an onset temperature of 344 ± 5 K and 345 K for the Series 1 tests and from 393 ± 36 K to 487 ± 10 K for the Series 2 tests. Peak reaction temperatures ranged between 642 K and 1184 K, while the maximum pressures observed were between 1.2 bar and 7.28 bar. Thermal runaway induced explosion of the cells and lead to a rate of temperature increase greater than 10 K/s. The amounts of gases released from the LIBs were calculated from pressures and temperatures measured in the reactor. Then, the gas composition was analyzed using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The highest gaseous production was achieved at a range of 90–100% SOC and higher battery capacities 72 L, 1.8 L/Ah (Series 1, battery stack) and 103 L, 3.2 L/Ah (Series 2, 32 Ah cell)). Among the gases analyzed, the concentration of gaseous emissions such as C2H4, CH4, and C2H6 increased at a higher cell capacity in both series of tests. The study results revealed characteristic variations of thermal behavior with respect to the type of ignition source used.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050041
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 42: Detection of Critical Conditions in Pouch
           Cells Based on Their Expansion Behavior

    • Authors: Pascal Vorwerk, Sarah-Katharina Hahn, Christian Daniel, Ulrich Krause, Karola Keutel
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The present work examines 75 Ah nickel–cobalt–manganese (NMC)/graphite-based pouch cells with respect to their expansion behavior. The focus is on cell expansion due to critical cells according to the installation conditions of a battery module. Strain gauges were used for monitoring. By comparing the cell expansion in standard conditioning to that in an abuse (overcharging), information can be acquired about the suitability of the expansion behavior for early detection of critical cell states and to avoid resulting damage, e.g., cell opening or cell fire. The sequence of critical cell events has been shown to be easily reproducible; especially the first significant cell expansion due to internal gas formation, which was a reliable detection criterion for critical cell states.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050042
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 43: IBM Quantum Platforms: A Quantum Battery
           Perspective

    • Authors: Giulia Gemme, Michele Grossi, Dario Ferraro, Sofia Vallecorsa, Maura Sassetti
      First page: 43
      Abstract: We characterize for the first time the performances of IBM quantum chips as quantum batteries, specifically addressing the single-qubit Armonk processor. By exploiting the Pulse access enabled to some of the IBM Quantum processors via the Qiskit package, we investigate the advantages and limitations of different profiles for classical drives used to charge these miniaturized batteries, establishing the optimal compromise between charging time and stored energy. Moreover, we consider the role played by various possible initial conditions on the functioning of the quantum batteries. As the main result of our analysis, we observe that unavoidable errors occurring in the initialization phase of the qubit, which can be detrimental for quantum computing applications, only marginally affect energy transfer and storage. This can lead counter-intuitively to improvements of the performances. This is a strong indication of the fact that IBM quantum devices are already in the proper range of parameters to be considered as good and stable quantum batteries comparable to state-of-the-art devices recently discussed in the literature.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050043
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 44: In Situ Electrochemical Impedance
           Measurements of α-Fe2O3 Nanofibers: Unravelling the Li-Ion
           Conduction Mechanism in Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Jinhyun Hwang, Dolly Yadav, Hang Yang, Injun Jeon, Dingcheng Yang, Jang-Won Seo, Minseung Kang, Se-Young Jeong, Chae-Ryong Cho
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Unravelling the lithium-ion transport mechanism in α-Fe2O3 nanofibers through in situ electrochemical impedance studies is crucial for realizing their application in high-performance anodes in lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we report the effect of heat treatment conditions on the structure, composition, morphology, and electrochemical properties of α-Fe2O3 nanofibers as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. The α-Fe2O3 nanofibers were synthesized via electrospinning and post-annealing with differences in their annealing temperature of 300, 500, and 700 °C to produce FO300, FO500, and FO700 nanofibers, respectively. Improved electrochemical performance with a high reversible specific capacity of 599.6 mAh g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1 was achieved after 50 cycles for FO700. The in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies conducted during the charge/discharge process revealed that the charge transfer and Li-ion diffusion behaviors were related to the crystallinity and structure of the as-synthesized α-Fe2O3 nanofibers. The surfaces of the α-Fe2O3 nanofibers were converted into Fe metal during the charging/discharging process, which resulted in improved electrical conductivity. The electron lifetime, as determined by the time constant of charge transfer, revealed that, when a conversion reaction occurred, the electrons tended to travel through the iron metal in the α-Fe2O3 nanofibers. The role of iron as a pseudo-resistor with negligible capacitance was revealed by charge transfer resistance analysis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050044
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 45: Approaches to Combat the Polysulfide Shuttle
           Phenomenon in Li–S Battery Technology

    • Authors: Artur M. Suzanowicz, Cindy W. Mei, Braja K. Mandal
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Lithium–sulfur battery (LSB) technology has tremendous prospects to substitute lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology due to its high energy density. However, the escaping of polysulfide intermediates (produced during the redox reaction process) from the cathode structure is the primary reason for rapid capacity fading. Suppressing the polysulfide shuttle (PSS) is a viable solution for this technology to move closer to commercialization and supersede the established LIB technology. In this review, we have analyzed the challenges faced by LSBs and outlined current methods and materials used to address these problems. We conclude that in order to further pioneer LSBs, it is necessary to address these essential features of the sulfur cathode: superior electrical conductivity to ensure faster redox reaction kinetics and high discharge capacity, high pore volume of the cathode host to maximize sulfur loading/utilization, and polar PSS-resistive materials to anchor and suppress the migration of polysulfides, which can be developed with the use of nanofabrication and combinations of the PSS-suppressive qualities of each component. With these factors addressed, our world will be able to forge ahead with the development of LSBs on a larger scale—for the efficiency of energy systems in technology advancement and potential benefits to outweigh the costs and performance decay.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050045
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 46: Calendering of Silicon-Containing Electrodes
           and Their Influence on the Mechanical and Electrochemical Properties

    • Authors: Sören Scheffler, René Jagau, Nele Müller, Alexander Diener, Arno Kwade
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The process chain of electrode production includes calendering as a crucial process step to enhance the volumetric energy density as well as to influence the particle-pore-structure and simultaneously the mechanical and electrochemical properties of the electrode coating. A further way to improve the volumetric energy density is the usage of other materials with higher specific capacity, such as silicon instead of graphite as the active material for anodes. In this study, both opportunities, calendering and using silicon-containing composites, are combined to investigate the relations between material, process and performance. The applied line loads for the compaction are correlated with the silicon mass fraction and lead to a silicon-dependent mathematical model to estimate further line loads for silicon-graphite-composite electrodes. On the basis of established analyzing methods for adhesion strength and deformation behavior, it is shown that with increasing silicon content, the elastic deformation of the electrode coating rises. In addition, the overall porosity of the electrodes is less affected by silicon than the pore size distribution compared to graphite electrodes. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity decreases at higher silicon contents independent of coating density. Moreover, the long-term electrochemical stability deteriorates with increasing silicon content and coating density.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050046
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 47: Novel Approach to Ensure Safe Power Supply
           for Safety-Relevant Consumers

