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Batteries
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2313-0105
Published by MDPI Homepage  [249 journals]
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 65: An Improved Battery Equalizer with Reduced
           Number of Components Applied to Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Alfredo Alvarez-Diazcomas, Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz, Roberto V. Carrillo-Serrano
      First page: 65
      Abstract: The investigation of electric vehicle technologies has increased significantly in the last few years. These vehicles can substantially reduce the environmental impact of the transportation sector. In electric cars, the battery is a crucial element. The batteries are made up of several stacked cells to meet the requirements of the propulsion system. Battery equalizer circuits take active measures to ensure that a particular variable is kept inside an allowable range in all cells. Inductor-based equalizers are very popular since the equalization current is controlled. This paper proposes a single-inductor architecture with a reduced number of components. The proposed topology can transfer energy from adjacent cell-to-cell or adjacent string-to-string. This paper analyzes the operation of the converter, its design, and the design of the controller. Furthermore, a comparison of the proposed equalizer with other inductor-based schemes was made considering the component count, stress on devices, equalization time, driver complexity, and other parameters. The theoretical efficiency of the proposed equalizer obtained was 84.9%, which is competitive with other literature solutions. The impact of battery size on the number of circuit components was also analyzed. Finally, simulation results in open load and changes of current through the battery conditions were performed to validate the theoretical analysis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020065
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 66: A Study of Li3.8Ge0.9S0.1O4 Solid Electrolyte
           Stability Relative to Electrode Materials of Lithium Power Sources

    • Authors: Mariya Shchelkanova, Georgiy Shekhtman, Svetlana Pershina
      First page: 66
      Abstract: The stability of Li3.8Ge0.9S0.1O4 lithium-conducting solid electrolyte versus lithium metal and Li–V bronze Li1.3V3O8 is studied in the present research. Isothermal heat treatment and thermal analysis of the mixtures of Li1.3V3O8 and Li3.8Ge0.9S0.1O4 powders indicate that there is no interaction between them below 300–350 °C. Moreover, Li3.8Ge0.9S0.1O4 solid electrolyte is stable versus lithium at 100 °C for 240 h. A model of a lithium-ion power source with a Li1.3V3O8-based cathode and a lithium metal anode is assembled and tested. The data obtained show that Li3.8Ge0.9S0.1O4 can be used in all-solid-state medium-temperature lithium and lithium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020066
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 67: Changes in the Mechanical Behavior of
           Electrically Aged Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells: In-plane and Out-of-Plane
           Indentation Loads with Varying Testing Velocity and State of Charge

    • Authors: Marvin Sprenger, Georgi Kovachev, Norbert Dölle, Florian Schauwecker, Wolfgang Sinz, Christian Ellersdorfer
      First page: 67
      Abstract: The knowledge about the influence of electrical aging on the behavior of lithium-ion cells under mechanical loads is of high importance to ensure a safe use of batteries over the lifetime in electric vehicles. In order to describe the mechanical behavior in relation to electrical aging, fresh and electrically aged NCM pouch cells were investigated under different mechanical crash loads. For the first time, the aged cells’ behavior under quasistatic lateral loading was taken into account. Aged cells showed lower maximum forces compared to the fresh cells. The reason of the changed mechanical cell behavior was explained with the different buckling behavior of fresh and aged cells by experimental images. Furthermore, quasistatic and dynamic crash tests in cell’s thickness direction were performed at varying state of charge (SOC) and compared to the results of a previously published study. Independently of the testing velocity, the electrically aged cells failed at increased deformation values. This observation was justified by an increased cell thickness due to an additional softer layer, formed on the aged graphite particle surface, which was observed by the means of scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the aged cells showed lower failure forces of up to −11% under quasistatic and dynamic loads at 0 SOC. It was also illustrated that electrical aging causes a deeper voltage drop after cell failure, which suggests a higher energy release after the internal short circuit. The investigations show that electrical aging has a significant influence on the mechanical properties of lithium-ion cells and must be taken into account in the safety assessment.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020067
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 68: A Study on the Effect of Particle Size on
           Li-Ion Battery Recycling via Flotation and Perspectives on Selective
           Flocculation

    • Authors: Tommi Rinne, Natalia Araya-Gómez, Rodrigo Serna-Guerrero
      First page: 68
      Abstract: The recycling of active materials from Li-ion batteries (LIBs) via froth flotation has gained interest recently. To date, recycled graphite has not been pure enough for direct reuse in LIB manufacturing. The present work studied the effect of particle sizes on the grade of recycled graphite. Furthermore, selective flocculation is proposed as a novel approach to control particle sizes and thus improve graphite grade by preventing the entrainment of cathode components. Zeta potential and particle size measurements were performed to find an optimal pH for electrically selective flocculation and to study the interaction of flocculants, respectively. Batch flotation experiments were performed to investigate the effect of particle size on the purity of the recovered graphite. Results suggested that, in the absence of ultrafine fine particles, battery-grade graphite of 99.4% purity could be recovered. In the presence of ultrafine particles, a grade of 98.2% was observed. Flocculating the ultrafine feed increased the grade to 98.4%, although a drop in recovery was observed. By applying a dispersant in addition to a flocculant, the recovery could be increased while maintaining a 98.4% grade. Branched flocculants provided improved selectivity over linear flocculants. The results suggest that particle size needs to be controlled for battery-grade graphite to be recovered.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020068
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 69: Urea-Based Deep Eutectic Solvent with
           Magnesium/Lithium Dual Ions as an Aqueous Electrolyte for High-Performance
           Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Devices

    • Authors: Hsin-Yen Tsai, Munusamy Sathish Kumar, Balaraman Vedhanarayanan, Hsin-Hui Shen, Tsung-Wu Lin
      First page: 69
      Abstract: A new deep eutectic solvent (DES) made from urea, magnesium chloride, lithium perchlorate and water has been developed as the electrolyte for battery-supercapacitor hybrid devices. The physicochemical characteristics of DES electrolytes and potential interactions between electrolyte components are well analyzed through electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques. It has been discovered that the properties of DES electrolytes are highly dependent on the component ratio, which allows us to engineer the electrolyte to meet the requirement of the battery application. Perylene tetracarboxylic di-imide and reduced graphene oxide ha ve been combined to produce a composite (PTCDI/rGO) that has been tested as the anode in DES electrolyte. This composite shows that the capacitive contribution is greater than 90% in a low scan rate, resulting in the high rate capability. The PTCDI/rGO electrode exhibits no sign of capacity degradation and its coulombic efficiency is close to 99% after 200 cycles, which suggests excellent reversibility and stability. On the other hand, the electrochemical performance of lithium manganese oxide as the cathode material is studied in DES electrolyte, which exhibits the maximum capacity of 76.5 mAh/g at 0.03 A/g current density. After being successfully examined in terms of electrode kinetics, capacity performance, and rate capability, the anode and cathode materials are combined to construct a two-electrode system with DES electrolyte. At a current density of 0.03 A/g, this system offers 43.5 mAh/g specific capacity and displays 55.5% retention of the maximum capacity at 1 A/g. Furthermore, an energy density of 53 Wh/kg is delivered at a power density of 35 W/kg.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020069
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 70: Data-Driven Thermal Anomaly Detection in
           Large Battery Packs

    • Authors: Kiran Bhaskar, Ajith Kumar, James Bunce, Jacob Pressman, Neil Burkell, Christopher D. Rahn
      First page: 70
      Abstract: The early detection and tracing of anomalous operations in battery packs are critical to improving performance and ensuring safety. This paper presents a data-driven approach for online anomaly detection in battery packs that uses real-time voltage and temperature data from multiple Li-ion battery cells. Mean-based residuals are generated for cell groups and evaluated using Principal Component Analysis. The evaluated residuals are then thresholded using a cumulative sum control chart to detect anomalies. The mild external short circuits associated with cell balancing are detected in the voltage signals and necessitate voltage retraining after balancing. Temperature residuals prove to be critical, enabling anomaly detection of module balancing events within 14 min that are unobservable from the voltage residuals. Statistical testing of the proposed approach is performed on the experimental data from a battery electric locomotive injected with model-based anomalies. The proposed anomaly detection approach has a low false-positive rate and accurately detects and traces the synthetic voltage and temperature anomalies. The performance of the proposed approach compared with direct thresholding of mean-based residuals shows a 56% faster detection time, 42% fewer false negatives, and 60% fewer missed anomalies while maintaining a comparable false-positive rate.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020070
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 71: Safety Assessment of High Dynamic Pre-Loaded
           Lithium Ion Pouch Cells

    • Authors: Christian Ellersdorfer, Patrick Höschele, Eva Heider, Georgi Kovachev, Gregor Gstrein
      First page: 71
      Abstract: The knowledge of the influence of high dynamic loads on the electrical and mechanical behavior of lithium-ion cells is of high importance to ensure a safe use of batteries over the lifetime in electric vehicles. For the first time, the behavior of six commercial Li-Ion pouch cells after a constrained short-time acceleration (300 g over 6 ms) with a resulting cell surface pressure of 9.37 MPa was investigated. At this load, two out of six cells suffered from an internal short circuit, showing several damaged separator layers across the thickness in the area of the cell tabs. For the cells that remained intact, a range of measurement techniques (e.g., inner resistance measurement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), or thermal imaging) was used to reveal changes in the electrical property resulting from the load. The cells without short circuit show an increase of internal resistance (average of 0.89%) after the dynamic pre-load. The electric circuit model based on the EIS measurement indicates a decrease of the resistance R1 up to 30.8%. Additionally, mechanical properties of the cells in an abuse test subsequent to the dynamic pre-load were significantly influenced. The pre-loaded cell could sustain an 18% higher intrusion depth before electrical failure occurred as compared to a fresh cell in an indentation test. The results of this study revealed that a high acceleration pulse under realistic boundary conditions can lead to critical changes in a battery cell’s properties and needs to be taken into account for future safety assessments.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020071
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 72: Genetic Algorithm and Taguchi Method: An
           Approach for Better Li-Ion Cell Model Parameter Identification

    • Authors: Taha Al Rafei, Nadia Yousfi Steiner, Daniela Chrenko
      First page: 72
      Abstract: The genetic algorithm (GA) is one of the most used methods to identify the parameters of Li-ion battery models. However, the parametrization of the GA method is not straightforward and can lead to poor accuracy and/or long calculation times. The Taguchi design method provides an approach to optimize GA parameters, achieving a good balance between accuracy and calculation time. The Taguchi design method is thus used to define the most adapted GA parameters to identify the parameters of model of Li-ion batteries for household applications based on static and dynamic tests in the time domain. The results show a good compromise between calculation time and accuracy (RMSE less than 0.6). This promising approach could be applied to other Li-ion battery applications, resulting from measurements in the frequency domain or different kinds of energy storage.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020072
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 73: Mini-Review on the Regulation of Electrolyte
           Solvation Structure for Aqueous Zinc Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Bixia Wang, Hui Xu, Jiayi Hao, Jinchao Du, Chun Wu, Zhen Ma, Wei Qin
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Zinc as an anode, with low potential (−0.762 V vs. SHE) and high theoretical capacity (820 mAh g−1 or 5854 mAh L−1), shows great promise for energy storage devices. The aqueous zinc ion battery (ZIB) is known as a prospective candidate for large-scale application in the future due to its high safety, environmental friendliness, abundant zinc resources on earth, and low-cost advantages. However, the existence of zinc dendrites and side reactions limit the practical application of ZIBs. Therefore, a lot of effort has been made to improve the performance from aspects including the structure design and surface modification of zinc anodes, regulation of the electrolyte solvation structure, and design of the functional separator. In this review, we attempt to summarize recent advances on the regulation of the electrolyte solvation structure through a number of selected representative works from two aspects: high-concentration salt strategy and electrolyte additives. At the end of this review, the challenges and future development prospects are briefly outlined.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020073
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 74: Battery-Type Lithium-Ion Hybrid Capacitors:
           Current Status and Future Perspectives

    • Authors: Zhang Guo, Zhien Liu, Wan Chen, Xianzhong Sun, Xiong Zhang, Kai Wang, Yanwei Ma
      First page: 74
      Abstract: The lithium-ion battery (LIB) has become the most widely used electrochemical energy storage device due to the advantage of high energy density. However, because of the low rate of Faradaic process to transfer lithium ions (Li+), the LIB has the defects of poor power performance and cycle performance, which can be improved by adding capacitor material to the cathode, and the resulting hybrid device is also known as a lithium-ion battery capacitor (LIBC). This review introduces the typical structure and working principle of an LIBC, and it summarizes the recent research developments in advanced LIBCs. An overview of non-lithiated and pre-lithiated anode materials for LIBCs applications is given, and the commonly used pre-lithiation methods for the anodes of LIBCs are present. Capacitor materials added to the cathodes, and suitable separator materials of LIBCs are also reviewed. In addition, the polarization phenomenon, pulsed performance and safety issues of LIBCs and electrode engineering for improving electrochemical performance are systematically analyzed. Finally, the future research and development direction of advanced LIBCs is prospected through the discussion of the existing problems of an LIBC in which the battery material in the composite cathode is LiNixCoyMn1-x-yO2 (NCM).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020074
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 75: High-Performance Anodes Made of Metallic
           Lithium Layers and Lithiated Silicon Layers Prepared by Vacuum
           Technologies

    • Authors: Stefan Saager, Ludwig Decker, Torsten Kopte, Bert Scheffel, Burkhard Zimmermann
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Replacing conventional electrode materials is one of the most pressing challenges for next-generation lithium-ion batteries since state-of-the-art systems have almost reached their limitations for performance gains. For anodes, ambitious candidates include lithium and silicon because of their extremely high capacity. In this paper, a physical vapor deposition process for the preparation of pure metallic lithium layers and lithiated silicon layers in the layer thickness range of 1–20 µm is demonstrated. The lithium layers were deposited by thermal evaporation. Static coating rates up to 120 nm/s and dynamic deposition rates up to 1 µm·m/min were realized. Furthermore, the deposition of lithiated silicon alloy layers with various compositions was performed via the co-evaporation of lithium and silicon, where silicon was evaporated by an electron beam. The process was characterized regarding the deposition rate, heat loads, and effects of substrate pre-treatment. To achieve a porous microstructure, the layer morphology needed to be manipulated by adapting process parameters. Stripping experiments revealed high electrochemical activity of the lithium up to 85 %. The innovative approach carried out via vacuum processing showed capabilities for overcoming the current bottlenecks experienced with high-capacity anode materials in combination with the potential for upscaling to high throughput production.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020075
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 76: Optimal Capacity and Cost Analysis of Battery
           Energy Storage System in Standalone Microgrid Considering Battery Lifetime
           

    • Authors: Pinit Wongdet, Terapong Boonraksa, Promphak Boonraksa, Watcharakorn Pinthurat, Boonruang Marungsri, Branislav Hredzak
      First page: 76
      Abstract: In standalone microgrids, the Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is a popular energy storage technology. Because of renewable energy generation sources such as PV and Wind Turbine (WT), the output power of a microgrid varies greatly, which can reduce the BESS lifetime. Because the BESS has a limited lifespan and is the most expensive component in a microgrid, frequent replacement significantly increases a project’s operating costs. This paper proposes a capacity optimization method as well as a cost analysis that takes the BESS lifetime into account. The weighted Wh throughput method is used in this paper to estimate the BESS lifetime. Furthermore, the well-known Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to maximize battery capacity while minimizing the total net present value. According to simulation results, the optimal adjusting factor of 1.761 yields the lowest total net present value of US$200,653. The optimal capacity of the BESS can significantly reduce the net present value of total operation costs throughout the project by extending its lifetime. When applied to larger power systems, the proposed strategy can further reduce total costs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020076
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 77: Topographical Optimization of a Battery
           Module Case That Equips an Electric Vehicle

