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Batteries
Number of Followers: 10  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2313-0105
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 68: Heterogeneity of Lithium Distribution in the
           Graphite Anode of 21700-Type Cylindrical Li-Ion Cells during Degradation

    • Authors: Dominik Petz, Volodymyr Baran, Juyeon Park, Alexander Schökel, Armin Kriele, Joana Rebelo Kornmeier, Carsten Paulmann, Max Koch, Tom Nilges, Peter Müller-Buschbaum, Anatoliy Senyshyn
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Structural and spatial aspects of cell degradation are studied using a combination of diffraction-and imaging-based tools applying laboratory X-rays, neutron scattering and synchrotron radiation with electrochemical and thermal characterization. Experimental characterization is carried out on cylindrical cells of 21700-type, where four regimes of cell degradation are identified, which are supplemented by an increased cell resistance and surface temperature during cell operation. The amount of intercalated lithium in the fully charged anodes in the fresh and aged states is determined by ex situ X-ray diffraction radiography and in situ X-ray diffraction computed tomography. The qualitatively similar character of the results revealed a loss of active lithium along with the development of a complex heterogeneous distribution over the electrode stripe.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10030068
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 69: Battery Energy Storage System Performance in
           Providing Various Electricity Market Services

    • Authors: Hussein Jaffal, Leopoldo Guanetti, Giuliano Rancilio, Matteo Spiller, Filippo Bovera, Marco Merlo
      First page: 69
      Abstract: The Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is one of the possible solutions to overcoming the non-programmability associated with these energy sources. The capabilities of BESSs to store a consistent amount of energy and to behave as a load by releasing it ensures an essential source of flexibility to the power system. Nevertheless, BESSs have some drawbacks that pose limitations to their utilization. Indeed, effectively managing the stored and released energy is crucial, considering the degradation of performance associated with these systems over time. The substantial capital expenditure (CAPEX) required to install these systems represents a current constraint, impeding their broader adoption. This work evaluates a techno-economic analysis of a 2MW/2MWh BESS providing multiple services, namely participating in capacity and balance markets. The analysis is based on a BESS model implemented in SIMULINK, adopting online data gathered from a Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) battery facility. The model evaluates the auxiliary power consumption, state-of-charge (SoC), state of health (SoH), and the round-trip efficiency (RTE) of the overall system. The analysis is based on three price profiles: 2019 (Business-As-Usual), 2020 (COVID-19), and 2022 (Gas Crisis). Furthermore, this work conducts a case study to analyze the behavior of the BESS. It entails a sensitivity analysis, specifically evaluating the influence of CAPEX and upward bid price on the economic viability of the project. The results show a strong relation between the CAPEX variation and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of the project.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10030069
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 70: Bimetal-Initiated Concerted Zn Regulation
           Enabling Highly Stable Aqueous Zn-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Hong Yin, Yuliang Liu, Yifeng Zhu, Fengxiang Ye, Guangliang Xu, Mengfang Lin, Wenbin Kang
      First page: 70
      Abstract: Aqueous zinc ion batteries are highly sought after for the next generation of sustainable energy storage systems. However, their development is significantly impeded by the presence of undesired zinc dendrites, which greatly reduce their cycle life. It is well-received that surface passivation by introducing foreign metals represents a compelling measure to enhance the stability of Zn anodes. Nevertheless, the vast potential of effecting concerted interplay between multiple metal elements for enhanced overall performance in Zn ion batteries remains elusive, due to the overwhelming challenge in creating uniform textures from hetero-units and understanding the mechanism underlying the synergistic performance gain. In this work, an innovative bimetallic overlaying strategy is proposed that renders possible the synergy between AgZn3 and CuZn5 in effecting uniform Zn deposition in a laterally confined and compact manner. The seeded growth of Zn on the bimetal-modulated interface effectively reduces the nucleation potential barrier, yielding a low nucleation overpotential (25 mV). In full cell testing with a commercial MnO2 applied as the cathode, superb cycling stability, surpassing the results reported in previous works, is achieved. The cell delivers an outstanding remaining capacity of 215 mA h g−1 after 300 cycles with almost no capacity degradation observed. The simple and highly efficient bimetal design, which synergizes the strengths of distinct metals, has the potential to drive innovations in the development of multicomponent aqueous Zn batteries with exceptional performance.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10030070
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 71: Accurate Capacity Prediction and Evaluation
           with Advanced SSA-CNN-BiLSTM Framework for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Chunsong Lin, Xianguo Tuo, Longxing Wu, Guiyu Zhang, Xiangling Zeng
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used for electric vehicles owing to their high energy density, light weight, and no memory effect. However, their health management problems remain unsolved in actual application. Therefore, this paper focuses on battery capacity as the key health indicator and proposes a data-driven method for capacity prediction. Specifically, this method mainly utilizes Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for automatic feature extraction from raw data and combines it with the Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BiLSTM) algorithm to realize the capacity prediction of LIBs. In addition, the sparrow search algorithm (SSA) is used to optimize the hyper-parameters of the neural network to further improve the prediction performance of original network structures. Ultimately, experiments with a public dataset of batteries are carried out to verify and evaluate the effectiveness of capacity prediction under two temperature conditions. The results show that the SSA-CNN-BiLSTM framework for capacity prediction of LIBs has higher accuracy compared with other original network structures during the multi-battery cycle experiments.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10030071
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 72: Influence of Pressure, Temperature and
           Discharge Rate on the Electrical Performances of a Commercial Pouch Li-Ion
           Battery

    • Authors: Luigi Aiello, Peter Ruchti, Simon Vitzthum, Federico Coren
      First page: 72
      Abstract: In this study, the performances of a pouch Li-ion battery (LIB) with respect to temperature, pressure and discharge-rate variation are measured. A sensitivity study has been conducted with three temperatures (5 °C, 25 °C, 45 °C), four pressures (0.2 MPa, 0.5 MPa, 0.8 MPa, 1.2 MPa) and three electrical discharge rates (0.5 C, 1.5 C, 3.0 C). Electrochemical processes and overall efficiency are significantly affected by temperature and pressure, influencing capacity and charge–discharge rates. In previous studies, temperature and pressure were not controlled simultaneously due to technological limitations. A novel test bench was developed to investigate these influences by controlling the surface temperature and mechanical pressure on a pouch LIB during electrical charging and discharging. This test rig permits an accurate assessment of mechanical, thermal and electrical parameters, while decoupling thermal and mechanical influences during electrical operation. The results of the study confirm what has been found in the literature: an increase in pressure leads to a decrease in performance, while an increase in temperature leads to an increase in performance. However, the extent to which the pressure impacts performance is determined by the temperature and the applied electrical discharge rate. At 5 °C and 0.5 C, an increase in pressure from 0.2 MPa to 1.2 MPa results in a 5.84% decrease in discharged capacity. At 45 °C the discharge capacity decreases by 2.17%. Regarding the impact of the temperature, at discharge rate of 0.5 C, with an applied pressure of 0.2 MPa, an increase in temperature from 25 °C to 45 °C results in an increase of 4.27% in discharged capacity. The impact on performance varies significantly at different C-rates. Under the same pressure (0.2 MPa) and temperature variation (from 25 °C to 45 °C), increasing the electrical discharge rate to 1.5 C results in a 43.04% increase in discharged capacity. The interplay between temperature, pressure and C-rate has a significant, non-linear impact on performance. This suggests that the characterisation of an LIB would require the active control of both temperature and pressure during electrical operation.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10030072
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 73: Sodium Polymer Electrolytes: A Review

    • Authors: Sumit Kumar, Rajesh Raghupathy, Michele Vittadello
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Lithium-based electrolytes are, at least from a thermodynamic standpoint, the most suitable ion-transport materials for energy storage systems. However, lithium-based ionic conductors suffer from safety concerns, and the limited availability of lithium in the Earth’s crust is at the root of the need to consider alternative metal ions. Notably, sodium stands out as the sixth most-prevalent element; therefore, when considering mineral reserves, it as a very attractive candidate as an alternative to the status quo. Even if the specific energy and energy density of sodium are indeed inferior with respect to those of lithium, there is substantial economic appeal in promoting the use of the former metal in stationary energy storage applications. For these reasons, the promise of sodium is likely to extend to other commercial applications, including portable electronics, as well as hybrid and electric vehicles. Widely used organic liquid electrolytes, regardless of their chosen metal cation, are disadvantageous due to leakage, evaporation, and high flammability. Polymer electrolytes are acknowledged as the most effective candidates to overcome these obstacles and facilitate the advancement of next-generation energy storage applications. In this contribution, an in-depth and comprehensive review of sodium polymer electrolytes for primary and secondary batteries is proposed. The overarching goal was to gain insight into successful synthetic strategies and their implications for conduction parameters and conductivity mechanisms. The focus lies on solid, gel, and composite polymer electrolytes. Our hope is that the proposed discussion will be helpful to all operators in the field, whether in tackling fundamental research problems or resolving issues of practical significance.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10030073
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 74: One-Time Prediction of Battery Capacity Fade
           Curve under Multiple Fast Charging Strategies

    • Authors: Xiaoming Han, Zhentao Dai, Mifeng Ren, Jing Cui, Yunfeng Shi
      First page: 74
      Abstract: Using different fast charging strategies for lithium-ion batteries can affect the degradation rate of the batteries. In this case, predicting the capacity fade curve can facilitate the application of new batteries. Considering the impact of fast charging strategies on battery aging, a battery capacity degradation trajectory prediction method based on the TM-Seq2Seq (Trend Matching—Sequence-to-Sequence) model is proposed. This method uses data from the first 100 cycles to predict the future capacity fade curve and EOL (end of life) in one-time. First, features are extracted from the discharge voltage-capacity curve. Secondly, a sequence-to-sequence model based on CNN, SE-net, and GRU is designed. Finally, a trend matching loss function is designed based on the common characteristics of capacity fade curves to constrain the encoding features of the sequence-to-sequence model, facilitating the learning of the underlying relationship between inputs and outputs. TM-Seq2Seq model is verified on a public dataset with 132 battery cells and multiple fast charging strategies. The experimental results indicate that, compared to other popular models, the TM-Seq2Seq model has lower prediction errors.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10030074
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 75: Stochastic Control of Battery Energy Storage
           System with Hybrid Dynamics

    • Authors: Richard Žilka, Ondrej Lipták, Martin Klaučo
      First page: 75
      Abstract: This paper addresses the control of load demand and power in a battery energy storage system (BESS) with Boolean-type constraints. It employs model predictive control (MPC) tailored for such systems. However, conventional MPC encounters computational challenges in practical applications, including battery storage control, and requires dedicated, mostly licensed solvers. To mitigate this, a solver-free yet efficient, suboptimal method is proposed. This approach involves generating randomized control sequences and assessing their feasibility to ensure adherence to constraints. The sequence with the best performance index is then selected, prioritizing feasibility and safety over optimality. Although this chosen sequence may not match the exact MPC solution in terms of optimality, it guarantees safe operation. The optimal control problem for the BESS is outlined, encompassing constraints on the state of charge, power limits, and charge/discharge modes. Three distinct scenarios evaluate the proposed method. The first prioritizes minimizing computational time, yielding a feasible solution significantly faster than the optimal approach. The second scenario strikes a balance between computational efficiency and suboptimality. The third scenario aims to minimize suboptimality while accepting longer computation times. This method’s adaptability to the user’s requirements in various scenarios and solver-free evaluation underscores its potential advantages in environments marked by stringent computational demands, a characteristic often found in BESS control applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10030075
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 76: Safety Analysis of Lithium-Ion Cylindrical
           Batteries Using Design and Process Failure Mode and Effect Analysis

    • Authors: Sahithi Maddipatla, Lingxi Kong, Michael Pecht
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Cylindrical lithium-ion batteries are widely used in consumer electronics, electric vehicles, and energy storage applications. However, safety risks due to thermal runaway-induced fire and explosions have prompted the need for safety analysis methodologies. Though cylindrical batteries often incorporate safety devices, the safety of the battery also depends on its design and manufacturing processes. This study conducts a design and process failure mode and effect analysis (DFMEA and PFMEA) for the design and manufacturing of cylindrical lithium-ion batteries, with a focus on battery safety.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10030076
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 3 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 40: Spherical Graphite Anodes: Influence of
           Particle Size Distribution and Multilayer Structuring in Lithium-Ion
           Battery Cells

    • Authors: Laura Gottschalk, Jannes Müller, Alexander Schoo, Ernesto Baasch, Arno Kwade
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Current research focuses on lithium-ion battery cells with a high energy density and efficient fast-charging capabilities. However, transport limitations, and, therefore, the uniform diffusion of lithium-ions across the electrode layers, remain a challenge and could lead to reduced cell performance. One approach to overcome these transport challenges is the use of subsequently produced two-layer anodes with the particle size variation of spherical graphite (x50 = 18 µm; x50 = 11 µm). Thereby, a defined pore network is created, which reduces the ionic resistance and ensuring improved fast charging capabilities. The analysis focuses on the evaluation of electrode properties and the electrochemical performance. By examining the pore size distribution of the anodes, it has been found that during the manufacturing of the two-layer anodes, carbon black and binder particles are transported into the existing microstructure of the lower layer, resulting in localized densification between the anode layers. This could also be supported by color measurements. This effect also extends to electrochemical investigations, with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showing significantly lower ionic resistances in all two-layer anodes. Reduced ionic resistance and tortuosity near the separator due to absorption effects enhance the ion diffusion and have a direct impact on anode performance. Cell ageing analysis showed a significant capacity decrease of almost 15 mAh g −1 in the single-layer references only, in contrast to the stability of the two-layer anodes. This could also be attributed to the reduced ionic resistance and active counteraction of binder migration. In conclusion, this study highlights how subsequently produced two-layer anodes significantly shape the electrode properties and cell performance of lithium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020040
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 41: Monitoring of Thermal Runaway in Commercial
           Prismatic High-Energy Lithium-Ion Battery Cells via Internal Temperature
           Sensing

    • Authors: Niklas Kisseler, Fabian Hoheisel, Christian Offermanns, Moritz Frieges, Heiner Heimes, Achim Kampker
      First page: 41
      Abstract: The temperature of a lithium-ion battery is a crucial parameter for understanding the internal processes during various operating and failure scenarios, including thermal runaway. However, the internal temperature is comparatively higher than the surface temperature. This particularly affects cells with a large cross-section, which is due to heat development within the cell and lower heat dissipation due to a poorer ratio of volume to surface area. This paper presents an approach that enables real-time monitoring of the behavior of a commercial prismatic high-energy battery cell (NMC811/C, 95 Ah, Contemporary Amperex Technology Co., Limited (Ningde, China)) in the event of thermal runaway induced by overcharging. The internal cell temperature is investigated by the subsequent integration of two hard sensors between the two jelly rolls and additional sensors on the surface of the aluminum housing of the battery cell. The sensor’s signals show a significant increase in the temperature gradient between the temperature in the core of the cell and the cell casing surface until the onset of venting and thermal runaway of the battery. The data enable a detailed investigation of the behavior of the battery cell and the comparatively earlier detection of the point of no return in the event of thermal runaway.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020041
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 42: Lithium-Ion Supercapacitors and Batteries
           for Off-Grid PV Applications: Lifetime and Sizing

    • Authors: Tarek Ibrahim, Tamas Kerekes, Dezso Sera, Abderezak Lashab, Daniel-Ioan Stroe
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The intermittent nature of power generation from photovoltaics (PV) requires reliable energy storage solutions. Using the storage system outdoors exposes it to variable temperatures, affecting both its storage capacity and lifespan. Utilizing and optimizing energy storage considering climatic variations and new storage technologies is still a research gap. Therefore, this paper presents a modified sizing algorithm based on the Golden Section Search method, aimed at optimizing the number of cells in an energy storage unit, with a specific focus on the unique conditions of Denmark. The considered energy storage solutions are Lithium-ion capacitors (LiCs) and Lithium-ion batteries (LiBs), which are tested under different temperatures and C-rates rates. The algorithm aims to maximize the number of autonomy cycles—defined as periods during which the system operates independently of the grid, marked by intervals between two consecutive 0% State of Charge (SoC) occurrences. Testing scenarios include dynamic temperature and dynamic load, constant temperature at 25 °C, and constant load, considering irradiation and temperature effects and cell capacity fading over a decade. A comparative analysis reveals that, on average, the LiC storage is sized at 70–80% of the LiB storage across various scenarios. Notably, under a constant-temperature scenario, the degradation rate accelerates, particularly for LiBs. By leveraging the modified Golden Section Search algorithm, this study provides an efficient approach to the sizing problem, optimizing the number of cells and thus offering a potential solution for energy storage in off-grid PV systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020042
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 43: Comparative Analysis of Energy Storage and
           Buffer Units for Electric Military Vehicle: Survey of Experimental Results
           