    • Authors: Lars Braun, Minh Le, Jürgen Motz, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 47
      Abstract: The 12 V powernet in vehicles must fulfill certain safety requirements due to the safety demand of consumers. A potential risk is undervoltage for a safety-relevant consumer, which leads to its fault. Therefore, a novel approach is presented in this study, which can predict the minimum terminal voltage for consumers. This consists of diagnostics of the wiring harness and of the lead-acid battery as well as predefined consumer currents. Using simulation, first the beginning of a drive cycle is simulated to determine the state of the powernet, and afterwards a critical driving maneuver is simulated to validate the predicted minimum terminal voltage. It demonstrates that the novel approach is able to predict a fault due to undervoltage. In addition to fulfilling safety requirements, the novel approach could be used to achieve additional availability and miniaturization of powernet components compared to the state of the art.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050047
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 48: Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of a
           Battery Cell under Impact Load

    • Authors: Adrian Daniel Muresanu, Mircea Cristian Dudescu
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Impact damage is one of the most critical scenarios for the lithium-ion battery pack of an electrical vehicle, as it involves mechanical abusive loads with serious consequences on electrical and thermal stability. The development of a numerical model for an explicit dynamic simulation of a Li-ion battery pack under impact implies a significant computational effort if detailed models of a single battery cell are employed. The present paper presents a homogenized finite element model of a battery cell, validated by experimental tests of individual materials and an impact test of an entire cell. The macro model is composed of shell elements representing outside casing and elements with a homogenized and isotropic material for the jelly roll. The displacements and deformed shape of the numerical model of the battery cell were compared with those measured on real test specimens; full-field optical scanning was employed to reconstruct the 3D shape of the deformed battery. The overall deformation of the simulation and experimental results are comparable with a deviation of the maximum intrusion of 14.8% for impact direction and 19.5% for the perpendicular direction considering the cumulative effects of simplifying hypotheses of the numerical model and experimental side effects. The results are a starting point for future analyses of a battery pack and its protection systems under impact. The model presented in this paper, considering the low computing power needed for calculation and acceptable mesh size for crash, should be able to be used in bigger resources consuming crash simulation models. In this way, the cells’ deformation and behavior can be tracked more easily for safety management and diagnosis of the crashworthiness of the packs or car batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050048
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 28: On the Road to Sustainable Energy Storage
           Technologies: Synthesis of Anodes for Na-Ion Batteries from Biowaste

    • Authors: Nekane Nieto, Olatz Noya, Amaia Iturrondobeitia, Paula Sanchez-Fontecoba, Usue Pérez-López, Verónica Palomares, Alexander Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, Teófilo Rojo
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Hard carbon is one of the most promising anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. In this work, new types of biomass-derived hard carbons were obtained through pyrolysis of different kinds of agro-industrial biowaste (corncob, apple pomace, olive mill solid waste, defatted grape seed and dried grape skin). Furthermore, the influence of pretreating the biowaste samples by hydrothermal carbonization and acid hydrolysis was also studied. Except for the olive mill solid waste, discharge capacities typical of biowaste-derived hard carbons were obtained in every case (≈300 mAh·g−1 at C/15). Furthermore, it seems that hydrothermal carbonization could improve the discharge capacity of biowaste samples derived from different nature at high cycling rates, which are the closest conditions to real applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040028
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 29: Online State-of-Health Estimation of
           Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Incremental Capacity Curve and BP Neural
           Network

    • Authors: Hongye Lin, Longyun Kang, Di Xie, Jinqing Linghu, Jie Li
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used in various fields. In order to ensure the safety of LIBs, it is necessary to accurately estimate of the state of health (SOH) of the LIBs. This paper proposes a SOH hybrid estimation method based on incremental capacity (IC) curve and back-propagation neural network (BPNN). The voltage and current data of the LIB during the constant current (CC) charging process are used to convert into IC curves. Taking into account the incompleteness of the actual charging process, this paper divides the IC curve into multiple voltage segments for SOH prediction. Corresponding BP neural network is established in multiple voltage segments. The experiment divides the LIBs into five groups to carry out the aging experiment under different discharge conditions. Aging experiment data are used to establish the non-linear relationship between the decline of SOH and the change of IC curve by BP neural network. Experimental results show that in all voltage segments, the maximum mean absolute error does not exceed 2%. The SOH estimation method proposed in this research makes it possible to embed the SOH estimation function in battery management system (BMS), and can realize high-precision SOH online estimation.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040029
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 30: Durable Fast Charging of Lithium-Ion
           

    • Authors: Robin Drees, Frank Lienesch, Michael Kurrat
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries is often related to accelerated cell degradation due to lithium-plating on the negative electrode. In this contribution, an advanced electrode equivalent circuit model is used in order to simulate fast-charging strategies without lithium-plating. A novel parameterization approach based on 3-electrode cell measurements is developed, which enables precise simulation fidelity. An optimized fast-charging strategy without evoking lithium-plating was simulated that lasted about 29 min for a 0–80% state of charge. This variable current strategy was compared in experiments to a conventional constant-current–constant-voltage fast-charging strategy that lasted 20 min. The experiments showed that the optimized strategy prevented lithium-plating and led to a 2% capacity fade every 100 fast-charging cycles. In contrast, the conventional strategy led to lithium-plating, about 20% capacity fade after 100 fast-charging cycles and the fast-charging duration extended from 20 min to over 30 min due to increased cell resistances. The duration of the optimized fast charging was constant at 29 min, even after 300 cycles. The developed methods are suitable to be applied for any given lithium-ion battery configuration in order to determine the maximum fast-charging capability while ensuring safe and durable cycling conditions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040030
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 31: A Regression-Based Technique for Capacity
           Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Seyed Saeed Madani, Raziye Soghrati, Carlos Ziebert
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid vehicles (HEVs) are being increasingly utilized for various reasons. The main reasons for their implementation are that they consume less or do not consume fossil fuel (no carbon dioxide pollution) and do not cause sound pollution. However, this technology has some challenges, including complex and troublesome accurate state of health estimation, which is affected by different factors. According to the increase in electric and hybrid vehicles’ application, it is crucial to have a more accurate and reliable estimation of state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) in different environmental conditions. This allows improving battery management system operation for optimal utilization of a battery pack in various operating conditions. This article proposes an approach to estimate battery capacity based on two parameters. First, a practical and straightforward method is introduced to assess the battery’s internal resistance, which is directly related to the battery’s remaining useful life. Second, the different least square algorithm is explored. Finally, a promising, practical, simple, accurate, and reliable technique is proposed to estimate battery capacity appropriately. The root mean square percentage error and the mean absolute percentage error of the proposed methods were calculated and were less than 0.02%. It was concluded the geometry method has all the advantages of a recursive manner, including a fading memory, a close form of a solution, and being applicable in embedded systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040031
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 32: Optimized Nail for Penetration Test on
           Lithium-Ion Cells and Its Utilization for the Validation of a Multilayer
           Electro-Thermal Model