    • Authors: Ioan Szabo, Liviu I. Scurtu, Horia Raboca, Florin Mariasiu
      First page: 77
      Abstract: The exponential development and successful application of systems-related technologies that can put electric vehicles on a level playing field in direct competition with vehicles powered by internal combustion engines mean that the foreseeable future of the automobile (at least) will be dominated by vehicles that have electric current stored in batteries as a source of energy. The problem at the European level related to the dependence on battery suppliers from Asia directly correlates with the need to use batteries as energy storage media for energy from renewable sources (photovoltaic and wind), and leads to the need for research into the possibilities for their reuse, remanufacturing or recycling (at the end of their life or purpose of use), and reintroduction, either fully or partially, back into the economy. This article presents possibilities for increasing the protection of the integrity of the cells that form a battery in the event of an impact/road accident, by the numerical analysis of a topographically optimized battery module case. The proposed solution/method is innovative and offers a cell protection efficiency of between 16.6–60% (19.7% to 40.7% if the mean values for all three impact velocities are considered). The efficiency of a cell’s protection decreases with the increase in impact velocity and provides the premise for a greater part of the saved cells to be reintegrated into other energy storage systems (photovoltaic and/or wind), avoiding future problems relating to environmental pollution.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020077
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 78: Effect of Graphite Morphology on the
           Electrochemical and Mechanical Properties of SiOx/Graphite Composite Anode
           

    • Authors: Chenyang Wang, Tianyi Ma, Xingge Liu, Zhi Liu, Zenghua Chang, Jing Pang
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Mixing SiOx materials with graphite materials has become a key technology to improve their performance, but it is still unclear what kind of graphite materials help to construct a stable electrode structure. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of graphite morphology on the structure and performance of SiOx/C composite electrodes (850 mAh g−1). For the SiOx/C59 composite electrode constructed by the lamellar graphite (C59) with a big aspect ratio and SiOx particles, the SiOx particles agglomerate in the pores of C59 particles. This uneven electrode structure could lead to excessive stress and strain of the electrode during cycling, which causes the anode electrode structure failure and cycling performance deterioration. While the small-size lamellar graphite (SFG15) with random orientation helps to construct stable electrode structure with uniform particle distribution and pore structure, which could reduce the stress and strain change of the electrode during cycling. Thus, the composite electrode (SiOx/SFG15) exhibits better cycling performance compared with SiOx/C59 composite electrode. This work reveals the structure-activity relationship of graphite morphology, electrode structure and the mechanical and electrochemical performance of the electrode, and provides a guide to the design and development of the high capacity SiOx/C composite electrode structure.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020078
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 79: Recent Progress of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    • Authors: Xiao, Xing
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Compared with lithium-ion batteries, lithium sulfur batteries possess a much lower cost and much higher theoretical energy density, and they are, therefore, becoming a research hotspot [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020079
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 80: Battery SOH Prediction Based on
           Multi-Dimensional Health Indicators

    • Authors: Zhilong Yu, Na Liu, Yekai Zhang, Lihua Qi, Ran Li
      First page: 80
      Abstract: Battery capacity is an important metric for evaluating and predicting the health status of lithium-ion batteries. In order to determine the answer, the battery’s capacity must be, with some difficulty, directly measured online with existing methods. This paper proposes a multi-dimensional health indicator (HI) battery state of health (SOH) prediction method involving the analysis of the battery equivalent circuit model and constant current discharge characteristic curve. The values of polarization resistance, polarization capacitance, and initial discharge resistance are identified as the health indicators reflective of the battery’s state of health. Moreover, the retention strategy genetic algorithm (e-GA) selects the optimal voltage drop segment, and the corresponding equal voltage drop discharge time is also used as a health indicator. Based on the above health indicator selection strategy, a battery SOH prediction model based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) and LSTM neural network is constructed, and its accuracy is validated. The experimental results demonstrate that the suggested strategy is accurate and generalizable. Compared with the prediction model with single health indicator input, the accuracy is increased by 0.79%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020080
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 81: Improving Interfaces in All-Solid-State
           Supercapacitors Using Polymer-Added Activated Carbon Electrodes

    • Authors: Shrishti Sharma, Gurpreet Kaur, Anshuman Dalvi
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Solvent-free all-solid-state supercapacitors have recently received attention. Despite their highly specific capacitance, they suffer issues related to the solid–solid interface that degrade their performance during prolonged cycling. Here, we propose a novel strategy for improving the electrode–electrolyte interface by introducing a small amount of polymer into the activated carbon-based electrode. An electrode composition of 80AC:8SA:7AB:5[PEO0.95 (LiClO4)0.05]—where AC, SA, and AB stand for activated carbon, sodium alginate binder, and acetylene black, respectively—is optimized. A composite membrane—viz., PEO-LiClO4 reinforced with 38 wt% NASICON structured nano crystallites of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3—is used as a solid electrolyte. Incorporating a small amount of salt-in-polymer (95PEO-5 LiClO4) in the electrode matrix leads to a smooth interface formation, thereby improving the performance parameters of the all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSCs). A typical supercapacitor with a polymer-incorporated electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of ~102 Fg−1 at a discharge current of 1.5 Ag−1 and an operating voltage of 2 V near room temperature. These ASSCs also exhibit relatively better galvanostatic charge–discharge cycling, coulombic efficiency, specific energy, and power in comparison to those based on conventional activated carbon.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020081
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 82: Effect of Flame Retardants and Electrolyte
           Variations on Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Natalia Fulik, Andreas Hofmann, Dorit Nötzel, Marcus Müller, Ingo Reuter, Freya Müller, Anna Smith, Thomas Hanemann
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are being increasingly used and deployed commercially. Cell-level improvements that address flammability characteristics and thermal runaway are currently being intensively tested and explored. In this study, three additives—namely, lithium oxalate, sodium fumarate and sodium malonate—which exhibit fire-retardant properties are investigated with respect to their incorporation into graphite anodes and their electro/chemical interactions within the anode and the cell material studied. It has been shown that flame-retardant concentrations of up to approximately 20 wt.% within the anode coating do not cause significant capacity degradation but can provide a flame-retardant effect due to their inherent, fire-retardant release of CO2 gas. The flame-retardant-containing layers exhibit good adhesion to the current collector. Their suitability in lithium-ion cells was tested in pouch cells and, when compared to pure graphite anodes, showed almost no deterioration regarding cell capacity when used in moderate (≤20 wt.%) concentrations.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020082
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 83: Cycle Tests on the Influence of Different
           Charging Currents—A Case Study on Different Commercial, Cylindrical
           Lithium Ion Cells

    • Authors: Anke Parschau, David Degler, Alexander Fill, Kai Peter Birke, Frank Allmendinger
      First page: 83
      Abstract: On the way to a Precise Battery, the generation of measurement results and findings based on them play an important role. Although cycle life tests are time-consuming and expensive, they can provide support and important information. Especially in the current topic of accelerating the charging process, it is important to know how different charging currents affect different cell types. The CC CV charging method is still the most common, widely used method. Therefore, long-term cycle tests are carried out in this work in order to clarify the influence of different charging currents, as recommended by the cell manufacturers. Common high-energy and high-power cylindrical lithium ion cells are investigated and compared. In addition to the influence of the charging protocol on the aging, charging time and heating, the effects on the dispersion of the cells as well as the effects on the constant current and the constant voltage part of the charging process are considered. From the results it can be seen how different the investigated cells behave in response to increased charging currents. Even supposedly similar cells show significant differences in aging behavior.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020083
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 84: An Efficient EMS for BESS in Monopolar DC
           Networks with High Penetration of Renewable Generation: A Convex
           Approximation

    • Authors: Luis Fernando Grisales-Noreña, Oscar Danilo Montoya, Jesús C. Hernández
      First page: 84
      Abstract: This research presents an efficient energy management system (EMS) for battery energy storage systems (BESS) connected to monopolar DC distribution networks which considers a high penetration of photovoltaic generation. The optimization model that expresses the EMS system with the BESS and renewable generation can be classified as a nonlinear programming (NLP) model. This study reformulates the NLP model as a recursive convex approximation (RCA) model. The proposed RCA model is developed by applying a linear approximation for the voltage magnitudes only at nodes that include constant power loads. The nodes with BESS and renewables are approximated through the relaxation of their voltage magnitude. Numerical results obtained in the monopolar version of a 33-bus system, which included three generators and three BESS, demonstrate the effectiveness of the RCA reformulation when compared to the solution of the exact NLP model via combinatorial optimization techniques. Additional simulations considering wind power and diesel generators allow one to verify the effectiveness of the proposed RCA in dealing with the efficient operation of distributed energy resources in monopolar DC networks via recursive convex programming.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020084
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 85: An Insoluble Amino-Functionalized
           Hexaazatriphenylene as Stable Organic Cathode in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Pengfei Xu, Xiao Jin, Biao Zhang, Xin Wang, Dong Liu
      First page: 85
      Abstract: Organic electrode materials have received increasing attention in rechargeable batteries due to their earth abundance and variable structures. However, the practical application of most organic electrode materials is limited by the high solubility in the electrolyte. Herein, an insoluble amino-functionalized hexaazatriphenylene (defined as HATN-[NH2]3) in the electrolyte is developed as stable organic cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The resultant HATN-[NH2]3 electrode achieves a high reversible capacity of 192.5 mAh g−1 at a current density of 0.05 A g−1. Remarkably, the electrode exhibits almost no capacity fade after 500 cycles at 0.5 A g−1. The high stability can be ascribed to insoluble property caused by hydrogen bonds between HATN-[NH2]3 molecules. Moreover, density functional theory calculations suggest that amino functionalization can reduce the band gap of HATN, in favor of improved conductivity and thus enhanced rate performance. This work offers a simple but efficient strategy to develop stable organic electrode materials in LIBs and beyond.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020085
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 86: Application of First Principles Computations
           Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) in Cathode Materials of
           Sodium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Yuqiu Wang, Binkai Yu, Jin Xiao, Limin Zhou, Mingzhe Chen
      First page: 86
      Abstract: Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been widely explored by researchers because of their abundant raw materials, uniform distribution, high-energy density and conductivity, low cost, and high safety. In recent years, theoretical calculations and experimental studies on SIBs have been increasing, and the applications and results of first-principles calculations have aroused extensive interests worldwide. Herein, the authors review the applications of density functional (DFT) theory in cathode materials for SIBs, summarize the applications of DFT in transition-metal oxides/chalcogenides, polyanionic compounds, Prussian blue, and organic cathode materials for SIBs from three aspects: diffusion energy barrier and diffusion path, energy calculation and structure, and electronic structure. The relationship between the structure and performance of the battery material will be comprehensively understood by analyzing the specific working principle of battery material through theoretical calculation and combining with high-precision experimental characterization technologies. Selecting materials with good performance from a large number of electrode materials through theoretical calculation can avoid unnecessary complex experiments and instrument characterizations. With the gradual deepening of research, the DFT calculation will play a greater role in the sodium-ion battery electrode field.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020086
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 87: Limiting Factors Affecting the Ionic
           Conductivities of LATP/Polymer Hybrid Electrolytes

    • Authors: Adrien Méry, Steeve Rousselot, David Lepage, David Aymé-Perrot, Mickael Dollé
      First page: 87
      Abstract: All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries (ASSLB) are promising candidates for next generation lithium battery systems due to their increased safety, stability, and energy density. Ceramic and solid composite electrolytes (SCE), which consist of dispersed ceramic particles within a polymeric host, are among the preferred technologies for use as electrolytes in ASSLB systems. Synergetic effects between ceramic and polymer electrolyte components are usually reported in SCE. Herein, we report a case study on the lithium conductivity of ceramic and SCE comprised of Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO4)3 (LATP), a NASICON-type ceramic. An evaluation of the impact of the processing and sintering of the ceramic on the conductive properties of the electrolyte is addressed. The study is then extended to Poly(Ethylene) Oxide (PEO)-LATP SCE. The presence of the ceramic particles conferred limited benefits to the SCE. These findings somewhat contradict commonly held assumptions on the role of ceramic additives in SCE.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020087
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 88: A New Health Analysis Method for Lithium-Ion
           

    • Authors: Yunyi Zhang, Shuchang Wang, Wei He, Wei Zhang, Shuaiwen Tang, Guohui Zhou
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in energy storage, small electronic devices and other fields due to their advantages of high energy density and long life cycles, as well as causing less damage to the environment than alternatives. For safety, it is essential to propose reasonable methods to assess batteries’ health statuses. Therefore, a health assessment model based on the evidential reasoning (ER) rule is proposed in this article. Firstly, the voltage rise time and the current fall time are taken as observation indicators, which contain information about the health status of lithium-ion batteries. Secondly, the information of various indicators is integrated into a belief structure, and the indicator reliability and indicator weights are adequately considered in the assessment model. Thirdly, there are some perturbations that will affect the operating status of batteries and cause the batteries’ reliability to fluctuate, so we use perturbation analysis to determine the adaptability of batteries to perturbations. We set two bounded parameters, the perturbation coefficient and the maximum perturbation error, to assess the reliability of lithium-ion batteries when experiencing perturbations. Finally, on the basis of the whole-life open data set of lithium-ion batteries from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Prognostics Center of Excellence, the validity of the health assessment model and perturbation analysis is demonstrated.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020088
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 89: Integration of Electrode Markings into the
           Manufacturing Process of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells for Tracking and
           Tracing Applications

    • Authors: Alessandro Sommer, Matthias Leeb, Lukas Weishaeupl, Ruediger Daub
      First page: 89
      Abstract: One of the major challenges of battery cell manufacturing is the reduction of production costs. Production defects and manufacturing inaccuracies, combined with high value streams, cause cost-intensive scrap rates. Conventional batch tracing is insufficient to detect rejects at an early stage, since the quality-critical intermediate products are not considered in a differentiated manner. To address this deficiency, tracking and tracing approaches in battery cell production are becoming increasingly popular. To obtain sufficient resolutions of the production data, the allocation of process and product data must be performed at the electrode sheet level. An interface is required for this, which can be realized by marking the individual electrodes. This paper investigates the integration of two well-known marking technologies: laser and ink marking. Integrating these marking technologies requires the consideration of physical boundary conditions in the process chain. For this purpose, the necessary investigations are presented in a structured manner to ensure that the marking does not have a negative influence on the process chain and vice versa. A pilot production line is used as an example to demonstrate the necessary tests for the integration of laser or ink markings.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020089
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 90: Urea-Assisted Sol-Gel Synthesis of LaMnO3
           Perovskite with Accelerated Catalytic Activity for Application in Zn-Air
           Battery

