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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Applied Electronic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 124)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Automatika : Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications     Open Access  
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Open Access  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 244)
e-Prime : Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 126)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 126)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 116)
Electronics Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Elektronika ir Elektortechnika     Open Access  
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Emitor : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 113)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access  
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 93)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 292)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 79)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Advanced Electronics and Communication Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Machine Learning with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
npj Flexible Electronics     Open Access  
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sensors International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Superconductivity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access  
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover
Batteries
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2313-0105
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 60: Determination of Internal Temperature
           Differences for Various Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Batteries Using a Pulse
           Resistance Approach

    • Authors: Sebastian Ludwig, Marco Steinhardt, Andreas Jossen
      First page: 60
      Abstract: The temperature of lithium-ion batteries is crucial in terms of performance, aging, and safety. The internal temperature, which is complicated to measure with conventional temperature sensors, plays an important role here. For this reason, numerous methods exist in the literature for determining the internal cell temperature without sensors, which are usually based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This study presents a method in the time domain, based on the pulse resistance, for determining the internal cell temperature by examining the temperature behavior for the cylindrical formats 18650, 21700, and 26650 in isothermal and transient temperature states for different states of charge (SOCs). A previously validated component-resolved 2D thermal model was used to analyze the location of the calculated temperature TR within the cell, which is still an unsolved question for pulse resistance-based temperature determination. The model comparison shows that TR is close to the average jelly roll temperature. The differences between surface temperature and TR depend on the SOC and cell format and range from 2.14K to 2.70K (18650), 3.07K to 3.85K (21700), and 4.74K to 5.45K (26650). The difference decreases for each cell format with increasing SOC and is linear dependent on the cell diameter.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8070060
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 7 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 49: Impact of Full Prelithiation of Si-Based
           Anodes on the Rate and Cycle Performance of Li-Ion Capacitors

    • Authors: Takuya Eguchi, Ryoichi Sugawara, Yusuke Abe, Masahiro Tomioka, Seiji Kumagai
      First page: 49
      Abstract: The impact of full prelithiation on the rate and cycle performance of a Si-based Li-ion capacitor (LIC) was investigated. Full prelithiation of the anode was achieved by assembling a half cell with a 2 µm-sized Si anode (0 V vs. Li/Li+) and Li metal. A three-electrode full cell (100% prelithiation) was assembled using an activated carbon (AC) cathode with a high specific surface area (3041 m2/g), fully prelithiated Si anode, and Li metal reference electrode. A three-electrode full cell (87% prelithiation) using a Si anode prelithiated with 87% Li ions was also assembled. Both cells displayed similar energy density levels at a lower power density (200 Wh/kg at ≤100 W/kg; based on the total mass of AC and Si). However, at a higher power density (1 kW/kg), the 100% prelithiation cell maintained a high energy density (180 Wh/kg), whereas that of the 87% prelithiation cell was significantly reduced (80 Wh/kg). During charge/discharge cycling at ~1 kW/kg, the energy density retention of the 100% prelithiation cell was higher than that of the 87% prelithiation cell. The larger irreversibility of the Si anode during the initial Li-ion uptake/release cycles confirmed that the simple full prelithiation process is essential for Si-based LIC cells.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060049
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 50: Advanced Electrochemical Impedance
           Spectroscopy of Industrial Ni-Cd Batteries

    • Authors: Nawfal Al-Zubaidi R-Smith, Manuel Kasper, Peeyush Kumar, Daniel Nilsson, Björn Mårlid, Ferry Kienberger
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Advanced electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to characterize industrial Ni-Cd batteries and to investigate the electrochemical redox processes. A two-term calibration workflow was used for accurate complex impedance measurements across a broad frequency range of 10 mHz to 2 kHz, resulting in calibrated resistance and reactance values. The EIS calibration significantly improved the measurements, particularly at high frequencies above 200 Hz, with differences of 6–8% to the uncalibrated impedance. With an electromagnetic finite element method (FEM) model, we showed that the impedance is strongly influenced by the cable fixturing and the self-inductance of the wire conductors due to alternating currents, which are efficiently removed by the proposed calibration workflow. For single cells, we measured the resistance and the reactance with respect to the state-of-charge (SoC) at different frequencies and a given rest period. For Ni-Cd blocks that include two cells in series, we found good agreement of EIS curves with single cells. As such, EIS can be used as a fast and reliable method to estimate the cell or block capacity status. For electrochemical interpretation, we used an equivalent electric circuit (EEC) model to fit the impedance spectra and to extract the main electrochemical parameters based on calibrated EIS, including charge-transfer kinetics, mass transport, and ohmic resistances. From the charge-transfer resistance, we computed the exchange current density, resulting in 0.23 A/cm2, reflecting high intrinsic rates of the redox electron transfer processes in Ni-Cd cells.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060050
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 51: Comparison of the Properties of Ni–Mn
           Hydroxides/Oxides with Ni–Mn Phosphates for the Purpose of Hybrid
           Supercapacitors

    • Authors: Lyubomir Soserov, Delyana Marinova, Violeta Koleva, Antonia Stoyanova, Radostina Stoyanova
      First page: 51
      Abstract: This study aims to quantify the synergistic effect of Ni2+ and Mn2+ ions on the capacitive performance of oxide, hydroxide and phosphate electrodes in alkaline electrolytes. Three types of phases containing both nickel and manganese in a ratio of one-to-one were selected due to their stability in alkaline media: oxides with ilmenite and spinel structures (NiMnO3 and Ni1.5Mn1.5O4); hydroxides with layered structures (β-Ni1/2Mn1/2(OH)2); and phosphates with olivine and maricite structures (LiNi1/2Mn1/2PO4 and NaNi1/2Mn1/2PO4). In the mixed hydroxides and phosphates, Ni2+ and Mn2+ ions randomly occupied one crystallographic site, whereas in the ilmenite oxide, a common face was shared by the Ni2+ and Mn4+ ions. The electrochemical parameters of the Ni–Mn compositions were evaluated in asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor cells working with alkaline electrolytes and activated carbon as a negative electrode. A comparative analysis of oxides, hydroxides and phosphates enabled us to differentiate the effects of nickel and manganese ions, structures and morphologies on their capacitive performance. Thus, the best performed electrode was predicted. The electrode composition should simultaneously contain Ni and Mn ions, and their morphologies should comprise spherical aggregates. This was an ilmenite NiMnO3, which delivers high energy and power density (i.e., 65 W h kg−1 at 3200 W kg−1) and exhibits a good cycling stability (i.e., around 96% after 5000 cycles at a current load of 240 mA g−1).
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060051
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 52: Effect of Mechanical Activation and Carbon
           Coating on Electrochemistry of TiNb2O7 Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Nina V. Kosova, Dmitry Z. Tsydypylov
      First page: 52
      Abstract: TiNb2O7 anode material with a Wadsley–Roth crystallographic shear structure was prepared by solid-state synthesis at a relatively low temperature (1000 °C) and a short calcination time (4 h) using preliminary mechanical activation of the reagent mixture. The as-prepared final product was then ball milled in a planetary mill with and without carbon black. The crystal structure and morphology of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance was studied in a galvanostatic mode in varied voltage intervals and at different cycling rates in combination with in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The resistance measured using in situ EIS had the highest values at the end of the discharge and the lowest when charging. The lithium diffusion coefficient, determined by galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), in samples milled with and without carbon black was an order of magnitude higher than that for the pristine sample. It was shown that improved electrochemical performance of the carbon composite TiNb2O7/C (reversible capacity of 250 mAh g−1 at C/10 with Coulomb efficiency of ~99%) was associated with improved conductivity due to the formation of a conductive carbon matrix and uniform distribution of submicron particles by size.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060052
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 53: A Switch-Reduced Multicell-to-Multicell
           Battery Equalizer Based on Full-Bridge Bipolar-Resonant LC Converter

    • Authors: Peng Xu, Longyun Kang, Di Xie, Xuan Luo, Hongye Lin
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Many battery equalizers have been proposed to achieve voltage consistency between series connected battery cells. Among them, the multicell-to-multicell (MC2MC) equalizers, which can directly transfer energy from consecutive more-charged cells to less-charged cells, can enable fast balancing and a high efficiency. However, due to the limitations of the equalizers, it is not possible to achieve fast equalization and reduce the size of the circuit at the same time. Therefore, a MC2MC equalizer based on a full-bridge bipolar-resonant LC Converter (FBBRLCC) is proposed in this paper, which not only implements MC2MC equalization, but also greatly reduces the circuit size by reducing the number of switches by nearly half. A mathematical model and simulation comparison with conventional equalizers are used to illustrate the high-speed equalization performance of the proposed equalizer and excellent balancing efficiency. An experimental prototype for eight cells is built to verify the performance of the proposed FBBRLCC equalizer and the balancing efficiencies in different operating modes are from 85.19% to 88.77% with the average power from 1.888 W to 14.227 W.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060053
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 54: Water-Soluble Conductive Composite Binder for
           High-Performance Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Zikai Li, Anru Guo, Dong Liu
      First page: 54
      Abstract: The design of novel and high-performance binder systems is an efficient strategy to resolve the issues caused by huge volume changes of high-capacity anodes. Herein, we develop a novel water-soluble bifunctional binder composed of a conductive polythiophene polymer (PED) and high-adhesive polyacrylic acid (PAA) with abundant polar groups. Compared with conventional conductive additives, the flexible conductive polymer can solve the insufficient electrical contact between active materials and the conductive agent, thus providing the integral conductive network, which is extremely important for stable electrochemical performance. Additionally, the polar groups of this composite binder can form double H-bond interactions with the hydroxyl groups of SiO2 layers onto the silicon surface, keeping an integral electrode structure, which can decrease the continuous formation of SEI films during the repeated cycles. Benefiting from these bifunctional advantages, the Si electrodes with the composite binder delivered a high reversible capacity of 2341 mAh g−1 at 1260 mA g−1, good cycle stability with 88.8% retention of the initial reversible capacity over 100 cycles, and high-rate capacity (1150 mAh g−1 at 4200 mA g−1). This work opens up a new venture to develop multifunctional binders to enable the stable operation of high-capacity anodes for high-energy batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060054
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 55: Production and Characterisation of
           Fibre-Reinforced All-Solid-State Electrodes and Separator for the
           Application in Structural Batteries