    • Authors: Luigi Aiello, Gregor Gstrein, Simon Erker, Bernhard Kaltenegger, Christian Ellersdorfer, Wolfgang Sinz
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Nail penetration is one of the most critical scenarios for a lithium-ion cell: it involves the superposition of electrical, thermal and mechanical abusive loads. When an electrically conductive nail is introduced into the active layers of a lithium-ion cell, an electric short circuit takes place between the conductive components (electrodes and current collectors). Hence, for this load case, electro-thermal modeling must be performed considering each and every layer of the cell in order to predict the electric quantities and the cell temperature (with numerical models). When standard conic nails are used, as is typical for this class of tests, the electrical contact between conductive components and the nail itself suffers of poor reproducibility mainly due to the separator that interposes between the electrically conductive components. This phenomenon makes it difficult to validate electro-thermal models, since the electrical contact between nail and lithium-ion cell parts cannot be safely determined. In this work, an alternative nail with an optimized ratio between the external surface and volume is presented to overcome this issue. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed nail, five tests (with the same conditions) were conducted on five commercial lithium-ion pouch cells, monitoring the tabs voltage and surface temperature. In all tests, thermal runaway was reached within 30 s and the tabs voltage showed comparable behavior, indicating that the short circuit values for all five repetitions were similar. The investigation included the implementation of a detailed layers model to demonstrate how the validation of such model would be possible with the novel data.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040032
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 33: Influence of Switching on the Aging of High
           Power Lithium-Ion Cells

    • Authors: Guy Williams Ngaleu, Michael Theiler, Xenia Straßer, Christian Hanzl, Lidiya Komsiyska, Christian Endisch, Meinert Lewerenz
      First page: 33
      Abstract: For intelligent battery systems that are able to control the current flow for each individual cell, the multilevel inverter is an interesting approach to replace the bidirectional AC/DC-converter and improve flexibility of charging system and signal quality in both directions. Therefore, the cells are modulated by switching varying the duty cycle, the current and the frequency up to the kHz-range. This is only beneficial if the switching does not lead to a significant additional aging. The scientific gap to assess and understand the impact of switching is investigated in this paper by testing 22 high-power 18650 lithium-ion cells (Samsung 25R). The cells are tested at 50 Hz and 10 kHz switching frequency during charge, discharge and charge/discharge at 50% duty cycle. The tests are compared to eight reference tests with continuous current flow performed at the average and the maximum current for charge and discharge, respectively. The results are obtained by evaluating the remaining capacity, resistance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dV/dQ analysis. Before reaching rollover, the investigated cells lose homogeneity and cathode capacity but no significant difference for the aging parameters are found. After rollover, the cell-to-cell variation is greater than the aging induced by the different cycling parameters.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040033
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 34: Comparison of Model-Based and Sensor-Based
           Detection of Thermal Runaway in Li-Ion Battery Modules for Automotive
           Application

    • Authors: Jacob Klink, André Hebenbrock, Jens Grabow, Nury Orazov, Ulf Nylén, Ralf Benger, Hans-Peter Beck
      First page: 34
      Abstract: In recent years, research on lithium–ion (Li-ion) battery safety and fault detection has become an important topic, providing a broad range of methods for evaluating the cell state based on voltage and temperature measurements. However, other measurement quantities and close-to-application test setups have only been sparsely considered, and there has been no comparison in between methods. In this work, the feasibility of a multi-sensor setup for the detection of Thermal Runaway failure of automotive-size Li-ion battery modules have been investigated in comparison to a model-based approach. For experimental validation, Thermal Runaway tests were conducted in a close-to-application configuration of module and battery case—triggered by external heating with two different heating rates. By two repetitions of each experiment, a high accordance of characteristics and results has been achieved and the signal feasibility for fault detection has been discussed. The model-based method, that had previously been published, recognised the thermal fault in the fastest way—significantly prior to the required 5 min pre-warning time. This requirement was also achieved with smoke and gas sensors in most test runs. Additional criteria for evaluating detection approaches besides detection time have been discussed to provide a good starting point for choosing a suitable approach that is dependent on application defined requirements, e.g., acceptable complexity.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040034
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 35: Method for In-Operando Contamination of
           Lithium Ion Batteries for Prediction of Impurity-Induced Non-Obvious Cell
           Damage

    • Authors: Patrick Höschele, Simon Franz Heindl, Bernd Schneider, Wolfgang Sinz, Christian Ellersdorfer
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The safety of lithium-ion batteries within electrified vehicles plays an important role. Hazards can arise from contaminated batteries resulting from non-obvious damages or insufficient production processes. A systematic examination requires experimental methods to provoke a defined contamination. Two prerequisites were required: First, the extent and type of contamination should be determinable to exclude randomness. Second, specimens should work properly before the contamination, enabling realistic behavior. In this study, two experimental methods were developed to allow for the first time a controlled and reproducible application of water or oxygen into 11 single-layer full cells (Li4Ti5O12/LiCoO2) used as specimens during electrical cycling. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to continuously monitor the specimens and to fit the parameters of an equivalent circuit model (ECM). For the first time, these parameters were used to calibrate a machine-learning algorithm which was able to predict the contamination state. A decision tree was calibrated with the ECM parameters of eight specimens (training data) and was validated by predicting the contamination state of the three remaining specimens (test data). The prediction quality proved the usability of classification algorithms to monitor for contaminations or non-obvious battery damage after manufacturing and during use. It can be an integral part of battery management systems that increases vehicle safety.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040035
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 36: Artificial Feature Extraction for Estimating
           State-of-Temperature in Lithium-Ion-Cells Using Various Long Short-Term
           Memory Architectures