    • Authors: Kaikai Luo, Qilong Zheng, Yi Yu, Chunchang Wang, Shanshan Jiang, Haijuan Zhang, Yu Liu, Youmin Guo
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Precious metal-based materials such as commercial Pt/C are available electrocatalysts for redox reactions in Zn-air batteries. However, their commercial use is still limited by slow kinetics and restricted stability. In this work, we highlight a facial urea-assisted sol-gel method to synthesize A-site vacancy in LaMnO3+δ oxide for boosting its catalytic activity and further explore the effect of the amount of urea on the A-site LaMnO3. The A-site vacancy in LMO was confirmed by XRD, TEM, and XPS, which revealed that the urea-assisted sol-gel method mitigated the A-site vacancy in LaMnO3+δ and increased its surface area, thus ultimately accelerating its redox reaction kinetics. The half-wave potential and current density of the resultant 3.0U-LMO electrocatalyst were 0.74 V and 5.74 mA cm−2, respectively. It is worth noting that the assembled Zn-air battery with the 3.0U-LMO catalyst presented a power output of 130.04 mW cm−2 at 0.51 V and a promising energy efficiency of 58.4% after 150 cycles. This protocol might offer an efficient approach for developing new defect-regulated perovskites for electrocatalysis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020090
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 91: Two-Step Solid State Synthesis of Medium
           Entropy LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    • Authors: Wentao Wu, Shuai Zuo, Xu Zhang, Xuyong Feng
      First page: 91
      Abstract: Solid state reaction is widely used in the synthesis of electrode materials, due to its low cost and good scalability. However, the traditional solid-state reaction is not suitable for the synthesis of materials with multiple elements, such as high entropy or medium entropy materials, due to the poor homogeneity of raw material mixing. Here, we prepared multi-element doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (medium entropy) cathode material by two step solid state reaction. X-ray diffraction and Raman image show that the homogeneity of multi-element doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode has been greatly improved with this two-step method. As a result, the electrochemical performance is greatly improved, comparing to traditional solid-state reaction. First, the specific capacity at 0.1 C is increased from 126 mAh/g to 137 mAh/g. With a high current density of 10 C, the specific capacity is even increased from 64 mAh/g to 89 mAh/g with this two-step method. Second, the cycle stability is enhanced, with capacity retention of 86% after cycling at 1 C for 500 times (vs. 71% for the one-step method).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020091
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 92: Molybdenum Vanadium Oxides as Intercalation
           Hosts for Chloroaluminate Anions

    • Authors: Kevin Bhimani, Aniruddha Singh Lakhnot, Shyam Sharma, Mukul Sharma, Reena A. Panchal, Varad Mahajani, Nikhil Koratkar
      First page: 92
      Abstract: Driven by the cost and scarcity of Lithium resources, it is imperative to explore alternative battery chemistries such as those based on Aluminum (Al). One of the key challenges associated with the development of Al-ion batteries is the limited choice of cathode materials. In this work, we explore an open-tunnel framework-based oxide (Mo3VOx) as a cathode in an Al-ion battery. The orthorhombic phase of molybdenum vanadium oxide (o-MVO) has been tested previously in Al-ion batteries but has shown poor coulombic efficiency and rapid capacity fade. Our results for o-MVO are consistent with the literature. However, when we explored the trigonal polymorph of MVO (t-MVO), we observe stable cycling performance with much improved coulombic efficiency. At a charge–discharge rate of ~0.4C, a specific capacity of ~190 mAh g−1 was obtained, and at a higher rate of 1C, a specific capacity of ~116 mAh g−1 was achieved. We show that differences in synthesis conditions of t-MVO and o-MVO result in significantly higher residual moisture in o-MVO, which can explain its poor reversibility and coulombic efficiency due to undesirable water interactions with the ionic liquid electrolyte. We also highlight the working mechanism of MVO AlCl3–[BMIm]Cl Al to be different than reported previously.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020092
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 93: Neural Network-Based Li-Ion Battery Aging
           Model at Accelerated C-Rate

    • Authors: Md Azizul Hoque, Mohd Khair Hassan, Abdurrahman Hajjo, Mohammad Osman Tokhi
      First page: 93
      Abstract: Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are widely used in electric vehicles (EVs) because of their high energy density, low self-discharge, and superior performance. Despite this, Li-ion batteries’ performance and reliability become critical as they lose their capacity with increasing charge and discharging cycles. Moreover, Li-ion batteries are subject to aging in EVs due to load variations in discharge. Monitoring the battery cycle life at various discharge rates would enable the battery management system (BMS) to implement control parameters to resolve the aging issue. In this paper, a battery lifetime degradation model is proposed at an accelerated current rate (C-rate). Furthermore, an ideal lifetime discharge rate within the standard C-rate and beyond the C-rate is proposed. The consequence of discharging at an accelerated C-rate on the cycle life of the batteries is thoroughly investigated. Moreover, the battery degradation model is investigated with a deep learning algorithm-based feed-forward neural network (FNN), and a recurrent neural network (RNN) with long short-term memory (LSTM) layer. A comparative assessment of performance of the developed models is carried out and it is shown that the LSTM-RNN battery aging model has superior performance at accelerated C-rate compared to the traditional FNN network.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020093
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 94: Online State of Health Estimation of
           Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Charging Process and Long Short-Term Memory
           Recurrent Neural Network

    • Authors: Kang Liu, Longyun Kang, Di Xie
      First page: 94
      Abstract: Accurate state of health (SOH) estimation is critical to the operation, maintenance, and replacement of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), which have penetrated almost every aspect of our life. This paper introduces a new approach to accurately estimate the SOH for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries based on the corresponding charging process and long short-term memory recurrent neural network (LSTM-RNN). In order to learn the mapping function without employing battery models and filtering techniques, the LSTM-RNN is initially fed into the health indicators (HIs) extracted from the charging process and trained to encode the dependencies of the related data sequence. Subsequently, the trained LSTM-RNN can properly estimate online SOHs of LIBs using extracted HIs. We experiment on two public datasets for model construction, validation, and comparison. Conclusively, the trained LSTM-RNN achieves an overall root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 1% on the cases with the same discharging current rate and an RMSE of 1.1198% above 80% SOH on another testing case that underwent a different discharging current rate.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020094
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 95: Two-Dimensional VO2 Nanosheets with a
           Controllable Crystalline-Preferred Orientation for High-Performance
           Zinc-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Shanshan Shi, Yang Yu, Xiaochen Feng, Ruijuan Qi, Yufeng Zhao
      First page: 95
      Abstract: Due to the environmental friendliness, cost-effectiveness and inherent safety, rechargeable aqueous zinc ion batteries have attracted much interest as a promising energy storage device. VO2 is one of the most common materials for rechargeable zinc ion batteries. The insertion/extraction of zinc ions within VO2 is highly anisotropic, with different channel sizes along different axes. Therefore, it is quite important to control the orientation of VO2 crystals so as to manipulate the transportation of Zn2+ ions more effectively and sufficiently. Herein, a novel intercalation-type two-dimensional VO2 nanosheet with preferred orientation (PO-VO2) of the c-axis was prepared. Benefitting from the structural merits, the PO-VO2 nanosheets demonstrate an attractive capacity of 511.6 mAh g−1 at a current density of 0.05 A g−1 in a voltage of 0.2–1.6 V, which is obviously better than that of many vanadium oxide-based cathodes reported until now. The PO-VO2//Zn aqueous zinc ion full cell exhibits a high energy density of 290.5 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 38.4 W kg−1 (based on the mass of the VO2 cathode electrode). The outstanding energy storage behavior, together with the facile and affordable synthesis route, endows the PO-VO2 nanosheets with promising applications for aqueous zinc ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020095
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 96: Experimental Analysis of Drying Kinetics and
           Quality Aspects of Convection-Dried Cathodes at Laboratory Scale

    • Authors: Silje Nornes Bryntesen, Armin Kahrom, Jacob Joseph Lamb, Ignat Tolstorebrov, Odne Stokke Burheim
      First page: 96
      Abstract: The evaporation of N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent during the large-scale production of LiNixMn1−x−yCoyO2 (NMC) cathodes usually occurs in convection ovens. This paper aims to close the gap between the industrial convection drying method and the conventional vacuum oven typically used at the laboratory scale. Multiple studies focus on modeling convection dryers to reduce energy consumption, but few have studied their impact on the cathode quality experimentally and compared them to vacuum-dried cathodes. A convection oven designed for LIB electrode drying was developed to investigate the influence of drying kinetics on the formation of small electrode surface cracks (<1400 μm2) and binder migration. The drying kinetics were revealed through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at drying temperatures of 50 and 100 °C and hot air velocities of 0.5 and 1 m/s. Even at these relatively low drying rates, structural differences were detected when comparing the two drying methods, illustrating the importance of implementing drying conditions that represent the industry process in laboratories. Surface cracking increased with drying rates, and cathodes with multiple cracks after calendering obtained a higher discharge capacity at discharge currents >C/2. An alternative surface analysis with less sample preparation was sufficient for determining the relative change in binder migration.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020096
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 97: Time-Resolved and Robust Lithium Plating
           Detection for Automotive Lithium-Ion Cells with the Potential for Vehicle
           Application

    • Authors: Jan P. Schmidt, Alexander Adam, Johannes Wandt
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Fast charging is a key requirement for customer acceptance of battery electric vehicles. Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries is limited by lithium plating, an undesired side reaction that leads to rapid degradation and poses a potential safety hazard. In order to approach but not exceed the lithium plating current limit during fast charging, a variety of analytical tools have been developed to detect lithium plating. In this publication, we propose a new impedance-based method for the time-resolved detection of lithium plating. The proposed method was demonstrated with an integrated cell monitoring circuit capable of measuring the impedance during cell operation, bringing the feasibility of implementation in an automotive target application within reach. Importantly, the proposed method eliminates the temperature dependence which is an intrinsic problem for impedance-based lithium plating detection in automotive lithium-ion cells, thus making on-board plating detection feasible.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020097
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 98: Electrochemical Performance and Stress
           Distribution of Sb/Sb2O3 Nanoparticles as Anode Materials for Sodium-Ion
           Batteries

    • Authors: Jiajun Chen, Songnan Zhao, Weijia Meng, Meiqing Guo, Genwei Wang, Chunli Guo, Zhongchao Bai, Zhiqiang Li, Jiaye Ye, Hui Song, Xiaojun Wang
      First page: 98
      Abstract: We synthesize Sb/Sb2O3 nanoparticles by the oxidation of Sb nanoparticles at 100, 200, and 300 °C. The half sodium-ion batteries with Sb/Sb2O3-200 exhibit the optimal performance with a charge capacity of 540 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1, maintaining up to six times more capacity than pure Sb, and superior rate performance with 95.7% retention after cycling at varied current densities. One reason for this is that Sb/Sb2O3-200 is at exactly the optimum ratio of Sb2O3:Sb and the particle size of Sb/Sb2O3 to ensure both high capacity for Na+ and small stress during sodiation/desodiation, which is confirmed by the diffusion–stress coupled results. It indicates that increasing the ratio of Sb2O3:Sb causes a decrease of Mises equivalent stress, radial stress, and tangential stress in the range of 1:1–3.5:1, and an increase in the range of 3.5:1–4:1. These stresses decrease with a particle radius in the range of 30–50 nm and increase with a particle radius in the range of 50–70 nm. Additionally, another reason is related to the formation of cycling-induced coral-like Sb, which can promote Na+ diffusion, relieve cycling-induced volume changes, and provide exceptional Na+ storage.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020098
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 99: General Decoupling and Sampling Technique for
           Reduced-Sensor Battery Management Systems in Modular Reconfigurable
           Batteries

    • Authors: Nima Tashakor, Janvier Dusengimana, Mahdi Bayati, Anton Kersten, Hans Schotten, Stefan Götz
      First page: 99
      Abstract: The capacity and voltage rating of battery packs for electric vehicles or stationary energy storages are increasing, which challenge battery management and monitoring. Breaking the larger pack into smaller modules and using power electronics to achieve dynamic reconfiguration can be a solution. Reconfigurable batteries come with their own set of problems, including many sensors and complex monitoring systems, high-bandwidth communication interfaces, and additional costs. Online parameter estimation methods can simplify or omit many of these problems and reduce the cost and footprint of the system. However, most methods require many sensors or can only estimate a subset of the elements in the module’s equivalent circuit model (ECM). This paper proposes a simple decoupling technique to derive individual modules’ voltage and current profiles from the output measurements without direct measurement at the modules. The determined profiles can achieve a high sampling rate with minimum communication between the battery management system (BMS) and the modules. With accurate profiles, an estimation technique can easily determine the parameters of the modules. Provided simulations and experiments confirm this claim by estimating the parameters of a first-order ECM with a parallel capacitor. The proposed technique reduces the number of sensors from 2N + 2 to only two at the pack’s output terminals.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020099
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 100: Iterative Nonlinear Fuzzy Modeling of
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: José M. Andújar, Antonio J. Barragán, Francisco J. Vivas, Juan M. Enrique, Francisca Segura
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs), in their pure and hybrid variants, have become the main alternative to ensure the decarbonization of the current vehicle fleet. Due to its excellent performance, EV technology is closely linked to lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology. A LIB is a complex dynamic system with extraordinary nonlinear behavior defined by electrical, thermal and electrochemical dynamics. To ensure the proper management of a LIB in such demanding applications as EVs, it is crucial to have an accurate mathematical model that can adequately predict its dynamic behavior. Furthermore, this model must be able to iteratively adapt its parameters to accommodate system disturbances during its operation as well as performance loss in terms of efficiency and nominal capacity during its life cycle. To this end, a methodology that employs the extended Kalman filter to iteratively improve a fuzzy model applied to a real LIB is presented in this paper. This algorithm allows to improve the classical Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model (TSFM) with each new set of data obtained, adapting the model to the variations of the battery characteristics throughout its operating cycle. Data for modeling and subsequent validation were collected during experimental tests on a real LIB under EVs driving cycle conditions according to the “worldwide harmonised light vehicle test procedure” (WLTP) standard. The TSFM results allow the creation of an accurate nonlinear dynamic model of the LIB, even under fluctuating operating conditions, demonstrating its suitability for modeling and design of model-based control systems for LIBs used in EVs applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020100
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 101: Equivalent Circuit Model for High-Power
           Lithium-Ion Batteries under High Current Rates, Wide Temperature Range,
           and Various State of Charges

    • Authors: Danial Karimi, Hamidreza Behi, Joeri Van Mierlo, Maitane Berecibar
      First page: 101
      Abstract: The most employed technique to mimic the behavior of lithium-ion cells to monitor and control them is the equivalent circuit model (ECM). This modeling tool should be precise enough to ensure the system’s reliability. Two significant parameters that affect the accuracy of the ECM are the applied current rate and operating temperature. Without a thorough understating of the influence of these parameters on the ECM, parameter estimation should be carried out manually within the calibration, which is not favorable. In this work, an enhanced ECM was developed for high-power lithium-ion capacitors (LiC) for a wide temperature range from the freezing temperature of −30 °C to the hot temperature of +60 °C with the applied rates from 10 A to 500 A. In this context, experimental tests were carried out to mimic the behavior of the LiC by modeling an ECM with two RC branches. In these branches, two resistance and capacitance (RC) are required to maintain the precision of the model. The validation results proved that the semi-empirical second-order ECM can estimate the electrical and thermal parameters of the LiC with high accuracy. In this context, when the current rate was less than 150 A, the error of the developed ECM was lower than 3%. Additionally, when the demanded power was high, in current rates above 150 A, the simulation error was lower than 5%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020101
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 102: Carbon Nano-Onion-Encapsulated Ni
           Nanoparticles for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitors

    • Authors: Xiaohu Zhang, Keliang Zhang, Weike Zhang, Xiong Zhang, Lei Wang, Yabin An, Xianzhong Sun, Chen Li, Kai Wang, Yanwei Ma
      First page: 102
      Abstract: Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) feature a high-power density, long-term cycling stability, and good energy storage performance, and so, LICs will be widely applied in new energy, new infrastructure, intelligent manufacturing. and other fields. To further enhance the comprehensive performance of LICs, the exploration of new material systems has become a focus of research. Carbon nano-onions (CNOs) are promising candidates in the field of energy storage due to the properties of their outstanding electrical conductivity, large external surface area, and nanoscopic dimensions. Herein, the structure, composition, and electrochemical properties of carbon nano-onion-encapsulated Ni nanoparticles (Ni@CNOs) have been characterized first in the present study. The initial discharge and charge capacities of Ni@CNOs as anodes (in half-cells (vs. Li)) were 869 and 481 mAh g−1 at 0.1 A g−1, respectively. Even at a current density of 10 A g−1, the reversible specific capacity remained at 111 mAh g−1. Ni@CNOs were used as anode materials to assemble LICs (full pouch cells (vs. activated carbon)), which exhibited compelling electrochemical performance and cycle stability after optimizing the mass ratio of the positive and negative electrodes. The energy density of the LICs reached 140.1 Wh kg−1 at 280.2 W kg−1 and even maintained 76.6 Wh kg−1 at 27.36 kW kg−1. The LICs also demonstrated excellent cycling stability with a 94.09% capacitance retention over 40,000 cycles. Thus, this work provides an effective solution for the ultra-rapid fabrication of Ni-cored carbon nano-onion materials to achieve high-performance LICs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9020102
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 33: Comprehensive Degradation Analysis of NCA
           Li-Ion Batteries via Methods of Electrochemical Characterisation for
           Various Stress-Inducing Scenarios