    • Authors: Ngoc Nam Pham, Radim Bloudicek, Jan Leuchter, Stanislav Rydlo, Quang Huy Dong
      First page: 43
      Abstract: This paper deals with the analyses of batteries used in current military systems to power the electric drives of military vehicles. The article focuses on battery analyses based on operational data obtained from measurements rather than analyses of the chemical composition of the tested batteries. The authors of the article used their experience from the development test-laboratory of military technology. This article presents a comparative analysis of existing and promising technologies in the field of energy storage and buffering for military electric vehicles. The overview of these technologies, including the design, operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages, are briefly presented to produce theoretical comparative analyses. However, this article mainly focuses on the experimental verification of operational ability in varied conditions, as well as the comparison and analysis of these results. The main part of the article provides more experimental studies on technologies of energy storage and buffering using the results of several experiments conducted to demonstrate the behavior of each technology in different working conditions. The output parameters, as well as the state of charge of each technology’s samples, were surveyed in various temperatures and loading characteristics. The results presented in this paper are expected to be useful for optimizing the selection of energy storage and buffering solutions for military electric vehicles in different applications and functional environments.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020043
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 44: Effect of Partial Cation Replacement on
           Anode Performance of Sodium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Shijiang He, Zidong Wang, Wenbo Qiu, Huaping Zhao, Yong Lei
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Due to their high specific capacity and long cycle life, bimetallic sulfides are the preferred choice of researchers as anodes in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, studies indicate that this class of materials often requires expensive elements such as Co, Sb, Sn, etc., and their performance is insufficient with the use of inexpensive Fe, V alone. Therefore, there is a need to explore the relationship between metal cations and anode performance so that the requirements of cost reduction and performance enhancement can be met simultaneously. In this work, a series of partially replaced sulfides with different cation ratios have been prepared by a hydrothermal method followed by heat treatment. By partially replacing Co in NiCo sulfides, all samples show improved capacity and stability over the original NiCo sulfides. As a result, the metal elements have different oxidation states, which leads to a higher capacity through their synergistic effects on each other. Mn-NiCoS with 10% replacement showed satisfactory capacity (721.09 mAh g−1 at 300 mA g−1, 662.58 mAh g−1 after 20 cycles) and excellent cycle life (85.41% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 2000 mA g−1).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020044
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 45: Recent Progress of Urea-Based Deep Eutectic
           Solvents as Electrolytes in Battery Technology: A Critical Review

    • Authors: Mohamed Ammar, Sherif Ashraf, Diego Alexander Gonzalez-casamachin, Damilola Tomi Awotoye, Jonas Baltrusaitis
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Urea, a basic chemical compound, holds diverse applications across numerous domains, ranging from agriculture to energy storage. Of particular interest is its role as a hydrogen bond donor (HBD). This specific characteristic has propelled its utilization as an essential component in crafting deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for battery electrolytes. Incorporating urea into DESs presents a promising avenue to address environmental concerns associated with traditional electrolytes, thereby advancing battery technology. Conventional electrolytes, often composed of hazardous and combustible solvents, pose significant environmental risks upon improper disposal potentially contaminating soil and water and threatening both human health and ecosystems. Consequently, there is a pressing need for eco-friendly alternatives capable of upholding high performance and safety standards. DESs, categorized as organic salts resulting from the blending of two or more compounds, have emerged as promising contenders for the next generation of electrolytes. Urea stands out among DES electrolytes by enhancing ion transport, widening the electrochemical window stability (ESW), and prolonging battery cycle life. Further, its non-toxic nature, limited flammability, and elevated thermal stability play pivotal roles in mitigating environmental concerns and safety issues associated with traditional electrolytes. Laboratory testing of urea-based DES electrolytes across various battery systems, including Al-ion, Na-ion, and Zn-ion batteries, has already been demonstrated. This review examines the evolution of urea-based DES electrolytes by elucidating their structure, molecular interaction mechanisms, performance attributes, and preparation methodologies.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020045
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 46: Impact of Mixing Shear on Polymer Binder
           Molecular Weight and Battery Electrode Reproducibility

    • Authors: Samantha L. Morelly, Renee M. Saraka, Nicolas J. Alvarez, Maureen Tang
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The viscosity and microstructure of Li-ion battery slurries and the performance of the resulting electrodes have been shown to depend on the mixing protocol. This work applies rheology to understand the impact of shear during mixing and polymer molecular weight on slurry microstructure and electrode performance. Mixing protocols of different shear intensity are applied to slurries of LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2 (NMC), carbon black (CB), and polyvinyldiene difluoride (PVDF) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), using both high-molecular-weight (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) PVDF. Slurries of both polymers are observed to form colloidal gels under high-shear mixing, even though unfavorable interactions between high molecular weight PVDF and CB should prevent this microstructure from forming. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that increasing shear rate during the polymer and particle mixing steps causes polymer scission to decrease the polymer molecular weight and allow colloidal gelation. In general, electrodes made from high molecular weight PVDF generally show increased rate capability. However, high shear rates lead to increased cell variability, possibly due to the heterogeneities introduced by polymer scission.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020046
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 47: N-Doped Graphene
           (N-G)/MOF(ZIF-8)-Based/Derived Materials for Electrochemical Energy
           Applications: Synthesis, Characteristics, and Functionality

    • Authors: Niladri Talukder, Yudong Wang, Bharath Babu Nunna, Eon Soo Lee
      First page: 47
      Abstract: In recent years, graphene-type materials originating from metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) or integrated with MOFs have exhibited notable performances across various applications. However, a comprehensive understanding of these complex materials and their functionalities remains obscure. While some studies have reviewed graphene/MOF composites from different perspectives, due to their structural–functional intricacies, it is crucial to conduct more in-depth reviews focusing on specific sets of graphene/MOF composites designed for particular applications. In this review, we thoroughly investigate the syntheses, characteristics, and performances of N-G/MOF(ZIF-8)-based/derived materials employed in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems. Special attention is given to realizing their fundamental functionalities. The discussions are divided into three segments based on the application of N-G/ZIF-8-based/derived materials as electrode materials for batteries, electrodes for electrochemical capacitors, and electrocatalysts. As electrodes for batteries, N-G/MOF(ZIF-8) materials can mitigate issues like an electrode volume expansion for Li-ion batteries and the ‘shuttle effect’ for Li-S batteries. As electrodes for electrochemical capacitors, these materials can considerably improve the ion transfer rate and electronic conductivity, thereby enhancing the specific capacitance while maintaining the structural stability. Also, it was observed that these materials could occasionally outperform standard platinum-based catalysts for the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The reported electrochemical performances and structural parameters of these materials were carefully tabulated in uniform units and scales. Through a critical analysis of the present synthesis trends, characteristics, and functionalities of these materials, specific aspects were identified that required further exploration to fully utilize their inherent capabilities.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020047
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 48: Effect of Mn Substitution on GeFe2O4 as an
           Anode for Sodium Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Marco Ambrosetti, Walter Rocchetta, Irene Quinzeni, Chiara Milanese, Vittorio Berbenni, Marcella Bini
      First page: 48
      Abstract: GeFe2O4 (GFO), with its intriguing intercalation mechanism based on alloying–conversion reactions, was recently proposed as an anode material for sodium ion batteries (SIBs). However, drawbacks related to excessive volume expansion during intercalation/deintercalation and poor electronic conductivity enormously hinder its practical application in batteries. In this regard, some experimental strategies such as cation substitutions and proper architectures/carbon coatings can be adopted. In this paper, pure and Mn-doped GFO samples were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The doped samples maintained the spinel cubic structure and the morphology of pure GFO. The electrochemical tests of the samples, performed after proper carbon coating, showed the expected redox processes involving both Ge and Fe ions. The Mn doping had a positive effect on the capacity values at a low current density (about 350 mAh/g at C/5 for the Mn 5% doping in comparison to 300 mAh/g for the pure sample). Concerning the cycling stability, the doped samples were able to provide 129 mAh/g (Mn 10%) and 150 mAh/g (Mn 5%) at C/10 after 60 cycles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020048
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 49: Graphite Felt as an Innovative Electrode
           Material for Alkaline Water Electrolysis and Zinc–Air Batteries

    • Authors: Yejin Lee, Seung-hee Park, Sung Hoon Ahn
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Recent advancements in energy conversion and storage systems have placed a spotlight on the role of multi-functional electrodes employing conductive substrates. These substrates, however, often face obstacles due to intricate and expensive production methods, as well as limitations in thickness. This research introduces a novel, economical approach using graphite felt as a versatile electrode. A method to enhance the typically low conductivity of graphite felt was devised, incorporating interfacial chemical tuning and the electrodeposition of a highly conductive nickel layer. This technique facilitates the integration of diverse transition metal-based active sites, aiming to refine the catalytic activity for specific electrochemical reactions. A key finding is that a combination of a nickel-rich cathode and an iron-rich anode can effectively optimize alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogen production at the ampere scale. Furthermore, the addition of sulfur improves the bi-functional oxygen-related redox reactions, rendering it ideal for air cathodes in solid-state zinc–air batteries. The assembled battery exhibits impressive performance, including a peak power density of 62.9 mW cm−2, a minimal voltage gap in discharge–charge polarization, and a lifecycle surpassing 70 h. This advancement in electrode technology signifies a significant leap in energy storage and conversion, offering a sustainable and efficient solution for future energy systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020049
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 50: Review of Thermal Management Strategies for
           Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

    • Authors: Mohammad Ahmadian-Elmi, Peng Zhao
      First page: 50
      Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive review of the thermal management strategies employed in cylindrical lithium-ion battery packs, with a focus on enhancing performance, safety, and lifespan. Effective thermal management is critical to retain battery cycle life and mitigate safety issues such as thermal runaway. This review covers four major thermal management techniques: air cooling, liquid cooling, phase-change materials (PCM), and hybrid methods. Air-cooling strategies are analyzed for their simplicity and cost-effectiveness, while liquid-cooling systems are explored for their superior heat dissipation capabilities. Phase-change materials, with their latent heat absorption and release properties, are evaluated as potential passive cooling solutions. Additionally, hybrid methods, such as combining two or more strategies, are discussed for their synergistic effects in achieving optimal thermal management. Each strategy is assessed in terms of its thermal performance, energy efficiency, cost implications, and applicability to cylindrical lithium-ion battery packs. The paper provides valuable insights into the strengths and limitations of each technique, offering a comprehensive guide for researchers, engineers, and policymakers in the field of energy storage. The findings contribute to the ongoing efforts to develop efficient and sustainable thermal management solutions for cylindrical lithium-ion battery packs in various applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020050
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 51: AI-Based Nano-Scale Material Property
           Prediction for Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Mohit Anil Lal, Akashdeep Singh, Ryan Mzik, Amirmasoud Lanjan, Seshasai Srinivasan
      First page: 51
      Abstract: In this work, we propose a machine learning (ML)-based technique that can learn interatomic potential parameters for various particle–particle interactions employing quantum mechanics (QM) calculations. This ML model can be used as an alternative for QM calculations for predicting non-bonded interactions in a computationally efficient manner. Using these parameters as input to molecular dynamics simulations, we can predict a diverse range of properties, enabling researchers to design new and novel materials suitable for various applications in the absence of experimental data. We employ our ML-based technique to learn the Buckingham potential, a non-bonded interatomic potential. Subsequently, we utilize these predicted values to compute the densities of four distinct molecules, achieving an accuracy exceeding 93%. This serves as a strong demonstration of the efficacy of our proposed approach.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020051
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 52: Design Optimisation of Metastructure
           Configuration for Lithium-Ion Battery Protection Using Machine Learning
           Methodology

    • Authors: Indira Cahyani Fatiha, Sigit Puji Santosa, Djarot Widagdo, Arief Nur Pratomo
      First page: 52
      Abstract: The market for electric vehicles (EVs) has been growing in popularity, and by 2027, it is predicted that the market valuation will reach $869 billion. To support the growth of EVs in public road safety, advances in battery safety research for EV application should achieve low-cost, lightweight, and high safety protection. In this research, the development of a lightweight, crashworthy battery protection system using an excellent energy absorption capability is carried out. The lightweight structure was developed by using metastructure constructions with an arrangement of repeated lattice cellular structures. Three metastructure configurations (bi-stable, star-shaped, double-U) with their geometrical variables (thickness, inner spacing, cell stack) and material types (stainless steel, aluminium, and carbon steel) were evaluated until the maximum Specific Energy Absorptions (SEA) value was attained. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is utilised to simulate the mechanics of impact and calculate the optimum SEA of the various designs using machine learning methodology. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) was used to derive the design variation by dividing the variables into 100 samples. The machine learning optimisation method utilises the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) to forecast the design that produces maximum SEA. The optimum control variables are star-shaped cells consisting of one vertical unit cell using aluminium material with a cross-section thickness of 2.9 mm. The optimum design increased the SEA by 5577% compared to the baseline design. The accuracy of the machine learning prediction is also verified using numerical simulation with a 2.83% error. Four different sandwich structure configurations are then constructed using the optimal geometry for prismatic battery protection subjected to ground impact loading conditions. An optimum configuration of 6×4×1 core cells arrangement results in a maximum displacement of 7.33 mm for the prismatic battery in the ground impact simulation, which is still less than the deformation threshold for prismatic battery safety of 10.423 mm. It is shown that the lightweight metastructure is very efficient for prismatic battery protection subjected to ground impact loading conditions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020052
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 53: Bubble Wrap-like Carbon-Coated Rattle-Type
           silica@silicon Nanoparticles as Hybrid Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion
           Batteries via Surface-Protected Etching

    • Authors: Angelica Martino, Jiyun Jeon, Hyun-Ho Park, Hochun Lee, Chang-Seop Lee
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Severe volumetric expansion (~400%) limits practical application of silicon nanoparticles as anode materials for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, we describe the fabrication and characterization of a conformal polydopamine carbon shell encapsulating rattle-type silica@silicon nanoparticles (PDA–PEI@PVP–SiO2@Si) with a tunable void structure using a dual template strategy with TEOS and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) pretreated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30) as SiO2 sacrificial template via a modified Stöber process. Polyethylene imine (PEI) crosslinking facilitated the construction of an interconnected three-dimensional bubble wrap-like carbon matrix structure through hydrothermal treatment, pyrolysis, and subsequent surface-protected etching. The composite anode material delivered satisfactory capacities of 539 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g−1, 512.76 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 1 A g−1, and 453 mAh g−1 rate performance at 5 A g−1, respectively. The electrochemical performance of PDA–PEI@PVP–SiO2@Si was attributed to the rattle-type structure providing void space for Si volume expansion, PVP K30-pretreated APTES/TEOS SiO2 seeds via catalyst-free, hydrothermal-assisted Stöber protecting Si/C spheres upon etching, carbon coating strategy increasing Si conductivity while stabilizing the solid electrolyte interface (SEI), and PEI carbon crosslinks providing continuous conductive pathways across the electrode structure. The present work describes a promising strategy to synthesize tunable yolk shell C@void@Si composite anode materials for high power/energy-density LIBs applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020053
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 54: Tuning of Ionic Liquid–Solvent
           Electrolytes for High-Voltage Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors: A
           Review

