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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
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Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0353-3670 - ISSN (Online) 2217-5997
Published by U of Niš Homepage  [11 journals]
  • PRIOR KNOWLEDGE BASED NEURAL MODELING OF MICROSTRIP COUPLED RESONATOR
           FILTERS

    • Authors: Zlatica Marinkovic, Miloš Mitić, Branka Milošević, Marin Nedelchev
      Pages: 145 - 154
      Abstract: The design of microstrip coupled resonator filters includes determination of the coupling coefficients between the filter resonator units. In this paper a novel modeling procedure exploiting prior knowledge neural approach is proposed as an efficient alternative to the standard electromagnetic (EM) simulations and to the neural models based purely on the artificial neural networks (ANNs). It has similar accuracy as the EM simulations and requires less training data and less time needed for the model development than the models based purely on ANNs.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • FIFTY YEARS OF MICROPROCESSOR EVOLUTION: FROM SINGLE CPU TO MULTICORE AND
           MANYCORE SYSTEMS

    • Authors: Goran Nikolic, Bojan Dimitrijević, Tatjana Nikolić, Mile Stojčev
      Pages: 155 - 186
      Abstract: Nowadays microprocessors are among the most complex electronic systems that man has ever designed. One small silicon chip can contain the complete processor, large memory and logic needed to connect it to the input-output devices. The performance of today's processors implemented on a single chip surpasses the performance of a room-sized supercomputer from just 50 years ago, which cost over $ 10 million [1]. Even the embedded processors found in everyday devices such as mobile phones are far more powerful than computer developers once imagined. The main components of a modern microprocessor are a number of general-purpose cores, a graphics processing unit, a shared cache, memory and input-output interface and a network on a chip to interconnect all these components [2]. The speed of the microprocessor is determined by its clock frequency and cannot exceed a certain limit. Namely, as the frequency increases, the power dissipation increases too, and consequently the amount of heating becomes critical. So, silicon manufacturers decided to design new processor architecture, called multicore processors [3]. With aim to increase performance and efficiency these multiple cores execute multiple instructions simultaneously. In this way, the amount of parallel computing or parallelism is increased [4]. In spite of mentioned advantages, numerous challenges must be addressed carefully when more cores and parallelism are used.This paper presents a review of microprocessor microarchitectures, discussing their generations over the past 50 years. Then, it describes the currently used implementations of the microarchitecture of modern microprocessors, pointing out the specifics of parallel computing in heterogeneous microprocessor systems. To use efficiently the possibility of multi-core technology, software applications must be multithreaded. The program execution must be distributed among the multi-core processors so they can operate simultaneously. To use multi-threading, it is imperative for programmer to understand the basic principles of parallel computing and parallel hardware. Finally, the paper provides details how to implement hardware parallelism in multicore systems.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF FULL ADDER USING 6-T XOR–XNOR
           CELL

    • Authors: K Srinivasa Rao, Marupaka Aditya, B.S.D. Karthik Raja, CH. Manisai, M Tharun Sai Reddy, K. Girija Sravani
      Pages: 187 - 198
      Abstract: In this paper, the design and simulation of a high-speed, low power 6-T XOR-XNOR circuit is carried out. Also, the design and simulation of 1-bit hybrid full adder (consisting of 16 transistors) using XOR-XNOR circuit, sum, and carry, is performed to improve the area and speed performance. Its performance is being compared with full adder designs with 20 and 18 transistors, respectively. The performance of the proposed circuits is measured by simulating them in Microwind tool using 180 and 90nm CMOS technology. The performance of the proposed circuit is measured in terms of power, delay, and PDP (Power Delay Product).
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WEBSITE QUALITY ASSESSMENT. A CASE STUDY OF GSM HOSTING FORUM