    • Authors: Martin Kemeny, Peter Ondrejka, Miroslav Mikolasek
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with Ni-based cathodes are leading storage technology in the fields of electric vehicles and power-grid applications. NCA (LiNiCoAlO2) batteries are known for their troublesome degradation tendencies, and this susceptibility to degradation raises questions regarding the safety of their usage. Hence, it is of vital importance to analyse the degradation of NCA batteries via methods which are applicable to onboard systems, so that the changes in the battery’s state of health can be addressed accordingly. For this purpose, it is crucial to study batteries stressed by various conditions which might induce degradation of different origins or magnitudes. Methods such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), and incremental capacity analysis (ICA) have been used in battery research for years, however, there is a lack of published studies which would analyse the degradation of NCA batteries by simultaneous usage of these methods, which is essential for a comprehensive and confirmatory understanding of battery degradation. This study intends to fill this research gap by analysing the degradation of NCA batteries via simultaneous usage of EIS, GITT, and ICA methods for common stress-inducing operating conditions (over-charge, over-discharge, and high-current charging).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010033
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 34: Strain Compensation Methods for Fiber Bragg
           Grating Temperature Sensors Suitable for Integration into Lithium-Ion
           Battery Electrolyte

    • Authors: Johanna Unterkofler, Gregor Glanz, Markus Koller, Reinhard Klambauer, Alexander Bergmann
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Temperature is a crucial factor for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. During operation, the internal temperature rises above the external temperature due to poor inner thermal conductivity. Various sensors have been proposed to detect the internal temperature, including fiber Bragg grating sensors. However, to the authors’ knowledge, there is no detailed description of the encapsulation of the fiber Bragg grating sensor in the literature to shield it from strain. In this study, different encapsulation methods for strain compensation were compared to find the encapsulation material most compatible with the electrolyte. For this, we stored the proposed sensors with different encapsulation methods in ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate (EC:EMC) 3:7 with LiPF6 (lithium hexafluorophosphate) electrolyte and applied temperature changes. After evaluating the sensor encapsulation methods in terms of handling, diameter, uncertainty, usability, and hysteresis behavior, the most suitable sensor encapsulation was found to be a fused silica capillary with polyimide coating.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010034
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 35: High-Performance Metal–Chalcogen
           Batteries

    • Authors: Long Zhang
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The rapid proliferation in the market for smart devices, electric vehicles, and power grids over the past decade has substantially increased the demand for commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010035
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 36: Recent Progress and Perspectives of Solid
           State Na-CO2 Batteries

    • Authors: Zelin Wang, Chunwen Sun, Liang Lu, Lifang Jiao
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Solid state Na-CO2 batteries are a kind of promising energy storage system, which can use excess CO2 for electrochemical energy storage. They not only have high theoretical energy densities, but also feature a high safety level of solid-state batteries and low cost owing to abundant sodium metal resources. Although many efforts have been made, the practical application of Na-CO2 battery technology is still hampered by some crucial challenges, including short cycle life, high charging potential, poor rate performance and lower specific full discharge capacity. This paper systematically reviews the recent research advances in Na-CO2 batteries in terms of understanding the mechanism of CO2 reduction, carbonate formation and decomposition reaction, design strategies of cathode electrocatalysts, solid electrolytes and their interface design. In addition, the application of advanced in situ characterization techniques and theoretical calculation of metal–CO2 batteries are briefly introduced, and the combination of theory and experiment in the research of battery materials is discussed as well. Finally, the opportunities and key challenges of solid-state Na-CO2 electrochemical systems in the carbon-neutral era are presented.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010036
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 37: A Stable Porous Aluminum Electrode with High
           Capacity for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Chen, Ruck
      First page: 37
      Abstract: A binder-free aluminum (Al) electrode was fabricated by electrodeposition on a three-dimensional copper foam (3DCu) or carbon fabric (3DCF) from a mixed-halide ionic liquid. The strong adhesion, structural stability and interface compatibility between Al and 3DCu facilitate high electrical conductivity and effectively alleviate large volume change. In a lithium-ion battery, the continuous, dendrite-free Al/3DCu electrode enables stable and reversible reactions, which delivered a first discharge capacity of 981 mAh g−1 in a coin cell at 21 mA g−1. It operates stably for at least 12 cycles with a discharge depth of about 1 mAh per cycle (7 h each) at the rate of 21 mA g−1. The cycled Al/3DCu electrode maintains good interfacial stability and shows no shedding. In contrast to many nanostructured electrodes, the amount of Al can reach 30% of a solid Al electrode with an average conversion to Li0.71Al. The concept of porous 3D electrodes provides a good compromise between diffusion kinetics and the total amount of active metal available in a battery with alloying-type anodes and appears promising for application.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010037
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 38: Enhanced High-Rate Capability of Iodide-Doped
           Li4Ti5O12 as an Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Lukman Noerochim, Rachmad Sulaksono Prabowo, Widyastuti Widyastuti, Diah Susanti, Achmad Subhan, Nurul Hayati Idris
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is an alternative anode material to substitute commercial graphite for lithium-ion batteries due to its superior long cycle life, small volume change (zero strain), good thermal stability, and relatively high power. In this work, iodide-doped LTO is prepared by solid-state reaction method via ball milling method and subsequently calcined at 750 °C for 10 h in air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of iodide-doped LTO reveals the spinel cubic structure without any impurities detected. The 0.2 mol lithium iodide-doped LTO shows enhanced high-rate capability with a specific discharge capacity of 123.31 mAh g−1 at 15 C. The long cyclic performance of 0.2 mol lithium iodide-doped LTO delivers a specific discharge capacity of 171.19 mAh g−1 at 1 C with a capacity retention of 99.15% after 100 cycles. It shows that the iodide-doped LTO is a promising strategy for preparing a high electrochemical performance of LTO for the anode of lithium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010038
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 39: Electrochemical Evaluation of Different
           Graphite Felt Electrode Treatments in Full Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    • Authors: Itziar Azpitarte, Unai Eletxigerra, Angela Barros, Estibaliz Aranzabe, Rosalía Cid
      First page: 39
      Abstract: The use of flow batteries for energy storage has attracted considerable attention with the increased use of renewable resources. It is well known that the performance of a flow battery depends, among other factors, on the properties of the electrodes, which are generally composed of graphite felt (GF). In this work, thermal, chemical and plasma treatments have been employed to modify the surface of the graphite felt to improve the electrochemical activity of the redox flow cell. The influence of the variables of each of these processes on the generation of surface functional groups and on changes in the obtained surface area have been examined. In this work, the kinetics of redox reactions relevant to the VO2+/VO2+ reaction have been studied with these treated electrodes and the relationship between the nature of the surface and electrochemical activity of the GF is discussed. As a result, an enhanced electrochemical performance (reduction over 200 mV of the separation between anodic and cathodic peaks and 110 mV of the onset potential) in comparison to the untreated GF is obtained for those GF treatments with low oxygenated groups concentration.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010039
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 40: Nitrogen, Phosphorus Co-Doped Graphite Felt
           as Highly Efficient Electrode for VO2+/VO2+ Reaction

    • Authors: Zhang Jialin, Liu Yiyang, Lu Shanfu, Xiang Yan
      First page: 40
      Abstract: All-vanadium redox flow batteries hold promise for the next-generation grid-level energy storage technology in the future. However, the low electrocatalytic activity of initial graphite felt constrains the development of VRFBs. Furthermore, the positive VO2+/VO2+ reaction involves complex multistep processes and more sluggish kinetics than negative V2+/V3+ reaction. Therefore, enhancing the kinetics of positive reaction is especially important. Heteroatom doping is one of the effective strategies for preparing carbon electrodes with high electrocatalytic activity and good stability. Here, a nitrogen, phosphorus co-doped graphite felt is prepared. Nitrogen introduces more negative charge into the carbon lattice due to the higher electronegativity, and more oxygen-containing functional groups will be introduced into the carbon lattice due to phosphorus-doped graphite felt. N, P co-doping provides more adsorption sites for vanadium ions. As a result, nitrogen, phosphorus co-doped graphite felt shows high electrochemical activity and good stability, and the corresponding VRFB presents a good voltage efficiency of 75% at a current density of 300 mA cm−2, which is 11% higher than the pristine graphite felt. During 100 charge/discharge cycles, the energy efficiency and voltage efficiency remain at 84% and 86% under the current density of 150 mA cm−2.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010040
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 41: An Overview of Challenges and Strategies for
           Stabilizing Zinc Anodes in Aqueous Rechargeable Zn-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Nhat Anh Thieu, Wei Li, Xiujuan Chen, Shanshan Hu, Hanchen Tian, Ha Ngoc Ngan Tran, Wenyuan Li, David M. Reed, Xiaolin Li, Xingbo Liu
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Aqueous rechargeable zinc ion batteries (ZIBs) have been revived and are considered a promising candidate for scalable electrochemical energy storage systems due to their intrinsic safety, low cost, large abundance, mature recyclability, competitive electrochemical performance, and sustainability. However, the deployment of aqueous rechargeable ZIBs is still hampered by the poor electrochemical stability and reversibility of Zn anodes, which is a common, inherent issue for most metal-based anodes. This review presents a comprehensive and timely overview of the challenges and strategies of Zn anodes toward durable ZIBs. First, several challenges that significantly reduce the Coulombic efficiency and cycling stability of Zn anodes are briefly discussed including dendrite formation, hydrogen evolution, and corrosion. Then, the mitigation strategies are summarized in terms of modifying the electrode/electrolyte interfaces, designing electrode structures, and optimizing electrolytes and separators. Further, we comprehensively discuss the mechanisms behind these issues and improvement strategies with respect to the anodes, electrolytes, and separators. Lastly, we provide perspectives and critical analyses of remaining challenges, outlook, and future direction for accelerating the practical application of aqueous rechargeable ZIBs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010041
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 42: Effects of Different Charging Currents and
           Temperatures on the Voltage Plateau Behavior of Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Xingxing Wang, Yujie Zhang, Yelin Deng, Yinnan Yuan, Fubao Zhang, Shuaishuai Lv, Yu Zhu, Hongjun Ni
      First page: 42
      Abstract: Lithium-ion power batteries, which are the foundation of electric cars and are expected to play a significant role in a variety of operating environments and application situations, have major development prospects. In order to obtain the optimal operation range of ternary Li-ion batteries under various current rates and test temperatures, the characteristics of the voltage plateau period (VPP) of batteries in different states are examined by piecewise fitting based on charging and discharging cycle experiments. The findings demonstrate that while charging at current rates of 0.10C, 0.25C, 0.50C, 0.75C, and 1.00C under temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C, and 10 °C, the battery’s termination voltage changes seamlessly from 3.5−3.75 V, 3.55−3.8 V, 3.6−3.85 V, 3.7−4 V, and 3.85−4.05 V, the growth in surface temperature does not surpass its maximum level, and the charge capacity exceeds 50%. Batteries operate more effectively. When the test temperature is −20 °C, the voltage rebound stage that occurs in the initial period of charging at 0.50C, 0.75C, and 1.00C accounts for the highest charge capacity, close to 70%. The study’s findings can be used as a guide when designing a lithium-ion power battery’s model and control method for an electric vehicle’s energy storage system.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010042
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 43: State of Charge Estimation of LiFePO4 in
           Various Temperature Scenarios

    • Authors: Mingzhu Wang, Guan Wang, Zhanlong Xiao, Yuedong Sun, Yuejiu Zheng
      First page: 43
      Abstract: The state estimation of a battery is a significant component of a BMS. Due to the poor temperature performance and voltage plateau phase in LiFePO4 batteries, the difficulty of state estimation is greatly increased. At the same time, the ambient temperature in which the battery operates is changeable, and its parameters will vary with the temperature. Therefore, it is extremely challenging to estimate the state of LiFePO4 batteries under variable temperatures. In an effort to accurately estimate the SOC of LiFePO4 batteries at different and variable temperatures, as well as its capacity at low temperature, the characteristics of LiFePO4 batteries at different temperatures are first tested. In addition, a variable temperature OCV experiment is designed to obtain the OCV of the full SOC range. Then, the ECM considering temperature is established and all parameters are identified by PSO. Finally, an improved EKF algorithm is presented to accurately estimate the SOC of LiFePO4 batteries at different and variable temperatures. Meanwhile, the battery capacity at low temperature is further estimated based on the estimated SOC result. The results show that SOC estimation errors at variable temperature are all within 3%, and the capacity estimation errors at low temperature are all within 1%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010043
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 44: Study on the Heat Dissipation Performance of
           a Liquid Cooling Battery Pack with Different Pin-Fins

    • Authors: Maokun Xiong, Ningbo Wang, Wei Li, Akhil Garg, Liang Gao
      First page: 44
      Abstract: The heat dissipation capability of the battery thermal management system (BTMS) is a prerequisite for the safe and normal work of the battery. Currently, many researchers have designed and studied the structure of BTMS to better control the battery temperature in a specific range and to obtain better temperature uniformity. This allows the battery to work safely and efficiently while extending its life. As a result, BTMS has been a hot topic of research. This work investigates the impact of pin-fins on the heat dissipation capability of the BTMS using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach, designs several BTMS schemes with different pin-fin structures, simulates all schemes for fluid-structure interaction, and examines the impact of different distribution, number, and shape of pin-fins on heat dissipation capability and pressure drop. Analyzing the effect of cooling plates with different pin-fins on the thermal capability of the BTMS can provide a basis for the structural design of this BTMS with pin-fin cooling plates. The findings demonstrate that the distribution and quantity of pin-fin shapes might affect heat dissipation. The square-section pin-fins offer better heat dissipation than other pin-fin shapes. As the pin-fins number increases, the maximum battery temperature decreases, but the pressure drop increases. It has been observed that uniform pin-fin distribution has a superior heat dissipation effect than other pin-fin distribution schemes. In summary, the cooling plate with a uniform distribution of 3 × 6 square section pin-fins has better heat dissipation capability and less power consumption, with a maximum battery temperature of 306.19 K, an average temperature of 304.20 K, a temperature difference of 5.18 K, and a pressure drop of 99.29 Pa.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010044
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 45: Tuning Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Electrodes via
           Synthesis Temperature Adjustment to Improve Sodium- and Lithium-Ion
           Storage