    • Authors: Yan Wang, Kaiyuan Xue, Changzeng Yan, Yuehui Li, Xingyun Zhang, Kailimai Su, Pengjun Ma, Shanhong Wan, Junwei Lang
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) possess extremely high-power density and a long cycle lifespan, but they have been long constrained by a low energy density. Since the electrochemical stability of electrolytes is essential to the operating voltage of EDLCs, and thus to their energy density, the tuning of electrolyte components towards a high-voltage window has been a research focus for a long time. Organic electrolytes based on ionic liquids (ILs) are recognized as the most commercially promising owing to their moderate operating voltage and excellent conductivity. Despite impressive progress, the working voltage of IL–solvent electrolytes needs to be improved to meet the growing demand. In this review, the recent progress in the tuning of IL- based organic electrolyte components for higher-voltage EDLCs is comprehensively summarized and the advantages and limitations of these innovative components are outlined. Furthermore, future trends of IL–solvent electrolytes in this field are highlighted.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020054
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 55: Influence of the Arrangement of the
           Cells/Modules of a Traction Battery on the Spread of Fire in Case of
           Thermal Runaway

    • Authors: Olona, Castejón
      First page: 55
      Abstract: When designing the battery of an electric vehicle, different parameters must be considered to obtain the safest arrangement of the battery/modules/cells from the mechanical and thermal points of view. In this study, the thermal runaway propagation mechanism of lithium-ion cells is analyzed as a function of their arrangement within a battery pack in case of a fire propagation of a battery pack in which a thermal runaway has occurred. The objective is to identify which cell/module arrangement is most critical within the battery pack, using microscopic analysis of the structure and chemical composition of the most damaged cells, both horizontally and vertically, of a battery belonging to a burnt vehicle. And their final condition was compared with the condition of new cells of the same type. In this way, the structure and chemical composition of the cathode, anode, and separator after thermal runaway were compared. This research was carried out to obtain information to understand the mechanical properties of lithium-ion cells and their behavior after thermal runaway heating leading to the propagation of a fire. Through the analysis carried out, it is concluded that cells placed in a vertical arrangement have worse behavior than cells in a horizontal arrangement. Regarding the safety of the battery, the results of this study will allow us to determine which arrangement and structure of the cells in the battery pack is safer against thermal runaway due to thermal failure.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020055
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 56: Phosphorus-Containing Polymer Electrolytes
           for Li Batteries

    • Authors: Narcis Varan, Petru Merghes, Nicoleta Plesu, Lavinia Macarie, Gheorghe Ilia, Vasile Simulescu
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Lithium-ion polymer batteries, also known as lithium-polymer, abbreviated Li-po, are one of the main research topics nowadays in the field of energy storage. This review focuses on the use of the phosphorus containing compounds in Li-po batteries, such as polyphosphonates and polyphosphazenes. Li-po batteries are mini-devices, capable of providing power for any portable gadget. From a constructive point of view, Li-po batteries contain an anode (carbon), a cathode (metal oxide), and a polymer electrolyte, which could be liquid electrolytes or solid electrolytes. In general, a divider is used to keep the anode and cathode from touching each other directly. Since liquid electrolytes have a generally high ionic conductivity, they are frequently employed in Li-ion batteries. In the last decade, the research in this field has also focused on solving safety issues, such as the leakage of electrolytes and risk of ignition due to volatile and flammable organic solvents. The research topics in the field of Li-po remain focused on solving safety problems and improving performance.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020056
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 57: On the State of Usability for
           Lithium–Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Christopher Wett, Jörg Lampe, Jan Haß, Thomas Seeger, Bugra Turan
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Lithium–ion batteries are well established as traction batteries for electric vehicles. This has led to a growing market for second-life batteries that can be used in applications like home energy storage systems. Moreover, the recyclability and safe handling of aged or damaged cells and packs has become more important. While there are several indicators, like state of health (SOH), state of power (SOP), or state of safety (SOS), which describe the state of a battery before its defined end of life (EOL), there is no consistent classification methodology by which to describe the usability of a cell or pack after its EOL is reached. The proposed state of usability (SOU) provides a new indicator that accounts for the usability for second life, recyclability, and possible required safety handling of a lithium–ion battery after its first intended life cycle. This work presents a decision tree method, which in turn leads to five discrete usability levels enabling a fast and rough determination of the SOU for practical use. Further, a calculation methodology for reasonable continuous regions of the SOU is proposed. Both methods are based on a literature-based rating of all of the relevant defect and aging mechanisms displayed in a risk matrix. Finally, some experimental methods that can be used for SOU determination are proposed. The developed methodology and the hands-on approach using a decision tree are well-suited for real world application in recycling companies and battery test laboratories.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020057
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 58: The Impact of Structural Pattern Types on
           the Electrochemical Performance of Ultra-Thick NMC 622 Electrodes for
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Penghui Zhu, Benjamin Ebert, Peter Smyrek, Wilhelm Pfleging
      First page: 58
      Abstract: An increase in the energy density on the cell level while maintaining a high power density can be realized by combining thick-film electrodes and the 3D battery concept. The effect of laser structuring using different pattern types on the electrochemical performance was studied. For this purpose, LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC 622) thick-film cathodes were prepared with a PVDF binder and were afterward structured using ultrafast laser ablation. Eight different pattern types were realized, which are lines, grids, holes, hexagonal structures, and their respective combinations. In addition, the mass loss caused by laser ablation was kept the same regardless of the pattern type. The laser-structured electrodes were assembled in coin cells and subsequently electrochemically characterized. It was found that when discharging the cells for durations of less than 2 h, a significant, positive impact of laser patterning on the electrochemical cell performance was observed. For example, when discharging was performed for one hour, cells containing laser-patterned electrodes with different structure types exhibited a specific capacity increase of up to 70 mAh/g in contrast to the reference ones. Although cells with a hole-patterned electrode exhibited a minimum capacity increase in the rate capability analysis, the combination of holes with lines, grids, or hexagons led to further capacity increases. In addition, long-term cycle analyses demonstrated the benefits of laser patterning on the cell lifetime, while cyclic voltammetry highlighted an increase in the Li-ion diffusion kinetics in cells containing hexagonal-patterned electrodes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020058
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 59: Adaptive Integrated Thermal Management
           System for a Stable Driving Environment in Battery Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Jaehyun Bae, Daeil Hyun, Jaeyoung Han
      First page: 59
      Abstract: With an increase in global warming, battery electric vehicles (BEVs), which are environmentally friendly, have been rapidly commercialized to replace conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines. Unlike traditional internal combustion engine vehicles, the powertrain system of BEVs operates with high efficiency, resulting in lower heat generation. This poses a challenge for cabin heating under low-temperature conditions. Conversely, under high-temperature conditions, the operating temperature of a high-voltage battery (HVB) is lower than the ambient air temperature, which makes cooling through ambient air challenging. To overcome these challenges, in this study, we proposed an integrated thermal management system (ITMS) based on a heat pump system capable of stable thermal management under diverse climatic conditions. Furthermore, to assess the ability of the proposed ITMS to perform thermal management under various climatic conditions, we integrated a detailed powertrain system model incorporating BEV specifications and the proposed ITMS model based on the heat pump system. The ITMS model was evaluated under high-load-driving conditions, specifically the HWFET scenario, demonstrating its capability to perform stable thermal management not only under high-temperature conditions, such as at 36 °C, but also under low-temperature conditions, such as at −10 °C, through the designated thermal management modes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020059
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 60: Charge Scheduling of Electric Vehicle
           Fleets: Maximizing Battery Remaining Useful Life Using Machine Learning
           Models

    • Authors: David Geerts, Róbinson Medina, Wilfried van Sark, Steven Wilkins
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Reducing greenhouse emissions can be done via the electrification of the transport industry. However, there are challenges related to the electrification such as the lifetime of vehicle batteries as well as limitations on the charging possibilities. To cope with some of these challenges, a charge scheduling method for fleets of electric vehicles is presented. Such a method assigns the charging moments (i.e., schedules) of fleets that have more vehicles than chargers. While doing the assignation, the method also maximizes the total Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of all the vehicle batteries. The method consists of two optimization algorithms. The first optimization algorithm determines charging profiles (i.e., charging current vs time) for individual vehicles. The second algorithm finds the charging schedule (i.e. the order in which vehicles are connected to a charger) that maximizes the RUL in the batteries of the entire fleet. To reduce the computational effort of predicting the battery RUL, the method uses a Machine Learning (ML) model. Such a model predicts the RUL of an individual battery while taking into account common stress factors and fabrication-related differences per battery. Simulation results show that charging a single vehicle as late as possible maximizes the RUL of that single vehicle, due to the lower battery degradation. Simulations also show that the ML model accurately predicts the RUL, while taking into account fabrication-related variability in the battery. Additionally, it was shown that this method schedules the charging moments of a fleet, leading to an increased total RUL of all the batteries in the vehicle fleet.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020060
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 61: A Low-Cost and High-Efficiency Active
           Cell-Balancing Circuit for the Reuse of EV Batteries

    • Authors: Minh-Chau Dinh, Thi-Tinh Le, Minwon Park
      First page: 61
      Abstract: In this paper, a high-efficiency and low-cost active cell-to-cell balancing circuit for the reuse of electric vehicle (EV) batteries is proposed. In the proposed method, a battery string is divided into two legs to transfer the charge from each cell in one leg to that in the other and a bidirectional CLLC resonant converter is used to transfer energy between the selected cells. Thanks to the proposed structure, the number of bidirectional switches and gate drivers can be reduced by half compared to the conventional direct cell-to-cell topologies, thereby achieving lower cost for the system. The CLLC converter is used to transfer the charge, and it is designed to work at resonant frequencies to achieve zero-voltage zero-current switching (ZVZCS) for all the switches and diodes. Consequently, the system’s efficiency can be enhanced, and hence, the fuel economy of the system can also be improved significantly. To verify the performance of the proposed active cell-balancing system, a prototype is implemented for balancing the three EV battery modules that contain twelve lithium-ion batteries from xEV. The maximum efficiency achieved for the charge transfer is 89.4%, and the balancing efficiency is 96.3%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020061
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 62: Intrinsic Safety Risk Control and Early
           Warning Methods for Lithium-Ion Power Batteries

    • Authors: Yi Cui, Xueling Shen, Hang Zhang, Yanping Yin, Zhanglong Yu, Dong Shi, Yanyan Fang, Ran Xu
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Since 2014, the electric vehicle industry in China has flourished and has been accompanied by rapid growth in the power battery industry led by lithium-ion battery (LIB) development. Due to a variety of factors, LIBs have been widely used, but user abuse and battery quality issues have led to explosion accidents that have caused loss of life and property. Current strategies to address battery safety concerns mainly involve enhancing the intrinsic safety of batteries and strengthening safety controls with approaches such as early warning systems to alert users before thermal runaway and ensure user safety. In this paper, we discuss the current research status and trends in two areas, intrinsic battery safety risk control and early warning methods, with the goal of promoting the development of safe LIB solutions in new energy applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020062
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 63: Modelling Binder Degradation in the Thermal
           Treatment of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries by Coupling Discrete Element
           Method and Isoconversional Kinetics

    • Authors: Christian Nobis, Marco Mancini, Michael Fischlschweiger
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Developing efficient recycling processes with high recycling quotas for the recovery of graphite and other critical raw materials contained in LIBs is essential and prudent. This action holds the potential to substantially diminish the supply risk of raw materials for LIBs and enhance the sustainability of their production. An essential processing step in LIB recycling involves the thermal treatment of black mass to degrade the binder. This step is crucial as it enhances the recycling efficiency in subsequent processes, such as flotation and leaching-based processing. Therefore, this paper introduces a Representative Black Mass Model (RBMM) and develops a computational framework for the simulation of the thermal degradation of polymer-based binders in black mass (BM). The models utilize the discrete element method (DEM) with a coarse-graining (CG) scheme and the isoconversional method to predict binder degradation and the required heat. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the binder polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is utilized to determine the model parameters. The model simulates a specific thermal treatment case on a laboratory scale and investigates the relationship between the scale factor and heating rate. The findings reveal that, for a particular BM system, a scaling factor of 100 regarding the particle diameter is applicable within a heating rate range of 2 to 22 K/min.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020063
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 64: Reducing Energy Consumption and Greenhouse
           Gas Emissions of Industrial Drying Processes in Lithium-Ion Battery Cell
           Production: A Qualitative Technology Benchmark

    • Authors: Marius Schütte, Florian Degen, Hendrik Walter
      First page: 64
      Abstract: As the world’s automotive battery cell production capacity expands, so too does the demand for sustainable production. Much of the industry’s efforts are aimed at reducing the high energy consumption in battery cell production. A key driver is electrode drying, which is currently performed in long ovens using large volumes of hot air. Several drying technologies from other industries could reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions if successfully applied to battery cell production. High process and quality requirements must be met when adapting these technologies for battery cell production. Evaluating the technologies against these requirements is difficult due to the technological novelty of this industry and the associated lack of data. Furthermore, the significant differences in drying technologies render a comparison even more challenging. One objective of this study was to evaluate drying technologies and identify those that could be best adapted to lithium-ion battery cell production. Near-infrared and laser drying were found to be the best in terms of energy efficiency, cost savings and other parameters. Another aim was to analyse, in more detail, the technological challenges and the advantages and disadvantages of the top-ranked drying technologies. Finally, the saving potential for greenhouse gas emissions of near-infrared and laser drying was calculated for a global production scenario of LIB cells in 2030. The saving potential in this scenario would amount to 2.63 million metric tonnes (Mt) CO2eq per year if near-infrared drying was applied in all global LIB cell production facilities within the mentioned scenario and 1.47 million Mt CO2eq per year for laser drying.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020064
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 65: Critical Review on High-Safety Lithium-Ion
           Batteries Modified by Self-Terminated Oligomers with Hyperbranched
           Architectures

    • Authors: Debabrata Mohanty, I-Ming Hung, Chien-Te Hsieh, Jing-Pin Pan, Wei-Ren Liu
      First page: 65
      Abstract: In recent years, the evolution of lithium-ion batteries (LIB) has been propelled by the growing demand for energy storage systems that are lightweight, have high energy density, and are long-lasting. This review article examines the use of self-terminated oligomers with hyperbranched architecture (STOBA) as a key electrode additive for the superior performance of LIBs. STOBA has been found to have excellent electrochemical properties, including high specific capacity, low impedance, and good cycling stability when used as an additive in electrode materials. The article discusses the process of synthesis and characterization of STOBA materials, including their potential applications in LIBs as electrode material additives. The article also discusses current research on the optimization of STOBA materials for LIBs, including the use of different solvents, monomers, and initiators. Overall, the review concludes that STOBA materials possess huge potential as a next-generation additive for LIB safety.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020065
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 66: Equivalent Minimum Hydrogen Consumption of
           Fuzzy Control-Based Fuel Cells: Exploration of Energy Management
           Strategies for Ships

    • Authors: Sun, Shang, Jiang
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Aiming to solve the problems of insufficient dynamic responses, the large loss of energy storage life of a single power cell, and the large fluctuation in DC (direct current) bus voltage in fuel cell vessels, this study takes a certain type of fuel cell ferry as the research object and proposes an improved equivalent minimum hydrogen consumption energy management strategy, based on fuzzy logic control. First, a hybrid power system including a fuel cell, a lithium–iron–phosphate battery, and a supercapacitor is proposed, with the simulation of the power system of the modified mother ship. Second, a power system simulation model and a double-closed-loop PI (proportion integration) control model are established in MATLAB/Simulink to design the equivalent hydrogen consumption model and fuzzy logic control strategy. The simulation results show that, under the premise of meeting the load requirements, the control strategy designed in this paper improves the Li-ion battery’s power, the Li-ion battery’s SOC (state of charge), the bus voltage stability, and the equivalent hydrogen consumption significantly, compared with those before optimization, which improves the stability and economy of the power system and has certain practical engineering value.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020066
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 67: Could Commercially Available Aqueous Binders
           Allow for the Fabrication of Highly Loaded Sulfur Cathodes with a Stable
           Cycling Performance'