    • Authors: Daniel Vogt, Peter Michalowski, Arno Kwade
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The electrification of the air transport sector demands for an energy storage that adds as little volume and weight to the overall system as possible. Regarding this so-called structural battery, composites enable the storage of electrical energy in commonly used load bearing fibre composite structures. A structural battery composite can store electrical energy while bearing mechanical loads, thus reducing parasitic mass and volume. In this study, structural cathodes were prepared by slurry coating carbon fibres with lithium iron phosphate (LFP), polyethylene oxide (PEO), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and carbon black. For the structural anodes, the carbon fibres were utilised as active material and slurry coated with PEO and LiTFSI. These structural electrodes as well as a structural separator were characterised by electrochemical cycling. With 139mAh/g, the structural cathodes demonstrated good utilisation of the active material. The carbon fibres used in the anode exhibited capacities of up to 92mAh/g. High irreversible lithium losses were observed, which are attributed to the poor electrolyte wetting behaviour of the carbon fibres. A structural battery demonstrator with a lithium metal anode was realised and reached a maximum specific energy of 64Wh/kg with respect to electrode and separator weight.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060055
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 56: Metal Substitution versus Oxygen-Storage
           Modifier to Regulate the Oxygen Redox Reactions in Sodium-Deficient
           Three-Layered Oxides

    • Authors: Mariya Kalapsazova, Rositsa Kukeva, Ekaterina Zhecheva, Radostina Stoyanova
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Sodium-deficient nickel-manganese oxides with three-layered stacking exhibit the unique property of dual nickel-oxygen redox activity, which allows them to achieve enormous specific capacity. The challenge is how to stabilize the oxygen redox activity during cycling. This study demonstrates that oxygen redox activity of P3-Na2/3Ni1/2Mn1/2O2 during both Na+ and Li+ intercalation can be regulated by the design of oxide architecture that includes target metal substituents (such as Mg2+ and Ti4+) and oxygen storage modifiers (such as CeO2). Although the substitution for nickel with Ti4+ amplifies the oxygen redox activity and intensifies the interaction of oxides with NaPF6- and LiPF6-based electrolytes, the Mg2+ substituents influence mainly the nickel redox activity and suppress the deposition of electrolyte decomposed products (such as MnF2). The CeO2-modifier has a much stronger effect on the oxygen redox activity than that of metal substituents; thus, the highest specific capacity is attained. In addition, the CeO2-modifier tunes the electrode–electrode interaction by eliminating the deposition of MnF2. As a result, the Mg-substituted oxide modified with CeO2 displays high capacity, excellent cycling stability and exceptional rate capability when used as cathode in Na-ion cell, while in Li-ion cell, the best performance is achieved for Ti- substituted oxide modified by CeO2.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060056
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 57: Revisiting Polytetrafluorethylene Binder for
           Solvent-Free Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Fabrication

    • Authors: Yang Zhang, Frederik Huld, Song Lu, Camilla Jektvik, Fengliu Lou, Zhixin Yu
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Solvent-free (SF) anodes with different carbon materials (graphite, hard carbon, and soft carbon) were fabricated to investigate the stability of different anodes with polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) degradation. The graphite anode with large volume variation during the charge/discharge process showed poor cycle life performance, while hard carbon and soft carbon with low-volume expansion showed good cycle life. The SF hard carbon electrodes with a high loading of 10.7 mg/cm2 revealed good long-term cycling performance similar to conventional slurry-casting (CSC) electrodes. It demonstrated nearly 90% capacity retention after 120 cycles under a current of 1/3 C with LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) as cathode in coin cell. The rate capability of the high-loading SF electrodes also is comparable to the CSC electrodes. The high stability of SF hard carbon and soft carbon anodes was attributed to its low-volume variation, which could maintain their integrity even though PTFE was defluorinated to amorphous carbon irreversibly. However, the reduced amorphous carbon cannot tolerate huge volume variation of graphite during cycling, resulting in poor stability.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060057
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 58: Impact of Sulfur Infiltration Time and Its
           

    • Authors: Jennifer Laverde, Nataly C. Rosero-Navarro, Akira Miura, Robison Buitrago-Sierra, Kiyoharu Tadanaga, Diana López
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Li-S batteries are ideal candidates to replace current lithium-ion batteries as next-generation energy storage systems thanks to their high specific capacity and theoretical energy density. Composite electrodes based on carbon microstructures are often used as a host for sulfur. However, sulfur lixiviation, insoluble species formation, and how to maximize the sulfur-carbon contact in looking for improved electrochemical performance are still major challenges. In this study, a nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon is used as a host for sulfur. The S/C composite electrodes are prepared by sulfur melting-diffusion process at 155 °C. The effect of the sulfur melting-diffusion time [sulfur infiltration time] (1–24 h) and sulfur content (10–70%) is investigated by using XRD, SEM, TEM and TGA analyses and correlated with the electrochemical performance in Li-S cells. S/C composite electrode with homogeneous sulfur distribution can be reached with 6 h of sulfur melting-diffusion and 10 wt.% of sulfur content. Li-S cell with this composite shows a high use of sulfur and sufficient electronic conductivity achieving an initial discharge capacity of 983 mA h g−1 and Coulombic efficiency of 99% after 100 cycles.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060058
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 59: Recent Progress and Challenges of Flexible
           Zn-Based Batteries with Polymer Electrolyte

    • Authors: Funian Mo, Binbin Guo, Wei Ling, Jun Wei, Lina Chen, Suzhu Yu, Guojin Liang
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Zn-based batteries have been identified as promising candidates for flexible and wearable batteries because of their merits of intrinsic safety, eco-efficiency, high capacity and cost-effectiveness. Polymer electrolytes, which feature high solubility of zinc salts and softness, are especially advantageous for flexible Zn-based batteries. However, many technical issues still need to be addressed in Zn-based batteries with polymer electrolytes for their future application in wearable electronics. Recent progress in advanced flexible Zn-based batteries based on polymer electrolytes, including functional hydrogel electrolytes and solid polymer electrolytes, as well as the interfacial interactions between polymer electrolytes and electrodes in battery devices, is comprehensively reviewed and discussed with a focus on their fabrication, performance validation, and intriguing affiliated functions. Moreover, relevant challenges and some potential strategies are also summarized and analyzed to help inform the future direction of polymer-electrolyte-based flexible Zn-based batteries with high practicability.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-06-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8060059
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 38: Evaluation of the Accuracy of the Identified
           Equivalent Electrical Circuit of LiPePO4 Battery through Verified
           Measurements

    • Authors: Michal Frivaldsky, Marek Simcak
      First page: 38
      Abstract: In this paper, the system procedure for the identification of the equivalent electrical circuit diagram of electrochemical cells is being given. Due to the fact that energy storage systems (ESS) penetrate within many applications, the availability of their accurate and simple simulation models for time–domain analysis is very desirable. This paper describes the configuration of the laboratory measuring systems required for data acquisition, curation, and analysis of received measured data required for development of equivalent electrical circuit models (EECM) of electrochemical cells. Nowadays, various types of electrochemical cells are available for packaging technology. Therefore, the evaluation of presented identification methodology is validated through measurements of two different types of LiFePO4 cells. The first cell type is prismatic labeled LFP040AHA, and the second type is NPB 60 AH of the same manufacturer. The main aim of this paper is the determination of the elements of equivalent electrical circuit schematics of selected electrochemical cells. Consequently, the development of a simulation model is described, together with the evaluation of its accuracy through comparisons with experimental measurements. From achieved results, the relative error of simulation model varies at 2%, and thus the presented methodology is suitable for identification of EECM, and consequent design of accurate and fast computing simulation models of ESS systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050038
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 39: An Incremental Capacity Parametric Model
           Based on Logistic Equations for Battery State Estimation and Monitoring

    • Authors: Matthieu Maures, Romain Mathieu, Armande Capitaine, Jean-Yves Delétage, Jean-Michel Vinassa, Olivier Briat
      First page: 39
      Abstract: An incremental capacity parametric model for batteries is proposed. The model is based on Verhulst’s logistic equations and distributions in order to describe incremental capacity peaks. The model performance is compared with polynomial models and is demonstrated on a commercial lithium-ion cell. Experimental data features low-current discharges performed at temperatures ranging from −20 °C to 55 °C. The results demonstrate several advantages of the model compared to empirical models. The proposed model enables a clear description of the geometric features of incremental capacity peaks. It also doubles as an open circuit voltage model as the voltage curve can be fully recovered from parameterization on incremental capacity curves. The study of temperature sensitivity show that peak geometric parameters can be modelled as a function of temperature. An example of practical application is then displayed by using the model to estimate battery state-of-charge from voltage and temperature measurements. This example can expand to other practical applications for battery management systems such as state-of-health monitoring.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050039
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 40: Identifying Anode and Cathode Contributions
           in Li-Ion Full-Cell Impedance Spectra