    • Authors: Yuliya V. Fedoseeva, Elena V. Shlyakhova, Anna A. Vorfolomeeva, Mariya A. Grebenkina, Vitalii I. Sysoev, Svetlana G. Stolyarova, Evgeny A. Maksimovskiy, Anna A. Makarova, Alexander V. Okotrub, Lyubov G. Bulusheva
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Structural imperfections, heteroatom dopants, and the interconnected pore structure of carbon materials have a huge impact on their electrochemical performance in lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries due to the specific ion transport and the dominant storage mechanism at surface defect sites. In this work, mesopore-enriched nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) materials were produced with template-assisted chemical vapor deposition using calcium tartrate as the template precursor and acetonitrile as the carbon and nitrogen source. The chemical states of nitrogen, the volume of mesopores, and the specific surface areas of the materials were regulated by adjusting the synthesis temperature. The electrochemical testing of NC materials synthesized at 650, 750, and 850 °C revealed the best performance of the NC-650 sample, which was able to deliver 182 mA·h·g‒1 in sodium-ion batteries and 1158 mA·h·g‒1 in lithium-ion batteries at a current density of 0.05 A·g‒1. Our study shows the role of defect sites, including carbon monovacancies and nitrogen-terminated vacancies, in the binding and accumulation of sodium. The results provide a strategy for managing the carbon structure and nitrogen states to achieve a high alkali-metal-ion storage capacity and long cycling stability, thereby facilitating the electrochemical application of NC materials.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010045
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 46: MOF-Derived Urchin-like Co9S8-Ni3S2
           Composites on Ni Foam as Efficient Self-Supported Electrocatalysts for
           Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    • Authors: Yingping Bu, Yawen Zhang, Yingying Liu, Simin Li, Yanlin Zhou, Xuefen Lin, Zicong Dong, Renchun Zhang, Jingchao Zhang, Daojun Zhang
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Effective and inexpensive electrocatalysts are significant to improve the performance of oxygen evolution reaction. Facing the bottleneck of slow kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction, it is highly desirable to design the electrocatalyst with high activity, good conductivity, and satisfactory stability. In this work, nickel foam supported hierarchical Co9S8–Ni3S2 composite hollow microspheres were derived from in situ-generative MOF precursors and the subsequent sulfurization process by a simple two-step solvothermal method. The composite microspheres were directly grown on nickel foam without any binder, and nickel foam was used as the nickel source and support material. The morphology and constitution of the series self-supported electrodes were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, and Raman, respectively. The unique porous architecture enriched the electrode with sufficient active surface and helped to reactants and bubble evolved during electrochemical water oxidation. Through tuning the concentration of cobalt source and ligand, the content ratio of Co9S8 and Ni3S2 can be modulated. The heterostructures not only afford active interfaces between the phases but also allow electronic transfer between Co9S8 and Ni3S2. The optimized Co9S8-Ni3S2/NF-0.6 electrode with the highest electrochemical surface area and conductivity shows the best OER performance among the series electrodes in 1 M KOH solution. The overpotential of Co9S8-Ni3S2/NF-0.6 is only 233 mV when the current density is 10 mA cm−2, and corresponding Tafel slope is 116.75 mV dec−1. In addition, the current density of Co9S8-Ni3S2/NF-0.6 electrocatalyst hardly decreased during the 12 h stability measurement. Our approach in this work may provide the future rational design and synthesis of satisfactory OER electrocatalysts.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010046
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 47: Use of Water-in-Salt Concentrated Liquid
           Electrolytes in Electrochemical Energy Storage: State of the Art and
           Perspectives

    • Authors: Shahid Khalid, Nicolò Pianta, Piercarlo Mustarelli, Riccardo Ruffo
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Batteries based on organic electrolytes have been raising safety concerns due to some associated fire/explosion accidents caused by the unusual combination of highly flammable organic electrolytes and high energy electrodes. Nonflammable aqueous batteries are a good alternative to the current energy storage systems. However, what makes aqueous batteries safe and viable turns out to be their main weakness, since water molecules are prone to decomposition because of a narrow electrochemical stability window (ESW). In this perspective we introduce aqueous batteries and then discuss the state-of-the-art of water-in-salt (WIS) electrolytes for aqueous energy storage systems. The main strategies to improve ESW are reviewed, including: (i) the use of fluorinated salts to make a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI); (ii) the use of cost-effective and highly soluble salts to reduce water activity through super concentration; and (iii) the use of hybrid electrolytes combining the advantages of both aqueous and non-aqueous phases. Then, we discuss different battery chemistries operated with different WIS electrolytes. Finally, we highlight the challenges and future technological perspectives for practical aqueous energy storage systems, including applications in stationary storage/grid, power backup, portable electronics, and automotive sectors.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010047
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 48: A Review of the Structural Design of Anode
           Materials in Sodium-Ion Batteries Based on MXenes and Their Composites

    • Authors: Mengwei Yuan, Xingzi Zheng, Jingshen Xu, Qiao Ni, Luoqi Luo, Zejun Cai, Zemin Sun, Liu Lin, Genban Sun
      First page: 48
      Abstract: The typical two-dimensional layered structure materials, MXenes, are widely used in energy conversion and storage due to their high conductivity, ion transport ability, and rich surface structures. Recently, MXenes and their composites have been widely employed in secondary batteries, especially sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), with obvious performance improvement. As anodic materials, MXenes, metal oxides, metal sulfides, and other materials contain certain advantages in Na+ storage, but they individually also suffer from some issues and challenges, such as low conductivity and serious volume change, as well as the associated low capacity and poor cyclability. By virtue of the advantages of MXenes, with their high conductivity and ultrathin two-dimensional structures, the construction of surface-functionalized MXenes and MXene-based composites could effectively improve the conductivity and mass-transport properties of composites, alleviate volume expansion, and, thus, enhance the capacity properties, rate performances, and cycle stability of SIBs. Herein, we review the latest research status of the structural design of MXenes and Mxene-based materials, as well as their applications in SIBs. We briefly introduce the research background and introduce MXenes and SIBs, and focus on their structural designs and corresponding applications in SIBs. Finally, the important challenges of MXene-based materials applied to SIBs are discussed, and the future prospects of MXene-based composite developments in SIBs are presented.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010048
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 49: Surface Selenization of NiCo-Layered Double
           Hydroxide Nanosheets for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    • Authors: Mengdi Wang, Xingyu Liu, Xiang Wu
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Due to their unique spatial structures, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been considered as prospective electrode materials for supercapacitors. In this work, several NiCo-LDH materials are obtained via a facile selenization process. This can improve the conductivity and reduce the electrochemical impedance of the samples. The 0.4Se-NiCo-LDH materials deliver a specific capacitance of 1396 F/g at 1 A/g. The capacity retention rate can reach 91.38% after 10,000 cycles. In addition, using the prepared materials as a positive electrode, an asymmetric supercapacitor is constructed. It offers an energy density of 60 Wh/kg at a power density of 2700 W/kg, demonstrating that the synthesized samples possess promising applications in future flexible energy-storage systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010049
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 50: Ni/Fe Bimetallic Ions Co-Doped Manganese
           Dioxide Cathode Materials for Aqueous Zinc-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Feifei Gao, Wenchao Shi, Bowen Jiang, Zhenzhi Xia, Lei Zhang, Qinyou An
      First page: 50
      Abstract: The slow diffusion dynamics hinder aqueous MnO2/Zn batteries’ further development. Here, a Ni/Fe bimetallic co-doped MnO2 (NFMO) cathode material was studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculation and experimental characterization techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The results indicated that the energy band structure and electronic state of MnO2 were effectively optimized due to the simultaneous incorporation of strongly electronegative Ni and Fe ions. Consequently, the NFMO cathode material exhibited a faster charge transfer and ion diffusion dynamics than MnO2 (MO), thus, the assembled NFMO/Zn batteries delivered excellent rate performance (181 mA h g−1 at 3 A g−1). The bimetallic ions co-doping strategy provides new directions for the development of oxide cathode materials towards high-performance aqueous zinc-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010050
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 51: Enhancing Performance of LiFePO4 Battery by
           Using a Novel Gel Composite Polymer Electrolyte

    • Authors: Ke Wu, Naiqi Hu, Shuchan Wang, Zhiyuan Geng, Wenwen Deng
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) is expected to have great prospects in solid-state batteries. However, their application is impeded due to the poor interfacial compatibility between CPE and electrodes that result in sluggish ionic transformation, especially at low temperatures. Here, on the basis of Poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) polymer electrolyte, gel composite polymer electrolyte (GCPE) with fast Li+ transport channel is prepared by in-situ polymerization with poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMEA) monomer and FEC as additive. Compared with CPE, GCPE increases the ionic conductivity by 10 times. It also achieves more uniform lithium precipitation and significantly inhibits the growth of lithium dendrites. The LFP/GCPE/Li battery has a capacity retention of over 99% at both room temperature and 0 °C after 100 cycles. In addition, the coulombic efficiency is above 99% during cycling. Our work provides a new technology to prepare GCPE with high ionic conductivity at both room temperature and low temperatures that has great potential in the application of solid-state lithium batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010051
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 52: Efficient Battery Models for Performance
           Studies-Lithium Ion and Nickel Metal Hydride Battery

    • Authors: Umapathi Krishnamoorthy, Parimala Gandhi Ayyavu, Hitesh Panchal, Dayana Shanmugam, Sukanya Balasubramani, Ali Jawad Al-rubaie, Ameer Al-khaykan, Ankit D. Oza, Sagram Hembrom, Tvarit Patel, Petrica Vizureanu, Diana-Petronela Burduhos-Nergis
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Apart from being emission-free, electric vehicles enjoy benefits such as low maintenance and operating costs, noise-free, easy to drive, and the convenience of charging at home. All these benefits are directly dependent on the performance of the battery used in the vehicle. In this paper, one-dimensional modeling of Li-ion and NiMH batteries was developed, and their performances were studied. The performance characteristics of the batteries, such as the charging and discharging characteristics, the constituent losses of over-potential voltage, and the electrolyte concentration profile at various stages of charge and discharge cycles, were also studied. It is found that the electrolyte concentration profiles of Li-ion batteries show a drooping behavior at the start of the discharge cycle and a rising behavior at the end of discharge because of the concentration polarization due to the low diffusion coefficient. The electrolyte concentration profiles of NiMH batteries show rising behavior throughout the discharge cycle without any deviations. The reason behind this even behavior throughout the discharge cycle is attributed to the reduced concentration polarization due to electrolyte transport limitations. It is found that the losses associated with the NiMH battery are larger and almost constant throughout the battery’s operation. Whereas for the Li-ion batteries, the losses are less variable. The electrolyte concentration directly affects the overpotential losses incurred during the charging and discharging phases.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010052
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 53: Tailored Pre-Lithiation Using Melt-Deposited
           Lithium Thin Films

    • Authors: Kay Schönherr, Markus Pöthe, Benjamin Schumm, Holger Althues, Christoph Leyens, Stefan Kaskel
      First page: 53
      Abstract: The user demands lithium-ion batteries in mobile applications, and electric vehicles request steady improvement in terms of capacity and cycle life. This study shows one way to compensate for capacity losses due to SEI formation during the first cycles. A fast and simple approach of electrolyte-free direct-contact pre-lithiation leads to targeted degrees of pre-lithiation for graphite electrodes. It uses tailor-made lithium thin films with 1–5 µm lithium films produced by lithium melt deposition as a lithium source. These pre-lithiated graphite electrodes show 6.5% capacity increase after the first cycles in NCM full cells. In this study, the influence of the pre-lithiation parameters—applied pressure, temperature and pressing time—on the pre-lithiation process is examined.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010053
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 54: Spinel-Structured, Multi-Component Transition
           Metal Oxide (Ni,Co,Mn)Fe2O4−x as Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Anode
           Material

    • Authors: Lishan Dong, Zigang Wang, Yongyan Li, Chao Jin, Fangbing Dong, Weimin Zhao, Chunling Qin, Zhifeng Wang
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Metal oxide anode materials are affected by severe volume expansion and cracking in the charging/discharging process, resulting in low capacity and poor cycle stability, which limits their application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, a new strategy is uncovered for a preparing spinel-structured, multi-component transition metal oxide, (Ni,Co,Mn)Fe2O4−x, with oxygen vacancies as an LIB anode material. The as-fabricated material presented excellent reversible capacity and cycling stability, delivering a discharge capacity of 1240.2 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1 for 200 cycles and then at 300 mA g−1 for 300 additional cycles. It presented extremely long cycle stability even at 2 A g−1, revealing 650.5 mAh g−1 after 1200 cycles. The good lithium storage capacity can be ascribed to the entropy stabilization effect, the multi-cation synergistic effect, abundant oxygen vacancies and the spinel structure. This study provides a new opportunity to fabricate and optimize conversion-type anodes for LIBs with satisfactory electrochemical performance.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010054
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 55: On the Theory of the Arrhenius-Normal Model
           with Applications to the Life Distribution of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Omar Kittaneh
      First page: 55
      Abstract: Typically, in accelerated life testing analysis, only probability distributions possessing shape parameters are used to fit the experimental data, and many distributions with no shape parameters have been excluded, including the fundamental ones like the normal distribution, even when they are good fitters to the data. This work shows that the coefficient of variation is a replacement for the shape parameter and allows using normal distributions in this context. The work focuses on the Arrhenius-normal model as a life-stress relationship for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries and precisely derives the estimating equations of its accelerating parameters. Real and simulated lives of Li-ion batteries are used to validate our results.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010055
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 56: Advances in Vanadium-Redoxed Polyanions for
           High-Voltage Sodium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Honglun Wu, Yiqing Chen, Tianzhuo Wen, Long Chen, Xiangjun Pu, Zhongxue Chen
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Large-scale energy storage using sodium ion batteries (SIBs) as a hub for the conversion of renewable energy has become a topic of great importance. However, the application of SIBs is hindered by low energy density arising from inferior capacity and operation voltage. In this regard, vanadium-based phosphate polyanions with multiple valence changes (III–V), high redox potential, abundant resources, spacious frame structure, and remarkable thermal stability are promising avenues to address this dilemma. In this review, following the principle of electronic structure and function relationship, we summarize the recent progress in phosphates, pyrophosphates, fluorophosphates, and mixed polyanions of vanadium-centered polyanionic materials for SIBs. This review may provide comprehensive understanding and guidelines to further construct high performance, low-cost sodium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010056
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 57: A Review on Dynamic Recycling of Electric
           Vehicle Battery: Disassembly and Echelon Utilization

    • Authors: Jinhua Xiao, Chengran Jiang, Bo Wang
      First page: 57
      Abstract: With the growing requirements of retired electric vehicles (EVs), the recycling of EV batteries is being paid more and more attention to regarding its disassembly and echelon utilization to reach highly efficient resource utilization and environmental protection. In order to make full use of the retired EV batteries, we here discuss various possible application methods of echelon utilization, including hierarchical analysis methods based on various battery evaluation index. In addition, retired EV battery disassembly is also reviewed through the entire EV battery recycling based on human–robot collaboration methods. In order to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of EV recycling, it is necessary to find a suitable recycling mode and disassembly process. This paper discusses the future possibility of echelon utilization and disassembly in retired EV battery recycling from disassembly optimization and human–robot collaboration, facing uncertain disassembly and echelon utilization.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010057
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 58: Improving Cycle Life of Silicon-Dominant
           Anodes Based on Microscale Silicon Particles under Partial Lithiation

    • Authors: Stefan Haufe, Johanna Ranninger, Rebecca Bernhard, Irmgard Buchberger, Eckhard Hanelt
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Using only parts of the maximum capacity of silicon microparticles in a lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode represents a promising material concept. The high capacity, better rate capability compared with graphite and accessibility on an industrial scale, as well as its attractive cost make microsilicon an ideal choice for the next generation anode material. However, currently the cycle life of LIBs using silicon particles in the anode is limited due to drastic volume change of Si during lithiation and delithiation. Continuous formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and the associated lithium loss are the main failure mechanisms, while particle decoupling from the conductive network plays a role mainly during operation at low discharge voltages. The present study discusses approaches on the material- and cell-level to enhance cycle performance of partially lithiated silicon microparticle-based full cells by addressing the previously described failure mechanisms. Reducing the surface area of the silicon particles and coating their surface with carbon to improve the electronic contact, as well as prelithiation to compensate for lithium losses have proven to be the most promising approaches. The advantageous combination of these routes resulted in a significant increase in cycling stability exceeding 600 cycles with 80% capacity retention at an initial capacity of about 1000 mAh g−1 at anode level, compared to only about 250 cycles for the non-optimized full cell.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010058
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 59: NASICON-Type
           Li1+xAlxZryTi2−x−y(PO4)3 Solid Electrolytes: Effect of Al, Zr
           Co-Doping and Synthesis Method