    • Authors: Wenli Wei, Marzi Barghamadi, Anthony F. Hollenkamp, Peter J. Mahon
      First page: 67
      Abstract: In this review, the application of five commercially available aqueous-based binders including sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), polyacrylic acid (PAA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyethylene oxide (PEO), and polyethyleneimine (PEI) as well as some representative custom (or purpose) synthesized functional binders used in lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries is summarized based on the main evaluation criteria of cycling capacity, battery lifetime, and areal sulfur loading (and, consequently, energy density of the battery). CMC with SBR (styrene butadiene rubber) has been reported with promising results in highly loaded sulfur cathodes (>5 mg cm−2 sulfur loading). PVA and PEI were confirmed to provide an enhanced adsorption of lithium polysulfides due to the interaction with hydroxyl and amine groups. No competitive advantage in electrochemical performance was demonstrated through the use of PAA and PEO. Water-based binders modified with polysulfide-trapping functional groups have complex fabrication processes, which hinders their commercial application. In general, achieving a high capacity and long cycling stability for highly loaded sulfur cathodes using commercial aqueous-based binders remains a significant challenge. Additionally, the scalability of these reported sulfur cathodes, in terms of complexity, cost, and stable electrochemical cycling, should be evaluated through further battery testing, particularly targeting pouch cell performance.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10020067
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 2 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 17: Design and Control of a Modular Integrated
           On-Board Battery Charger for EV Applications with Cell Balancing

    • Authors: Fatemeh Nasr Esfahani, Ahmed Darwish, Xiandong Ma
      First page: 17
      Abstract: This paper presents operation and control systems for a new modular on-board charger (OBC) based on a SEPIC converter (MSOBC) for electric vehicle (EV) applications. The MSOBC aims to modularise the battery units in the energy storage system of the EV to provide better safety and improved operation. This is mainly achieved by reducing the voltage of the battery packs without sacrificing the performance required by the HV system. The proposed MSOBC is an integrated OBC which can operate the EV during traction and braking, as well as charge the battery units. The MSOBC is composed of several submodules consisting of a full-bridge voltage source converter connected on the ac side and SEPIC converter installed on the battery side. The SEPIC converter controls the battery segments with a continuous current because it has an input inductor which can smooth the battery’s currents without the need for large electrolytic capacitors. The isolated version of the SEPIC converter is employed to enhance the system’s safety by providing galvanic isolation between the batteries and the ac output side. This paper presents the necessary control loops to ensure the optimal operation of the EV with the MSOBC in terms of charge and temperature balance without disturbing the required modes of operation. The mathematical analyses in this paper are validated using a full-scale EV controlled by TMS320F28335 DSP.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010017
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 18: Enhancing Virtual Inertia Control in
           Microgrids: A Novel Frequency Response Model Based on Storage Systems

    • Authors: Adrián Criollo, Luis I. Minchala-Avila, Dario Benavides, Paul Arévalo, Marcos Tostado-Véliz, Daniel Sánchez-Lozano, Francisco Jurado
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The integration of renewable resources in isolated systems can produce instability in the electrical grid due to its intermintency. In today’s microgrids, which lack synchronous generation, physical inertia is substituted for inertia emulation. To date, the most effective approach remains the frequency derivative control technique. Nevertheless, within this method, the ability to provide virtual drooping is often disregarded in its design, potentially leading to inadequate development in systems featuring high renewable penetration and low damping. To address this issue, this paper introduces an innovative design and analysis of virtual inertia control to simultaneously mimic droop and inertia characteristics in microgrids. The dynamic frequency response without and with renewable energy sources penetration is comparatively analyzed by simulation. The proposed virtual inertia control employs a derivative technique to measure the rate of change of frequency slope during inertia emulation. Sensitivity mapping is conducted to scrutinize its impact on dynamic frequency response. Finally, the physical battery storage system of the University of Cuenca microgrid is used as a case study under operating conditions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010018
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 19: A Novel Quick Temperature Prediction
           Algorithm for Battery Thermal Management Systems Based on a Flat Heat Pipe
           

    • Authors: Weifeng Li, Yi Xie, Wei Li, Yueqi Wang, Dan Dan, Yuping Qian, Yangjun Zhang
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Predicting the core temperature of a Li-ion battery is crucial for precise state estimation, but it is difficult to directly measure. Existing quick temperature-predicting approaches can hardly consider the thermal mass of complex structure that may cause time delays, particularly under high C-rate dynamic conditions. In this paper, we developed a quick temperature prediction algorithm based on a thermal convolution method (TCM) to calculate the core temperature of a flat heat pipe-based battery thermal management system (FHP-BTMS) under dynamic conditions. The model could predict the core temperature rapidly through convolution of the thermal response map which contains full physical information. Firstly, in order to obtain a high fidelity spatio-temporal temperature distribution, the thermal capacitance-resistance network (TCRN) of the FHP-BTMS is established and validated by constant and dynamic discharging experiments. Then, the response map of the core temperature motivated by various impulse heat sources and heat sinks is obtained. Specifically, the dynamic thermal characteristics of an FHP are discussed to correct the boundary conditions of the TCM. Afterwards, the temperature prediction performances of the TCM and a lumped model under different step operating conditions are compared. The TCM results show a 70–80% accuracy improvement and better dynamic adaptivity than the lumped model. Lastly, a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) profile is employed. The temperature prediction accuracy results show that the TCM can maintain a relative error below 5% throughout the entire prediction period.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010019
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 20: Lithium Metal under Static and Dynamic
           Mechanical Loading

    • Authors: Ed Darnbrough, David E. J. Armstrong
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Macro-scale mechanical testing and finite element analysis of lithium metal in compression have been shown to suggest methods and parameters for producing thin lithium anodes. Consideration of engineering and geometrically corrected stress experiments shows that the increasing contact area dominates the stress increase observed during the compression, not strain hardening, of lithium. Under static loading, the lithium metal stress relaxes, which means there is a speed of deformation (engineering strainrate limit of 6.4×10−5 s−1) where there is no increase in stress during compression. Constant displacement tests show that stress relaxation depends on the initial applied stress and the amount of athermal plastic work within the material. The finite element analysis shows that barrelling during compression and the requirement for high applied stresses to compress lithium with a small height-to-width ratio are friction and geometric effects, respectively. The outcomes of this work are discussed in relation to the diminishing returns of stack pressure, the difficulty in closing voids, and potential methods for designing and producing sub-micron lithium anodes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010020
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 21: In Situ/Operando Techniques for Unraveling
           Mechanisms of Ionic Transport in Solid-State Lithium Indium Halide
           Electrolyte

    • Authors: Farzaneh Bahmani, Collin Rodmyre, Karen Ly, Paul Mack, Alevtina White Smirnova
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Over the past years, lithium-ion solid-state batteries have demonstrated significant advancements regarding such properties as safety, long-term endurance, and energy density. Solid-state electrolytes based on lithium halides offer new opportunities due to their unique features such as a broad electrochemical stability window, high lithium-ion conductivity, and elasticity at close to melting point temperatures that could enhance lithium-ion transport at interfaces. A comparative study of lithium indium halide (Li3InCl6) electrolytes synthesized through a mechano-thermal method with varying optimization parameters revealed a significant effect of temperature and pressure on lithium-ion transport. An analysis of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) data within the temperature range of 25–100 °C revealed that the optimized Li3InCl6 electrolyte reveals high ionic conductivity, reaching 1.0 mS cm−1 at room temperature. Herein, we present the utilization of in situ/operando X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) to investigate the temperature-dependent behavior of the Li3InCl6 electrolyte. Confirmed by these methods, significant changes in the Li3InCl6 ionic conductivity at 70 °C were observed due to phase transformation. The observed behavior provides critical information for practical applications of the Li3InCl6 solid-state electrolyte in a broad temperature range, contributing to the enhancement of lithium-ion solid-state batteries through their improved morphology, chemical interactions, and structural integrity.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010021
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 22: Recent Advances in Electrospun
           Nanostructured Electrodes in Zinc-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Lilin Zhang, Cong Wei, Lin Gao, Meng-Fang Lin, Alice Lee-Sie Eh, Jingwei Chen, Shaohui Li
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) are increasingly recognized as highly promising candidates for grid-scale energy storage systems due to their cost-effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and high security. Despite recent advancements in the research of cathode materials, Zn anodes, and electrolytes, several challenges persist and must be addressed, including cathode dissolution, generation of by-products, and zinc dendrite formation, which hinder the future application of ZIBs. In this review, we systematically summarize the recent developments in electrospinning technology within ZIBs. First, the principle technical parameters and subsequent thermal treatment of electrospinning technology are discussed, and then the synthetic preparation, morphologies, and electrochemical performance of electrospun nanostructured electrodes in ZIBs are comprehensively reviewed. Finally, some perspectives on research directions and optimization strategies for electrospinning technology in energy applications are outlined.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010022
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 23: Voltage and Overpotential Prediction of
           Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries with Artificial Neural Networks

    • Authors: Joseba Martínez-López, Koldo Portal-Porras, Unai Fernández-Gamiz, Eduardo Sánchez-Díez, Javier Olarte, Isak Jonsson
      First page: 23
      Abstract: This article explores the novel application of a trained artificial neural network (ANN) in the prediction of vanadium redox flow battery behaviour and compares its performance with that of a two-dimensional numerical model. The aim is to evaluate the capability of two ANNs, one for predicting the cell potential and one for the overpotential under various operating conditions. The two-dimensional model, previously validated with experimental data, was used to generate data to train and test the ANNs. The results show that the first ANN precisely predicts the cell voltage under different states of charge and current density conditions in both the charge and discharge modes. The second ANN, which is responsible for the overpotential calculation, can accurately predict the overpotential across the cell domains, with the lowest confidence near high-gradient areas such as the electrode membrane and domain boundaries. Furthermore, the computational time is substantially reduced, making ANNs a suitable option for the fast understanding and optimisation of VRFBs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010023
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 24: An Industrial Perspective and Intellectual
           Property Landscape on Solid-State Battery Technology with a Focus on
           Solid-State Electrolyte Chemistries

    • Authors: Zouina Karkar, Mohamed S. E. Houache, Chae-Ho Yim, Yaser Abu-Lebdeh
      First page: 24
      Abstract: This review focuses on the promising technology of solid-state batteries (SSBs) that utilize lithium metal and solid electrolytes. SSBs offer significant advantages in terms of high energy density and enhanced safety. This review categorizes solid electrolytes into four classes: polymer, oxide, hybrid, and sulfide solid electrolytes. Each class has its own unique characteristics and benefits. By exploring these different classes, this review aims to shed light on the diversity of materials and their contributions to the advancement of SSB technology. In order to gain insights into the latest technological developments and identify potential avenues for accelerating the progress of SSBs, this review examines the intellectual property landscape related to solid electrolytes. Thus, this review focuses on the recent SSB technology patent filed by the main companies in this area, chosen based on their contribution and influence in the field of batteries. The analysis of the patent application was performed through the Espacenet database. The number of patents related to SSBs from Toyota, Samsung, and LG is very important; they represent more than 3400 patents, the equivalent of 2/3 of the world’s patent production in the field of SSBs. In addition to focusing on these three famous companies, we also focused on 15 other companies by analyzing a hundred patents. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the strategies employed by various companies in the field of solid-state battery technologies, bridging the gap between applied and academic research. Some of the technologies presented in this review have already been commercialized and, certainly, an acceleration in SSB industrialization will be seen in the years to come.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010024
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 25: Facile Fabrication of Porous MoSe2/Carbon
           Microspheres via the Aerosol Process as Anode Materials in Potassium-Ion
           Batteries

    • Authors: Du Yeol Jo, Seung-Keun Park
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Recently, potassium-ion batteries (KIBs) have attracted significant interest due to a number of factors, including the growing demand for energy and limited lithium resources. However, their practical use is hampered by poor cycling stability due to the large size of K+. Therefore, it is critical to develop a structural design that effectively suppresses large volume changes. This study presents a simple method of using a salt template to fabricate porous microspheres (p-MoSe2@C MS) of MoSe2 and a carbon matrix as anode materials in KIBs. These microspheres have a distinct porous design, with uniformly distributed MoSe2 nanocrystals embedded in the carbon matrix to prevent MoSe2 overgrowth due to material diffusion during heat treatment. The manufacturing process combined one-step spray drying with recyclable NaCl as a hard template. Through a two-step thermal process under an inert atmosphere, the initial dextrin, NaCl, and Mo salt microspheres were converted into a p-MoSe2@N MS composite. The carbon structure derived from the dextrin maintained the shape of the microspheres when NaCl was removed, ensuring no overgrowth of MoSe2. This well-designed porous structure improves the interaction with the electrolyte, facilitating the transport of ions and electrons and reducing the K+ diffusion distances. In addition, the porous carbon structure accommodates large volume changes during cycling and maintains its structural strength. As a result, p-MoSe2@C MS composite exhibits superior electrochemical properties, with remarkable capacity, long-term cycling stability (193 mA h g−1 after 500 cycles at 2.0 A g−1), and rate capability.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010025
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 26: A Health Assessment Method for Lithium-Ion
           

    • Authors: Zijiang Yang, Xiaofeng Zhao, Hongquan Zhang
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The health assessment of lithium-ion batteries holds great research significance in various areas such as battery management systems, battery usage and maintenance, and battery economic evaluation. However, because environmental perturbations are not taken into account during the assessment, the accuracy and reliability of the assessment are limited. Thus, a health assessment model for lithium-ion batteries based on evidence reasoning rules with dynamic reference value (ER-DRV) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, considering that the data are subject to changes, dynamic reference values, real-time weights, and real-time reliability were utilized in the model to ensure the effectiveness and accuracy of the assessment. Moreover, an enhanced optimization method based on the whale optimization algorithm (WOA) was developed to improve the accuracy of the assessment model. In addition, the robustness of the ER-DRV model was studied with perturbation analysis methods. Finally, the proposed method was validated on two open lithium-ion battery datasets. The experimental results show that the health assessment method proposed in this article not only has higher accuracy and transparent reasoning process but also has strong robustness and good generalization ability.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010026
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 27: An Overview of the Sustainable Recycling
           Processes Used for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Daniele Marchese, Chiara Giosuè, Antunes Staffolani, Massimo Conti, Simone Orcioni, Francesca Soavi, Matteo Cavalletti, Pierluigi Stipa
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) can play a crucial role in the decarbonization process that is being tackled worldwide; millions of electric vehicles are already provided with or are directly powered by LIBs, and a large number of them will flood the markets within the next 8–10 years. Proper disposal strategies are required, and sustainable and environmental impacts need to be considered. Despite still finding little applicability in the industrial field, recycling could become one of the most sustainable options to handle the end of life of LIBs. This review reports on the most recent advances in sustainable processing for spent LIB recycling that is needed to improve the LIB value chain, with a special focus on green leaching technologies for Co-based cathodes. Specifically, we provide the main state of the art for sustainable LIB recycling processes, focusing on the pretreatment of spent LIBs; we report on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies on the usage of acids, including mineral as well as organic ones; and summarize the recent innovation for the green recovery of valuable metals from spent LIBs, including electrochemical methods. The advantage of using green leaching agents, such as organic acids, which represent a valuable option towards more sustainable recycling processes, is also discussed. Organic acids can, indeed, reduce the economic, chemical, and environmental impacts of LIBs since post-treatments are avoided. Furthermore, existing challenges are identified herein, and suggestions for improving the effectiveness of recycling are defined.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010027
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 28: Recycling of Valuable Metals from the
           Priority Lithium Extraction Residue Obtained through Hydrogen Reduction of
           Spent Lithium Batteries

    • Authors: Yong Guo, Fupeng Liu, Feixiong Chen, Zaoming Chen, Hong Zeng, Tao Zhang, Changquan Shen
      First page: 28
      Abstract: The selective separation of lithium from spent ternary positive materials is achieved through hydrogen reduction followed by water leaching. Almost 98% of the Li is transformed into soluble LiOH⋅H2O, while the Ni, Co and Mn species are all transformed into insoluble metals or their oxides, so the recovery of Ni, Co and Mn at this stage is challenging. The traditional acid leaching process has drawbacks such as high oxidant consumption, the low recovery of valuable metals and high production costs. Thus, sulfation roasting followed by water leaching was studied in this project. The leaching levels of Ni, Co, Mn and Al reached 87.13%, 99.87%, 96.21% and 94.95%, respectively, with 1.4 times the theoretical amount of sulfuric acid used at 180 °C for 120 min. To avoid the adverse effects of Mn and Al on the quality of the Ni and Co sulfate products, Mn2+ was first separated and precipitated via the KMnO4 oxidation–precipitation method, and >98% of the Mn was removed and precipitated within 30 min with a Kp/Kt (ratio of actual usage to theoretical usage of KMnO4) of 1.0 at pH = 2.0 and 25 °C. After removal of the Mn, the solvent extraction method was adopted by using P204 as an extractant to separate Al. More than 98% of the Al was extracted in 30 min with 20% (v/v) P204 + 10% (v/v) TBP with an A/O ratio of 1:1 at 30 °C. This optimized process for extracting lithium residues improved the hydrogen reduction process of waste lithium batteries and will enable industrialization of the developed processes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010028
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 29: Advancements and Challenges in Solid-State
           Battery Technology: An In-Depth Review of Solid Electrolytes and Anode
           Innovations