    • Authors: Mike Kopp, Marco Ströbel, Alexander Fill, Julia Pross-Brakhage, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The temperature in each cell of a battery system should be monitored to correctly track aging behavior and ensure safety requirements. To eliminate the need for additional hardware components, a software based prediction model is needed to track the temperature behavior. This study looks at machine learning algorithms that learn physical behavior of non-linear systems based on sample data. Here, it is shown how to improve the prediction accuracy using a new method called “artificial feature extraction” compared to classical time series approaches. We show its effectiveness on tracking the temperature behavior of a Li-ion cell with limited training data at one defined ambient temperature. A custom measuring system was created capable of tracking the cell temperature, by installing a temperature sensor into the cell wrap instead of attaching it to the cell housing. Additionally, a custom early stopping algorithm was developed to eliminate the need for further hyperparameters. This study manifests that artificially training sub models that extract features with high accuracy aids models in predicting more complex physical behavior. On average, the prediction accuracy has been improved by △Tcell=0.01∘C for the training data and by △Tcell=0.007∘C for the validation data compared to the base model. In the field of electrical energy storage systems, this could reduce costs, increase safety and improve knowledge about the aging progress in an individual cell to sort out for second life applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040036
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 37: Simulation of the Electrochemical Response of
           Cobalt Hydroxide Electrodes for Energy Storage

    • Authors: Carvalho, Eugénio, Silva, Montemor
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Cyclic Voltammetry is an analysis method for characterizing the behaviors of electrochemically active materials by measuring current through defined potential sweeps. The current–potential relationship depends on key variables such concentration of electrolyte, electron-transfer rate, and the distance and time of species in relation to the electroactive surface of the material. A MATLAB® simulation was developed on a diffusion and kinetics basis, simulating the equations of Fick’s second law and Butler–Volmer, respectively, towards understanding the energy-storage mechanisms of cobalt hydroxide electrodes. The simulation was compared to a real cobalt hydroxide system, showing an accurate approximation to the experimentally obtained response and deviations possibly related to other physical/chemical processes influencing the involved species.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040037
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 20: Intrinsic Defects, Diffusion and Dopants in
           AVSi2O6 (A = Li and Na) Electrode Materials

    • Authors: Navaratnarajah Kuganathan
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The alkali metal pyroxenes of the AVSi2O6 (A = Li and Na) family have attracted considerable interest as cathode materials for the application in Li and Na batteries. Computer modelling was carried out to determine the dominant intrinsic defects, Li and Na ion diffusion pathways and promising dopants for experimental verification. The results show that the lowest energy intrinsic defect is the V–Si anti-site in both LiVSi2O6 and NaVSi2O6. Li or Na ion migration is slow, with activation energies of 3.31 eV and 3.95 eV, respectively, indicating the necessity of tailoring these materials before application. Here, we suggest that Al on the Si site can increase the amount of Li and Na in LiVSi2O6 and NaVSi2O6, respectively. This strategy can also be applied to create oxygen vacancies in both materials. The most favourable isovalent dopants on the V and Si sites are Ga and Ge, respectively.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 21: Discrimination of Poor Electrode Junctions
           within Lithium-Ion Batteries by Ultrasonic Measurement and Deep Learning

    • Authors: Young-In Hwang, Jinhyun Park, Nauman Munir, Hak-Joon Kim, Sung-Jin Song, Ki-Bok Kim
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries, which have high energy density, are the most suitable batteries for use in high-tech electromechanical applications requiring high performance. Because one of the important components that determines the efficiency of lithium-ion batteries is the electrode, the manufacturing process for this junction plays an important role in the entire production process. In particular, the process related to the resistance spot welding of the electrode is very important, directly affecting the safety of users, and greatly affecting the performance of the batteries. However, because the electrode tab is spot-welded onto the inner surface of the case, it is impossible to verify with visual testing (using the naked eye) whether the junction is well bonded. Therefore, it is very important to perform quality evaluation of the resistance welding of electrodes after completing the manufacturing process, using non-destructive testing methods. In this paper, a non-destructive ultrasonic testing technique was applied to examine the quality of lithium-ion batteries in which the negative electrode tabs were welded to the inner surface of the cell cans. The status of resistance spot welding between the electrode and the can was verified using deep-learning techniques with the experimentally acquired ultrasonic signal database.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030021
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 22: Cycling of Double-Layered Graphite Anodes in
           Pouch-Cells

    • Authors: Daniel Müller, Alexander Fill, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Incremental improvement to the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion technology, for example regarding the physical or electrochemical design, can bridge the gap until the next generation of cells are ready to take Li-ions place. Previously designed two-layered porosity-graded graphite anodes, together with LixNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 cathodes, were analysed in small pouch-cells with a capacity of around 1 Ah. For comparison, custom-made reference cells with the average properties of two-layered anodes were tested. Ten cells of each type were examined in total. Each cell pair, consisting of one double-layer and one single-layer (reference) cell, underwent the same test procedure. Besides regular charge and discharge cycles, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, incremental capacity analysis, differential voltage analysis and current-pulse measurement are used to identify the differences in ageing behaviour between the two cell types. The results show similar behaviour and properties at beginning-of-life, but an astonishing improvement in capacity retention for the double-layer cells regardless of the cycling conditions. Additionally, the lifetime of the single-layer cells was strongly influenced by the cycling conditions, and the double-layer cells showed less difference in ageing behaviour.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030022
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 23: Stationary Battery Thermal Management:
           Analysis of Active Cooling Designs

    • Authors: Getu Hailu, Martin Henke, Todd Petersen
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Stationary battery systems are becoming more prevalent around the world, with both the quantity and capacity of installations growing at the same time. Large battery installations and uninterruptible power supply can generate a significant amount of heat during operation; while this is widely understood, current thermal management methods have not kept up with the increase of stationary battery installations. Active cooling has long been the default approach of thermal management for stationary batteries; however, there is no academic research or comparative studies available for this technology. The present work presents assessment of different active cooling methods through an experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics simulation. Following model validation, several cooling system configurations were analyzed, including effects from implementing either a perforated vent plate or vortex generators. The vent plate was observed to greatly increase cooling performance while simultaneously promoting temperature uniformity between batteries. Vortex generators were shown to marginally increase cooling performance, yet, future research is recommended to study the effects and improvement of the design. The average battery temperature for the vented model is reduced by approximately 5.2 °C, while the average temperature differential among the batteries was only 2.7 °C, less than the recommend value (3 °C) by ASHRAE/IEEE Standards.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030023
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 24: Auger- and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
           at Metallic Li Material: Chemical Shifts Related to Sample Preparation,
           Gas Atmosphere, and Ion and Electron Beam Effects