    • Authors: Irina Stenina, Anastasia Pyrkova, Andrey Yaroslavtsev
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Replacing liquid electrolytes with solid-state conductors is one of the key challenges to increasing the safety and energy density of next-generation Li secondary batteries. In this work, the NASICON-type Li1+xAlxZryTi2−x−y(PO4)3 with 0 ≤ x, y ≤ 0.2 solid electrolytes were synthesized using solid-state and sol-gel techniques at various sintering temperatures (800, 900, and 1000 °C). Their morphology and conducting properties were studied to determine the optimal dopant content and synthesis method. Li1.2Al0.2Zr0.1Ti1.7(PO4)3 and Li1.1Al0.1Zr0.2Ti1.7(PO4)3 prepared at 900 °C using a solid-state reaction exhibit the highest total conductivity at 25 °C (7.9 × 10−4 and 5.4 × 10−4 S cm−1, respectively), which is due to the optimal size of lithium transport channels, as well as the high density of these samples. The potential profile of Li Li1.2Al0.2Zr0.1Ti1.7(PO4)3 Li cells was retained during cycling at a current density of 0.05 mA cm−2 for 100 h, indicating a high interfacial Li metal/electrolyte stability.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010059
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 60: Effect of Phase Change Materials on
           Lithium-Ion Plate Batteries

    • Authors: Jawed Mustafa, Saeed Alqaed, Shahid Husain, Basharat Jamil, Mohsen Sharifpur, Goshtasp Cheraghian
      First page: 60
      Abstract: This paper presents the simulations of the cooling system of a battery pack (BTPC) consisting of lithium-ion (LIN) plate batteries. The BTPC includes six battery cells (BTCL) in two rows with three BTCLs, which are placed in a channel with one inlet and two outlets. The laminar and steady airflow flows in the channel. Phase-change material (PCM)-filled rectangular cubic enclosures enclose every BTCL. Transiently adjusting the cavity aspect ratio (AR) every 6000 s is how this investigation is conducted. For four values of AR, the values of the PCM volume percentage surrounding each BTCL in the BTPC, and the temperature of each BTCL are calculated. The simulations are performed using the FEM and COMSOL software. The results demonstrate that the maximum changes in temperature of the battery (TOB) pack by changing the AR occur when the TOB pack is reduced. The maximum temperature reduction at this time is 1.88 °C which occurs between AR2 and AR4 at 720 s. The maximum temperature corresponds to AR3 and AR4 and the minimum one is related to AR1 and AR2. From 1260 to 3500 s, the effect of AR on PCM volume fraction is maximal. The value of solid PCM for AR1 and AR2 is higher than that for AR3 and AR4 at different times. Additionally, an increment in the value of the AR enhances the amount of channel pressure drop by 14%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010060
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 61: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Batteries
           in 2022

    • Authors: Batteries Editorial Office Batteries Editorial Office
      First page: 61
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010061
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 62: Aqueous Zinc–Chalcogen Batteries:
           Emerging Conversion-Type Energy Storage Systems

    • Authors: Long Zhang, Yongchang Liu
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Aqueous zinc (Zn) metal batteries are considered competitive candidates for next-generation energy storage, attributed to the abundance, low redox potential, and high theoretical capacity of Zn. However, conventional cathode materials are mainly based on ion-insertion electrochemistry, which can only deliver limited capacity. The conversion-type aqueous zinc–chalcogen batteries (AZCBs) have received widespread attention because they combine the advantages of chalcogen cathodes (S, Se, and Te) and Zn anodes to significantly enhance their capacity. Research on AZCBs has increased continuously; however, it is still in its infancy because the selection and regulation of cathode material systems are not comprehensive and systematic, and the investigation of the mechanisms is not thorough. Herein, we present a detailed overview explaining the recent progress of AZCBs, providing comprehensive guidelines for further research. First, research based on S cathodes, which is the most studied system among AZCBs, is summarized. Second, research based on Se and Te cathodes is described. Research on these different systems is mainly focused on electrolyte modification and cathode optimization. In each section, various strategies are introduced, and the working mechanisms are also discussed. Finally, the challenges and prospects for the development of AZCBs are presented.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010062
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 63: Towards High-Safety Lithium-Ion Battery
           Diagnosis Methods

    • Authors: Yulong Zhang, Meng Jiang, Yuhong Zhou, Shupeng Zhao, Yongwei Yuan
      First page: 63
      Abstract: With the great development of new energy vehicles and power batteries, lithium-ion batteries have become predominant due to their advantages. For the battery to run safely, stably, and with high efficiency, the precise and reliable prognosis and diagnosis of possible or already occurred faults is a key factor. Based on lithium-ion batteries’ aging mechanism and fault causes, this paper summarizes the general methods of fault diagnosis at a macro level. Moreover, lithium-ion battery fault diagnosis methods are classified according to the existing research. Therefore, various fault diagnosis methods based on statistical analysis, models, signal processing, knowledge and data-driven are discussed in depth. Finally, the main challenges faced by fault diagnosis technology and future directions for possible research and development are put forward.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010063
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 64: Fast Identification of Micro-Health
           Parameters for Retired Batteries Based on a Simplified P2D Model by Using
           Padé Approximation

    • Authors: Jianing Xu, Chuanyu Sun, Yulong Ni, Chao Lyu, Chao Wu, He Zhang, Qingjun Yang, Fei Feng
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Better performance consistency of regrouped batteries retired from electric vehicles can guarantee the residual value maximized, which greatly improves the second-use application economy of retired batteries. This paper develops a fast identification approach for micro-health parameters characterizing negative electrode material and electrolyte in LiFePO4 batteries on the basis of a simplified pseudo two-dimensional model by using Padé approximation is developed. First, as the basis for accurately identifying micro-health parameters, the liquid-phase and solid-phase diffusion processes of pseudo two-dimensional model are simplified based on Padé approximation, especially according to enhanced boundary conditions of liquid-phase diffusion. Second, the reduced pseudo two-dimensional model with the lumped parameter is proposed, the target parameters characterizing negative electrode material (εn, Ds,n) and electrolyte (De, Ce) are grouped with other unknown but fixed parameters, which ensures that no matter whether the target parameters can be achieved, the corresponding varying traces is able to be effectively and independently monitored by lumped parameters. Third, the fast identification method for target micro-health parameters is developed based on the sensitivity of target parameters to constant-current charging voltage, which shortens the parameter identification time in comparison to that obtained by other approaches. Finally, the identification accuracy of the lumped micro-health parameters is verified under 1 C constant-current charging condition.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010064
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 3: Capacity Fading Rules of Lithium-Ion Batteries
           for Multiple Thermoelectric Aging Paths

    • Authors: Du, Wang, Wei, Hu, Wu
      First page: 3
      Abstract: The ambient temperature and charging rate are the two most important factors that influence the capacity deterioration of lithium-ion batteries. Differences in temperature for charge–discharge conditions significantly impact the battery capacity, particularly under high-stress conditions, such as ultrafast charging. The combined negative effects of the ambient temperature and a high charging rate on the capacity of a lithium-ion battery require further research. Here, multiple scenarios of different temperatures and charging rates were considered to examine their influence on battery capacity deterioration, focusing on the effect of high charging rates above 2 C. Three test temperatures and three charging rates were selected, and experiments were performed to evaluate the battery capacity over several charge–discharge cycles. A comparative analysis was performed on the capacity, impedance, and probability density function (PDF). The results showed that increasing the charging rate delayed the response of the phase change reaction to the voltage, which accelerated the corresponding capacity deterioration. At high charging rates, the main causes of capacity deterioration were the loss of active lithium in the battery and the loss of active material from the negative electrode. Most of the product from the side reaction between the lithium coating and electrolyte remained in the electrolyte and had no evident effect on impedance. Therefore, high charging rates significantly increase the temperature of the battery, and a high charging rate and temperature exert a coupled negative effect on the battery capacity. Thermal management strategies for lithium-ion batteries must comprehensively optimize the temperature and charging rate in real time.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010003
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 4: Building Bridges: Unifying Design and
           Development Aspects for Advancing Non-Aqueous Redox-Flow Batteries

    • Authors: Luuk Kortekaas, Sebastian Fricke, Aleksandr Korshunov, Isidora Cekic-Laskovic, Martin Winter, Mariano Grünebaum
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Renewable energy sources have been a topic of ever-increasing interest, not least due to escalating environmental changes. The significant rise of research into energy harvesting and storage over the years has yielded a plethora of approaches and methodologies, and associated reviews of individual aspects thereof. Here, we aim at highlighting a rather new avenue within the field of batteries, the (noaqueous) all-organic redox-flow battery, albeit seeking to provide a comprehensive and wide-ranging overview of the subject matter that covers all associated aspects. This way, subject matter on a historical perspective, general types of redox-flow cells, electrolyte design and function, flow kinetics, and cell design are housed within one work, providing perspective on the all-organic redox-flow battery in a broader sense.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010004
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 5: Defect Chemistry in Zn3V4(PO4)6

    • Authors: Navaratnarajah Kuganathan
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Zinc-ion batteries have attracted great interest for their low cost, safety, and high energy density. Recently, Zn3V4(PO4)6 has been reported to be a promising cathode material for zinc-ion batteries. The defect chemistry, diffusion of Zn-ions, and solution of dopants are examined by advanced simulation techniques. The simulation results show that the most favorable intrinsic defect is the Zn-V anti-site. A zig-zag pattern of long-range Zn2+ diffusion is observed and the activation energy of 1.88 eV indicates that the ionic conductivity of this material is low. The most promising isovalent dopants on the Zn site are Ca2+ and Fe2+. Although the solution of Ga3+, Sc3+, In3+, Y3+, Gd3+, and La3+ on the V site is exoergic, the most promising is In3+. Different reaction routes for the formation of Zn3V4(PO4)6 are considered and the most thermodynamically favorable reaction consists of binary oxides (ZnO, V2O3, and P2O5) as reactants.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010005
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 6: Influence of Breathing and Swelling on the
           Jelly-Roll Case Gap of Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    • Authors: Markus Spielbauer, Marco Steinhardt, Jan Singer, Andreas Aufschläger, Oliver Bohlen, Andreas Jossen
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Cylindrical 18650 and 21700 lithium-ion batteries are produced with small gaps between the jelly roll and the case. The size of these gaps and the mechanical attachment of the jelly roll to the case can have a significant impact on the thermal and mechanical properties of cells. To investigate the influence of the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) on the size of the gap, computed tomography (CT) and gray-value analysis was conducted with various cell types at 0% and 100% SOC and after cycling. The results show a significant influence of the SOC on the gap for new cells and a substantial reduction in the gap during the first cycles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010006
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 7: State of Health Estimation of Lithium-Ion
           Batteries Using a Multi-Feature-Extraction Strategy and PSO-NARXNN

    • Authors: Zhong Ren, Changqing Du, Weiqun Ren
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The lithium-ion battery state of health (SOH) estimation is critical for maintaining reliable and safe working conditions for electric vehicles (EVs). However, accurate and robust SOH estimation remains a significant challenge. This paper proposes a multi-feature extraction strategy and particle swarm optimization-nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input neural network (PSO-NARXNN) for accurate and robust SOH estimation. First, eight health features (HFs) are extracted from partial voltage, capacity, differential temperature (DT), and incremental capacity (IC) curves. Then, qualitative and quantitative analyses are used to evaluate the selected HFs. Second, the PSO algorithm is adopted to optimize the hyperparameters of NARXNN, including input delays, feedback delays, and the number of hidden neurons. Third, to verify the effectiveness of the multi-feature extraction strategy, the SOH estimators based on a single feature and fusion feature are comprehensively compared. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed PSO-NARXNN, a simple three-layer backpropagation neural network (BPNN) and a conventional NARXNN are built for comparison based on the Oxford aging dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has higher accuracy and stronger robustness for SOH estimation, where the average mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are 0.47% and 0.56%, respectively.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010007
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 8: Interface Stability between Na3Zr2Si2PO12
           Solid Electrolyte and Sodium Metal Anode for Quasi-Solid-State Sodium
           Battery

    • Authors: Ramakumar Sampathkumar, María Echeverría, Yan Zhang, Michel Armand, Montserrat Galceran
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Solid electrolytes are renowned for their nonflammable, dendrite-blocking qualities, which also exhibit stability over large potential windows. NASICON-type Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12 (NZSP) is a well-known solid electrolyte material for sodium metal batteries owing to its elevated room temperature sodium-ion (Na+) conductivity and good electrochemical stability. Nevertheless, the strong electrode–electrolyte interfacial resistance restricts its implementation in sodium metal batteries and remains a significant challenge. In this work, we present an efficacious process to enhance the sodium wettability of Na3Zr2Si2PO12 by sputtering a thin gold (Au) interlayer. Our experimental investigation indicates a substantial reduction in interfacial resistance, from 2708 Ω cm2 to 146 Ω cm2, by employing a fine Au interlayer between the Na metal and the NZSP electrolyte. The symmetrical Na NZSP Na with a gold interlayer cell shows a steady Na stripping/plating at a high current density of 320 µA cm−2. A quasi-solid-state battery, with NaFePO4 (NFP) as a cathode, metallic sodium as an anode, and a Au-sputtered NZSP electrolyte with polypropylene (PP) soaked in electrolyte as an intermediate layer on the cathode, exhibited a discharge capacity of 100 mAh g−1 and a ~100% Coulombic efficiency at 50 μA cm−2 after the 50th charge/discharge cycle at room temperature (RT).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010008
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 9: Particle Contamination in Commercial
           Lithium-Ion Cells—Risk Assessment with Focus on Internal Short
           Circuits and Replication by Currently Discussed Trigger Methods

    • Authors: Jens Grabow, Jacob Klink, Ralf Benger, Ines Hauer, Hans-Peter Beck
      First page: 9
      Abstract: A possible contamination with impurities or material weak points generated in cell production of lithium-ion batteries increases the risk of spontaneous internal short circuits (ISC). An ISC can lead to a sudden thermal runaway (TR) of the cell, thereby making these faults especially dangerous. Evaluation regarding the criticality of an ISC, the development of detection methods for timely fault warning and possible protection concepts require a realistic failure replication for general validation. Various trigger methods are currently discussed to reproduce these ISC failure cases, but without considering a valid basis for the practice-relevant particle properties. In order to provide such a basis for the evaluation and further development of trigger methods, in this paper, the possibilities of detecting impurity particles in production were reviewed and real particles from pouch cells of an established cell manufacturer were analysed. The results indicate that several metallic particles with a significant size up to 1 mm × 1.7 mm could be found between the cell layers. This evidence shows that contamination with impurity particles cannot be completely prevented in cell production, as a result of which particle-induced ISC must be expected and the need for an application-oriented triggering method currently exists. The cause of TR events in the field often cannot be identified. However, it is noticeable that such faults often occur during the charging process. A new interesting hypothesis for this so-far unexplained phenomenon is presented here. Based on all findings, the current trigger methods for replicating an external particle-induced ISC were evaluated in significant detail and specific improvements are identified. Here, it is shown that all current trigger methods for ISC replication exhibit weaknesses regarding reproducibility, which results mainly from the scattering random ISC contact resistance.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010009
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 10: The Assessment of Electric Vehicle Storage
           Lifetime Using Battery Thermal Management System