    • Authors: Abniel Machín, Carmen Morant, Francisco Márquez
      First page: 29
      Abstract: The primary goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in solid-state batteries (SSBs), with a focus on recent advancements in solid electrolytes and anodes. The paper begins with a background on the evolution from liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries to advanced SSBs, highlighting their enhanced safety and energy density. It addresses the increasing demand for efficient, safe energy storage in applications like electric vehicles and portable electronics. A major part of the paper analyzes solid electrolytes, key to SSB technology. It classifies solid electrolytes as polymer-based, oxide-based, and sulfide-based, discussing their distinct properties and application suitability. The review also covers advancements in anode materials for SSBs, exploring materials like lithium metal, silicon, and intermetallic compounds, focusing on their capacity, durability, and compatibility with solid electrolytes. It addresses challenges in integrating these anode materials, like the interface stability and lithium dendrite growth. This review includes a discussion on the latest analytical techniques, experimental studies, and computational models to understand and improve the anode–solid electrolyte interface. These are crucial for tackling interfacial resistance and ensuring SSBs’ long-term stability and efficiency. Concluding, the paper suggests future research and development directions, highlighting SSBs’ potential in revolutionizing energy storage technologies. This review serves as a vital resource for academics, researchers, and industry professionals in advanced battery technology development. It offers a detailed overview of materials and technologies shaping SSBs’ future, providing insights into current challenges and potential solutions in this rapidly evolving field.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010029
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 30: Constructing a LiPON Layer on a 3D Lithium
           Metal Anode as an Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase with Long-Term
           Stability

    • Authors: Qianmu Pan, Yongkun Yu, Yuxin Zhu, Chunli Shen, Minjian Gong, Kui Yan, Xu Xu
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The problem of lithium dendrite growth has persistently hindered the advancement of lithium metal batteries. Lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON), functioning as an amorphous solid electrolyte, is extensively employed as an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) owing to its remarkable stability and mechanical strength, which is beneficial for effectively mitigating dendrite growth. Nevertheless, the significant challenge arises from the volume changes in the Li metal anode during cycling, leading to the vulnerability of LiPON due to its high rigidity, which impedes the widespread use of LiPON. To address this problem, our study introduces a lithium-boron (Li-B) alloy as the anode, featuring a 3D structure, which can be synergistic with the artificial LiPON layer during cycling, leading to a better performance. The average Coulombic efficiency (CE) of a Li Cu half-cell reaches 95% over 120 cycles. The symmetric cells exhibit sustained operation for 950 h with a low voltage polarization of less than 20 mV under a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 and for 410 h under 1 mA/cm2.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010030
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 31: Comprehensive Modeling and Safety Protection
           Strategy for Thermal Runway Propagation in Lithium-Ion Battery Modules
           under Multi-Factor Influences

    • Authors: Zhixiong Chai, Junqiu Li, Ziming Liu, Zhengnan Liu, Xin Jin
      First page: 31
      Abstract: This paper addresses the challenge of thermal runaway propagation in lithium-ion battery modules and presents a safety protection design method based on a thermal propagation model. Firstly, it systematically analyzes the triggering mechanisms of thermal runaway in batteries, establishes a model for cell thermal runaway, and calibrates the model parameters through experiments. Secondly, by integrating the cell thermal runaway model and considering the three-dimensional structure of the battery module, a comprehensive thermal runaway propagation model is developed and validated. Subsequently, a simulation study on thermal runaway propagation, incorporating multi-factor influences and typical operating conditions, is conducted using the established thermal propagation model for the battery module. The study elucidates the thermal runaway propagation characteristics of the battery module under different safety protection strategies. The findings highlight that the proposed safety protection strategy effectively mitigates thermal propagation within the battery module, particularly when the thermal runaway is influenced by multiple factors.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010031
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 32: Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement
           Techniques on a Scalable Novel Hybrid Thermal Management Strategy for
           Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

    • Authors: Seham Shahid, Martin Agelin-Chaab
      First page: 32
      Abstract: This paper introduces a novel hybrid thermal management strategy, which uses secondary coolants (air and fluid) to extract heat from a phase change material (paraffin), resulting in an increase in the phase change material’s heat extraction capability and the battery module’s overall thermal performance. A novel cold plate design is developed and placed between the rows and columns of the cells. The cold plate contains a single fluid body to improve the thermal performance of the battery module. Experimental studies were conducted to obtain the temperature and heat flux profiles of the battery module. Moreover, a numerical model is developed and validated using the experimental data obtained. The numerical data stayed within ±2% of the experimental data. In addition, the ability of nanoparticles to increase the thermal conductivity of water is examined and it is found that the cooling from the liquid cooling component is not sensitive enough to capture the 0.32 W/m K increase in the thermal conductivity of the fluid. Furthermore, in order to enhance the air cooling, fins were added within the air duct to the cold plate. However, this is not feasible, as the pressure drop through the addition of the fins increased by ~245%, whereas the maximum temperature of the battery module reduced by only 0.6 K. Finally, when scaled up to an entire battery pack at a high discharge rate of 7 C, the numerical results showed that the overall temperature uniformity across the pack was 1.14 K, with a maximum temperature of 302.6 K, which was within the optimal operating temperature and uniformity ranges. Therefore, the developed thermal management strategy eliminates the requirement of a pump and reservoir and can be scaled up or down according to the energy and power requirements.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010032
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 33: Charging Stations for Large-Scale Deployment
           of Electric Vehicles

    • Authors: Amel Benmouna, Laurence Borderiou, Mohamed Becherif
      First page: 33
      Abstract: The large-scale adoption of electric vehicles will require a charging infrastructure that meets the new needs that will arise. Currently, the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles is still in the early stages of development, not least because of the low number of electric vehicles in use. However, there are still many questions to be answered when it comes to standardization in terms of connectors, DC or AC charging, and power, as well as both operational and economic issues. Although this topic has been the subject of numerous studies over the last ten years, there are still gaps to be filled, particularly with regard to the mix of different recharging strategies (normal, accelerated, fast, induction-track, etc.), as well as the economic and operational aspects. Moreover, the relationship between users and private cars is changing rapidly, and charging behaviors are not yet well established.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010033
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 34: Review on Modeling and SOC/SOH Estimation of
           Batteries for Automotive Applications

    • Authors: Pierpaolo Dini, Antonio Colicelli, Sergio Saponara
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have revolutionized the portable and stationary energy industry and are finding widespread application in sectors such as automotive, consumer electronics, renewable energy, and many others. However, their efficiency and longevity are closely tied to accurately measuring their SOC and state of health (SOH). The need for precise algorithms to estimate SOC and SOH has become increasingly critical in light of the widespread adoption of lithium-ion batteries in industrial and automotive applications. While the benefits of lithium-ion batteries are undeniable, the challenges related to their efficient and safe management cannot be overlooked. Accurate estimation of SOC and SOH is crucial for ensuring optimal battery management, maximizing battery lifespan, optimizing performance, and preventing sudden failures. Consequently, research and development of reliable algorithms for estimating SOC and SOH have become an area of growing interest for the scientific and industrial community. This review article aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the state-of-the-art in SOC and SOH estimation algorithms for lithium-ion batteries. The most recent and promising theoretical and practical techniques used to address the challenges of accurate SOC and SOH estimation will be examined and evaluated. Additionally, critical evaluation of different approaches will be highlighted: emphasizing the advantages, limitations, and potential areas for improvement. The goal is to provide a clear view of the current landscape and to identify possible future directions for research and development in this crucial field for technological innovation.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010034
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 35: Bismuth Nanoparticles Encapsulated in a
           Porous Carbon Skeleton as Stable Chloride-Storage Electrodes for Seawater
           Desalination

    • Authors: Xiaoqing Dong, Ying Wang, Qian Zou, Chaolin Li
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Cost-effective bismuth (Bi) boasts a high theoretical capacity and exceptional selectivity towards Cl- ion storage, making it a promising material for desalination batteries (DBs). However, the substantial volume expansion and low conductivity severely hinder the cycling performance of Bi-based DBs. In this study, a carbon-layer-coated Bi nanocomposite (Bi@C) was synthesized by pyrolyzing a metal–organic framework (Bi-MOF) containing Bi using a straightforward method. The results show that the Bi@C synthesized under the condition of annealing at 700 °C for 2 h has the optimum properties. The Bi@C has good multiplication performance, and the desalination capacity is 106.1 mg/g at a high current density of 1000 mA/g. And the material exhibited a high desalination capacity of 141.9 mg/g at a current density of 500 mA/g and retained 66.9% of its capacity after 200 cycles. In addition, the Bi@C can operate at a wide range of NaCl concentrations from 0.05 to 2 mol/L. The desalination mechanism analysis of the Bi@C revealed that the carbon coating provides space for Bi particles to expand in volume, thereby mitigating the issues of electrode material powdering and shedding. Meanwhile, the porous carbon skeleton establishes electron and ion channels to enhance the electrode material’s conductivity. This research offers a promising strategy for the application of chloride-storage electrode materials in electrochemical desalination systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010035
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 36: Techno-Economic Analysis of the Business
           Potential of Second-Life Batteries in Ostrobothnia, Finland

    • Authors: Sami Lieskoski, Jessica Tuuf, Margareta Björklund-Sänkiaho
      First page: 36
      Abstract: In an effort to tackle climate change, various sectors, including the transport sector, are turning towards increased electrification. As a result, there has been a swift increase in the sales of electric vehicles (EVs) that use lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). When LIBs reach their end of life in EVs, it may still be possible to use them in other, less demanding applications, giving them a second life. This article describes a case study where the feasibility of a hypothetical business repurposing Tesla Model S/X batteries in the Ostrobothnia region, Finland, is investigated. A material-flow analysis is conducted to estimate the number of batteries becoming available for second-life applications from both the Ostrobothnia region and Finland up to 2035. The cost of repurposing batteries is evaluated for four different scenarios, with the batteries being processed either on the pack, module, or cell level. Three scenarios were found to be feasible, with repurposing costs of 27.2–38.3 EUR/kWh. The last scenario, in which all battery packs are disassembled at the cell level, was found not to be feasible due to the labor intensiveness of disassembly and testing at the cell level. This work gives indications of the potential for repurposing batteries in the Ostrobothnia region and Finland.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010036
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 37: Pretreatment of Lithium Ion Batteries for
           Safe Recycling with High-Temperature Discharging Approach

    • Authors: Arpita Mondal, Yuhong Fu, Wei Gao, Chunting Chris Mi
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The ongoing transition toward electric vehicles is a major factor in the exponential rise in demand for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). There is a significant effort to recycle battery materials to support the mining industry in ensuring enough raw materials and avoiding supply disruptions, so that there will be enough raw materials to produce LIBs. Nevertheless, LIBs that have reached the end of their useful lives and are sent for recycling may still have some energy left in them, which could be dangerous during handling and processing. Therefore, it is important to conduct discharge pretreatment of LIBs before dismantling and crushing them, especially in cases where pyrometallurgical recycling is not used. Electrochemical discharge in conducting solutions has been commonly studied and implemented for this purpose, but its effectiveness has yet to be fully validated. Non-electrochemical discharge has also been researched as a potentially cleaner and more efficient discharge technology at the same time. This article presents a non-electrochemical discharge process by completely draining the energy from used batteries before recycling. A comprehensive investigation of the behavior of LIBs during discharge and the amount of energy remaining after fully discharging the battery at different temperatures is analyzed in this work. According to the experimental findings, completely discharging the battery at higher temperatures results in a reduced amount of residual energy in the battery. This outcome holds great importance in terms of safe and environmentally friendly recycling of used LIBs, emphasizing that safety and environmentally friendly recycling must go hand in hand with a cost-effective and sustainable solution.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010037
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 38: A Review of Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling:
           Technologies, Sustainability, and Open Issues

    • Authors: Alessandra Zanoletti, Eleonora Carena, Chiara Ferrara, Elza Bontempi
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are a widely used energy storage technology as they possess high energy density and are characterized by the reversible intercalation/deintercalation of Li ions between electrodes. The rapid development of LIBs has led to increased production efficiency and lower costs for manufacturers, resulting in a growing demand for batteries and their application across various industries, particularly in different types of vehicles. In order to meet the demand for LIBs while minimizing climate-impacting emissions, the reuse, recycling, and repurposing of LIBs is a critical step toward achieving a sustainable battery economy. This paper provides a comprehensive review of lithium-ion battery recycling, covering topics such as current recycling technologies, technological advancements, policy gaps, design strategies, funding for pilot projects, and a comprehensive strategy for battery recycling. Additionally, this paper emphasizes the challenges associated with developing LIB recycling and the opportunities arising from these challenges, such as the potential for innovation and the creation of a more sustainable and circular economy. The environmental implications of LIB recycling are also evaluated with methodologies able to provide a sustainability analysis of the selected technology. This paper aims to enhance the comprehension of these trade-offs and encourage discussion on determining the “best” recycling route when targets are in conflict.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010038
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 39: Engineering Dry Electrode Manufacturing for
           Sustainable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Mohamed Djihad Bouguern, Anil Kumar Madikere Raghunatha Reddy, Xia Li, Sixu Deng, Harriet Laryea, Karim Zaghib
      First page: 39
      Abstract: The pursuit of industrializing lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with exceptional energy density and top-tier safety features presents a substantial growth opportunity. The demand for energy storage is steadily rising, driven primarily by the growth in electric vehicles and the need for stationary energy storage systems. However, the manufacturing process of LIBs, which is crucial for these applications, still faces significant challenges in terms of both financial and environmental impacts. Our review paper comprehensively examines the dry battery electrode technology used in LIBs, which implies the use of no solvents to produce dry electrodes or coatings. In contrast, the conventional wet electrode technique includes processes for solvent recovery/drying and the mixing of solvents like N-methyl pyrrolidine (NMP). Methods that use dry films bypass the need for solvent blending and solvent evaporation processes. The advantages of dry processes include a shorter production time, reduced energy consumption, and lower equipment investment. This is because no solvent mixing or drying is required, making the production process much faster and, thus, decreasing the price. This review explores three solvent-free dry film techniques, such as extrusion, binder fibrillation, and dry spraying deposition, applied to LIB electrode coatings. Emphasizing cost-effective large-scale production, the critical methods identified are hot melting, extrusion, and binder fibrillation. This review provides a comprehensive examination of the solvent-free dry-film-making methods, detailing the underlying principles, procedures, and relevant parameters.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2024-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010039
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2024)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 574: Selective Precipitation of Rare Earth Double
           Sulfate Salts from Industrial Ni–MH Battery Leachates: Impact of
           Downstream Processing on Product Quality

    • Authors: Boris Guzhov, Laurent Cassayre, Antoine Barnabé, Nicolas Coppey, Béatrice Biscans
      First page: 574
      Abstract: This work focuses on the recovery of rare earth elements (REEs = La, Ce, Nd, Pr) from spent nickel–metal hydride batteries by hydrometallurgical processing. The REEs were precipitated in the form of sodium-lanthanide double sulfate salts by adding Na2SO4 to a leach liquor prepared from industrially processed spent batteries. The objectives were to better understand the parameters driving the purity of the product and to identify the phases involved, as well as their crystallographic structure. The methodology included experiments performed in a 2 L reactor, thermodynamic calculations and product characterization. We confirmed that high REE precipitation yields (>95%) can be achieved under a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrated and quantified how appropriately washing the product allows for a significant reduction in nickel losses while maintaining control over REE product purity. Finally, using X-ray Diffraction analyses, it was established that REEs form a solid solution with a chemical formula (Na0.9K0.1)(La0.65Ce0.24Pr0.04Nd0.07)(SO4)2·H2O, which has not been reported so far.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120574
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 576: Silicon Negative Electrodes—What Can
           Be Achieved for Commercial Cell Energy Densities