    • Authors: Steffen Oswald
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Li-based batteries are a key element in reaching a sustainable energy economy in the near future. The understanding of the very complex electrochemical processes is necessary for the optimization of their performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is an accepted method used to improve understanding around the chemical processes at the electrode surfaces. Nevertheless, its application is limited because the surfaces under investigation are mostly rough and inhomogeneous. Local elemental analysis, such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), could assist XPS to gain more insight into the chemical processes at the surfaces. In this paper, some challenges in using electron spectroscopy are discussed, such as binding energy (BE) referencing for the quantitative study of chemical shifts, gas atmospheric influences, or beam damage (including both AE and XP spectroscopy). Carefully prepared and surface-modified metallic lithium material is used as model surface, considering that Li is the key element for most battery applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030024
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 25: The Electrochemical Characterization of
           Nanostructured Bi2Se3 Thin Films in an Aqueous Na Electrolyte

    • Authors: Raimonds Meija, Vitalijs Lazarenko, Anna Skrastina, Yelyzaveta Rublova, Jana Andzane, Vanda Voikiva, Arturs Viksna, Donats Erts
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Due to their layered structure and high theoretical capacity, bismuth chalcogenides have been proposed as anodes in organic electrolyte Li- and Na-ion batteries. On the other hand, their electrochemical properties in aqueous systems have not been reported. Here, the electrochemical performance of Bi2Se3 thin films in 1 M NaNO3 aqueous electrolyte is presented. This aqueous Bi2Se3 system was found to have up to two orders of magnitude increased diffusion coefficients, compared to other anode materials in Na electrolyte-based systems, as well as limited anode electrode degradation over 5 CVs and significant changes in the anode after 30 CVs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030025
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 26: A Method for Detecting the Existence of an
           Over-Discharged Cell in a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack via Measuring Total
           Harmonic Distortion

    • Authors: Jonghyeon Kim, Julia Kowal
      First page: 26
      Abstract: This paper deals with a method to detect the existence of an over-discharged cell in a lithium-ion battery (LIB) pack by measuring the total harmonic distortion (THD) rate in the voltage response. Over-discharge of the LIB cell reduces the available capacity by irreversible chemical reactions, resulting in serious safety risks such as explosions. Even if only one over-discharged cell exists in the battery pack, it accelerates the decomposition of other cells. In general, the measurement of each cell voltage in a battery pack is required to detect one over-discharged cell. This is because if only the voltage of the battery pack is measured, it cannot be distinguished whether the voltage of each cell is uniformly low or one specific weak cell is over-discharged. The proposed method measures the frequency response through the voltage at only two terminals of the battery pack to detect the presence of one over-discharged cell. When the battery cell is discharged beyond a certain level, the system nonlinearity of the battery pack increases, and it can be detected from the increased THD rate of the battery pack. The proposed method is verified by simulation and measurement.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030026
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 27: Optimization of LIB Electrolyte and
           Exploration of Novel Compounds via the Molecular Dynamics Method

    • Authors: Ken-ichi Saitoh, Yoshihiro Takai, Tomohiro Sato, Masanori Takuma, Yoshimasa Takahashi
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Due to great interest in the development of electric vehicles and other applications, improving the performances of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is crucial. Specifically, components of electrolytes for LIBs should be adequately chosen from hundreds of thousands of candidate compounds. In this study, we aimed to evaluate some physical properties expected for combinations of molecules for electrolytes by microscopic simulations. That is, the viscosity, ionic conductivity, degree of dissociation, diffusion coefficient, and conformation of each molecule were analyzed via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We aimed to understand how molecular-sized structures and properties collaboratively affect the behavior of electrolytes. The practical models of molecules we used were ethylene carbonate (EC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), propylene carbonate (PC), butylene carbonate (BC), γ-butyrolactone (GBL), γ-valerolactone (GVL), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl-methyl carbonate (EMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), and lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6). Many molecular systems of electrolytes were simulated, in which one molar LiPF6 was mixed into a single or combined solvent. It was found that small solvent molecules diffused with relative ease, and they contributed to the higher ionic conductivity of electrolytes. It was clarified that the diffusion coefficient of lithium (Li) ions is greatly affected by the surrounding solvent molecules. We can conclude that high-permittivity solvents can be selectively coordinated around Li ions, and Li salts are sufficiently dissociated, even when there is only a small content of high-permittivity solvent. Thus, we can confirm solely by MD simulation that one of the better candidates for solvent molecules, formamide (F), will exhibit higher performance than the current solvents.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030027
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 7: Multiple Scenario Analysis of Battery Energy
           Storage System Investment: Measuring Economic and Circular Viability

    • Authors: Benedikte Wrålsen, Bernhard Faessler
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Circular business models for batteries have been revealed in earlier research to achieve economic viability while reducing total resource consumption of raw materials. The objective of this study is to measure the economic performance of the preferred business model by creating different scenarios comparing second life (spent) and new battery investment for seven different European regions and four energy management strategies. Findings reveal levels of economic ability for a total of 34 scenarios simulated, including direct savings per kWh, a total change in energy costs per year, battery charge/discharge cycles, and comparative breakeven analyses. Regional effects are also measured based on day-ahead electricity prices and solar irradiation. The minimum payback time is 7 years before battery system investment costs are covered. The most viable energy management strategies also had the highest number of charge/discharge cycles, which decreases battery lifetime. Investment in a second life battery compared to a new battery reduced the payback time by 0.5 to 2 years due to lower investment costs. However, the estimated lifetime range (3 to 10 years) is lower compared to a new battery (5 to 15 years), which questions the circular business model viability for the scenarios studied. Energy management strategies should be combined and customized to increase economic benefits.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020007
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 8: Development of a Matlab/Simulink Model for
           Monitoring Cell State-Of-Health and State-Of-Charge via Impedance of
           Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    • Authors: Jonghyeon Kim, Julia Kowal
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Lithium-ion battery cells not only show different behaviors depending on degradation and charging states, but also overcharge and overdischarge of cells shorten battery life and cause safety problems, thus studies aiming to provide an accurate state of a cell are required. Measurements of battery cell impedance are used for cell SoH and SoC estimation techniques, but it generally takes a long time for a cell in each state to be prepared and cell voltage response is measured when charging and discharging under each condition. This study introduces an electrical equivalent circuit model of lithium-ion cells developed in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Cell SoC, SoH, temperature, and C-rate are considered for more accurate cell impedance prediction, and the simulation results are verified with the measurement results. The developed model is suitable for use in cell SoC and SoH monitoring studies by successfully outputting cell impedance through real-time prediction of cell voltage during discharge.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020008
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 9: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Batteries in
           2021

    • Authors: Batteries Editorial Office Batteries Editorial Office
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020009
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 10: Raman Diagnostics of Cathode Materials for
           Li-Ion Batteries Using Multi-Wavelength Excitation