    • Authors: Marco Heinrich, Nicolas Wolff, Steffen Seitz, Ulrike Krewer
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Measured impedance spectra of Li-ion battery cells are often reproduced with equivalent circuits or physical models to determine losses due to charge transfer processes at the electrodes. The identified model parameters can usually not readily or unambiguously be assigned to the anode and the cathode. A new measurement method is presented that enables the assignment of features of impedance spectra of full cells to single electrodes. To this end, temperature gradients are imprinted perpendicular to the electrode layers of a single-layered Li-ion battery cell while impedance spectra are measured. The method exploits different dependences of the charge transfer processes at the electrodes on temperature. An equivalent circuit model of RC-elements and the effect of temperature on the related electrode properties is discussed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A reliable assignment of the change of impedance spectra to the electrode processes is shown to be possible. The assignment can be used to identify if changes in an impedance spectrum originate from the anode or the cathode.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050040
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 41: An Experimental Investigation of Thermal
           Runaway and Gas Release of NMC Lithium-Ion Pouch Batteries Depending on
           the State of Charge Level

    • Authors: Kofi Owusu Ansah Amano, Sarah-K. Hahn, Rico Tschirschwitz, Tim Rappsilber, Ulrich Krause
      First page: 41
      Abstract: In this study, 19 experiments were conducted with 25 pouch cells of NMC cathode to investigate thermal runaway and the release of gases from lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Single cells, double cells, and a four-cell battery stack were forced to undergo thermal runaway inside an air-tight reactor vessel with a volume of 100 dm3. The study involved two series of tests with two types of ignition sources. In the Series 1 tests, a heating plug was used to initiate thermal runaway in LIBs in the ranges of 80–89% and 90–100% SOC. In the Series 2 tests, a heating plate was used to trigger thermal runaway in LIBs in the ranges of 30–50%, 80–89%, and 90–100% SOC. Thermal runaway started at an onset temperature of 344 ± 5 K and 345 K for the Series 1 tests and from 393 ± 36 K to 487 ± 10 K for the Series 2 tests. Peak reaction temperatures ranged between 642 K and 1184 K, while the maximum pressures observed were between 1.2 bar and 7.28 bar. Thermal runaway induced explosion of the cells and lead to a rate of temperature increase greater than 10 K/s. The amounts of gases released from the LIBs were calculated from pressures and temperatures measured in the reactor. Then, the gas composition was analyzed using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The highest gaseous production was achieved at a range of 90–100% SOC and higher battery capacities 72 L, 1.8 L/Ah (Series 1, battery stack) and 103 L, 3.2 L/Ah (Series 2, 32 Ah cell)). Among the gases analyzed, the concentration of gaseous emissions such as C2H4, CH4, and C2H6 increased at a higher cell capacity in both series of tests. The study results revealed characteristic variations of thermal behavior with respect to the type of ignition source used.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050041
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 42: Detection of Critical Conditions in Pouch
           Cells Based on Their Expansion Behavior

    • Authors: Pascal Vorwerk, Sarah-Katharina Hahn, Christian Daniel, Ulrich Krause, Karola Keutel
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The present work examines 75 Ah nickel–cobalt–manganese (NMC)/graphite-based pouch cells with respect to their expansion behavior. The focus is on cell expansion due to critical cells according to the installation conditions of a battery module. Strain gauges were used for monitoring. By comparing the cell expansion in standard conditioning to that in an abuse (overcharging), information can be acquired about the suitability of the expansion behavior for early detection of critical cell states and to avoid resulting damage, e.g., cell opening or cell fire. The sequence of critical cell events has been shown to be easily reproducible; especially the first significant cell expansion due to internal gas formation, which was a reliable detection criterion for critical cell states.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050042
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 43: IBM Quantum Platforms: A Quantum Battery
           Perspective

    • Authors: Giulia Gemme, Michele Grossi, Dario Ferraro, Sofia Vallecorsa, Maura Sassetti
      First page: 43
      Abstract: We characterize for the first time the performances of IBM quantum chips as quantum batteries, specifically addressing the single-qubit Armonk processor. By exploiting the Pulse access enabled to some of the IBM Quantum processors via the Qiskit package, we investigate the advantages and limitations of different profiles for classical drives used to charge these miniaturized batteries, establishing the optimal compromise between charging time and stored energy. Moreover, we consider the role played by various possible initial conditions on the functioning of the quantum batteries. As the main result of our analysis, we observe that unavoidable errors occurring in the initialization phase of the qubit, which can be detrimental for quantum computing applications, only marginally affect energy transfer and storage. This can lead counter-intuitively to improvements of the performances. This is a strong indication of the fact that IBM quantum devices are already in the proper range of parameters to be considered as good and stable quantum batteries comparable to state-of-the-art devices recently discussed in the literature.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050043
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 44: In Situ Electrochemical Impedance
           Measurements of α-Fe2O3 Nanofibers: Unravelling the Li-Ion
           Conduction Mechanism in Li-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Jinhyun Hwang, Dolly Yadav, Hang Yang, Injun Jeon, Dingcheng Yang, Jang-Won Seo, Minseung Kang, Se-Young Jeong, Chae-Ryong Cho
      First page: 44
      Abstract: Unravelling the lithium-ion transport mechanism in α-Fe2O3 nanofibers through in situ electrochemical impedance studies is crucial for realizing their application in high-performance anodes in lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we report the effect of heat treatment conditions on the structure, composition, morphology, and electrochemical properties of α-Fe2O3 nanofibers as an anode for lithium-ion batteries. The α-Fe2O3 nanofibers were synthesized via electrospinning and post-annealing with differences in their annealing temperature of 300, 500, and 700 °C to produce FO300, FO500, and FO700 nanofibers, respectively. Improved electrochemical performance with a high reversible specific capacity of 599.6 mAh g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1 was achieved after 50 cycles for FO700. The in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies conducted during the charge/discharge process revealed that the charge transfer and Li-ion diffusion behaviors were related to the crystallinity and structure of the as-synthesized α-Fe2O3 nanofibers. The surfaces of the α-Fe2O3 nanofibers were converted into Fe metal during the charging/discharging process, which resulted in improved electrical conductivity. The electron lifetime, as determined by the time constant of charge transfer, revealed that, when a conversion reaction occurred, the electrons tended to travel through the iron metal in the α-Fe2O3 nanofibers. The role of iron as a pseudo-resistor with negligible capacitance was revealed by charge transfer resistance analysis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050044
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 45: Approaches to Combat the Polysulfide Shuttle
           Phenomenon in Li–S Battery Technology

    • Authors: Artur M. Suzanowicz, Cindy W. Mei, Braja K. Mandal
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Lithium–sulfur battery (LSB) technology has tremendous prospects to substitute lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology due to its high energy density. However, the escaping of polysulfide intermediates (produced during the redox reaction process) from the cathode structure is the primary reason for rapid capacity fading. Suppressing the polysulfide shuttle (PSS) is a viable solution for this technology to move closer to commercialization and supersede the established LIB technology. In this review, we have analyzed the challenges faced by LSBs and outlined current methods and materials used to address these problems. We conclude that in order to further pioneer LSBs, it is necessary to address these essential features of the sulfur cathode: superior electrical conductivity to ensure faster redox reaction kinetics and high discharge capacity, high pore volume of the cathode host to maximize sulfur loading/utilization, and polar PSS-resistive materials to anchor and suppress the migration of polysulfides, which can be developed with the use of nanofabrication and combinations of the PSS-suppressive qualities of each component. With these factors addressed, our world will be able to forge ahead with the development of LSBs on a larger scale—for the efficiency of energy systems in technology advancement and potential benefits to outweigh the costs and performance decay.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050045
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 46: Calendering of Silicon-Containing Electrodes
           and Their Influence on the Mechanical and Electrochemical Properties

    • Authors: Sören Scheffler, René Jagau, Nele Müller, Alexander Diener, Arno Kwade
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The process chain of electrode production includes calendering as a crucial process step to enhance the volumetric energy density as well as to influence the particle-pore-structure and simultaneously the mechanical and electrochemical properties of the electrode coating. A further way to improve the volumetric energy density is the usage of other materials with higher specific capacity, such as silicon instead of graphite as the active material for anodes. In this study, both opportunities, calendering and using silicon-containing composites, are combined to investigate the relations between material, process and performance. The applied line loads for the compaction are correlated with the silicon mass fraction and lead to a silicon-dependent mathematical model to estimate further line loads for silicon-graphite-composite electrodes. On the basis of established analyzing methods for adhesion strength and deformation behavior, it is shown that with increasing silicon content, the elastic deformation of the electrode coating rises. In addition, the overall porosity of the electrodes is less affected by silicon than the pore size distribution compared to graphite electrodes. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity decreases at higher silicon contents independent of coating density. Moreover, the long-term electrochemical stability deteriorates with increasing silicon content and coating density.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050046
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 47: Novel Approach to Ensure Safe Power Supply
           for Safety-Relevant Consumers