    • Authors: William Yourey
      First page: 576
      Abstract: Historically, lithium cobalt oxide and graphite have been the positive and negative electrode active materials of choice for commercial lithium-ion cells. It has only been over the past ~15 years in which alternate positive electrode materials have been used. As new positive and negative active materials, such as NMC811 and silicon-based electrodes, are being developed, it is crucial to evaluate the potential of these materials at a stack or cell level to fully understand the possible increases in energy density which can be achieved. Comparisons were made between electrode stack volumetric energy densities for designs containing either LCO or NMC811 positive electrode and silicon-graphite negative electrodes, where the weight percentages of silicon were evaluated between zero and ninety percent. Positive electrode areal loadings were evaluated between 2.00 and 5.00 mAh cm−2. NMC811 at 200 mAh g−1 has the ability to increase stack energy density between 11% and 20% over LCO depending on percentage silicon and areal loading. At a stack level, the percentage of silicon added results in large increases in energy density but delivers a diminishing return, with the greatest increase observed as the percentage of silicon is increased from zero percent to approximately 25–30%.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120576
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 577: Battery Impedance Spectroscopy Embedded
           Measurement System

    • Authors: Gabriele Cicioni, Alessio De Angelis, Fernando M. Janeiro, Pedro M. Ramos, Paolo Carbone
      First page: 577
      Abstract: The evolution of rechargeable battery characteristics have led to their use in almost every device in our everyday life. This importance has also increased the relevance of estimating the remaining battery charge (state of charge, SOC) and their health (state of health, SOH). One of the methods for the estimation of these parameters is based on the impedance spectroscopy obtained from the battery output impedance measured at multiple frequencies. This paper proposes an embedded measurement system capable of measuring the battery output impedance while in operation (either charging or supplying power to the intended device). The developed system generates a small amplitude stimulus that is added to the battery current. The system then measures the battery voltage and current to estimate the impedance at the stimulus frequencies. Three batteries were measured at different SOC levels, demonstrating the system principle of operation. Complementarily, a battery impedance equivalent circuit was used, together with genetic algorithms, to estimate the circuit parameters and assess their dependence on the battery SOC.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120577
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 578: SoC Estimation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with
           Noisy Measurements and Absence of Excitation

    • Authors: Miquel Martí-Florences, Andreu Cecilia Piñol, Alejandro Clemente, Ramon Costa-Castelló
      First page: 578
      Abstract: Accurate State-of-Charge estimation is crucial for applications that utilise lithium-ion batteries. In real-time scenarios, battery models tend to present significant uncertainty, making it desirable to jointly estimate both the State of Charge and relevant unknown model parameters. However, parameter estimation typically necessitates that the battery input signals induce a persistence of excitation property, a need which is often not met in practical operations. This document introduces a joint state of charge/parameter estimator that relaxes this stringent requirement. This estimator is based on the Generalized Parameter Estimation-Based Observer framework. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time it has been applied in the context of lithium-ion batteries. Its advantages are demonstrated through simulations.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120578
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 579: The Review of Existing Strategies of
           End-of-Life Graphite Anode Processing Using 3Rs Approach: Recovery,
           Recycle, Reuse

    • Authors: Alexandra Kosenko, Konstantin Pushnitsa, Alexander A. Pavlovskii, Pavel Novikov, Anatoliy A. Popovich
      First page: 579
      Abstract: While past recycling efforts have primarily concentrated on extracting valuable metals from discarded cathode materials, the focus is now shifting towards anode materials, particularly graphite, which makes up 10–20% of LIB mass. Escalating prices of battery-grade graphite and environmental considerations surrounding its production highlight the significance of graphite recycling. This review categorizes methods for graphite recovery into three approaches: recovery, recycle, and reuse. Moreover, it explores their potential applications and comparative electrochemical performance analysis, shedding light on the promising prospects of utilizing spent graphite-based functional materials. The review underscores the importance of sustainable recycling practices to address the environmental and economic challenges posed by the proliferation of LIBs and the growing demand for graphite.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120579
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 580: Navigating Battery Choices in IoT: An
           Extensive Survey of Technologies and Their Applications

    • Authors: Kareeb Hasan, Neil Tom, Mehmet Rasit Yuce
      First page: 580
      Abstract: In recent years, there has been significant progress in IoT solutions for a variety of fields. The real-time functionality and remote deployment of IoT solutions are two crucial aspects that are necessary for their successful implementation. To achieve this, external batteries play a major role. While lithium–ion batteries are often the go-to choice for IoT devices, it is essential to recognise that different IoT applications have unique needs. Therefore, it is important to conduct a thorough examination of existing battery solutions and their suitability for various IoT applications. This paper presents an extensive survey of different battery technologies, accompanied by an assessment of their applicability in different IoT applications. The aim is to offer a clear and practical guide for researchers and professionals seeking the best battery solutions for their IoT applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120580
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 581: Processing of Aqueous Graphite–Silicon
           Oxide Slurries and Its Impact on Rheology, Coating Behavior,
           Microstructure, and Cell Performance

    • Authors: Peter Haberzettl, Nicholas Filipovic, Dragoljub Vrankovic, Norbert Willenbacher
      First page: 581
      Abstract: The mixing process is the basis of the electrode microstructure, which defines key cell performance indicators. This work investigated the effects of varying the energy input within the mixing procedure on slurry rheology, coating behavior, mechanical and electrical properties of dry electrodes and electrochemical performance of cells fabricated from these negative electrodes. Energy input differences were achieved by varying the solids content within the mixing procedure; however, the final total solids content of the slurries was always the same. The slurries, produced with graphite and silicon oxide as active materials and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and styrene-butadiene rubber as binders, showed large differences in flow behavior which were explained by changes in CMC adsorption and mechanical degradation because of increasing energy input. Low shear viscosity and the degree of shear thinning decreased with increasing energy input, resulting in a narrower stability window for slot-die coating. The resistance between the electrode and current collector decreased as more CMC was adsorbed on the active material. Electrode adhesion drastically dropped at the highest energy input, presumably due to a change in SBR distribution. Despite these variations, all fabricated pouch cells demonstrated excellent electrochemical performance and a slight trend of increased charge capability was observed in cells prepared with higher energy input.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120581
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 582: Aging and Homogenized Mechanical Character
           of Quasi-Statically Charged Gr-Si and NMC Based Electrodes Using Damage
           Material Modeling

    • Authors: Shahbaz Ahmed, Jochen Zausch, Hannes Grimm-Strele, Matthias Kabel
      First page: 582
      Abstract: Silicon-based, high-energy-density electrodes show severe microstructural degradation due to continuous expansion and contraction upon charging and discharging. This mechanical degradation behaviour affects the cell’s lifetime by changing the microstructure morphology, altering transport parameters, and active volume losses. Since direct experimental observations of mechanical degradation are challenging, we develop a computer simulation approach that is based on real three-dimensional electrode microstructures. By assuming quasi-static cycling and taking into account the mechanical properties of the electrode’s constituents we calculate the heterogeneous deformation and resulting morphological changes. Additionally, we implement an ageing model that allows us to compute a heterogeneously evolving damage field over multiple cycles. From the damage field, we infer the remaining electrode capacity. Using this technique, an anode blend of graphite particles and silicon carbon composite particles (SiC-C) as well as a cathode consisting of Lithium-Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt Oxide with molar ratio of 8:1:1 (NMC811) are studied. In a two-level homogenization approach, we compute, firstly, the effective mechanical properties of silicon composite particles and, secondly, the whole electrode microstructure. By introducing the damage strain ratio, the degradation evolution of the graphite SiC-C anode blend is studied for up to 95 charge-discharge cycles. With this work, we demonstrate an approach to how mechanical damage of battery electrodes can be treated efficiently. This is the basis for a full coupling to electrochemical simulations.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-06
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120582
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 583: An Extended Kalman Filter Design for
           State-of-Charge Estimation Based on Variational Approach

    • Authors: Ziheng Zhou, Chaolong Zhang
      First page: 583
      Abstract: State of charge (SOC) is a very important variable for using batteries safely and reliably. To improve the accuracy of SOC estimation, a novel variational extended Kalman filter (EKF) technique based on least square error method is herein provided by establishing a second-order equivalent circuit model for the battery. It was found that when SOC decreased, resistance polarization occurred in the electrochemical model, and the parameters in the equivalent RC model varied. To decrease the modeling error in the equivalent circuit model, the system parameters were identified online depending on the SOC’s estimated result. Through the SOC-estimation process, the variation theorem was introduced, which enabled the system parameters to track the real situations based on the output measured. The experiment results reveal the comparison of the SOC-estimation results of the variational EKF algorithm, the traditional EKF algorithm, the recursive least square (RLS) EKF algorithm, and the forgotten factor recursive least square (FFRLS) EKF algorithm based on different indices, including the mean square error (MSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE). The variational EKF algorithm provided in this paper has higher estimation accuracy and robustness than the traditional EKF, which verifies the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed method.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120583
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 584: Design of Hierarchical Nickel-Cobalt
           Phosphide/Nickel Oxide with Tunable Electronic Structure and Strong
           Chemical Interface for Advanced Supercapacitors

    • Authors: Gaini Zhang, Jingqian Liu, Hui Shan, Zhengdong Ma, Yuhui Xu, Zihao Yang, Jiaxuan Zuo, Jingjing Wang, Shufeng Li, Xifei Li
      First page: 584
      Abstract: The design of a reasonable heterostructure electrode to achieve enhanced areal performance for supercapacitors remains a great challenge. Here, we constructed hierarchical porous NiCoP/NiO nanocomposites anchored on Ni foam with tunable electronic and structural properties, as well as robust interfacial interaction. In NiCoP/NiO, the interconnected NiO nanosheets serve as a carrier with enriched anchoring sites to confine the NiCoP and improve its stability. Meanwhile, the ultrathin NiCoP nanosheets with bimetallic centers are connected with porous NiO nanosheets to form a reliable heterojunction, enhancing the electrochemical reaction kinetics. Taking advantage of the synergistic contribution of bimetallic centers, phosphides and unique structure, the NiCoP/NiO delivers a high areal specific capacitance (1860 mF cm−2 at 5 mA cm−2), good rate performance of 78.5% at six times the increased current density, and remarkable durability (11.0% decrease after 10,000 cycles). Furthermore, the assembled hybrid supercapacitor NiCoP/NiO//porous-activated carbon (PAC) delivers a high areal energy density of 173.7 μWh cm−2 (116.4 μWh cm−2) at 1.6 mW cm−2 (32 mW cm−2). The results indicate that the design of the heterostructure interface with strong chemical interface and tunable electronic structure is an effective and promising approach to boost the electrochemical performance for advanced supercapacitors.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120584
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 585: A Novel Method for State of Health
           Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Deep Learning Neural Network
           and Transfer Learning

    • Authors: Zhong Ren, Changqing Du, Yifang Zhao
      First page: 585
      Abstract: Accurate state of health (SOH) estimation of lithium-ion batteries is critical for maintaining reliable and safe working conditions for electric vehicles (EVs). The machine learning-based method with health features (HFs) is encouraging for health prognostics. However, the machine learning method assumes that the training and testing data have the same distribution, which restricts its application for different types of batteries. Thus, in this paper, a deep learning neural network and fine-tuning-based transfer learning strategy are proposed for accurate and robust SOH estimation toward different types of batteries. First, a universal HF extraction strategy is proposed to obtain four highly related HFs. Second, a deep learning neural network consisting of long short-term memory (LSTM) and fully connected layers is established to model the relationship between the HFs and SOH. Third, the fine-tuning-based transfer learning strategy is exploited for SOH estimation of various types of batteries. The proposed methods are comprehensively verified using three open-source datasets. Experimental results show that the proposed deep learning neural network with the HFs can estimate the SOH accurately in a single dataset without using the transfer learning strategy where the mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are constrained to 1.21% and 1.83%. For the transfer learning between different aging datasets, the overall MAE and RMSE are limited to 1.09% and 1.41%, demonstrating the reliability of the fine-tuning strategy.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120585
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 586: Hierarchical CaMn2O4/C Network Framework
           toward Aqueous Zn Ion Hybrid Capacitors as Competitive Cathodes

    • Authors: Lifen Ding, Qingchao Gao, Changzhou Yuan
      First page: 586
      Abstract: Manganese-based materials have received more attention as cathodes for aqueous zinc ion hybrid capacitors (AZIHCs) due to their advantages such as abundant reserves, low cost, and large theoretical capacity. However, manganese-based materials have the disadvantage of poor electrical conductivity. Herein, a solid-phase method was used to synthesize a hierarchical carbon-coated calcium manganate (CaMn2O4/C) network framework as the cathode for AZIHCs. Thanks to the unique structural/componential merits including conductive carbon coating and hierarchical porous architecture, the achieved CaMn2O4/C cathode shows an exceptionally long life of close to 5000 cycles at 2.0 A g−1, with a reversible specific capacity of 195.6 mAh g−1. The assembled CaMn2O4/C-based AZIHCs also display excellent cycling stability with a capacity retention rate of 84.9% after 8000 cycles at 1.0 A g−1, and an energy density of 21.3 Wh kg−1 at an output power density of 180.0 W kg−1.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120586
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 587: Multi-Method Model for the Investigation of
           Disassembly Scenarios for Electric Vehicle Batteries

    • Authors: Sabri Baazouzi, Julian Grimm, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 587
      Abstract: Disassembly is a pivotal technology to enable the circularity of electric vehicle batteries through the application of circular economy strategies to extend the life cycle of battery components through solutions such as remanufacturng, repurposing, and efficient recycling, ultimately reintegrating gained materials into the production of new battery systems. This paper aims to develop a multi-method self-configuring simulation model to investigate disassembly scenarios, taking into account battery design as well as the configuration and layout of the disassembly station. We demonstrate the developed model in a case study using a Mercedes–Benz battery and the automated disassembly station of the DeMoBat project at Fraunhofer IPA. Furthermore, we introduce two disassembly scenarios: component-oriented and accessibility-oriented disassembly. These scenarios are compared using the simulation model to determine several indicators, including the frequency of tool change, the number and distribution of robot routes, tool utilization, and disassembly time.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120587
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 588: Ionic Liquid-Laden Zn-MOF-74-Based
           Solid-State Electrolyte for Sodium Batteries

    • Authors: Alexander Mirandona-Olaeta, Eider Goikolea, Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez, Arkaitz Fidalgo-Marijuan, Idoia Ruiz de Larramendi
      First page: 588
      Abstract: Sodium batteries are receiving increasing interest as an alternative to reduce dependence on lithium-based systems. Furthermore, the development of solid-state electrolytes will lead to higher-performing and safer devices. In this work, a Zn-based metal–organic framework (Zn-MOF-74) is combined as a physical barrier against the growth of dendrites, together with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([EMIm][TFSI]) ionic liquid, which provides improved mobility to sodium ions. It is demonstrated that the incorporation of the appropriate amount of ionic liquid within the pores of the MOF produces a considerable increase in ionic conductivity, achieving values as high as 5 × 10−4 S cm−1 at room temperature, in addition to an acceptable Na+ transference number. Furthermore, the developed Na[EMIm][TFSI]@Zn-MOF-74 hybrid solid electrolyte contributes to stable and dendrite-free sodium plating/stripping for more than 100 h. Finally, a more than notable extension of the electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte has been determined, being useful even above 7 V vs. Na+/Na. Overall, this work presents a suitable strategy for the next generation of solid-state sodium batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120588
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 589: Advances in the Separation of Graphite from
           Lithium Iron Phosphate from End-of-Life Batteries Shredded Fine Fraction
           Using Simple Froth Flotation