    • Authors: Marcel Heber, Kathrin Hofmann, Christian Hess
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have been commonly employed as power sources in portable devices and are of great interest for large-scale energy storage. To further enhance the fundamental understanding of the electrode structure, we report on the use of multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy for the detailed characterization of layered cathode materials for Li-ion batteries (LiCoO2, LiNixCo1−xO2, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2). Varying the laser excitation from the UV to the visible (257, 385, 515, 633 nm) reveals wavelength-dependent changes in the vibrational profile and overtone/combination bands, originating from resonance effects in LiCoO2. In mixed oxides, the influence of resonance effects on the vibrational profile is preserved but mitigated by the presence of Ni and/or Mn, highlighting the influence of resonance Raman spectroscopy on electronic structure changes. The use of UV laser excitation (257, 385 nm) is shown to lead to a higher scattering efficiency towards Ni in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 compared to visible wavelengths, while deep UV excitation at 257 nm allows for the sensitive detection of surface species and/or precursor species reminiscent of the synthesis. Our results demonstrate the potential of multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy for the detailed characterization of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, including phase/impurity identification and quantification, as well as electronic structure analysis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020010
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 11: The Impact of an Overlaid Ripple Current on
           Battery Aging: The Development of the SiCWell Dataset

    • Authors: Erik Goldammer, Marius Gentejohann, Michael Schlüter, Daniel Weber, Wolfgang Wondrak, Sibylle Dieckerhoff, Clemens Gühmann, Julia Kowal
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Fast-switching semiconductors induce ripple currents on the high-voltage DC bus in the electric vehicle (EV). This paper describes the methods used in the project SiCWell and a new approach to investigate the influence of these overlaid ripples on the battery in EVs. The ripple current generated by the main inverter is demonstrated with a measurement obtained from an electric vehicle. A simulation model is presented which is based on an artificial reference DC bus, according to ISO 21498-2, and uses driving cycles in order to obtain current profiles relevant for battery cycling. A prototype of a battery cycling tester capable of high frequency and precise ripple current generation was developed and is used to cycle cells with superimposed ripple currents within an aging study. To investigate the impact of the frequency and the amplitude of the currents on the battery’s lifetime, these ripple parameters are varied between different test series. Cell parameters such as impedance and capacity are regularly characterized and the aging of the cells is compared to standard DC cycled reference cells. The aging study includes a total of 60 automotive-sized pouch cells. The evaluation of ripple currents and their impact on the battery can improve the state-of-health diagnosis and remaining-useful life prognosis. For the development and validation of such methods, the cycled cells are monitored with a measurement system that regularly measures current and voltage with a sampling rate of 2 MHz. The resulting dataset is suitable for the design of future ripple current aging studies as well as for the development and validation of aging models and methods for battery diagnosis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020011
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 12: Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogels with
           Functionalization-Mediated Disordered Stacking for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Jaehyeung Park, Jaswinder Sharma, Charl J. Jafta, Lilin He, Harry M. Meyer III, Jianlin Li, Jong K. Keum, Ngoc A. Nguyen, Georgios Polizos
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Surface modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO) aerogels were synthesized using the hydrothermal method. Ethylene diamine (EDA) and α-cyclodextrin (CD) were used to functionalize the surface of the graphene oxide layers. The oxygen reduction and surface modification occurred in-situ during the hydrothermal self-assembly process. The chemical functionality and structure of the resulting ethylene diamine modified (rGO-EDA) and cyclodextrin modified (rGO-CD) aerogels as well as of the pristine unmodified rGO aerogel were studied using XPS, SEM, XRD, and SANS techniques. The overall surface composition showed a significant decrease in the oxygen content for all synthesized aerogels. The surface modified aerogels were characterized by a disordered stacking of the assembled rGO layers. The surface functionalities resulted in a broad distribution of the interlayer spacing and introduced structural heterogeneities. Such disordered structures can enable a better adsorption mechanism of the sodium ions. Coin cells based on the synthesized aerogels and sodium metal were assembled and tested at several charge and discharge rates. The correlation between the surface functionality of the rGO, the induced structural heterogeneities due to the disordered stacking, and the electrochemical performance of sodium-ion batteries were investigated. Operando XRD measurements were carried out during the battery cycling to investigate the adsorption or intercalation nature of the sodiation mechanism.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020012
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 13: Assessing the Feasibility of a Cold Start
           Procedure for Solid State Batteries in Automotive Applications

    • Authors: Ryan Hughes, Christopher Vagg
      First page: 13
      Abstract: This paper addresses the thermal management of a solid polymer electrolyte battery system, which is currently the only commercialized solid-state battery chemistry. These batteries aim to increase the range of electric vehicles by facilitating a lithium metal anode but are limited by operational temperatures above 60 °C. The feasibility of a cold start procedure is examined, which would enable a solid polymer battery to be used, without preconditioning, in a wide variety of ambient temperatures. The proposed solution involves dividing the solid-state battery into smaller sub-packs, which can be heated and brought online more quickly. Thermal modelling shows a cold start procedure is theoretically feasible when using a small liquid electrolyte lithium battery at the start. The key bottlenecks are the rate at which the solid-state batteries can be heated, and the discharge rates they can provide. After resistive heating is used for the first solid-state module, all subsequent heating can be provided by waste heat from the motor and operating battery modules. Due to the insulation required, the proposed system has lower volumetric, but higher gravimetric energy density than liquid electrolyte systems. This work suggests that with suitable system-level design, solid-state batteries could be widely adopted despite temperature constraints.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020013
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 14: Quantitative Lithiation Depth Profiling in
           Silicon Containing Anodes Investigated by Ion Beam Analysis

    • Authors: Sören Möller, Hyunsang Joo, Marcin Rasinski, Markus Mann, Egbert Figgemeier, Martin Finsterbusch
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The localisation and quantitative analysis of lithium (Li) in battery materials, components, and full cells are scientifically highly relevant, yet challenging tasks. The methodical developments of MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) presented here open up new possibilities for simultaneous elemental quantification and localisation of light and heavy elements in Li and other batteries. It describes the technical prerequisites and limitations of using IBA to analyse and solve current challenges with the example of Li-ion and solid-state battery-related research and development. Here, nuclear reaction analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry can provide spatial resolutions down to 70 nm and 1% accuracy. To demonstrate the new insights to be gained by IBA, SiOx-containing graphite anodes are lithiated to six states-of-charge (SoC) between 0–50%. The quantitative Li depth profiling of the anodes shows a linear increase of the Li concentration with SoC and a match of injected and detected Li-ions. This unambiguously proofs the electrochemical activity of Si. Already at 50% SoC, we derive C/Li = 5.4 (< LiC6) when neglecting Si, proving a relevant uptake of Li by the 8 atom % Si (C/Si ≈ 9) in the anode with Li/Si ≤ 1.8 in this case. Extrapolations to full lithiation show a maximum of Li/Si = 1.04 ± 0.05. The analysis reveals all element concentrations are constant over the anode thickness of 44 µm, except for a ~6-µm-thick separator-side surface layer. Here, the Li and Si concentrations are a factor 1.23 higher compared to the bulk for all SoC, indicating preferential Li binding to SiOx. These insights are so far not accessible with conventional analysis methods and are a first important step towards in-depth knowledge of quantitative Li distributions on the component level and a further application of IBA in the battery community.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020014
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 15: Combined Thermal Runaway Investigation of
           Coin Cells with an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter and a Tian–Calvet
           Calorimeter

