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International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.216
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0867-6747 - ISSN (Online) 2300-1933
Published by Polska Akademia Nauk Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Improved Framework for Blockchain Application Using Lattice Based Key
           Agreement Protocol

    • Authors: Zahraa Oleiwi, Rasha Dihin, Ali Alwan
      Pages: 5 - 10
      Abstract: One of the most recent challenges in communication
      system and network system is the privacy and security of
      information and communication session. Blockchain is one of
      technologies that use in sensing application in different important
      environments such as healthcare. In healthcare the patient privacy
      should be protected use high security system. Key agreement
      protocol based on lattice ensure the authentication and high
      protection against different types of attack especially
      impersonation and man in the middle attack where the latticebased protocol is quantum-withstand protocol. Proposed improved
      framework using lattice based key agreement protocol for
      application of block chain, with security analysis of many
      literatures that proposed different protocols has been presented
      with comparative study. The resultant new framework based on
      lattice overcome the latency limitation of block chain in the old
      framework and lowered the computation cost that depend on
      Elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman. Also, it ensures high privacy and
      protection of patient’s information

      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • An Efficient Hybrid Classifier Model for Customer Churn Prediction

    • Authors: M A Anitha, K K Sherly
      Pages: 11 - 18
      Abstract: Customer churn prediction is used to retain customers at the highest risk of churn by proactively engaging with them. Many machine learning-based data mining approaches have been previously used to predict client churn. Although, single model classifiers increase the scattering of prediction with a low model performance which degrades reliability of the model. Hence, Bag of learners based Classification is used in which learners with high performance are selected to estimate wrongly and correctly classified instances thereby increasing the robustness of model performance.  Furthermore, loss of interpretability in the model during prediction leads to insufficient prediction accuracy.  Hence, an Associative classifier with Apriori Algorithm is introduced as a booster that integrates classification and association rule mining to build a strong classification model in which frequent items are obtained using Apriori Algorithm. Also, accurate prediction is provided by testing wrongly classified instances from the bagging phase using generated rules in an associative classifier. The proposed models are then simulated in Python platform and the results achieved high accuracy, ROC score, precision, specificity, F-measure, and recall.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Crowd Size Estimation and Detecting Social Distancing Using Raspberry PI
           and Opencv

    • Authors: M Davidson Kamala Dhas, V Arun Raj
      Pages: 19 - 24
      Abstract: In this covid19 pandemic the number of people gathering at public places and festivals are restricted and maintaining social distancing is practiced throughout the world. Managing the crowd is always a challenging task. It requires some kind of monitoring technology. In this paper, we develop a device that detects and provide human count and also detects people who are not maintaining social distancing . The work depicted above was finished using a Raspberry Pi 3 board with OpenCV-Python.This method can effectively manage crowds.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Wearable Biosensor: How to improve the efficacy in data transmission in
           respiratory monitoring system'

    • Authors: M. Kanthi, Dilli Ravilla
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Respiratory rate measurement is important under different types of health issues. The need for technological developments for measuring respiratory rate has become imperative for healthcare professionals. The paper presents an approach to respiratory monitoring, with the aim to improve the accuracy and efficacy of the data monitored. We use multiple types of sensors on various locations on the body to continuously transmit real-time data, which is  rocessed to calculate the respiration rate. Variations in the respiration rate will help us identify the current health condition of the patient also for diagnosis and further medical treatment. The software tools such as Keil μVision IDE, Mbed Studio IDE, Energia IDE are used to compile and build the system architecture and display information. EasyEDA is used to provide pin map details and complete architecture information.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • A New Method for Electrocardiogram Features Extraction Using Slope Change

    • Authors: Skander Bensegueni
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: A new method of Electrocardiogram (ECG) features extraction is proposed in this paper. The purpose of this study is to detect the main characteristics of the signal: P, Q, R, S and T, then localize and extract its intervals and segments. To do so we first detect peaks, onsets and offsets of the signal's waveform by calculating the slope change (SC) coefficients and consequently, the peaks of the signal are determined. The SC coefficients are based on the calculation of the integral of two-scale signals with opposite signs. The simulation results of our algorithm applied on recordings of MIT-BIH arrhythmia electrocardiogram database show that the proposed method delineates the electrocardiogram waveforms and segments with high precision. Keywords—ECG waveform peaks, ECG segments and intervals, Slope change coefficients
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • A neural network model for object mask detection in medical images