    • Authors: Lars Braun, Minh Le, Jürgen Motz, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 47
      Abstract: The 12 V powernet in vehicles must fulfill certain safety requirements due to the safety demand of consumers. A potential risk is undervoltage for a safety-relevant consumer, which leads to its fault. Therefore, a novel approach is presented in this study, which can predict the minimum terminal voltage for consumers. This consists of diagnostics of the wiring harness and of the lead-acid battery as well as predefined consumer currents. Using simulation, first the beginning of a drive cycle is simulated to determine the state of the powernet, and afterwards a critical driving maneuver is simulated to validate the predicted minimum terminal voltage. It demonstrates that the novel approach is able to predict a fault due to undervoltage. In addition to fulfilling safety requirements, the novel approach could be used to achieve additional availability and miniaturization of powernet components compared to the state of the art.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050047
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 48: Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of a
           Battery Cell under Impact Load

    • Authors: Adrian Daniel Muresanu, Mircea Cristian Dudescu
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Impact damage is one of the most critical scenarios for the lithium-ion battery pack of an electrical vehicle, as it involves mechanical abusive loads with serious consequences on electrical and thermal stability. The development of a numerical model for an explicit dynamic simulation of a Li-ion battery pack under impact implies a significant computational effort if detailed models of a single battery cell are employed. The present paper presents a homogenized finite element model of a battery cell, validated by experimental tests of individual materials and an impact test of an entire cell. The macro model is composed of shell elements representing outside casing and elements with a homogenized and isotropic material for the jelly roll. The displacements and deformed shape of the numerical model of the battery cell were compared with those measured on real test specimens; full-field optical scanning was employed to reconstruct the 3D shape of the deformed battery. The overall deformation of the simulation and experimental results are comparable with a deviation of the maximum intrusion of 14.8% for impact direction and 19.5% for the perpendicular direction considering the cumulative effects of simplifying hypotheses of the numerical model and experimental side effects. The results are a starting point for future analyses of a battery pack and its protection systems under impact. The model presented in this paper, considering the low computing power needed for calculation and acceptable mesh size for crash, should be able to be used in bigger resources consuming crash simulation models. In this way, the cells’ deformation and behavior can be tracked more easily for safety management and diagnosis of the crashworthiness of the packs or car batteries.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8050048
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 28: On the Road to Sustainable Energy Storage
           Technologies: Synthesis of Anodes for Na-Ion Batteries from Biowaste

    • Authors: Nekane Nieto, Olatz Noya, Amaia Iturrondobeitia, Paula Sanchez-Fontecoba, Usue Pérez-López, Verónica Palomares, Alexander Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, Teófilo Rojo
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Hard carbon is one of the most promising anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. In this work, new types of biomass-derived hard carbons were obtained through pyrolysis of different kinds of agro-industrial biowaste (corncob, apple pomace, olive mill solid waste, defatted grape seed and dried grape skin). Furthermore, the influence of pretreating the biowaste samples by hydrothermal carbonization and acid hydrolysis was also studied. Except for the olive mill solid waste, discharge capacities typical of biowaste-derived hard carbons were obtained in every case (≈300 mAh·g−1 at C/15). Furthermore, it seems that hydrothermal carbonization could improve the discharge capacity of biowaste samples derived from different nature at high cycling rates, which are the closest conditions to real applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040028
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 29: Online State-of-Health Estimation of
           Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Incremental Capacity Curve and BP Neural
           Network

    • Authors: Hongye Lin, Longyun Kang, Di Xie, Jinqing Linghu, Jie Li
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used in various fields. In order to ensure the safety of LIBs, it is necessary to accurately estimate of the state of health (SOH) of the LIBs. This paper proposes a SOH hybrid estimation method based on incremental capacity (IC) curve and back-propagation neural network (BPNN). The voltage and current data of the LIB during the constant current (CC) charging process are used to convert into IC curves. Taking into account the incompleteness of the actual charging process, this paper divides the IC curve into multiple voltage segments for SOH prediction. Corresponding BP neural network is established in multiple voltage segments. The experiment divides the LIBs into five groups to carry out the aging experiment under different discharge conditions. Aging experiment data are used to establish the non-linear relationship between the decline of SOH and the change of IC curve by BP neural network. Experimental results show that in all voltage segments, the maximum mean absolute error does not exceed 2%. The SOH estimation method proposed in this research makes it possible to embed the SOH estimation function in battery management system (BMS), and can realize high-precision SOH online estimation.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040029
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 30: Durable Fast Charging of Lithium-Ion
           

    • Authors: Robin Drees, Frank Lienesch, Michael Kurrat
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries is often related to accelerated cell degradation due to lithium-plating on the negative electrode. In this contribution, an advanced electrode equivalent circuit model is used in order to simulate fast-charging strategies without lithium-plating. A novel parameterization approach based on 3-electrode cell measurements is developed, which enables precise simulation fidelity. An optimized fast-charging strategy without evoking lithium-plating was simulated that lasted about 29 min for a 0–80% state of charge. This variable current strategy was compared in experiments to a conventional constant-current–constant-voltage fast-charging strategy that lasted 20 min. The experiments showed that the optimized strategy prevented lithium-plating and led to a 2% capacity fade every 100 fast-charging cycles. In contrast, the conventional strategy led to lithium-plating, about 20% capacity fade after 100 fast-charging cycles and the fast-charging duration extended from 20 min to over 30 min due to increased cell resistances. The duration of the optimized fast charging was constant at 29 min, even after 300 cycles. The developed methods are suitable to be applied for any given lithium-ion battery configuration in order to determine the maximum fast-charging capability while ensuring safe and durable cycling conditions.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040030
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 31: A Regression-Based Technique for Capacity
           Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Seyed Saeed Madani, Raziye Soghrati, Carlos Ziebert
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid vehicles (HEVs) are being increasingly utilized for various reasons. The main reasons for their implementation are that they consume less or do not consume fossil fuel (no carbon dioxide pollution) and do not cause sound pollution. However, this technology has some challenges, including complex and troublesome accurate state of health estimation, which is affected by different factors. According to the increase in electric and hybrid vehicles’ application, it is crucial to have a more accurate and reliable estimation of state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) in different environmental conditions. This allows improving battery management system operation for optimal utilization of a battery pack in various operating conditions. This article proposes an approach to estimate battery capacity based on two parameters. First, a practical and straightforward method is introduced to assess the battery’s internal resistance, which is directly related to the battery’s remaining useful life. Second, the different least square algorithm is explored. Finally, a promising, practical, simple, accurate, and reliable technique is proposed to estimate battery capacity appropriately. The root mean square percentage error and the mean absolute percentage error of the proposed methods were calculated and were less than 0.02%. It was concluded the geometry method has all the advantages of a recursive manner, including a fading memory, a close form of a solution, and being applicable in embedded systems.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040031
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 32: Optimized Nail for Penetration Test on
           Lithium-Ion Cells and Its Utilization for the Validation of a Multilayer
           Electro-Thermal Model

    • Authors: Luigi Aiello, Gregor Gstrein, Simon Erker, Bernhard Kaltenegger, Christian Ellersdorfer, Wolfgang Sinz
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Nail penetration is one of the most critical scenarios for a lithium-ion cell: it involves the superposition of electrical, thermal and mechanical abusive loads. When an electrically conductive nail is introduced into the active layers of a lithium-ion cell, an electric short circuit takes place between the conductive components (electrodes and current collectors). Hence, for this load case, electro-thermal modeling must be performed considering each and every layer of the cell in order to predict the electric quantities and the cell temperature (with numerical models). When standard conic nails are used, as is typical for this class of tests, the electrical contact between conductive components and the nail itself suffers of poor reproducibility mainly due to the separator that interposes between the electrically conductive components. This phenomenon makes it difficult to validate electro-thermal models, since the electrical contact between nail and lithium-ion cell parts cannot be safely determined. In this work, an alternative nail with an optimized ratio between the external surface and volume is presented to overcome this issue. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed nail, five tests (with the same conditions) were conducted on five commercial lithium-ion pouch cells, monitoring the tabs voltage and surface temperature. In all tests, thermal runaway was reached within 30 s and the tabs voltage showed comparable behavior, indicating that the short circuit values for all five repetitions were similar. The investigation included the implementation of a detailed layers model to demonstrate how the validation of such model would be possible with the novel data.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040032
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 33: Influence of Switching on the Aging of High
           Power Lithium-Ion Cells

    • Authors: Guy Williams Ngaleu, Michael Theiler, Xenia Straßer, Christian Hanzl, Lidiya Komsiyska, Christian Endisch, Meinert Lewerenz
      First page: 33
      Abstract: For intelligent battery systems that are able to control the current flow for each individual cell, the multilevel inverter is an interesting approach to replace the bidirectional AC/DC-converter and improve flexibility of charging system and signal quality in both directions. Therefore, the cells are modulated by switching varying the duty cycle, the current and the frequency up to the kHz-range. This is only beneficial if the switching does not lead to a significant additional aging. The scientific gap to assess and understand the impact of switching is investigated in this paper by testing 22 high-power 18650 lithium-ion cells (Samsung 25R). The cells are tested at 50 Hz and 10 kHz switching frequency during charge, discharge and charge/discharge at 50% duty cycle. The tests are compared to eight reference tests with continuous current flow performed at the average and the maximum current for charge and discharge, respectively. The results are obtained by evaluating the remaining capacity, resistance, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dV/dQ analysis. Before reaching rollover, the investigated cells lose homogeneity and cathode capacity but no significant difference for the aging parameters are found. After rollover, the cell-to-cell variation is greater than the aging induced by the different cycling parameters.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040033
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 34: Comparison of Model-Based and Sensor-Based
           Detection of Thermal Runaway in Li-Ion Battery Modules for Automotive
           Application