    • Authors: Wenjiao Zhao, Magnus Rohde, Ijaz Ul Mohsin, Carlos Ziebert, Yong Du, Hans J. Seifert
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Commercial coin cells with LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 positive electrode material were investigated using an accelerating rate calorimeter and a Tian–Calvet calorimeter. After cycling and charging to the selected states of charge (SOCs), the cells were studied under thermal abuse conditions using the heat-wait-seek (HWS) method with the heating step of 5 K and a threshold for self-heating detection of 0.02 K/min. The onset temperature and the rate of the temperature rise, i.e., the self-heating rate for thermal runaway events, were determined. The morphology of the positive electrode, negative electrode and the separator of fresh and tested cells were compared and investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the microstructure and the chemical compositions of the individual components were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. In the Tian–Calvet calorimeter, the coin cells with the selected SOCs and the individual components (positive electrode, negative electrode and separator) were heated up with a constant heating rate of 0.1 °C/min (ramp heating mode). Simultaneously, the heat flow signals were recorded to analyze the heat generation. The combination of the three different methods—the HWS method using the ES-ARC, ramp heating mode on both cells and the individual components using the Tian–Calvet calorimeter—together with a post-mortem analysis, give us a complete picture of the processes leading to thermal runaway.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020015
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 16: Radial Thermal Conductivity Measurements of
           Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Batteries—An Uncertainty Study of the Pipe
           Method

    • Authors: Markus Koller, Johanna Unterkofler, Gregor Glanz, Daniel Lager, Alexander Bergmann, Hartmut Popp
      First page: 16
      Abstract: A typical method for measuring the radial thermal conductivity of cylindrical objects is the pipe method. This method introduces a heating wire in combination with standard thermocouples and optical Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors into the core of a cell. This experimental method can lead to high uncertainties due to the slightly varying setup for each measurement and the non-homogenous structure of the cell. Due to the lack of equipment on the market, researchers have to resort to such experimental methods. To verify the measurement uncertainties and to show the possible range of results, an additional method is introduced. In this second method the cell is disassembled, and the thermal conductivity of each cell component is calculated based on measurements with the laser flash method and differential scanning calorimetry. Those results are used to numerically calculate thermal conductivity and to parameterize a finite element model. With this model, the uncertainties and problems inherent in the pipe method for cylindrical cells were shown. The surprising result was that uncertainties of up to 25% arise, just from incorrect assumption about the sensor position. Furthermore, the change in radial thermal conductivity at different states of charge (SOC) was measured with fully functional cells using the pipe method.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020016
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 17: Effect of Internal AC Heating on the
           Temperature Homogeneity of Different Size Battery Cells

    • Authors: Howard Richards, Christopher Vagg
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Rapidly warming up batteries is an important challenge both for conventional lithium-ion batteries, which operate best over 15 °C, and for most solid-state batteries, which currently require operating temperatures over 60 °C. Internal heating using an alternating current (AC) has been proposed as a possible solution in automotive applications, with faster heating rates possible than conventional external heating methods. This paper investigates the performance of internal AC heating on cells of different sizes, for both cylindrical and pouch formats. A novel experimental arrangement is used in which two cells are tested in series while connected with opposing polarity to create a zero-voltage string, allowing the use of less expensive testing equipment. The results show that larger cells exhibit a considerably greater distribution of surface temperature than smaller format cells during internal heating. This is likely due to the more extreme spatial variation in current density in the current collectors, causing an uneven distribution of internal heat generation. This highlights a significant difference compared to external heating methods, which are not affected by this, and has important implications for temperature measurement and battery management if this type of internal heating is to be used, since temperature sensors must be placed in hot spots or supplemented by validated models to ensure all parts of the battery stay within safe temperature limits.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020017
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 18: A New Charging Algorithm for Li-Ion Battery
           Packs Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    • Authors: João P. D. Faria, Ricardo L. Velho, Maria R. A. Calado, José A. N. Pombo, João B. L. Fermeiro, Sílvio J. P. S. Mariano
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This paper shows the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in Li-ion battery charging methods by introducing a new charging algorithm based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The proposed charging algorithm is able to find an optimized charging current profile, through ANNs, considering the real-time conditions of the Li-ion batteries. To test and validate the proposed approach, a low-cost battery management system (BMS) was developed, supporting up to 168 cells in series and n cells in parallel. When compared with the multistage charging algorithm, the proposed charging algorithm revealed a shorter charging time (7.85%) and a smaller temperature increase (32.95%). Thus, the results show that the proposed algorithm based on AI is able to effectively charge and balance batteries and can be regarded as a subject of interest for future research.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 19: Concept Review of a Cloud-Based Smart Battery
           Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Feasibility, Logistics, and
           Functionality

    • Authors: Manh-Kien Tran, Satyam Panchal, Tran Dinh Khang, Kirti Panchal, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Energy storage plays an important role in the adoption of renewable energy to help solve climate change problems. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are an excellent solution for energy storage due to their properties. In order to ensure the safety and efficient operation of LIB systems, battery management systems (BMSs) are required. The current design and functionality of BMSs suffer from a few critical drawbacks including low computational capability and limited data storage. Recently, there has been some effort in researching and developing smart BMSs utilizing the cloud platform. A cloud-based BMS would be able to solve the problems of computational capability and data storage in the current BMSs. It would also lead to more accurate and reliable battery algorithms and allow the development of other complex BMS functions. This study reviews the concept and design of cloud-based smart BMSs and provides some perspectives on their functionality and usability as well as their benefits for future battery applications. The potential division between the local and cloud functions of smart BMSs is also discussed. Cloud-based smart BMSs are expected to improve the reliability and overall performance of LIB systems, contributing to the mass adoption of renewable energy.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020019
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 2: Lithium Silicates in Anode Materials for
           Li-Ion and Li Metal Batteries