    • Authors: Rodrigo A. Pires, Samuel A. Carvalho, Braz J. Cardoso Filho, Igor A. Pires, Rudolf Huebner, Thales A. C. Maia
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Degradation and heat generation are among the major concerns when treating Lithium-ion batteries’ health and performance parameters. Due to the high correlation between the battery’s degradation, autonomy and heat generation to the cell’s operational temperature, the Battery Thermal Management System plays a key role in maximizing the battery’s health. Given the fact that the ideal temperature for degradation minimization usually does not match the ideal temperature for heat generation minimization, the BTMS must manage these phenomena in order to maximize the battery’s lifespan. This work presents a new definition of the discharge operation point of a lithium-ion battery based on degradation, autonomy and heat generation. Two cells of different electrodes formulation were modeled and evaluated in a case study. The results demonstrated a 50% improvement on total useful battery cycles in best-case scenarios.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010010
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 11: Unveil Overcharge Performances of Activated
           Carbon Cathode in Various Li-Ion Electrolytes

    • Authors: Xianzhong Sun, Yabin An, Xiong Zhang, Kai Wang, Changzhou Yuan, Xiaohu Zhang, Chen Li, Yanan Xu, Yanwei Ma
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Typically, the practical lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is composed of a capacitive cathode (activated carbon, AC) and a battery-type anode (graphite, soft carbon, hard carbon). There is a risk of the LIC cell overcharging to an unsafe voltage under electrical abuse conditions. Since the anode potential is usually quite low during the charging process and can be controlled by adjusting the amount of anode materials, the overcharge performances of LIC full-cell mainly depend on the AC cathode. Thus, it is necessary to independently investigate the overcharge behaviors of the AC cathode in nonaqueous Li-ion electrolytes without the interference of the anode electrode. In this work, the stable upper potential limits of the AC electrode in three types of lithium-ion electrolytes were determined to be 4.0−4.1 V via the energy efficiency method. Then, the AC//Li half-cells were charged to 5.0 V and 10.0 V, respectively, to investigate the overcharge behaviors. For the half-cells with propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes, the voltage increased sharply to 10.0 V with a vertical straight line at the end of the overcharging process, indicating that the deposits of electrolyte decomposition had separated the AC electrode surface from the electrolytes, forming a self-protective passivation film with a dielectric capacitor behavior. The dense and compact passivation film is significant in separating the AC electrode surface from the electrolytes and preventing LIC cells from volume expansion and explosion risks under electrical abuse and overcharging conditions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-24
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010011
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 12: Study of the Carbochlorination Process with
           CaCl2 and Water Leaching for the Extraction of Lithium from Spent
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Yarivith C. González, Lorena Alcaraz, Francisco J. Alguacil, Jorge González, Lucía Barbosa, Félix A. López
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The abundant use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in a wide variety of electric devices and vehicles will generate a large number of depleted batteries, which contain several valuable metals, such as Li, Co, Mn, and Ni, present in the structure of the cathode material (LiMO2). The present work investigates the extraction of lithium, as lithium chloride, from spent LIBs by carbochlorination roasting. The starting samples consisted of a mixture of cathode and anode materials from different spent LIBs known as black mass. Calcium chloride was used as a chlorinating agent, and carbon black was used as a reducing agent. The black mass, calcium chloride, and carbon black were mixed in 50:20:30 w/w % proportions. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric tests up to 850 °C and isothermal tests at 350, 500, and 700 °C were carried out in an inert atmosphere. It was observed that the carbochlorination reaction starts at 500 °C. An extraction percentage of 99% was attained through carbochlorination at 700 °C. The characterization results indicate that CaCO3, Ni, and Co and, to a lesser extent, CoO, NiO, and MnO2 are present in the roasted sample after the processes of washing, filtering, and drying.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010012
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 13: A Review of Modern Machine Learning
           Techniques in the Prediction of Remaining Useful Life of Lithium-Ion
           Batteries

    • Authors: Prabhakar Sharma, Bhaskor J Bora
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The intense increase in air pollution caused by vehicular emissions is one of the main causes of changing weather patterns and deteriorating health conditions. Furthermore, renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, and biofuels, suffer from weather and supply chain-related uncertainties. The electric vehicles’ powered energy, stored in a battery, offers an attractive option to overcome emissions and uncertainties to a certain extent. The development and implementation of cutting-edge electric vehicles (EVs) with long driving ranges, safety, and higher reliability have been identified as critical to decarbonizing the transportation sector. Nonetheless, capacity deteriorating with time and usage, environmental degradation factors, and end-of-life repurposing pose significant challenges to the usage of lithium-ion batteries. In this aspect, determining a battery’s remaining usable life (RUL) establishes its efficacy. It also aids in the testing and development of various EV upgrades by identifying factors that will increase and improve their efficiency. Several nonlinear and complicated parameters are involved in the process. Machine learning (ML) methodologies have proven to be a promising tool for optimizing and modeling engineering challenges in this domain (non-linearity and complexity). In contrast to the scalability and temporal limits of battery degeneration, ML techniques provide a non-invasive solution with excellent accuracy and minimal processing. Based on recent research, this study presents an objective and comprehensive evaluation of these challenges. RUL estimations are explained in detail, including examples of its approach and applicability. Furthermore, many ML techniques for RUL evaluation are thoroughly and individually studied. Finally, an application-focused overview is offered, emphasizing the advantages in terms of efficiency and accuracy.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010013
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 14: Electrocatalytic and Conductive Vanadium
           Oxide on Carbonized Bacterial Cellulose Aerogel for the Sulfur Cathode in
           Li-S Batteries

    • Authors: Xueyan Lin, Wenyue Li, Xuan Pan, Shu Wang, Zhaoyang Fan
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Many transition-metal-oxide-based catalysts have been investigated to chemically bind soluble lithium polysulfides and accelerate their redox kinetics in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery chemistry. However, the intrinsic poor electrical conductivities of these oxides restrict their catalytic performance, consequently limiting the sulfur utilization and the rate performance of Li-S batteries. Herein, we report a freestanding electrocatalytic sulfur host consisting of hydrogen-treated VO2 nanoparticles (H-VO2) anchored on nitrogen-doped carbonized bacterial cellulose aerogels (N-CBC). The hydrogen treatment enables the formation and stabilization of the rutile VO2(R) phase with metallic conductivity at room temperature, significantly enhancing its catalytic capability compared to the as-synthesized insulative VO2(M) phase. Several measurements characterize the electrocatalytic performance of this unique H-VO2@N-CBC structure. In particular, the two kinetic barriers between S8, polysulfides, and Li2S are largely reduced by 28.2 and 43.3 kJ/mol, respectively. Accordingly, the Li-S battery performance, in terms of sulfur utilization and charge/discharge rate, is greatly improved. This work suggests an effective strategy to develop conductive catalysts based on a typical transition metal oxide (VO2) for Li-S batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010014
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 15: A Combined Hydro-Mechanical and
           Pyrometallurgical Recycling Approach to Recover Valuable Metals from
           Lithium-Ion Batteries Avoiding Lithium Slagging

    • Authors: Alexandra Holzer, Jörg Zimmermann, Lukas Wiszniewski, Tobias Necke, Christoph Gatschlhofer, Wolfgang Öfner, Harald Raupenstrauch
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Meeting the increasing demand for energy storage based on lithium-ion batteries (LIB) is not only a question of resource availability but also an issue of resource conservation and efficient recycling management. In this respect, sustainable recycling concepts play a central role in mindful interactions with valuable materials. Based on this approach, a process interconnection of hydromechanical preparation, flotation, and pyrometallurgical treatment was investigated. The hydromechanical preparation showed promising results in achieving highly pure mixtures of LIB-active material. It was found that a pre-opening step could achieve an even better separation of impurities for downstream processes such as Cu and Al to avoid excessive particle size reduction. According to an optimized mixing stage during flotation, the C amount was reduced from 33 wt.% to 19.23 wt.%. A Li-free metal alloy was obtained through the subsequent pyrometallurgical treatment, and evidence for Li removal via the gas phase was provided. Furthermore, heating microscope trials confirmed the results of the process interconnection and showed that further optimization steps for the pre-treatment are necessary for favorable product quality. Therefore, a high-stratification plot was created, which allows a quick future statement about the suitability of the input material for use in the process.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010015
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 16: Design and Energy Analysis of
           Photovoltaic-Battery Prototype Considering Different Voltage Levels

    • Authors: F.J. Sepúlveda, I. Montero, F. Barrena, M.T. Miranda, J.I. Arranz
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Photovoltaic self-consumption systems are effective at reducing energy consumption from fossil fuels and carbon emissions. Incorporating energy storage into these systems enables improved energy management and the optimization of their operation. However, to date, few studies have evaluated and compared the energy performance of PV systems with battery storage. In this context, with the current development of High Voltage batteries, research is needed on energy storage at different voltage levels incorporated into PV systems for self-consumption. In this way, the design and operation of an experimental prototype are described, consisting of two photovoltaic systems for self-consumption with energy storage using batteries operating at different voltages. One of them operates at low voltage (Low Voltage Installation, LVI) and the other at high voltage (High Voltage Installation, HVI). Through experimentation, it was demonstrated which installation is more efficient. During commissioning, the results showed the importance of considering the voltage level parameter in a renewable energy production system for self-consumption, since the energy yield of the HVI inverter-battery set was higher than in the case of the LVI on almost all of the days of the month studied. In addition, both systems showed a strong dependence on weather conditions, causing higher energy losses in their components during days with lower solar energy production. Therefore, the need for further analysis of energy efficiency to optimize the integration of these systems into the building sector was demonstrated.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010016
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 17: Elucidating Spatial Distribution of
           Electrochemical Reaction in a Porous Electrode by Electrochemical
           Impedance Spectra for Flow Batteries

    • Authors: Jie Zhang, Qilong Gan, Xianzhi Yuan, Zhipeng Xiang, Zhiyong Fu, Zhenxing Liang
      First page: 17
      Abstract: A porous electrode is an essential component in a flow battery, and its structure determines the battery's performance. The coupling of the multi-temporal-spatial-scale processes (e.g., electrochemical reaction, mass transfer, charge transfer) makes the recognition of each process complicated. Herein, a symmetric flow cell device is developed, and the electrochemical impedance measurement (two- or three-electrode configuration) is realized to elucidate the electrochemical processes. First, the effect of flow rate and concentration on the impedance spectra is investigated to identify the electrochemical processes. Second, the distributed resistance is quantified to describe the spatial distribution of the electrochemical reaction. It is found that the electrochemical reaction occurs near the membrane side at a low polarization current, and the reaction zones spatially extend from the membrane side to the current collector with the increase of imposed polarization. Such an evolution of the spatial distribution stems from the trade-off between the mass transfer and the ion conduction in the porous electrode. This work provides an experimental method to nondestructively probe the electrochemical processes, and the result provides guidance for developing innovative electrode structures for flow batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010017
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 18: Smart-Leader-Based Distributed Charging
           Control of Battery Energy Storage Systems Considering SoC Balance

    • Authors: Yalin Zhang, Zhongxin Liu, Zengqiang Chen
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Battery energy storage systems are widely used in energy storage microgrids. As the index of stored energy level of a battery, balancing the State-of-Charge (SoC) can effectively restrain the circulating current between battery cells. Compared with passive balance, active balance, as the most popular SoC balance method, maximizes the capacity of the battery cells and reduces heat generation. However, there is no good solution in the battery management system (BMS) to ensure active balance during distributed charging. In view of this, this paper designs two novel distributed charging strategies based on a kind of smart leader, in which a constant static leader is modified by a dynamic leader. The modified leader is in charge of guiding SoC to converge to the target value and repress SoC imbalance. The maximum and weighed error between the state of the leader and its neighbor cells are used in the two methods, respectively, both in an event triggered manner. When the relevant index exceeds the threshold, the two methods are used to regulate the leader’s state. Under this modification, the eigenvalue of the followers’ error dynamic system is reduced, and SoCs follow the dynamic leader faster, thus repressing SoC imbalance. Compared with a constant leader, the smart leader pays more attention to improving SoC imbalance. Additionally, to facilitate analysis, a reduced method is applied to transform the system with an unified input time delay into a nondelay system. Several cases are designed to verify the effectiveness of the designed strategies and test it under different parameters and different time delays.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010018
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 19: Carbon-Based Materials for Supercapacitors:
           Recent Progress, Challenges and Barriers

    • Authors: Abdul Ghani Olabi, Qaisar Abbas, Mohammad Ali Abdelkareem, Abdul Hai Alami, Mojtaba Mirzaeian, Enas Taha Sayed
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Swift developments in electronic devices and future transportation/energy production directions have forced researchers to develop new and contemporary devices with higher power capacities, extended cycle lives, and superior energy densities. Supercapacitors are promising devices with excellent power densities and exceptionally long cycle lives. However, commercially available supercapacitors, which commonly use high-surface-area carbon-based electrodes and organic solutions as electrolytes, suffer from inferior energy densities due to the limited accessibility of surface area and constrained operating potential window of electrolytes. To address the issue of inferior energy densities, new high-capacity electrode materials and new/state-of-the-art electrolytes, such as ionic liquids, gel polymers, or even solid-state electrolytes, have been developed and evaluated vigorously in recent years. In this brief review, different types of supercapacitors, according to their charge storage mechanisms, have been discussed in detail. Since carbon-based active materials are the key focus of this review, synthesis parameters, such as carbonisation, activation, and functionalisation, which can impact a material’s physiochemical characteristics, ultimately affecting the performance of supercapacitors, are also discussed. Finally, the synthesis and applications of different carbon-based materials, i.e., carbon nanotubes, graphene, and activated carbon, have been reviewed, followed by conclusions and outlook.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010019
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 20: Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy for
           Characterization of a Solid-State System

    • Authors: Edurne Jaime-Barquero, Yan Zhang, Nicholas E. Drewett, Pedro López-Aranguren, Ekaitz Zulueta, Emilie Bekaert
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Solid-state batteries represent a promising technology in the field of high-energy-density and safe storage systems. Improving the understanding of how defects form within these cells would greatly facilitate future development, which would be best served by applying nondestructive analytical tools capable of characterization of the key components and their changes during cycling and/or aging. Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) represents a potentially useful technique, but currently there is a lack of knowledge regarding its use in this field. To fill this gap, we present an investigation into the use of simple defocused micro-SORS on systems constructed using typical components found within solid-state cells. By analyzing the constituents and the assembled system, it was possible to obtain depth profiling spectra and show that spectra may be obtained from layers which are normally obscured, demonstrating the technique’s potential for nondestructive chemical analysis of the subsurface. In this way, the results presented validate the potential of micro-SORS as a technique to develop to support future solid-state battery development, as well as the nondestructive battery analytical field.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010020
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 21: In-Situ Photoelectron Spectroscopy
           Investigation of Sulfurization-Induced Sodiophilic Sites with Model
           Systems of α-sexithiophene and p-sexiphenyl