    • Authors: Jacob Klink, André Hebenbrock, Jens Grabow, Nury Orazov, Ulf Nylén, Ralf Benger, Hans-Peter Beck
      First page: 34
      Abstract: In recent years, research on lithium–ion (Li-ion) battery safety and fault detection has become an important topic, providing a broad range of methods for evaluating the cell state based on voltage and temperature measurements. However, other measurement quantities and close-to-application test setups have only been sparsely considered, and there has been no comparison in between methods. In this work, the feasibility of a multi-sensor setup for the detection of Thermal Runaway failure of automotive-size Li-ion battery modules have been investigated in comparison to a model-based approach. For experimental validation, Thermal Runaway tests were conducted in a close-to-application configuration of module and battery case—triggered by external heating with two different heating rates. By two repetitions of each experiment, a high accordance of characteristics and results has been achieved and the signal feasibility for fault detection has been discussed. The model-based method, that had previously been published, recognised the thermal fault in the fastest way—significantly prior to the required 5 min pre-warning time. This requirement was also achieved with smoke and gas sensors in most test runs. Additional criteria for evaluating detection approaches besides detection time have been discussed to provide a good starting point for choosing a suitable approach that is dependent on application defined requirements, e.g., acceptable complexity.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040034
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 35: Method for In-Operando Contamination of
           Lithium Ion Batteries for Prediction of Impurity-Induced Non-Obvious Cell
           Damage

    • Authors: Patrick Höschele, Simon Franz Heindl, Bernd Schneider, Wolfgang Sinz, Christian Ellersdorfer
      First page: 35
      Abstract: The safety of lithium-ion batteries within electrified vehicles plays an important role. Hazards can arise from contaminated batteries resulting from non-obvious damages or insufficient production processes. A systematic examination requires experimental methods to provoke a defined contamination. Two prerequisites were required: First, the extent and type of contamination should be determinable to exclude randomness. Second, specimens should work properly before the contamination, enabling realistic behavior. In this study, two experimental methods were developed to allow for the first time a controlled and reproducible application of water or oxygen into 11 single-layer full cells (Li4Ti5O12/LiCoO2) used as specimens during electrical cycling. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to continuously monitor the specimens and to fit the parameters of an equivalent circuit model (ECM). For the first time, these parameters were used to calibrate a machine-learning algorithm which was able to predict the contamination state. A decision tree was calibrated with the ECM parameters of eight specimens (training data) and was validated by predicting the contamination state of the three remaining specimens (test data). The prediction quality proved the usability of classification algorithms to monitor for contaminations or non-obvious battery damage after manufacturing and during use. It can be an integral part of battery management systems that increases vehicle safety.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040035
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 36: Artificial Feature Extraction for Estimating
           State-of-Temperature in Lithium-Ion-Cells Using Various Long Short-Term
           Memory Architectures

    • Authors: Mike Kopp, Marco Ströbel, Alexander Fill, Julia Pross-Brakhage, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The temperature in each cell of a battery system should be monitored to correctly track aging behavior and ensure safety requirements. To eliminate the need for additional hardware components, a software based prediction model is needed to track the temperature behavior. This study looks at machine learning algorithms that learn physical behavior of non-linear systems based on sample data. Here, it is shown how to improve the prediction accuracy using a new method called “artificial feature extraction” compared to classical time series approaches. We show its effectiveness on tracking the temperature behavior of a Li-ion cell with limited training data at one defined ambient temperature. A custom measuring system was created capable of tracking the cell temperature, by installing a temperature sensor into the cell wrap instead of attaching it to the cell housing. Additionally, a custom early stopping algorithm was developed to eliminate the need for further hyperparameters. This study manifests that artificially training sub models that extract features with high accuracy aids models in predicting more complex physical behavior. On average, the prediction accuracy has been improved by △Tcell=0.01∘C for the training data and by △Tcell=0.007∘C for the validation data compared to the base model. In the field of electrical energy storage systems, this could reduce costs, increase safety and improve knowledge about the aging progress in an individual cell to sort out for second life applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040036
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 37: Simulation of the Electrochemical Response of
           Cobalt Hydroxide Electrodes for Energy Storage

    • Authors: Carvalho, Eugénio, Silva, Montemor
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Cyclic Voltammetry is an analysis method for characterizing the behaviors of electrochemically active materials by measuring current through defined potential sweeps. The current–potential relationship depends on key variables such concentration of electrolyte, electron-transfer rate, and the distance and time of species in relation to the electroactive surface of the material. A MATLAB® simulation was developed on a diffusion and kinetics basis, simulating the equations of Fick’s second law and Butler–Volmer, respectively, towards understanding the energy-storage mechanisms of cobalt hydroxide electrodes. The simulation was compared to a real cobalt hydroxide system, showing an accurate approximation to the experimentally obtained response and deviations possibly related to other physical/chemical processes influencing the involved species.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8040037
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 20: Intrinsic Defects, Diffusion and Dopants in
           AVSi2O6 (A = Li and Na) Electrode Materials

    • Authors: Navaratnarajah Kuganathan
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The alkali metal pyroxenes of the AVSi2O6 (A = Li and Na) family have attracted considerable interest as cathode materials for the application in Li and Na batteries. Computer modelling was carried out to determine the dominant intrinsic defects, Li and Na ion diffusion pathways and promising dopants for experimental verification. The results show that the lowest energy intrinsic defect is the V–Si anti-site in both LiVSi2O6 and NaVSi2O6. Li or Na ion migration is slow, with activation energies of 3.31 eV and 3.95 eV, respectively, indicating the necessity of tailoring these materials before application. Here, we suggest that Al on the Si site can increase the amount of Li and Na in LiVSi2O6 and NaVSi2O6, respectively. This strategy can also be applied to create oxygen vacancies in both materials. The most favourable isovalent dopants on the V and Si sites are Ga and Ge, respectively.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030020
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 21: Discrimination of Poor Electrode Junctions
           within Lithium-Ion Batteries by Ultrasonic Measurement and Deep Learning

    • Authors: Young-In Hwang, Jinhyun Park, Nauman Munir, Hak-Joon Kim, Sung-Jin Song, Ki-Bok Kim
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries, which have high energy density, are the most suitable batteries for use in high-tech electromechanical applications requiring high performance. Because one of the important components that determines the efficiency of lithium-ion batteries is the electrode, the manufacturing process for this junction plays an important role in the entire production process. In particular, the process related to the resistance spot welding of the electrode is very important, directly affecting the safety of users, and greatly affecting the performance of the batteries. However, because the electrode tab is spot-welded onto the inner surface of the case, it is impossible to verify with visual testing (using the naked eye) whether the junction is well bonded. Therefore, it is very important to perform quality evaluation of the resistance welding of electrodes after completing the manufacturing process, using non-destructive testing methods. In this paper, a non-destructive ultrasonic testing technique was applied to examine the quality of lithium-ion batteries in which the negative electrode tabs were welded to the inner surface of the cell cans. The status of resistance spot welding between the electrode and the can was verified using deep-learning techniques with the experimentally acquired ultrasonic signal database.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030021
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 22: Cycling of Double-Layered Graphite Anodes in
           Pouch-Cells

    • Authors: Daniel Müller, Alexander Fill, Kai Peter Birke
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Incremental improvement to the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion technology, for example regarding the physical or electrochemical design, can bridge the gap until the next generation of cells are ready to take Li-ions place. Previously designed two-layered porosity-graded graphite anodes, together with LixNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 cathodes, were analysed in small pouch-cells with a capacity of around 1 Ah. For comparison, custom-made reference cells with the average properties of two-layered anodes were tested. Ten cells of each type were examined in total. Each cell pair, consisting of one double-layer and one single-layer (reference) cell, underwent the same test procedure. Besides regular charge and discharge cycles, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, incremental capacity analysis, differential voltage analysis and current-pulse measurement are used to identify the differences in ageing behaviour between the two cell types. The results show similar behaviour and properties at beginning-of-life, but an astonishing improvement in capacity retention for the double-layer cells regardless of the cycling conditions. Additionally, the lifetime of the single-layer cells was strongly influenced by the cycling conditions, and the double-layer cells showed less difference in ageing behaviour.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030022
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 23: Stationary Battery Thermal Management:
           Analysis of Active Cooling Designs