    • Authors: Yu-Sheng Su, Kuang-Che Hsiao, Pedaballi Sireesha, Jen-Yen Huang
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The structural and interfacial stability of silicon-based and lithium metal anode materials is essential to their battery performance. Scientists are looking for a better inactive material to buffer strong volume change and suppress unwanted surface reactions of these anodes during cycling. Lithium silicates formed in situ during the formation cycle of silicon monoxide anode not only manage anode swelling but also avoid undesired interfacial interactions, contributing to the successful commercialization of silicon monoxide anode materials. Additionally, lithium silicates have been further utilized in the design of advanced silicon and lithium metal anodes, and the results have shown significant promise in the past few years. In this review article, we summarize the structures, electrochemical properties, and formation conditions of lithium silicates. Their applications in advanced silicon and lithium metal anode materials are also introduced.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 3: LLCZN/PEO/LiPF6 Composite Solid-State
           Electrolyte for Safe Energy Storage Application

    • Authors: Samuel Adjepong Danquah, Jacob Strimaitis, Clifford F. Denize, Sangram K. Pradhan, Messaoud Bahoura
      First page: 3
      Abstract: All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) are gaining traction in the arena of energy storage due to their promising results in producing high energy density and long cycle life coupled with their capability of being safe. The key challenges facing ASSBs are low conductivity and slow charge transfer kinetics at the interface between the electrode and the solid electrolyte. Garnet solid-state electrolyte has shown promising results in improving the ion conductivity but still suffers from poor capacity retention and rate performance due to the interfacial resistance between the electrodes. To improve the interfacial resistance, we prepared a composite consisting of Li7La2.75Ca0.25Zr1.75Nb0.25O12 (LLCZN) garnet material as the ceramic, polyethylene oxide (PEO) as the polymer, and lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) as the salt. These compounds are mixed in a stoichiometric ratio and developed into a very thin disc-shaped solid electrolyte. The LLCZN provides a lithium-ion transport path to enhance the lithium-ion conduction during charging and discharging cycles, while the LiPF6 contributes more lithium ions via the transport path. The PEO matrix in the composite material aids in bonding the compounds together and creating a large contact area, thereby reducing the issue of large interfacial resistance. FESEM images show the porous nature of the electrolyte which promotes the movement of lithium ions through the electrolyte. The fabricated LLCZN/PEO/LiPF6 solid-state electrolyte shows outstanding electrochemical stability that remains at 130 mAh g−1 up to 150 charging and discharging cycles at 0.05 mA cm−2 current. All the specific capacities were calculated based on the mass of the cathode material (LiCoO2). In addition, the coin cell retains 85% discharge capacity up to 150 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98% and energy efficiency of 90% during the entire cycling process.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 4: A Fast Approach to Obtain Layered
           Transition-Metal Cathode Material for Rechargeable Batteries

    • Authors: Shofirul Sholikhatun Nisa, Mintarsih Rahmawati, Cornelius Satria Yudha, Hanida Nilasary, Hartoto Nursukatmo, Haryo Satriya Oktaviano, Soraya Ulfa Muzayanha, Agus Purwanto
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Li-ion batteries as a support for future transportation have the advantages of high storage capacity, a long life cycle, and the fact that they are less dangerous than current battery materials. Li-ion battery components, especially the cathode, are the intercalation places for lithium, which plays an important role in battery performance. This study aims to obtain the LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC) cathode material using a simple flash coprecipitation method. As precipitation agents and pH regulators, oxalic acid and ammonia are widely available and inexpensive. The composition of the NMC mole ratio was varied, with values of 333, 424, 442, 523, 532, 622, and 811. As a comprehensive study of NMC, lithium transition-metal oxide (LMO, LCO, and LNO) is also provided. The crystal structure, functional groups, morphology, elemental composition and material behavior of the particles were all investigated during the heating process. The galvanostatic charge–discharge analysis was tested with cylindrical cells and using mesocarbon microbeads/graphite as the anode. Cells were tested at 2.7–4.25 V at 0.5 C. Based on the analysis results, NMC with a mole ratio of 622 showed the best characteristicd and electrochemical performance. After 100 cycles, the discharged capacity reaches 153.60 mAh/g with 70.9% capacity retention.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 5: Direct Double Coating of Carbon and Nitrogen
           on Fluoride-Doped Li4Ti5O12 as an Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Lukman Noerochim, Alvalo Toto Wibowo, Widyastuti, Achmad Subhan, Bambang Prihandoko, Wahyu Caesarendra
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Graphite as a commercial anode for lithium-ion batteries has significant safety concerns owing to lithium dendrite growth at low operating voltages. Li4Ti5O12 is a potential candidate to replace graphite as the next-generation anode of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, fluoride-doped Li4Ti5O12 was successfully synthesized with a direct double coating of carbon and nitrogen using a solid-state method followed by the pyrolysis process of polyaniline. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the addition of fluoride is successfully doped to the spinel-type structure of Li4Ti5O12 without any impurities being detected. The carbon and nitrogen coating are distributed on the surface of Li4Ti5O12 particles, as shown in the Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) image. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image shows a thin layer of carbon coating on the Li4Ti5O12 surface. The fluoride-doped Li4Ti5O12 has the highest specific discharge capacity of 165.38 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C and capacity fading of 93.51% after 150 cycles compared to other samples, indicating improved electrochemical performance. This is attributed to the synergy between the appropriate amount of carbon and nitrogen coating, which induced a high mobility of electrons and larger crystallite size due to the insertion of fluoride to the spinel-type structure of Li4Ti5O12, enhancing lithium-ion transfer during the insertion/extraction process.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 6: Enhanced Electrochemical Properties of
           Na0.67MnO2 Cathode for Na-Ion Batteries Prepared with Novel
           Tetrabutylammonium Alginate Binder

    • Authors: Gints Kucinskis, Beate Kruze, Prasad Korde, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Arturs Viksna, Julija Hodakovska, Gunars Bajars
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Both the binder and solid–electrolyte interface play an important role in improving the cycling stability of electrodes for Na-ion batteries. In this study, a novel tetrabutylammonium (TBA) alginate binder is used to prepare a Na0.67MnO2 electrode for sodium-ion batteries with improved electrochemical performance. The ageing of the electrodes is characterized. TBA alginate-based electrodes are compared to polyvinylidene fluoride- (PVDF) and Na alginate-based electrodes and show favorable electrochemical performance, with gravimetric capacity values of up to 164 mAh/g, which is 6% higher than measured for the electrode prepared with PVDF binder. TBA alginate-based electrodes also display good rate capability and improved cyclability. The solid–electrolyte interface of TBA alginate-based electrodes is similar to that of PVDF-based electrodes. As the only salt of alginic acid soluble in non-aqueous solvents, TBA alginate emerges as a good alternative to PVDF binder in battery applications where the water-based processing of electrode slurries is not feasible, such as the demonstrated case with Na0.67MnO2.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010006
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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