    • Authors: Hossein KardanMoghaddam, Mohsen Masoumi
      Pages: 199 - 216
      Abstract: The ever-growing amount of data on mobile phones, tablets, and smart electronic devices on the Internet and the need to use this data to address problems highlight the importance of the evaluation and validation of data-sharing websites. The GSMHOSTING website plays a key role in communicating and providing services to its users in terms of repairing mobile phones and smart electronic devices. The purpose of this study was to determine its quality from the perspective of mobile phone repair technicians. These technicians were 100 people from Birjand in South Khorasan province (Iran) who used GSMHOSTING website as a reference. The website quality assessment study was conducted in the summer of 2020. The study applied a descriptive survey and cross-sectional method based on a questionnaire. The questionnaire included 11 website dimensions: Routing, Information, Delivery, Apparent Features, Security, Reputation, Society, Entertainment, Provided goods and services, Reliability, Trust. Scores were given on a Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire was determined using the opinions of web experts. The SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics methods were used to analyze data. The results indicated that the average quality of this website was acceptable in terms of technicians’ goals.  Addressing problems highlighted some of the website dimensions that will increase the overall quality of the website to support technicians in their activities.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • IMPLEMENTATION OF VOICE CALL TRANSFER SERVICE BETWEEN SMART PHONE AND
           TABLET THROUGH WI-FI

    • Authors: Durga Sowjanya Kolluru, Bhaskara Reddy Puchakayala
      Pages: 217 - 228
      Abstract: Communication through voice call leads to significant growth in technology in distant areas where two or more people from opposite ends of world will connect. This research describes a case study of voice call transfer service. This research aims at designing a system that will allow Android users to communicate over Wi-Fi. This design is able to transfer voice of incoming telephone caller over Wi-Fi network at real time through UDP. It uses client/server architecture: Server for receiving telephone call and transferring voice (one user) and client for receiving incoming caller voice and enables communication with server. Architecture designed could be used on Android smart phones with telephony enabled and tablets with telephony not enabled. Outcome of this research will allow users to communicate on real time at no cost. Proposed design gives cost effective, reliable and real time voice communication over Wi-Fi. It provides good and comfort experience to users in emergency situation where user cannot effort cost for telephone call. Proposed design is useful for educational organizations, construction buildings, shopping malls and hospitals which point to new possibilities for voice communication.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • OPTIMAL LOCATION AND SIZING OF MULTIPLE DISTRIBUTED GENERATORS IN RADIAL
           DISTRIBUTION NETWORK USING METAHEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHMS

    • Authors: Nasreddine Belbachir, Mohamed Zellagui, Benaissa Bekkouche
      Pages: 229 - 242
      Abstract: . The satisfaction of electricity customers and environmental constraints imposed have made the trend towards renewable energies more essential given its advantages such as reducing power losses and enhancing voltage profiles. This study addresses the optimal sizing and setting of Photovoltaic Distributed Generator (PVDG) connected to Radial Distribution Network (RDN) using various novel optimization algorithms. These algorithms are implemented to minimize the Multi-Objective Function (MOF), which devoted to optimize the Total Active Power Loss (TAPL), the Total Voltage Deviation (TVD), and the overcurrent protection relays (OCRs)’s Total Operation Time (TOT). The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is validated on the test system standard IEEE 33-bus RDN. In this paper is presented a recent meta-heuristic optimization algorithm of the Slime Mould Algorithm (SMA), where the results reveal its effectiveness and robustness among all the applied optimization algorithms, in identifying the optimal allocation (locate and size) of the PVDG units into RDN for mitigating the power losses, enhance the RDN system's voltage profiles and improve the overcurrent protection system. Accordingly, the SMA approach can be a very favorable algorithm to cope with the optimal PVDG allocation problem.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • AREA AND POWER-EFFICIENT RECONFIGURABLE DIGITAL DOWN CONVERTER ON FPGA

    • Authors: Debarshi Datta, Himadri Sekhar Dutta
      Pages: 243 - 252
      Abstract: This paper presents a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based digital down converter (DDC) that can reduce the bandwidth from about 70 MHz to 182.292 kHz. The proposed DDC consists of a polyphase COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) processor and a multirate filter. The advantage of polyphase CORDIC processor is to process with high sample rate input data and produces computational efficient noiseless baseband spectrum. The pipeline multirate filter works at a high clock speed. Moreover, the multirate filter generates a fractional sample rate factor using a cubic B-spline Farrow filter. The proposed DDC is coded with optimal hardware description language (HDL) and tested on Kintex-7 Xilinx FPGA as the target device. Experimental results indicate that the proposed design saves chip area, power consumption and operates at high speed without loss of any functionality. Additionally, the proposed design offers sufficient spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and produces less than 1 Hz frequency resolution at the output.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A MULTICARRIER MIMO SYSTEM BASED ON
           DFT-PRECODING AND SUBCARRIER MAPPING