    • Authors: Olivier Renier, Andrea Pellini, Jeroen Spooren
      First page: 589
      Abstract: Olivine-type lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, LFP) lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have become a popular choice for electric vehicles (EVs) and stationary energy storage systems. In the context of recycling, this study addresses the complex challenge of separating black mass of spent LFP batteries from its main composing materials to allow for direct recycling. In this study, 71% copper and 81% aluminium foil impurities were removed by sieving black mass to <250 µm. Next, the application of froth flotation as a separation technique was explored, examining the influence of chemical agents, pre-treatment, and multi-step processes. Frother agent addition improved material recovery in the froth, while collector addition influenced the separation efficiency and enhanced graphite recovery. Pre-treatment, particularly sonication, was found to break down agglomerates and further improve separation. Multi-step flotation increased the purity of recovered fractions. The optimized process for a black mass < 250 µm, involving sonication pre-treatment and double flotation, resulted in enriched carbonaceous material (80.3 mol%) in froth fractions and high LFP concentration (81.9 mol%) in tailings fractions. The recovered spent LFP cathode material contained 37.20 wt% Fe2P2O7, a degradation product of LiFePO4. This research offers valuable insights for the development of efficient battery recycling methods for LFP batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-13
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120589
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 590: Analysis of Ni-Rich Cathode Composite
           Electrode Performance According to the Conductive Additive Distribution
           for Application in Sulfide All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Jae Hong Choi, Sumyeong Choi, Tom James Embleton, Kyungmok Ko, Kashif Saleem Saqib, Mina Jo, Junhyeok Hwang, Sungwoo Park, Yoonkook Son, Pilgun Oh
      First page: 590
      Abstract: All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSLBs) represent a promising breakthrough in battery technology owing to their high energy density and exceptional stability. When crafting cathode electrodes for ASSLBs, the solid electrolyte/cathode material interface is physically hindered by the specific morphology of carbon additive materials. In this paper, we examine the distribution of conductive additives within the electrode and its impact on the electrochemical performance of composites incorporating either nano-sized carbon black (CB) or micron-sized carbon nanofibers (CNF) into Ni-rich (LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2) cathode material based composites. When nano-sized CB is employed as a conductive additive, it enhances the electrical conductivity of the composite by adopting a uniform distribution. However, its positioning between the solid electrolyte and cathode material leads to an increase in interfacial resistance during charge and discharge cycles, resulting in decreased electrochemical performance. In contrast, using micron-sized CNF as a conductive additive results in a reduction in the composite’s electrical conductivity compared to CB. Nevertheless, due to the comparatively uninterrupted interfaces between the solid electrolyte and cathode materials, it exhibits superior electrochemical characteristics. Our findings are expected to aid the fabrication of electrochemical-enhanced cathode composite electrodes for ASSLBs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120590
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 591: Traditional and Iterative Group-IV Material
           Batteries through Ion Migration

    • Authors: Xiaojun He, Xiaoyan Wei, Zifeng Jin, Zhenglin Wang, Ya’nan Yang, Jinsheng Lv, Nan Chen
      First page: 591
      Abstract: In this review, we emphasize the significant potential of carbon group element-based (Group-IV) electrochemical energy devices prepared on the basis of ion migration in the realm of high-efficiency batteries. Based primarily on our group research findings, we elucidate the key advantages of traditional Group-IV materials as electrodes in ion batteries powered by metal ion migration. Subsequently, we delve into the operational principles and research progress of iterative Group-IV material moisture ion batteries, driven by ion migration through external moisture. Finally, considering the practical challenges and issues in real-world applications, we offer prospects for the development and commercialization of Group-IV materials utilizing ion migration in both conventional and next-generation battery technologies.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120591
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 592: Optimizing the Location of Frequency
           Regulation Energy Storage Systems for Improved Frequency Stability

    • Authors: Jonghoon Lee, Sangwook Han, Dongho Lee
      First page: 592
      Abstract: The installation of battery energy storage systems (BESSs) with various shapes and capacities is increasing due to the continuously rising demand for renewable energy. To prepare for potential accidents, a study was conducted to select the optimal location for installing an input BESS in terms of frequency stability when the index assumes the backup input of the BESS. This study builds on the premise that installing a BESS on a bus in an area where active power absorption and transmission are the most active can significantly contribute to increasing the frequency recovery of the power system. Based on this premise, the magnitude of the active power flow and the proportional characteristics of the phase difference between buses were mathematically confirmed. This study also calculated the effective power sensitivity index of a bus with 13 FR-ESSs installed in a domestic system and reviewed the frequency output by establishing a table for each failure scenario. The results indicated that the effect of frequency rise can be estimated at the level of tidal current calculation. Thus, the study suggested a direction for subsequent studies to improve the sensitivity index.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120592
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 593: Qualitative Characterization of
           Lead–Acid Batteries Fabricated Using Different Technological
           Procedures: An EIS Approach

    • Authors: Olivia Bruj, Adrian Calborean
      First page: 593
      Abstract: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were applied in this work to nine industrially fabricated lead–acid battery prototypes, which were divided into three type/technology packages. Frequency-dependent impedance changes were interpreted during successive charge/discharge cycles in two distinct stages: (1) immediately after fabrication and (2) after a controlled aging procedure to 50% depth of discharge following industrial standards. To investigate their state of health behavior vs. electrical response, three methods were employed, namely, the Q-Q0 total charge analysis, the decay values of the constant-phase element in the equivalent Randles circuits, and the resonance frequency of the circuit. A direct correlation was found for the prediction of the best-performing batteries in each package, thus allowing for a qualitative analysis that was capable of providing the decay of the batteries’ states of health. We found which parameters were directly connected with their lifetime performance in both stages and, as a consequence, which type/technology battery prototype displayed the best performance. Based on this methodology, industrial producers can further establish the quality of novel batteries in terms of performance vs. lifespan, allowing them to validate the novel technological innovations implemented in the current prototypes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120593
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 594: Rational Design of a Cost-Effective Biomass
           Carbon Framework for High-Performance Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    • Authors: Zhongchao Bai, Kai Fan, Meiqing Guo, Mingyue Wang, Ting Yang, Nana Wang
      First page: 594
      Abstract: Lithium–sulfur (Li-S) batteries are the most attractive candidates for next-generation large-scale energy storage because of their high theoretical energy density and the affordability of sulfur. However, most of the reported research primarily concentrates on low sulfur loading (below 2 mgs cm−2) cathodes using binders and traditional collectors, thus undermining the expected energy density. Herein, a N, O co-doped carbon nanotube (N, O-CNT) decorated wood framework (WF), denoted as WF-CNT, was designed as a free-standing sulfur host, achieving high sulfur loading of 10 mgs cm−2. This unique cathode featured low tortuosity microchannels and a conductive framework, reducing the diffusion paths for both ions and electrons and accommodating the volume changes associated with sulfur. Moreover, the internal CNT forests effectively captured soluble lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) and catalyze their redox kinetic. Consequently, the S@WF-CNT-800 sample exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 1438.2 mAh g−1 at a high current density of 0.5 A g−1. Furthermore, a reversible capacity of 404.5 mAh g−1 was obtained after 500 cycles with sulfur loading of 5 mgs cm−2 at 0.5 A g−1. This work may support the development of high sulfur loading cathodes utilizing cost-effective and sustainable biomass materials for Li-S batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120594
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 595: Percolation Behavior of a Sulfide
           Electrolyte–Carbon Additive Matrix for Composite Cathodes in
           All-Solid-State Batteries

    • Authors: Elias Reisacher, Pinar Kaya, Volker Knoblauch
      First page: 595
      Abstract: To achieve high energy densities with sufficient cycling performance in all-solid-state batteries, the fraction of active material has to be maximized while maintaining ionic and electronic conduction throughout the composite cathode. It is well known that low-surface-area carbon additives added to the composite cathode enhance the rate capability; however, at the same time, they can lead to rapid decomposition of the solid electrolyte in thiophosphate-based cells. Thus, the fraction of such conductive additives has to be well balanced. Within this study we determined the electronic percolation threshold of a conducting matrix consisting of Li6PS5Cl and C65. Furthermore, we systematically investigated the microstructure and effective conductivity (σeff) of the conducting matrix. The percolation threshold pc was determined as ~4 wt.-% C65, and it is suggested that below pc, the ionic contribution is dominant, which can be seen in temperature-dependent σeff and blocked charge transport at low frequencies. Above pc, the impedance of the conducting matrix becomes frequency-independent, and the ohmic law applies. Thus, the conducting matrix in ASSB can be regarded as an electronic and ionic conducting phase between active material particles. Additionally, guidelines are provided to enable electronic conduction in the conducting matrix with minimal C65 content.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120595
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 596: A Two-State-Based Hybrid Model for
           Degradation and Capacity Prediction of Lithium-Ion Batteries with Capacity
           Recovery

    • Authors: Yu Chen, Laifa Tao, Shangyu Li, Haifei Liu, Lizhi Wang
      First page: 596
      Abstract: The accurate prediction of Li-ion battery capacity is important because it ensures mission and personnel safety during operations. However, the phenomenon of capacity recovery (CR) may impede the progress of improving battery capacity prediction performance. Therefore, in this study, we focus on the phenomenon of capacity recovery during battery degradation and propose a hybrid lithium-ion battery capacity prediction framework based on two states. First, to improve the density of capacity-related information, the simultaneous Markov blanket discovery algorithm (STMB) is used to screen the causal features of capacity from the initial feature set. Then, the life-long cycle sequence of batteries is partitioned into global degradation regions and recovery regions, as part of the proposed prediction framework. The prediction branch for the global degradation region is implemented through a long short-term memory network (LSTM) and the other prediction branch for the recovery region is implemented through Gaussian process regression (GPR). A support vector machine (SVM) model is applied to identify recovery points to switch the branch of the prediction framework. The prediction results are integrated to obtain the final prediction results. Experimental studies based on NASA’s lithium battery aging data highlight the trustworthy capacity prediction ability of the proposed method considering the capacity recovery phenomenon. In contrast to the comparative methods, the mean absolute error and the root mean square error are reduced by up to 0.0013 Ah and 0.0043 Ah, which confirms the validity of the proposed method.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120596
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 597: Multiagent-Based Control for Plug-and-Play
           Batteries in DC Microgrids with Infrastructure Compensation

    • Authors: Mudhafar Al-Saadi, Michael Short
      First page: 597
      Abstract: The influence of the DC infrastructure on the control of power-storage flow in micro- and smart grids has gained attention recently, particularly in dynamic vehicle-to-grid charging applications. Principal effects include the potential loss of the charge–discharge synchronization and the subsequent impact on the control stabilization, the increased degradation in batteries’ health/life, and resultant power- and energy-efficiency losses. This paper proposes and tests a candidate solution to compensate for the infrastructure effects in a DC microgrid with a varying number of heterogeneous battery storage systems in the context of a multiagent neighbor-to-neighbor control scheme. Specifically, the scheme regulates the balance of the batteries’ load-demand participation, with adaptive compensation for unknown and/or time-varying DC infrastructure influences. Simulation and hardware-in-the-loop studies in realistic conditions demonstrate the improved precision of the charge–discharge synchronization and the enhanced balance of the output voltage under 24 h excessively continuous variations in the load demand. In addition, immediate real-time compensation for the DC infrastructure influence can be attained with no need for initial estimates of key unknown parameters. The results provide both the validation and verification of the proposals under real operational conditions and expectations, including the dynamic switching of the heterogeneous batteries’ connection (plug-and-play) and the variable infrastructure influences of different dynamically switched branches. Key observed metrics include an average reduced convergence time (0.66–13.366%), enhanced output-voltage balance (2.637–3.24%), power-consumption reduction (3.569–4.93%), and power-flow-balance enhancement (2.755–6.468%), which can be achieved for the proposed scheme over a baseline for the experiments in question.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120597
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 9, Pages 598: Fabrication and Characterization of Plasma
           Sprayed TiO2 and Li4Ti5O12 Materials as All Active Material Lithium-Ion
           Battery Electrodes

    • Authors: Dean Yost, Jonathan Laurer, Kevin Childrey, Chen Cai, Gary M. Koenig
      First page: 598
      Abstract: Two strategies to increase battery energy density at the cell level are to increase electrode thickness and to reduce the amount of inactive electrode constituents. All active material (AAM) electrodes provide a route to achieve both of those aims toward high areal capacity electrodes. AAM electrodes are often fabricated using hydraulic compression processes followed by thermal treatment; however, additive manufacturing routes could provide opportunities for more time-efficient and geometry-flexible electrode fabrication. One possible route for additive manufacturing of AAM electrodes would be to employ plasma spray as a direct additive manufacturing technology, and AAM electrode fabrication using plasma spray will be the focus of the work herein. TiO2 and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) powders were deposited onto stainless steel substrates via plasma spray processing to produce AAM battery electrodes, and evaluated with regards to material and electrochemical properties. The TiO2 electrodes delivered low electrochemical capacity, <12 mAh g−1, which was attributed to limitations of the initial feed powder. LTO plasma sprayed AAM electrodes had much higher capacity and were comparable in total capacity at a low rate of discharge to composite electrodes fabricated using the same raw powder feed material. LTO material and electrochemical properties were sensitive to the plasma spray conditions, suggesting that tuning the material microstructure and electrochemical properties is possible by controlling the plasma spray deposition parameters.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries9120598
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 12 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 1: The Impact of a Combined Battery Thermal
           Management and Safety System Utilizing Polymer Mini-Channel Cold Plates on
           the Thermal Runaway and Its Propagation

    • Authors: Henrik-Christian Graichen, Gunar Boye, Jörg Sauerhering, Florian Köhler, Frank Beyrau
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in mobile applications because they offer a suitable package of characteristics in terms of specific energy, cost, and life span. Nevertheless, they have the potential to experience thermal runaway (TR), the prevention and containment of which require safety measures and intensive thermal management. This study introduces a novel combined thermal management and safety application designed for large aspect-ratio battery cells such as pouches and thin prismatics. It comprises polymer-based mini-channel cold plates that can indirectly thermally condition the batteries’ faces with liquid. They are lightweight and space-saving, making them suitable for mobile systems. Furthermore, this study experimentally clarifies to which extent the application of polymer mini-channel cold plates between battery cells is suitable to delay TR by heat dissipation and to prevent thermal runaway propagation (TRP) to adjacent cells by simultaneously acting as a thermal barrier. NMC pouch cells of 12.5 Ah capacity were overcharged at 1 C to induce TR. Without cold plates, TR and TRP occurred within one hour. Utilizing the polymer mini-channel cold plates for face cooling, the overcharge did not produce a condition leading to cell fire in the same time frame. When the fluid inlet temperature was varied between 5 and 40 °C, the overcharged cell’s surface temperature peaked between 50 and 60 °C. Indications were found that thermal conditioning with the polymer cold plates significantly slowed down parts of the process chain before cell firing. Their peak performance was measured to be just under 2.2 kW/m2. In addition, thermal management system malfunction was tested, and evidence was found that the polymer cold plates prevented TRP to adjacent cells. In conclusion, a combined thermal management and safety system made of polymer mini-channel cold plates provides necessary TR-related safety aspects in lithium battery systems and should be further investigated.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010001
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 2: Determination of Fast Battery-Charging
           Profiles Using an Electrochemical Model and a Direct Optimal Control
           Approach

    • Authors: Julio Gonzalez-Saenz, Victor Becerra
      First page: 2
      Abstract: This paper describes an approach to determine a fast-charging profile for a lithium-ion battery by utilising a simplified single-particle electrochemical model and direct collocation methods for optimal control. An optimal control problem formulation and a direct solution approach were adopted to address the problem effectively. The results shows that, in some cases, the optimal current profile resembles the current profile in the Constant Current–Constant Voltage charging protocol. Several challenges and knowledge gaps were addressed in this work, including a reformulation of the optimal control problem that utilises direct methods as an alternative to overcome the limitations of indirect methods employed in similar studies. The proposed formulation considers the minimum-time optimal control case, trade-offs between the total charging time, the maximisation of the lithium bulk concentration, and energy efficiency, along with inequality constraints and other factors not previously considered in the literature, which can be helpful in practical applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010002
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 3: Evaluating the Aging-Induced Voltage Slippery
           as Cause for Float Currents of Lithium-ion Cells