    • Authors: Getu Hailu, Martin Henke, Todd Petersen
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Stationary battery systems are becoming more prevalent around the world, with both the quantity and capacity of installations growing at the same time. Large battery installations and uninterruptible power supply can generate a significant amount of heat during operation; while this is widely understood, current thermal management methods have not kept up with the increase of stationary battery installations. Active cooling has long been the default approach of thermal management for stationary batteries; however, there is no academic research or comparative studies available for this technology. The present work presents assessment of different active cooling methods through an experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics simulation. Following model validation, several cooling system configurations were analyzed, including effects from implementing either a perforated vent plate or vortex generators. The vent plate was observed to greatly increase cooling performance while simultaneously promoting temperature uniformity between batteries. Vortex generators were shown to marginally increase cooling performance, yet, future research is recommended to study the effects and improvement of the design. The average battery temperature for the vented model is reduced by approximately 5.2 °C, while the average temperature differential among the batteries was only 2.7 °C, less than the recommend value (3 °C) by ASHRAE/IEEE Standards.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030023
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 24: Auger- and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
           at Metallic Li Material: Chemical Shifts Related to Sample Preparation,
           Gas Atmosphere, and Ion and Electron Beam Effects

    • Authors: Steffen Oswald
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Li-based batteries are a key element in reaching a sustainable energy economy in the near future. The understanding of the very complex electrochemical processes is necessary for the optimization of their performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is an accepted method used to improve understanding around the chemical processes at the electrode surfaces. Nevertheless, its application is limited because the surfaces under investigation are mostly rough and inhomogeneous. Local elemental analysis, such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), could assist XPS to gain more insight into the chemical processes at the surfaces. In this paper, some challenges in using electron spectroscopy are discussed, such as binding energy (BE) referencing for the quantitative study of chemical shifts, gas atmospheric influences, or beam damage (including both AE and XP spectroscopy). Carefully prepared and surface-modified metallic lithium material is used as model surface, considering that Li is the key element for most battery applications.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030024
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 25: The Electrochemical Characterization of
           Nanostructured Bi2Se3 Thin Films in an Aqueous Na Electrolyte

    • Authors: Raimonds Meija, Vitalijs Lazarenko, Anna Skrastina, Yelyzaveta Rublova, Jana Andzane, Vanda Voikiva, Arturs Viksna, Donats Erts
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Due to their layered structure and high theoretical capacity, bismuth chalcogenides have been proposed as anodes in organic electrolyte Li- and Na-ion batteries. On the other hand, their electrochemical properties in aqueous systems have not been reported. Here, the electrochemical performance of Bi2Se3 thin films in 1 M NaNO3 aqueous electrolyte is presented. This aqueous Bi2Se3 system was found to have up to two orders of magnitude increased diffusion coefficients, compared to other anode materials in Na electrolyte-based systems, as well as limited anode electrode degradation over 5 CVs and significant changes in the anode after 30 CVs.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030025
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 26: A Method for Detecting the Existence of an
           Over-Discharged Cell in a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack via Measuring Total
           Harmonic Distortion

    • Authors: Jonghyeon Kim, Julia Kowal
      First page: 26
      Abstract: This paper deals with a method to detect the existence of an over-discharged cell in a lithium-ion battery (LIB) pack by measuring the total harmonic distortion (THD) rate in the voltage response. Over-discharge of the LIB cell reduces the available capacity by irreversible chemical reactions, resulting in serious safety risks such as explosions. Even if only one over-discharged cell exists in the battery pack, it accelerates the decomposition of other cells. In general, the measurement of each cell voltage in a battery pack is required to detect one over-discharged cell. This is because if only the voltage of the battery pack is measured, it cannot be distinguished whether the voltage of each cell is uniformly low or one specific weak cell is over-discharged. The proposed method measures the frequency response through the voltage at only two terminals of the battery pack to detect the presence of one over-discharged cell. When the battery cell is discharged beyond a certain level, the system nonlinearity of the battery pack increases, and it can be detected from the increased THD rate of the battery pack. The proposed method is verified by simulation and measurement.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030026
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 27: Optimization of LIB Electrolyte and
           Exploration of Novel Compounds via the Molecular Dynamics Method

    • Authors: Ken-ichi Saitoh, Yoshihiro Takai, Tomohiro Sato, Masanori Takuma, Yoshimasa Takahashi
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Due to great interest in the development of electric vehicles and other applications, improving the performances of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is crucial. Specifically, components of electrolytes for LIBs should be adequately chosen from hundreds of thousands of candidate compounds. In this study, we aimed to evaluate some physical properties expected for combinations of molecules for electrolytes by microscopic simulations. That is, the viscosity, ionic conductivity, degree of dissociation, diffusion coefficient, and conformation of each molecule were analyzed via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We aimed to understand how molecular-sized structures and properties collaboratively affect the behavior of electrolytes. The practical models of molecules we used were ethylene carbonate (EC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), propylene carbonate (PC), butylene carbonate (BC), γ-butyrolactone (GBL), γ-valerolactone (GVL), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl-methyl carbonate (EMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), and lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6). Many molecular systems of electrolytes were simulated, in which one molar LiPF6 was mixed into a single or combined solvent. It was found that small solvent molecules diffused with relative ease, and they contributed to the higher ionic conductivity of electrolytes. It was clarified that the diffusion coefficient of lithium (Li) ions is greatly affected by the surrounding solvent molecules. We can conclude that high-permittivity solvents can be selectively coordinated around Li ions, and Li salts are sufficiently dissociated, even when there is only a small content of high-permittivity solvent. Thus, we can confirm solely by MD simulation that one of the better candidates for solvent molecules, formamide (F), will exhibit higher performance than the current solvents.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8030027
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 7: Multiple Scenario Analysis of Battery Energy
           Storage System Investment: Measuring Economic and Circular Viability

    • Authors: Benedikte Wrålsen, Bernhard Faessler
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Circular business models for batteries have been revealed in earlier research to achieve economic viability while reducing total resource consumption of raw materials. The objective of this study is to measure the economic performance of the preferred business model by creating different scenarios comparing second life (spent) and new battery investment for seven different European regions and four energy management strategies. Findings reveal levels of economic ability for a total of 34 scenarios simulated, including direct savings per kWh, a total change in energy costs per year, battery charge/discharge cycles, and comparative breakeven analyses. Regional effects are also measured based on day-ahead electricity prices and solar irradiation. The minimum payback time is 7 years before battery system investment costs are covered. The most viable energy management strategies also had the highest number of charge/discharge cycles, which decreases battery lifetime. Investment in a second life battery compared to a new battery reduced the payback time by 0.5 to 2 years due to lower investment costs. However, the estimated lifetime range (3 to 10 years) is lower compared to a new battery (5 to 15 years), which questions the circular business model viability for the scenarios studied. Energy management strategies should be combined and customized to increase economic benefits.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020007
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 8: Development of a Matlab/Simulink Model for
           Monitoring Cell State-Of-Health and State-Of-Charge via Impedance of
           Lithium-Ion Battery Cells

    • Authors: Jonghyeon Kim, Julia Kowal
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Lithium-ion battery cells not only show different behaviors depending on degradation and charging states, but also overcharge and overdischarge of cells shorten battery life and cause safety problems, thus studies aiming to provide an accurate state of a cell are required. Measurements of battery cell impedance are used for cell SoH and SoC estimation techniques, but it generally takes a long time for a cell in each state to be prepared and cell voltage response is measured when charging and discharging under each condition. This study introduces an electrical equivalent circuit model of lithium-ion cells developed in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Cell SoC, SoH, temperature, and C-rate are considered for more accurate cell impedance prediction, and the simulation results are verified with the measurement results. The developed model is suitable for use in cell SoC and SoH monitoring studies by successfully outputting cell impedance through real-time prediction of cell voltage during discharge.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020008
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 9: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Batteries in
           2021

    • Authors: Batteries Editorial Office Batteries Editorial Office
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020009
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 10: Raman Diagnostics of Cathode Materials for
           Li-Ion Batteries Using Multi-Wavelength Excitation

    • Authors: Marcel Heber, Kathrin Hofmann, Christian Hess
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have been commonly employed as power sources in portable devices and are of great interest for large-scale energy storage. To further enhance the fundamental understanding of the electrode structure, we report on the use of multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy for the detailed characterization of layered cathode materials for Li-ion batteries (LiCoO2, LiNixCo1−xO2, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2). Varying the laser excitation from the UV to the visible (257, 385, 515, 633 nm) reveals wavelength-dependent changes in the vibrational profile and overtone/combination bands, originating from resonance effects in LiCoO2. In mixed oxides, the influence of resonance effects on the vibrational profile is preserved but mitigated by the presence of Ni and/or Mn, highlighting the influence of resonance Raman spectroscopy on electronic structure changes. The use of UV laser excitation (257, 385 nm) is shown to lead to a higher scattering efficiency towards Ni in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 compared to visible wavelengths, while deep UV excitation at 257 nm allows for the sensitive detection of surface species and/or precursor species reminiscent of the synthesis. Our results demonstrate the potential of multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy for the detailed characterization of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, including phase/impurity identification and quantification, as well as electronic structure analysis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020010
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 11: The Impact of an Overlaid Ripple Current on
           Battery Aging: The Development of the SiCWell Dataset