    • Authors: Fahad Bin Muslim, Muntazir Hussain, Usman Hashmi, Aneesullah Aneesullah, Muhammad Aamir, Ali Zahir
      Pages: 253 - 268
      Abstract: The ever-increasing end user demands are instigating the development of innovative methods targeting not only data rate enhancement but additionally better service quality in each subsequent wireless communication standard. This quest to achieve higher data rates has compelled the next generation communication technologies to use multicarrier systems e.g. orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), while also relying on the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology. This paper is focused on implementing a MIMO-OFDM system and on using various techniques to optimize it in terms of the bit-error rate performance. The test case considered is a system implementation constituting the enabling technologies for 4G and beyond communication systems. The bit-error rate optimizations considered are based on preceding the OFDM modulation step by Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) while also considering various subcarrier mapping schemes. MATLAB-based simulation of a 2 × 2 MIMO-OFDM system exhibits a maximum of 2 to 5 orders of magnitude reduction in bit-error rate due to DFT-precoding and subcarrier mapping respectively at high signal-to-noise ratio values in various environments. A 2-3dBs reduction in peak-to-average power ratio due to DFT-precoding in different environments is also exhibited in the various simulations.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • WK-FNN DESIGN FOR DETECTION OF ANOMALIES IN THE COMPUTER NETWORK TRAFFIC

    • Authors: Danijela Protic, Miomir Stankovic, Vladimir Antic
      Pages: 269 - 282
      Abstract: Anomaly-based intrusion detection systems identify abnormal computer network traffic based on deviations from the derived statistical model that describes the normal network behavior. The basic problem with anomaly detection is deciding what is considered normal. Supervised machine learning can be viewed as binary classification, since models are trained and tested on a data set containing a binary label to detect anomalies. Weighted k-Nearest Neighbor and Feedforward Neural Network are high-precision classifiers for decision-making. However, their decisions sometimes differ. In this paper, we present a WK-FNN hybrid model for the detection of the opposite decisions. It is shown that results can be improved with the xor bitwise operation. The sum of the binary “ones” is used to decide whether additional alerts are activated or not.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 2 (2022)
       
  • OPTIMIZATION OF THE 3P KEYS KERNEL PARAMETERS BY MINIMIZING THE RIPPLE OF
           THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTIC

    • Authors: Nataša Savić, Zoran Milivojević, Zoran Veličković
      Pages: 283 - 300
      Abstract: The ideal interpolation kernel is described by the sinc function, and its spectral characteristic is the box function. Due to the infinite length of the ideal kernel, it is not achievable. Therefore, convolutional interpolation kernels of finite length, which should better approximate the ideal kernel in a specified interval, are formed. The approximation function should have a small numerical complexity, so as to reduce the interpolation execution time. In the scientific literature, great attention is paid to the polynomial kernel of the third order. However, the time and spectral characteristic of the third-order polynomial kernels differs significantly from the shape of the ideal kernel. Therefore, the accuracy of cubic interpolation is lower. By optimizing the kernel parameters, it is possible to better approximate the ideal kernel. This will increase the accuracy of the interpolation. The first part of the paper describes a three-parameter (3P) Keys interpolation kernel, r. After that, the algorithm for optimizing the parameters of the 3P Keys kernel, is shown. First, the kernel is disassembled into components, and then, over each kernel component, Fourier transform is applied. In this way the spectral characteristic of the 3P Keys kernel, H, was determined. Then the spectral characteristic was developed in the Taylor series, HT. With the condition for the elimination of the members of the Taylor series, which greatly affect the ripple of the spectral characteristic, the optimal kernel parameters (αopt, βopt, gopt) were determined. The second part of the paper describes an experiment, in which the interpolation accuracy of the 3P Keys kernel, was tested. Parametric cubic convolution (PCC) interpolation, with the 3P kernel, was performed over the images from the Test database. The Test database is created with standard Test images, which are intensively used in Digital Image Processing. By analyzing the interpolation error, which is represented by the Mean Square Error, MSE, the accuracy of the interpolation was determined. The results (αopt, βopt, gopt, MSEmin) are presented on tables and graphs. Detailed comparative analysis showed higher interpolation accuracy with the proposed 3P Keys interpolation kernel, compared to the interpolation accuracy with, 1P Keys and 2P Keys interpolation kernels. Finally, the numerical values of the optimal kernel parameters, which are determined by the optimization algorithm proposed in this paper, were experimentally verified.
      PubDate: 2022-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 35, No. 2 (2022)
       
 
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