    • Authors: Mohamed Azzam, Christian Endisch, Meinert Lewerenz
      First page: 3
      Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive exploration of float current analysis in lithium-ion batteries, a promising new testing method to assess calendar aging. Float currents are defined as the steady-state trickle charge current after a transient part. In the literature, a correlation to capacity loss was reported. Assuming the float current compensates for the voltage decay over time and is linked to calendar aging, effects from voltage slippery must be considered. The dU/dQ analysis suggests solely a loss of active lithium. Therefore, we investigate the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) growth as the general aging mechanism to explain the origin of float currents. Our results show that the voltage slippery theory holds true within the low to middle test voltage ranges. However, the theory’s explanatory power begins to diminish at higher voltage ranges, suggesting the existence of additional, yet unidentified, factors influencing the float current. A shuttle reaction or lithiation of the cathode by electrolyte decomposition are the most promising alternative aging mechanisms at high voltages. The paper proposes a unique voltage slippery model to check for correlations between aging mechanisms, the float current test and the check-up test. For a better understanding, test strategies are proposed to verify/falsify the aging mechanisms beyond SEI.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010003
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 4: Surfactants as Performance-Enhancing
           Additives in Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solutions—An Overview

    • Authors: Xuecheng Chen, Rudolf Holze
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Wetting the surface area of an electrode material as completely as possible is desirable to achieve optimum specific capacity of an electrode material. Keeping this surface area utilized even at high current densities and even when inside pores is required for high capacitance retention. The addition of surfactants at very small concentrations to aqueous supercapacitor electrolyte solutions has been suggested as a way to improve performance in terms of capacitance, capacitance retention at increased current density and stability. Effects are pronounced with carbon materials used in electrochemical double-layer capacitors; they are also observed with redox materials. The causes of the observed improvements and mode of operation of the added surfactants seem to need further investigation; they are inconclusive beyond the obvious statement of increased wetting. Reported examples and the current state of understanding are reviewed.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010004
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 5: Secondary High-Temperature Treatment of
           Porous Carbons for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    • Authors: Weihao Chi, Guanwen Wang, Zhipeng Qiu, Qiqi Li, Zheng Xu, Zhiyuan Li, Bin Qi, Ke Cao, Chunlei Chi, Tong Wei, Zhuangjun Fan
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Supercapacitors are extensively used in urban rail transit, electric vehicles, renewable energy storage, electronic products, and the military industry due to its long cycle life and high power density. Porous carbon materials are regarded as promising anode materials for supercapacitors due to their high specific surface areas and well-developed pore structures. However, the over-developed pore structure often results in poor conductivity and reduced cycle stability due to the destruction of a carbon skeleton. Herein, we introduce an advanced strategy for preparing porous carbon with high specific surface areas (3333 m2 g−1), high electrical conductivity (68.6 S m−1), and fast ion transport channels through secondary high-temperature carbonization treatment. As a result, the fabricated porous carbon anode delivers a high specific capacitance (199.2 F g−1 at 1 A g−1) and outstanding rate performance (136.3 F g−1 at 20 A g−1) in organic electrolyte. Furthermore, the assembled symmetrical supercapacitor achieves an energy density of 43.2 Wh kg−1 at 625.0 W kg−1, highlighting the potential of a secondary high-temperature carbonization strategy in practical applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010005
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 6: Batch Fabrication of Electrospun PAN/PU
           Composite Separators for Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Wenfei Ding, Lan Xu
      First page: 6
      Abstract: As an important element of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), the separator plays a critical role in the safety and comprehensive performance of the battery. Electrospun nanofiber separators have a high porosity and good electrolyte affinity, which are favorable to the transference of lithium ions. In this paper, the batch preparation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based nanofiber separators are obtained via spherical section free surface electrospinning (SSFSE). Introducing an appropriate amount of polyester polyurethane (PU) can effectively enhance the mechanical property of PAN nanofiber separators and help the separators resist the external force extrusion. The results show that when PAN:PU = 8:2, the porosity and electrolyte uptake rate of the composite nanofiber separator (PAN-2) are 62.9% and 643.3%, respectively, exhibiting a high ionic conductivity (1.90 mS/cm). Additionally, the coin battery assembled with PAN-2 as a separator (LiFePO4/PAN-2/lithium metal) shows good cycling performance and good rate performance, with a capacity retention rate of 93.9% after 100 cycles at 0.5 C, indicating that the battery with PAN-2 has a good application potential in advanced energy storage.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010006
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 7: Environmental and Economic Assessment of
           Batteries for Marine Applications: Case Study of All-Electric Fishing
           Vessels

    • Authors: Maja Perčić, Marija Koričan, Ivana Jovanović, Nikola Vladimir
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The increasing global warming problem has pushed the community to implement emission reduction measures in almost every segment of human life. Since the major source of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) is fossil fuel combustion, in the shipping sector, these measures are oriented toward a reduction in tailpipe emissions, where the replacement of traditional internal combustion marine engines with zero-carbon technologies offers the ultimate emission reduction results. According to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) GHG strategy, vessels involved in international shipping must achieve a minimum 50% reduction in their GHG emissions by 2050. However, this requirement does not extend to fishing vessels, which are significant consumers of fossil fuels. This paper deals with the full electrification of two types of fishing vessels (purse seiners and trawlers), wherein different Lithium-ion Batteries (LiBs) are considered. To investigate their environmental footprint and profitability, Life-Cycle Assessments (LCAs) and Life-Cycle Cost Assessments (LCCAs) are performed. The comparison of all-electric fishing vessels with existing diesel-powered ships highlighted the Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP) battery as the most suitable alternative powering option regarding environmental and economic criteria.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010007
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 8: Optimization of a Redox-Flow Battery
           Simulation Model Based on a Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach

    • Authors: Mariem Ben Ahmed, Wiem Fekih Hassen
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRFBs) have played a significant role in hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) over the last few decades owing to their unique characteristics and advantages. Hence, the accurate estimation of the VRFB model holds significant importance in large-scale storage applications, as they are indispensable for incorporating the distinctive features of energy storage systems and control algorithms within embedded energy architectures. In this work, we propose a novel approach that combines model-based and data-driven techniques to predict battery state variables, i.e., the state of charge (SoC), voltage, and current. Our proposal leverages enhanced deep reinforcement learning techniques, specifically deep q-learning (DQN), by combining q-learning with neural networks to optimize the VRFB-specific parameters, ensuring a robust fit between the real and simulated data. Our proposed method outperforms the existing approach in voltage prediction. Subsequently, we enhance the proposed approach by incorporating a second deep RL algorithm—dueling DQN—which is an improvement of DQN, resulting in a 10% improvement in the results, especially in terms of voltage prediction. The proposed approach results in an accurate VFRB model that can be generalized to several types of redox-flow batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010008
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 9: Thin Reinforced Anion-Exchange Membranes for
           Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Employing Fe/Co-Metal Complex Redox Species
           

    • Authors: Hyeon-Bee Song, Do-Hyeong Kim, Myung-Jin Lee, Moon-Sung Kang
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Non-aqueous redox flow batteries (NARFBs) have been attracting much attention because they can significantly increase power and energy density compared to conventional RFBs. In this study, novel pore-filled anion-exchange membranes (PFAEMs) for application to a NAPFB employing metal polypyridyl complexes (i.e., Fe(bpy)32+/Fe(bpy)33+ and Co(bpy)32+/Co(bpy)33+) as the redox species are successfully developed. A porous polyethylene support with excellent solvent resistance and mechanical strength is used for membrane fabrication. The PFAEMs are prepared by filling an ionic liquid monomer containing an imidazolium group and a crosslinking agent into the pores of the support film and then performing in situ photopolymerization. As a result, the prepared membranes exhibit excellent mechanical strength and stability in a non-aqueous medium as well as high ion conductivity. In addition, a low crossover rate for redox ion species is observed for the prepared membranes because they have relatively low swelling characteristics in non-aqueous electrolyte solutions and low affinity for the metal-complex redox species compared to a commercial membrane. Consequently, the PFAEM is revealed to possess superior battery performance than a commercial membrane in the NARFB tests, showing high energy efficiency of about 85% and stable operation for 100 cycles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010009
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 10: Real-Time Lithium Battery Aging Prediction
           Based on Capacity Estimation and Deep Learning Methods

    • Authors: Joaquín de la Vega, Jordi-Roger Riba, Juan Antonio Ortega-Redondo
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are key elements in the development of electrical energy storage solutions. However, due to cycling, environmental, and operating conditions, battery capacity tends to degrade over time. Capacity fade is a common indicator of battery state of health (SOH) because it is an indication of how the capacity has been degraded. However, battery capacity cannot be measured directly, and thus, there is an urgent need to develop methods for estimating battery capacity in real time. By analyzing the historical data of a battery in detail, it is possible to predict the future state of a battery and forecast its remaining useful life. This study developed a real-time, simple, and fast method to estimate the cycle capacity of a battery during the charge cycle using only data from a short period of each charge cycle. This proposal is attractive because it does not require data from the entire charge period since batteries are rarely charged from zero to full. The proposed method allows for simultaneous and accurate real-time prediction of the health and remaining useful life of the battery over its lifetime. The accuracy of the proposed method was tested using experimental data from several lithium-ion batteries with different cathode chemistries under various test conditions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010010
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 11: All-Solid-State Li-Metal Cell Using
           Nanocomposite TiO2/Polymer Electrolyte and Self-Standing LiFePO4 Cathode

    • Authors: Asia Patriarchi, Hamideh Darjazi, Luca Minnetti, Leonardo Sbrascini, Giuseppe Antonio Elia, Vincenzo Castorani, Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Márquez, Francesco Nobili
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Li-ion batteries (LIBs) represent the most sophisticated electrochemical energy storage technology. Nevertheless, they still suffer from safety issues and practical drawbacks related to the use of toxic and flammable liquid electrolytes. Thus, polymer-based solid electrolytes may be a suitable option to fulfill the safety and energy density requirements, even though the lack of high ionic conductivity at 25 °C (10−8–10−7 S cm−1) hinders their performance. To overcome these drawbacks, herein, we present an all-solid-state Li-metal full cell based on a three-component solid poly(ethylene oxide)/lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide/titanium dioxide composite electrolyte that outclasses the conventional poly(ethylene oxide)-based solid electrolytes. Moreover, the cell features are enhanced by the combination of the solid electrolyte with a self-standing LiFePO4 catholyte fabricated through an innovative, simple and easily scalable approach. The structural, morphological and compositional properties of this system are characterized, and the results show that the electrochemical performance of the solid composite electrolyte can be considerably improved by tuning the concentration and morphology of TiO2. Additionally, tests performed with the self-standing LiFePO4 catholyte underline a good cyclability of the system, thus confirming the beneficial effects provided by the novel manufacturing path used for the preparation of self-standing electrodes.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010011
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 12: A Novel Method for State of Charge
           Estimation in Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Temporal Convolutional Network
           and Multi-Verse Optimization

    • Authors: Yuanmao Li, Guixiong Liu, Wei Deng
      First page: 12
      Abstract: This study presents a novel data-driven method for state-of-charge estimation in lithium-ion batteries. It integrates a temporal convolutional network with multi-verse optimization to enhance the accuracy of predicting the state of charge. The temporal convolutional network possesses advantages such as an extended memory window and efficient parallel computation, exhibiting exceptional performance in time-series tasks for state of charge estimation. Its hyperparameters are optimized by adopting multi-verse optimization to obtain better model performance. The driving model utilizes various measurable data as inputs, including battery terminal voltage, current, and surface temperature. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, extensive datasets from diverse dynamic working conditions at different ambient temperatures are employed for model training, validation, and testing. The numerical outcomes provide evidence of the proposed method’s superior performance compared to the other two methods, providing a more robust and accurate solution for the state of charge estimation in lithium-ion batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010012
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 13: The Next Frontier in Energy Storage: A
           Game-Changing Guide to Advances in Solid-State Battery Cathodes

    • Authors: Abniel Machín, Francisco Márquez
      First page: 13
      Abstract: As global energy priorities shift toward sustainable alternatives, the need for innovative energy storage solutions becomes increasingly crucial. In this landscape, solid-state batteries (SSBs) emerge as a leading contender, offering a significant upgrade over conventional lithium-ion batteries in terms of energy density, safety, and lifespan. This review provides a thorough exploration of SSBs, with a focus on both traditional and emerging cathode materials like lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), as well as novel sulfides and oxides. The compatibility of these materials with solid electrolytes and their respective benefits and limitations are extensively discussed. The review delves into the structural optimization of cathode materials, covering strategies such as nanostructuring, surface coatings, and composite formulations. These are critical in addressing issues like conductivity limitations and structural vulnerabilities. We also scrutinize the essential roles of electrical and thermal properties in maintaining battery safety and performance. To conclude, our analysis highlights the revolutionary role of SSBs in the future of energy storage. While substantial advancements have been made, the path forward presents numerous challenges and research opportunities. This review not only acknowledges these challenges, but also points out the need for scalable manufacturing approaches and a deeper understanding of electrode–electrolyte interactions. It aims to steer the scientific community toward addressing these challenges and advancing the field of SSBs, thereby contributing significantly to the development of environmentally friendly energy solutions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010013
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 14: Correction: Han et al. Research and
           Application of Information Model of a Lithium Ion Battery Intelligent
           Manufacturing Workshop Based on OPC UA. Batteries 2020, 6, 52

    • Authors: Youjun Han, Yueming Hu, Yaqing Wang, Gang Jia, Chengjie Ge, Chunjie Zhang, Xuejie Huang
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The authors wish to make the following corrections in Section 3 [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010014
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 15: A Freestanding Multifunctional Interlayer
           Based on Fe/Zn Single Atoms Implanted on a Carbon Nanofiber Membrane for
           High-Performance Li-S Batteries

    • Authors: Mengdi Zhang, Shuoshuo Kong, Bei Chen, Mingbo Wu
      First page: 15
      Abstract: By virtue of the high theoretical energy density and low cost, Lithium–sulfur (Li-S) batteries have drawn widespread attention. However, their electrochemical performances are seriously plagued by the shuttling of intermediate polysulfides and the slow reaction kinetics during practical implementation. Herein, we designed a freestanding flexible membrane composed of nitrogen-doped porous carbon nanofibers anchoring iron and zinc single atoms (FeZn-PCNF), to serve as the polysulfide barrier and the reaction promotor. The flexible porous networks formed by the interwoven carbon nanofibers not only offer fast channels for the transport of electrons/ions, but also guarantee the structural stability of the all-in-one multifunctional interlayer during cycling. Highly dispersed Fe and Zn atoms in the carbon scaffold synergistically immobilize sulfur species and expedite their reversible conversion. Therefore, employing FeZn-PCNF as the freestanding interlayer between the cathode and separator, the Li-S battery delivers a superior initial reversible discharge capacity of 1140 mA h g−1 at a current density of 0.5 C and retains a high capacity of 618 mA h g−1 after 600 cycles at a high current density of 1 C.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010015
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 10, Pages 16: Two-Step Synthesis of ZnS-NiS2 Composite
           with Rough Nanosphere Morphology for High-Performance Asymmetric
           Supercapacitors

    • Authors: Meng Jiang, Muhammad Abdullah, Xin Chen, Yi E, Liyi Tan, Wei Yan, Yang Liu, Wenrui Jiang
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Transition metal sulfides have excellent electrochemical performance and show great potential for improving the energy density of asymmetric supercapacitors. This study demonstrates a two-step synthesis technique and highlights the enhanced energy storage efficiency of ZnS-NiS2 composite materials for asymmetric supercapacitors. The composite materials of ZnS nanosheets and NiS2 nanocrystals are characterized by a rough surface and spherical shape. The sample with the optimal ratio (ZnS-NiS2-1:7) exhibits a maximum specific capacitance of 1467.9 F g−1 (550.5 C g−1) at 1 A g−1. The specific capacitance of the ZnS-NiS2-1:7 sample is 26.1% higher compared to the pure NiS2 sample. Furthermore, the assembled ZnS-NiS2-1:7//AC device shows a high specific capacitance of 127.8 F g−1 (217.3 C g−1) at 1 A g−1 and an energy density of 51.3 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 820.8 W kg−1. The ZnS-NiS2-1:7 sample has exceptional energy storage capability on its own, but it can also be composited with graphene to further increase the specific capacitance (1681.0 F g−1 at 1 A g−1), suggesting promising prospects for the ZnS-NiS2-based composite material in the future.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2023-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries10010016
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 1 (2023)
       
 
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School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


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