    • Authors: Ihor Tereikovskyi, Oleksandr Korchenko, Sergiy Bushuyev, Oleh Tereikovskyi, Ruslan Ziubina, Olga Veselska
      Pages: 41 - 46
      Abstract: In modern conditions in the field of medicine, raster image analysis systems are becoming more widespread, which allow automating the process of establishing a diagnosis based on the results of instrumental monitoring of a patient. One of the most important stages of such an analysis is the detection of the mask of the object to be recognized on the image. It is shown that under the conditions of a multivariate and multifactorial task of analyzing medical images, the most promising are neural network tools for extracting masks. It has also been determined that the known detection tools are highly specialized and not sufficiently adapted to the variability of the conditions of use, which necessitates the construction of an effective neural network model adapted to the definition of a mask on medical images. An approach is proposed to determine the most effective type of neural network model, which provides for expert evaluation of the effectiveness of acceptable types of models and conducting computer experiments to make a final decision. It is shown that to evaluate the effectiveness of a neural network model, it is possible to use the Intersection over Union and Dice Loss metrics. The proposed solutions were verified by isolating the brachial plexus of nerve fibers on grayscale images presented in the public Ultrasound Nerve Segmentation database. The expediency of using neural network models U-Net, YOLOv4 and PSPNet was determined by expert evaluation, and with the help of computer experiments, it was proved that U-Net is the most effective in terms of Intersection over Union and Dice Loss, which provides a detection accuracy of about 0.89. Also, the analysis of the results of the experiments showed the need to improve the mathematical apparatus, which is used to calculate the mask detection indicators.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Comparison of openEHR and HL7 FHIR standards

    • Authors: Jacek Kryszyn, Waldemar T. Smolik, Damian Wanta, Mateusz Midura, Przemysław Wróblewski
      Pages: 47 - 52
      Abstract: Health informatics is characterized by the need to
      securely store, process and transmit large amounts of sensitive
      medical data while ensuring interoperability with other systems.
      Among many standards used in such systems there are two which
      have gained interest in recent years and cover most of those
      needs: openEHR and HL7 FHIR. In this paper, both standards
      are discussed and compared with each other. The architecture of
      both systems, the similarities and differences, methods of data
      modeling and ensuring interoperability were presented.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • An Active Learning Computer-Based Teaching Tool for Enhancing Students’
           Learning and Visualization Skills in Electromagnetics

    • Authors: Mohammed Bait-Suwailam, Joseph Jervase, Hassan Al-Lawati, Zia Nadir
      Pages: 53 - 60
      Abstract: Electromagnetic theoretical concepts, which are represented mathematically, are usually challenging to grasp by students. In this study, we explore an interactive technology-based teaching tool to develop further students’ mastery of electromagnetic concepts through learning development and visualization of electromagnetic problems. This visualization of the problems will help students analyse, evaluate, and draw conclusions of the impact of electromagnetic-related problems in real-life. The simulation tool in this study is based on a MATLAB toolbox package, in which partial-differential equations (PDE) solver is the core engine. In this paper, we will also provide a step-by-step guide on the use of such an interactive computer-aided tool so that it can be a great self-guide tool for beginners in the field of physics and a first-level introductory course in electromagnetism. This study will focus mainly on one classical electrostatic problem that is a challenge to students to visualize, analyze and evaluate. Based on students feedback by the end of the course, 80% of students' population are more comfortablewith the introduced interactive learning tool. 
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Passive Mixer-based UWB Receiver with Low Loss, High Linearity and
           Noise-cancelling for Medical Applications

    • Authors: Thaar Abdalraheem Kareem, Hatem Trabelsi
      Pages: 61 - 67
      Abstract: A double balanced passive mixer-based receiver operating in the 3-5 GHz UWB for medical applications is described in this paper. The receiver front-end circuit is composed of an inductorless low noise amplifier (LNA) followed by a fully differential voltage-driven double-balanced passive mixer. A duty cycle of 25% was chosen to eliminate overlap between LO signals, thereby improving receiver linearity. The LNA realizes a gain of 25.3 dB and a noise figure of 2.9 dB. The proposed receiver achieves an IIP3 of 3.14 dBm, an IIP2 of 17.5 dBm and an input return loss (S11) below -12.5dB. Designed in 0.18μm CMOS technology, the proposed mixer consumes 0.72pW from a 1.8V power supply. The designed receiver demonstrated a good ports isolation performance with LO_IF isolation of 60dB and RF_IF isolation of 78dB.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Design and Development of 3-D Printed RDRA for Polarization
           Reconfigurability in C-band.