    • Authors: Yuan Liu, Xu Lian, Chonglai Jiang, Zejun Sun, Jinlin Yang, Yishui Ding, Wei Chen
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Uncontrollable sodium dendrite growth results in poor cycling performance and severe safety issues, hindering practical applications of sodium metal batteries (SMBs). To stabilize sodium metal anodes (SMAs), various strategies have been developed including employing anode hosts and electrolyte additives to establish protective layers. Nevertheless, the understanding of interaction mechanisms between protective materials and SMAs is still limited, which is crucial for the rational design of protective materials. In this work, we investigated the interaction mechanism between sodium metal and sulfur-containing functional groups with comparative model systems of α-sexithiophene (6T) and p-sexiphenyl (6P) through in-situ photoelectron spectroscopy investigations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our results show that sodium atoms tend to interact with sulfur atoms and their connected carbon atoms simultaneously as well as the aromatic carbon atoms of the end groups of 6T molecules, while no chemical interaction between Na and 6P molecules is observed. The observed sulfurization-induced sodiophilic sites can shed light on the rational design of sulfur-containing protective materials and the relevant interface engineering to stabilize SMAs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010021
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 22: Effect of Capacity Variation in
           Series-Connected Batteries on Aging

    • Authors: Sang-Sun Yun, Seok-Cheol Kee
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Batteries are used in various combinations in various fields. Research on single-cell batteries is well underway and is approaching a stabilization phase. However, problems caused by battery combinations are still insufficiently studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cause of fires due to gradual damage in a large-capacity energy storage system (ESS). In the paper Energy Storage System Safety Operation Plan by Preventing Overcharge During Relaxation Time, which was based on the fact that most fires in large-capacity energy storage devices occurred during the diastolic period, it was proven that the inflow of compensation current due to a voltage imbalance in the cell was the cause. The total amount of compensation current is determined by the voltage deviation of the battery. Batteries connected in series have different rates of aging due to differences in their capacities. Thus, with use, the total amount of compensating current continues to increase until a fire occurs. In this study, by analyzing the effect of battery-capacity deviation on the aging of individual cells, it was confirmed that the capacity deviation increased as the battery was used, resulting in an increase in the total amount of compensation current. In addition, if a solution to the problem is presented and the proposed solution is applied, the allowable range of battery-capacity deviation will be widened. We used Matlab 2009a, assuming a real environment. Using Simulink, problems were identified through simulation, improvement measures were suggested, and the proposed method was verified via simulation.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010022
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 23: LiNi0.8Fe0.1Al0.1O2 as a Cobalt-Free Cathode
           

    • Authors: Elhoucine Elmaataouy, Abdelwahed Chari, Ayoub El Bendali, Marwa Tayoury, Rachid Amine, Mohamed Aqil, GuiLiang Xu, Tongchao Liu, Jones Alami, Mouad Dahbi
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Obtaining cathode materials with high capacity and cycle stability is one of the main challenges regarding the success of electric vehicle technologies. However, most of the widely used materials with these properties involve the use of toxic and expensive cobalt as the active material. To overcome this challenge, this work proposes a novel cobalt-free cathode material, synthesized for the first time using a solid-state reaction, whose general formula is LiNi0.8Fe0.1Al0.1O2 (NFA). This class of materials offers high capacity and reduces the battery costs by removing cobalt, without jeopardizing the structural stability and safety of the NFAs. The morphology and the structural properties of the obtained NFA cathode material were characterized using different techniques, e.g., scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The electrochemical activity and diffusivity of the Li-ion during lithium removal and its insertion into the bulk of the NFA cathode demonstrated high-yield specific capacities of ≈180 mAh g−1 at 0.1C, along with a reasonable rate capability and cycling stability, with a capacity retention of ≈99.6% after 100 charge/discharge cycles at a rate of C/2, and whose operando X-ray diffraction experiments have been used to study the crystallographic transitions during the lithiation–delithiation reaction.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010023
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 24: High-Throughput Virtual Screening of Quinones
           for Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries: Status and Perspectives

    • Authors: Abhishek Khetan
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Quinones are one of the most promising and widely investigated classes of redox active materials for organic aqueous redox flow batteries. However, quinone-based flow batteries still lack the necessary performance in terms of metrics, such as specific capacity, power density, and long-term stability, to achieve mass market adoption. These performance metrics are directly related to the physicochemical properties of the quinone molecules, including their equilibrium redox potential, aqueous solubility, and chemical stability. Given the enormous chemical and configurational space of possible quinones and the high tunability of their properties, there has been a recent surge in the use of high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) for the rational design and discovery of new high-performing molecules. In this review article, HTVS efforts for the computational design and discovery of quinones are reviewed with a special focus on the enumerated space of core quinone motif, the methods and approximations used for the estimation of performance descriptors, and the emergent structure-property relationships. The knowledge and methodological gaps in conventional HTVS efforts are discussed, and strategies for improvement are suggested.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010024
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 25: Stabilizing a Zn Anode by an Ionic
           Amphiphilic Copolymer Electrolyte Additive for Long-Life Aqueous Zn-Ion
           Batteries

    • Authors: Yu-E Liu, Xin Wang
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The rampant growth of zinc dendrites and severe uncontrollable reactions have largely limited the industrialization of aqueous Zn-ion batteries. Electrolyte additive engineering was found to be a facile yet effective strategy in addressing these issues; however, traditional organic small molecule additives raise additional safety and health risks and thus compromise the intrinsic advantage of aqueous batteries. In this study, we report a polyacrylonitrile-co-poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (PAN-co-PAMPS) copolymer with ionic and hydrophilicity PAMPS and non-ionic PAN, which acts as an electrolyte additive to regulate the Zn deposition in aqueous Zn-ion batteries. The hydrophilicity of PAMPS is designed to meet water solubility. Moreover, ionic PAMPS reacts with a Zn anode surface, chemically peels the surface, leaves a pre-polished anode surface, and removes heterogeneity and impurity of the metal surface. All these effects are beneficial for homogeneous zinc ion deposition and long-life battery. The PAN segments act as a water-shielding layer on a Zn anode to prevent its direct contact with H2O. Consequently, the Zn Zn symmetric cells with additive-containing electrolytes have a much longer life than those without additives (up to eight times) at a current density of 1 mA cm−2 and a capacity of 1 mA h cm−2. The assembled Zn Cu cells and the Zn V2O5 full batteries also display prominent electrochemical reversibility. The reactively acidic amphiphilic polymer provides not only an alternative strategy for the design of multi-functional electrolyte additives, but also constitutes an easy-to-operate way for advancing commercialization of aqueous zinc-storage devices.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010025
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 26: The Stabilizing of 1T-MoS2 for
           All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Peidian Chong, Ziwang Zhou, Kaihong Wang, Wenhao Zhai, Yafeng Li, Jianbiao Wang, Mingdeng Wei
      First page: 26
      Abstract: All-solid-state batteries (SSBs) are prospective candidates for a range of energy accumulation systems, delivering higher energy densities compared to batteries which use liquid electrolytes. Amongst the numerous solid-state electrolytes (SEs), sulfide-based electrolytes in particular have received more attention given that they have a high ionic conductivity. However, the incompatibility between the electrode and SEs is still an ongoing challenge that leads to poor electrochemical performance. In this work, we focus on 1T-MoS2. It is well known that 1T metallic MoS2 is unstable even at room temperature. However, we showed that 1T-MoS2 can be stabilized at 600 °C for at least 2 h, and the 1T-MoS2-600 interlayer spacing expanded to 0.95 nm. The high crystallinity of the 1T phase is highly compatible with solid electrolytes and coupled with the increased interlayer spacing, so in the all-solid-state lithium-ion battery (ALLLIB), we achieved outstanding cycling performance. At the current density of 0.2 C (1 C = 670 mA g−1), this material delivered a capacity of 406 mA h g−1 after 50 cycles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010026
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 27: Progress and Prospect of Practical
           Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Based on Solid-Phase Conversion

    • Authors: Yikun Yi, Feng Hai, Jingyu Guo, Xiaolu Tian, Shentuo Zheng, Zhendi Wu, Tao Wang, Mingtao Li
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries hold great promise in the field of power and energy storage due to their high theoretical capacity and energy density. However, the “shuttle effect” that originates from the dissolution of intermediate lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) during the charging and discharging process is prone to causing continuous irreversible capacity loss, which restricts the practical development. Beyond the traditional Li–S batteries based on the dissolution-diffusion mechanism, novel Li–S batteries based on solid-phase conversion exhibit superior cycling stability owing to the absolute prevention of polysulfides shuttling. Radically eliminating the formation of polysulfides in cathodes or cutting off their diffusion in electrolytes are the two main ways to achieve solid-phase conversion. Generally, direct transformation of sulfur to final Li2S without polysulfides participation tends to occur in short-chain sulfur polymers or special molecular forms of sulfur substances, while specific regulations of liquid electrolytes with solvating structure or solid-state electrolytes can effectively suppressing the polysulfides dissolution. In this review, we systematically organized and summarized the structures and approaches to achieve solid-phase conversion, introduce their preparation methods, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and analyze the factors and effects of different structures on battery performances. Finally, the problems demanding a prompt solution for the practical development of solid-phase conversion-based Li–S batteries, as well as their future development direction, are suggested.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010027
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 28: In Situ Solidified Gel Polymer Electrolytes
           for Stable Solid−State Lithium Batteries at High Temperatures

    • Authors: Junfeng Ma, Zhiyan Wang, Jinghua Wu, Zhi Gu, Xing Xin, Xiayin Yao
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Lithium metal batteries have attracted much attention due to their high energy density. However, the critical safety issues and chemical instability of conventional liquid electrolytes in lithium metal batteries significantly limit their practical application. Herein, we propose polyethylene (PE)−based gel polymer electrolytes by in situ polymerization, which comprise a PE skeleton, polyethylene glycol and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as well as liquid carbonate electrolytes. The obtained PE−based gel polymer electrolyte exhibits good interfacial compatibility with electrodes, high ion conductivity, and wide electrochemical window at high temperatures. Moreover, the assembled LiFePO4//Li solid−state batteries employing PE−based gel polymer electrolyte with 50% liquid carbonate electrolytes deliver good rate performance and excellent cyclic life at both 60 °C and 80 °C. In particular, they achieve high specific capacities of 158.5 mA h g−1 with a retention of 98.87% after 100 cycles under 80 °C at 0.5 C. The in situ solidified method for preparing PE−based gel polymer electrolytes proposes a feasible approach for the practical application of lithium metal batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010028
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 29: Recent Advances in Hybrid Energy Storage
           System Integrated Renewable Power Generation: Configuration, Control,
           Applications, and Future Directions

    • Authors: Ibrahem E. Atawi, Ali Q. Al-Shetwi, Amer M. Magableh, Omar H. Albalawi
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The increased usage of renewable energy sources (RESs) and the intermittent nature of the power they provide lead to several issues related to stability, reliability, and power quality. In such instances, energy storage systems (ESSs) offer a promising solution to such related RES issues. Hence, several ESS techniques were proposed in the literature to solve these issues; however, a single ESS does not fulfill all the requirements for certain operations and has different tradeoffs for overall system performance. This is mainly due to the limited capability of a single ESS and the potency concerning cost, lifespan, power and energy density, and dynamic response. In order to overcome the tradeoff issue resulting from using a single ESS system, a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of two or more ESSs appears as an effective solution. Many studies have been considered lately to develop and propose different HESSs for different applications showing the great advantages of using multiple ESSs in one combined system. Although these individual methods have been well documented, a comprehensive review of HESS-integrated RE has not been fully investigated in the literature before. Thus, as a novel contribution to the literature, this study aims to review and analyze the importance and impact of HESSs in the presence of renewable energy towards sustainable development that will facilitate this newly emerging topic to researchers in this field. In this regard, the present scenario and recent trend of HESSs in RESs at the global level, including a comparison with main ESS features, are discussed and analyzed along with the concept, design, classifications, and a detailed comparison of HESSs. The emerging role of HESSs in terms of their benefits and applications has been analyzed. Recent control and optimization methods of HESSs associated with RESs and their advantages and disadvantages have been reviewed. Finally, open issues and new challenges toward more efficient, sustainable, and green energy have also been highlighted herein. All the highlighted insights of this review will hopefully lead to increased efforts toward the development of an advanced HESS for future renewable energy optimal operation.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010029
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 30: Highly Stable Lithium Metal Anode Constructed
           by Three-Dimensional Lithiophilic Materials

    • Authors: Zhehan Yang, Qingling Ruan, Yi Xiong, Xingxing Gu
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Although lithium metal anode has irreplaceable advantages, such as ultra-high specific energy density and ultra-low redox potential, a variety of issues, i.e., short cycle life, low Coulomb efficiency, and tendency to cause fire explosions caused by lithium dendrite growth and high reactivity to the electrolyte, seriously hinder the practical progress of lithium metal anode. This perspective summarizes how 3D lithiophilic materials have stabilized lithium metal anodes in recent years by improving the uneven deposition of lithium metal, alleviating the volume expansion of lithium metal anodes, and limiting dendrite growth. Simultaneously, the issues of the 3D composite lithium anodes in practical application are concluded and the research direction of 3D composite lithium anode is prospected.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010030
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 31: Improving the Structural Ordering and
           Particle-Size Homogeneity of Li-Rich Layered Li1.2Ni0.13Co0.13Mn0.54O2
           Cathode Materials through Microwave Irradiation Solid-State Synthesis

    • Authors: Jotti Karunawan, Oktaviardi Bityasmawan Abdillah, Octia Floweri, Mahardika Prasetya Aji, Sigit Puji Santosa, Afriyanti Sumboja, Ferry Iskandar
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Li1.2Ni0.13Co0.13Mn0.54O2 (LNCM) has been intensively investigated owing to its high capacity and large voltage window. However, despite its high performance, the synthesis of LNCM can be challenging as it usually contains structural disorders and particle-size inhomogeneities, especially via a solid-state method. This work introduces microwave irradiation treatment on the LNCM fabricated via a solid-state method. The as-treated LNCM has low structural disorders, as indicated by the smaller cation mixing, better hexagonal ordering, and higher c/a ratio compared to the non-treated LNCM. Furthermore, the particle-size homogeneities of as-treated LNCM improved, as characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle size analyzer (PSA) measurements. The improved structural ordering and particle-size homogeneity of the treated sample enhances the specific capacity, initial Coulombic efficiency, and rate capability of the cathode material. The LNCM sample with 20 minutes of microwave treatment exhibits an optimum performance, showing a large specific capacity (259.84 mAh/g), a high first-cycle Coulombic efficiency (81.45%), and good rate capability. It also showed a stable electrochemical performance with 80.57% capacity retention after 200 cycles (at a charge/discharge of 0.2C/0.5C), which is 13% higher than samples without microwave irradiation.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010031
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 32: Molybdenum Nitride and Oxide Quantum Dot @
           Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanocomposite Material for Rechargeable Lithium
           Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Lixia Wang, Taibao Zhao, Ruiping Chen, Hua Fang, Yihao Yang, Yang Cao, Linsen Zhang
      First page: 32
      Abstract: A multistage architecture with molybdenum nitride and oxide quantum dots (MON-QDs) uniformly grown on nitrogen-doped graphene (MON-QD/NG) is prepared by a facile and green hydrothermal route followed by a one-step calcination process for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Characterization tests show that the MON-QDs with diameters of 1–3 nm are homogeneously anchored on or intercalated between graphene sheets. The molybdenum nitride exists in the form of crystalline Mo2N (face-centered cubic), while molybdenum oxide exists in the form of amorphous MoO2 in the obtained composite. Electrochemical tests show that the MON-QD/NG calcinated at 600 °C has an excellent lithium storage performance with an initial discharge capacity of about 1753.3 mAh g−1 and a stable reversible capacity of 958.9 mAh g−1 at current density of 0.1 A g−1 as well as long-term cycling stability at high current density of 5 A g−1. This is due to the multistage architecture, which can provide plenty of active sites, buffer volume changes of electrode and enhance electrical conductivity as well as the synergistic effect between Mo2N and MoO2.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9010032
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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