    • Authors: Erik Goldammer, Marius Gentejohann, Michael Schlüter, Daniel Weber, Wolfgang Wondrak, Sibylle Dieckerhoff, Clemens Gühmann, Julia Kowal
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Fast-switching semiconductors induce ripple currents on the high-voltage DC bus in the electric vehicle (EV). This paper describes the methods used in the project SiCWell and a new approach to investigate the influence of these overlaid ripples on the battery in EVs. The ripple current generated by the main inverter is demonstrated with a measurement obtained from an electric vehicle. A simulation model is presented which is based on an artificial reference DC bus, according to ISO 21498-2, and uses driving cycles in order to obtain current profiles relevant for battery cycling. A prototype of a battery cycling tester capable of high frequency and precise ripple current generation was developed and is used to cycle cells with superimposed ripple currents within an aging study. To investigate the impact of the frequency and the amplitude of the currents on the battery’s lifetime, these ripple parameters are varied between different test series. Cell parameters such as impedance and capacity are regularly characterized and the aging of the cells is compared to standard DC cycled reference cells. The aging study includes a total of 60 automotive-sized pouch cells. The evaluation of ripple currents and their impact on the battery can improve the state-of-health diagnosis and remaining-useful life prognosis. For the development and validation of such methods, the cycled cells are monitored with a measurement system that regularly measures current and voltage with a sampling rate of 2 MHz. The resulting dataset is suitable for the design of future ripple current aging studies as well as for the development and validation of aging models and methods for battery diagnosis.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-31
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020011
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 12: Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogels with
           Functionalization-Mediated Disordered Stacking for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Jaehyeung Park, Jaswinder Sharma, Charl J. Jafta, Lilin He, Harry M. Meyer III, Jianlin Li, Jong K. Keum, Ngoc A. Nguyen, Georgios Polizos
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Surface modified reduced graphene oxide (rGO) aerogels were synthesized using the hydrothermal method. Ethylene diamine (EDA) and α-cyclodextrin (CD) were used to functionalize the surface of the graphene oxide layers. The oxygen reduction and surface modification occurred in-situ during the hydrothermal self-assembly process. The chemical functionality and structure of the resulting ethylene diamine modified (rGO-EDA) and cyclodextrin modified (rGO-CD) aerogels as well as of the pristine unmodified rGO aerogel were studied using XPS, SEM, XRD, and SANS techniques. The overall surface composition showed a significant decrease in the oxygen content for all synthesized aerogels. The surface modified aerogels were characterized by a disordered stacking of the assembled rGO layers. The surface functionalities resulted in a broad distribution of the interlayer spacing and introduced structural heterogeneities. Such disordered structures can enable a better adsorption mechanism of the sodium ions. Coin cells based on the synthesized aerogels and sodium metal were assembled and tested at several charge and discharge rates. The correlation between the surface functionality of the rGO, the induced structural heterogeneities due to the disordered stacking, and the electrochemical performance of sodium-ion batteries were investigated. Operando XRD measurements were carried out during the battery cycling to investigate the adsorption or intercalation nature of the sodiation mechanism.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020012
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 13: Assessing the Feasibility of a Cold Start
           Procedure for Solid State Batteries in Automotive Applications

    • Authors: Ryan Hughes, Christopher Vagg
      First page: 13
      Abstract: This paper addresses the thermal management of a solid polymer electrolyte battery system, which is currently the only commercialized solid-state battery chemistry. These batteries aim to increase the range of electric vehicles by facilitating a lithium metal anode but are limited by operational temperatures above 60 °C. The feasibility of a cold start procedure is examined, which would enable a solid polymer battery to be used, without preconditioning, in a wide variety of ambient temperatures. The proposed solution involves dividing the solid-state battery into smaller sub-packs, which can be heated and brought online more quickly. Thermal modelling shows a cold start procedure is theoretically feasible when using a small liquid electrolyte lithium battery at the start. The key bottlenecks are the rate at which the solid-state batteries can be heated, and the discharge rates they can provide. After resistive heating is used for the first solid-state module, all subsequent heating can be provided by waste heat from the motor and operating battery modules. Due to the insulation required, the proposed system has lower volumetric, but higher gravimetric energy density than liquid electrolyte systems. This work suggests that with suitable system-level design, solid-state batteries could be widely adopted despite temperature constraints.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020013
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 14: Quantitative Lithiation Depth Profiling in
           Silicon Containing Anodes Investigated by Ion Beam Analysis

    • Authors: Sören Möller, Hyunsang Joo, Marcin Rasinski, Markus Mann, Egbert Figgemeier, Martin Finsterbusch
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The localisation and quantitative analysis of lithium (Li) in battery materials, components, and full cells are scientifically highly relevant, yet challenging tasks. The methodical developments of MeV ion beam analysis (IBA) presented here open up new possibilities for simultaneous elemental quantification and localisation of light and heavy elements in Li and other batteries. It describes the technical prerequisites and limitations of using IBA to analyse and solve current challenges with the example of Li-ion and solid-state battery-related research and development. Here, nuclear reaction analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry can provide spatial resolutions down to 70 nm and 1% accuracy. To demonstrate the new insights to be gained by IBA, SiOx-containing graphite anodes are lithiated to six states-of-charge (SoC) between 0–50%. The quantitative Li depth profiling of the anodes shows a linear increase of the Li concentration with SoC and a match of injected and detected Li-ions. This unambiguously proofs the electrochemical activity of Si. Already at 50% SoC, we derive C/Li = 5.4 (< LiC6) when neglecting Si, proving a relevant uptake of Li by the 8 atom % Si (C/Si ≈ 9) in the anode with Li/Si ≤ 1.8 in this case. Extrapolations to full lithiation show a maximum of Li/Si = 1.04 ± 0.05. The analysis reveals all element concentrations are constant over the anode thickness of 44 µm, except for a ~6-µm-thick separator-side surface layer. Here, the Li and Si concentrations are a factor 1.23 higher compared to the bulk for all SoC, indicating preferential Li binding to SiOx. These insights are so far not accessible with conventional analysis methods and are a first important step towards in-depth knowledge of quantitative Li distributions on the component level and a further application of IBA in the battery community.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020014
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 15: Combined Thermal Runaway Investigation of
           Coin Cells with an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter and a Tian–Calvet
           Calorimeter

    • Authors: Wenjiao Zhao, Magnus Rohde, Ijaz Ul Mohsin, Carlos Ziebert, Yong Du, Hans J. Seifert
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Commercial coin cells with LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 positive electrode material were investigated using an accelerating rate calorimeter and a Tian–Calvet calorimeter. After cycling and charging to the selected states of charge (SOCs), the cells were studied under thermal abuse conditions using the heat-wait-seek (HWS) method with the heating step of 5 K and a threshold for self-heating detection of 0.02 K/min. The onset temperature and the rate of the temperature rise, i.e., the self-heating rate for thermal runaway events, were determined. The morphology of the positive electrode, negative electrode and the separator of fresh and tested cells were compared and investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, the microstructure and the chemical compositions of the individual components were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. In the Tian–Calvet calorimeter, the coin cells with the selected SOCs and the individual components (positive electrode, negative electrode and separator) were heated up with a constant heating rate of 0.1 °C/min (ramp heating mode). Simultaneously, the heat flow signals were recorded to analyze the heat generation. The combination of the three different methods—the HWS method using the ES-ARC, ramp heating mode on both cells and the individual components using the Tian–Calvet calorimeter—together with a post-mortem analysis, give us a complete picture of the processes leading to thermal runaway.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020015
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 16: Radial Thermal Conductivity Measurements of
           Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Batteries—An Uncertainty Study of the Pipe
           Method

    • Authors: Markus Koller, Johanna Unterkofler, Gregor Glanz, Daniel Lager, Alexander Bergmann, Hartmut Popp
      First page: 16
      Abstract: A typical method for measuring the radial thermal conductivity of cylindrical objects is the pipe method. This method introduces a heating wire in combination with standard thermocouples and optical Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensors into the core of a cell. This experimental method can lead to high uncertainties due to the slightly varying setup for each measurement and the non-homogenous structure of the cell. Due to the lack of equipment on the market, researchers have to resort to such experimental methods. To verify the measurement uncertainties and to show the possible range of results, an additional method is introduced. In this second method the cell is disassembled, and the thermal conductivity of each cell component is calculated based on measurements with the laser flash method and differential scanning calorimetry. Those results are used to numerically calculate thermal conductivity and to parameterize a finite element model. With this model, the uncertainties and problems inherent in the pipe method for cylindrical cells were shown. The surprising result was that uncertainties of up to 25% arise, just from incorrect assumption about the sensor position. Furthermore, the change in radial thermal conductivity at different states of charge (SOC) was measured with fully functional cells using the pipe method.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020016
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 17: Effect of Internal AC Heating on the
           Temperature Homogeneity of Different Size Battery Cells

    • Authors: Howard Richards, Christopher Vagg
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Rapidly warming up batteries is an important challenge both for conventional lithium-ion batteries, which operate best over 15 °C, and for most solid-state batteries, which currently require operating temperatures over 60 °C. Internal heating using an alternating current (AC) has been proposed as a possible solution in automotive applications, with faster heating rates possible than conventional external heating methods. This paper investigates the performance of internal AC heating on cells of different sizes, for both cylindrical and pouch formats. A novel experimental arrangement is used in which two cells are tested in series while connected with opposing polarity to create a zero-voltage string, allowing the use of less expensive testing equipment. The results show that larger cells exhibit a considerably greater distribution of surface temperature than smaller format cells during internal heating. This is likely due to the more extreme spatial variation in current density in the current collectors, causing an uneven distribution of internal heat generation. This highlights a significant difference compared to external heating methods, which are not affected by this, and has important implications for temperature measurement and battery management if this type of internal heating is to be used, since temperature sensors must be placed in hot spots or supplemented by validated models to ensure all parts of the battery stay within safe temperature limits.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-12
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020017
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 18: A New Charging Algorithm for Li-Ion Battery
           Packs Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    • Authors: João P. D. Faria, Ricardo L. Velho, Maria R. A. Calado, José A. N. Pombo, João B. L. Fermeiro, Sílvio J. P. S. Mariano
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This paper shows the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in Li-ion battery charging methods by introducing a new charging algorithm based on artificial neural networks (ANNs). The proposed charging algorithm is able to find an optimized charging current profile, through ANNs, considering the real-time conditions of the Li-ion batteries. To test and validate the proposed approach, a low-cost battery management system (BMS) was developed, supporting up to 168 cells in series and n cells in parallel. When compared with the multistage charging algorithm, the proposed charging algorithm revealed a shorter charging time (7.85%) and a smaller temperature increase (32.95%). Thus, the results show that the proposed algorithm based on AI is able to effectively charge and balance batteries and can be regarded as a subject of interest for future research.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020018
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 19: Concept Review of a Cloud-Based Smart Battery
           Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Feasibility, Logistics, and
           Functionality

    • Authors: Manh-Kien Tran, Satyam Panchal, Tran Dinh Khang, Kirti Panchal, Roydon Fraser, Michael Fowler
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Energy storage plays an important role in the adoption of renewable energy to help solve climate change problems. Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are an excellent solution for energy storage due to their properties. In order to ensure the safety and efficient operation of LIB systems, battery management systems (BMSs) are required. The current design and functionality of BMSs suffer from a few critical drawbacks including low computational capability and limited data storage. Recently, there has been some effort in researching and developing smart BMSs utilizing the cloud platform. A cloud-based BMS would be able to solve the problems of computational capability and data storage in the current BMSs. It would also lead to more accurate and reliable battery algorithms and allow the development of other complex BMS functions. This study reviews the concept and design of cloud-based smart BMSs and provides some perspectives on their functionality and usability as well as their benefits for future battery applications. The potential division between the local and cloud functions of smart BMSs is also discussed. Cloud-based smart BMSs are expected to improve the reliability and overall performance of LIB systems, contributing to the mass adoption of renewable energy.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8020019
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 2: Lithium Silicates in Anode Materials for
           Li-Ion and Li Metal Batteries

    • Authors: Yu-Sheng Su, Kuang-Che Hsiao, Pedaballi Sireesha, Jen-Yen Huang
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The structural and interfacial stability of silicon-based and lithium metal anode materials is essential to their battery performance. Scientists are looking for a better inactive material to buffer strong volume change and suppress unwanted surface reactions of these anodes during cycling. Lithium silicates formed in situ during the formation cycle of silicon monoxide anode not only manage anode swelling but also avoid undesired interfacial interactions, contributing to the successful commercialization of silicon monoxide anode materials. Additionally, lithium silicates have been further utilized in the design of advanced silicon and lithium metal anodes, and the results have shown significant promise in the past few years. In this review article, we summarize the structures, electrochemical properties, and formation conditions of lithium silicates. Their applications in advanced silicon and lithium metal anode materials are also introduced.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010002
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 3: LLCZN/PEO/LiPF6 Composite Solid-State
           Electrolyte for Safe Energy Storage Application

    • Authors: Samuel Adjepong Danquah, Jacob Strimaitis, Clifford F. Denize, Sangram K. Pradhan, Messaoud Bahoura
      First page: 3
      Abstract: All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) are gaining traction in the arena of energy storage due to their promising results in producing high energy density and long cycle life coupled with their capability of being safe. The key challenges facing ASSBs are low conductivity and slow charge transfer kinetics at the interface between the electrode and the solid electrolyte. Garnet solid-state electrolyte has shown promising results in improving the ion conductivity but still suffers from poor capacity retention and rate performance due to the interfacial resistance between the electrodes. To improve the interfacial resistance, we prepared a composite consisting of Li7La2.75Ca0.25Zr1.75Nb0.25O12 (LLCZN) garnet material as the ceramic, polyethylene oxide (PEO) as the polymer, and lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) as the salt. These compounds are mixed in a stoichiometric ratio and developed into a very thin disc-shaped solid electrolyte. The LLCZN provides a lithium-ion transport path to enhance the lithium-ion conduction during charging and discharging cycles, while the LiPF6 contributes more lithium ions via the transport path. The PEO matrix in the composite material aids in bonding the compounds together and creating a large contact area, thereby reducing the issue of large interfacial resistance. FESEM images show the porous nature of the electrolyte which promotes the movement of lithium ions through the electrolyte. The fabricated LLCZN/PEO/LiPF6 solid-state electrolyte shows outstanding electrochemical stability that remains at 130 mAh g−1 up to 150 charging and discharging cycles at 0.05 mA cm−2 current. All the specific capacities were calculated based on the mass of the cathode material (LiCoO2). In addition, the coin cell retains 85% discharge capacity up to 150 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98% and energy efficiency of 90% during the entire cycling process.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010003
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 4: A Fast Approach to Obtain Layered
           Transition-Metal Cathode Material for Rechargeable Batteries

    • Authors: Shofirul Sholikhatun Nisa, Mintarsih Rahmawati, Cornelius Satria Yudha, Hanida Nilasary, Hartoto Nursukatmo, Haryo Satriya Oktaviano, Soraya Ulfa Muzayanha, Agus Purwanto
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Li-ion batteries as a support for future transportation have the advantages of high storage capacity, a long life cycle, and the fact that they are less dangerous than current battery materials. Li-ion battery components, especially the cathode, are the intercalation places for lithium, which plays an important role in battery performance. This study aims to obtain the LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC) cathode material using a simple flash coprecipitation method. As precipitation agents and pH regulators, oxalic acid and ammonia are widely available and inexpensive. The composition of the NMC mole ratio was varied, with values of 333, 424, 442, 523, 532, 622, and 811. As a comprehensive study of NMC, lithium transition-metal oxide (LMO, LCO, and LNO) is also provided. The crystal structure, functional groups, morphology, elemental composition and material behavior of the particles were all investigated during the heating process. The galvanostatic charge–discharge analysis was tested with cylindrical cells and using mesocarbon microbeads/graphite as the anode. Cells were tested at 2.7–4.25 V at 0.5 C. Based on the analysis results, NMC with a mole ratio of 622 showed the best characteristicd and electrochemical performance. After 100 cycles, the discharged capacity reaches 153.60 mAh/g with 70.9% capacity retention.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010004
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 5: Direct Double Coating of Carbon and Nitrogen
           on Fluoride-Doped Li4Ti5O12 as an Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    • Authors: Lukman Noerochim, Alvalo Toto Wibowo, Widyastuti, Achmad Subhan, Bambang Prihandoko, Wahyu Caesarendra
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Graphite as a commercial anode for lithium-ion batteries has significant safety concerns owing to lithium dendrite growth at low operating voltages. Li4Ti5O12 is a potential candidate to replace graphite as the next-generation anode of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, fluoride-doped Li4Ti5O12 was successfully synthesized with a direct double coating of carbon and nitrogen using a solid-state method followed by the pyrolysis process of polyaniline. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the addition of fluoride is successfully doped to the spinel-type structure of Li4Ti5O12 without any impurities being detected. The carbon and nitrogen coating are distributed on the surface of Li4Ti5O12 particles, as shown in the Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) image. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image shows a thin layer of carbon coating on the Li4Ti5O12 surface. The fluoride-doped Li4Ti5O12 has the highest specific discharge capacity of 165.38 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C and capacity fading of 93.51% after 150 cycles compared to other samples, indicating improved electrochemical performance. This is attributed to the synergy between the appropriate amount of carbon and nitrogen coating, which induced a high mobility of electrons and larger crystallite size due to the insertion of fluoride to the spinel-type structure of Li4Ti5O12, enhancing lithium-ion transfer during the insertion/extraction process.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010005
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Batteries, Vol. 8, Pages 6: Enhanced Electrochemical Properties of
           Na0.67MnO2 Cathode for Na-Ion Batteries Prepared with Novel
           Tetrabutylammonium Alginate Binder

    • Authors: Gints Kucinskis, Beate Kruze, Prasad Korde, Anatolijs Sarakovskis, Arturs Viksna, Julija Hodakovska, Gunars Bajars
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Both the binder and solid–electrolyte interface play an important role in improving the cycling stability of electrodes for Na-ion batteries. In this study, a novel tetrabutylammonium (TBA) alginate binder is used to prepare a Na0.67MnO2 electrode for sodium-ion batteries with improved electrochemical performance. The ageing of the electrodes is characterized. TBA alginate-based electrodes are compared to polyvinylidene fluoride- (PVDF) and Na alginate-based electrodes and show favorable electrochemical performance, with gravimetric capacity values of up to 164 mAh/g, which is 6% higher than measured for the electrode prepared with PVDF binder. TBA alginate-based electrodes also display good rate capability and improved cyclability. The solid–electrolyte interface of TBA alginate-based electrodes is similar to that of PVDF-based electrodes. As the only salt of alginic acid soluble in non-aqueous solvents, TBA alginate emerges as a good alternative to PVDF binder in battery applications where the water-based processing of electrode slurries is not feasible, such as the demonstrated case with Na0.67MnO2.
      Citation: Batteries
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/batteries8010006
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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