    • Authors: Maganti Apparao, Godi Karunakar
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: In this article, a 3D printed rectangular dielectric resonator antenna which is capable of polarization reconfiguration has been designed. Dielectric resonator is composed of environment friendly and biodegradable material, which is Polylactic Acid. In the proposed model, the polarization can be switch from a linear to a circular by changing the state of a switch, electonically. The antenna switch between two different polarizations:  Linear polarization during OFF STATE and Left-hand circular polarization during ON STATE. The proposed 3D printed dielectric resonator antenna is designed to operate in C-band of microwave spectrum, with a broad effective bandwidth (overlapped impedance bandwidths of both states) of 14.542% with centre frequency at 5.845GHz and peak gain 5.5dBi. Further, validated simulated results with experiment and both results are in good agreement.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Adaptive Monitoring of Companies' Information Security

    • Authors: Valerii Lakhno, Saltanat Adilzhanova, Moldir Ydyryshbayeva, Aliza Turgynbayeva, Olena Kryvoruchko, Vitaliy Chubaievskyi, Alona Desiatko
      Pages: 75 - 82
      Abstract: Additions were proposed to the method of organizing the information security (IS) event management process of companies. Unlike existing solutions, the algorithm of the "Event handling" subprocess was detailed. This detailing is a complex, which includes the IS event processing substage. In addition, the proposed detailing of the "Event Handling" subprocess allows for covering the entire life cycle of an IS event. The performed research allows in practice to fill in potential gaps in information when creating a company's ISMS. An additional advantage of the proposed solution is the possibility of using this sub-process as an independent one. The proposed approach makes it possible to simplify the procedure for managing the information security of a company as a whole, as well as potentially reduce the costs of its construction for small companies and enterprises. Also, this sub-process can be considered as an independent information security management process, for example, for a company's CIS. The proposed solutions and additions, in contrast to similar studies, are characterized by invariance with respect to the methods of implementing the company's IS infrastructure solutions, and in particular its CIS. This ultimately allows, without changing the methodological tools, to scale this approach and adapt it to the ISMS of various companies.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Hardware Implementation of an Enhanced Securityand Authentication-Related
           Automotive CAN Bus Prototype

    • Authors: Asmae Zniti, Nabih EL Ouazzani
      Pages: 83 - 88
      Abstract: In this paper a new security technique aiming to ensure safe and reliable communications between different nodes on an automotive Controller Area Network (CAN) is presented. The proposed method relies on a robust authentication code using Blake-3 as a hash algorithm within an adapted structure that includes a monitor node. A prototype is implemented and run effectively to perform hardware simulations of real case-based security problems of automotive embedded CAN systems. As a result, data transfer can take place on a newly enhanced CAN bus according to the standard protocol without being intercepted nor tampered with by unauthorized parties thereby highlighting the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Robotic Mobile Holder (For CAR Dashboards)

    • Authors: Madhunala Srilatha, Kanneti Bhavya, Ananthula Priya
      Pages: 89 - 98
      Abstract: In the current smart tech world, there is an immense need of automating tasks and processes to avoid human intervention, save time and energy. Nowadays, mobile phones have become one of the essential things for human beings either to call someone, connect to the internet, while driving people need mobile phones to receive or make a call, use google maps to know the routes and many more. Normally in cars, mobile holders are placed on the dashboard to hold the mobile and the orientation of the phone needs to be changed according to the driver's convenience manually, but the driver may distract from driving while trying to access mobile phone which may lead to accidents. To solve this problem, an auto adjustable mobile holder is designed in such a way that it rotates according to the movement of the driver and also it can even alert the driver when he feels drowsiness. Image Processing is used to detect the movement of the driver which is then processed using LabVIEW software and NI myRIO hardware. NI Vision development module is used to perform face recognition and servo motors are used to rotate the holder in the required position. Simulation results show that the proposed system has achieved maximum accuracy in detecting faces, drowsiness and finding the position coordinates.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Node Localization based on Anchor Placement using Fuzzy C-Means in a
           Wireless Sensor Network

    • Authors: Sidi Mohammed Hadj Irid, Mourad Hadjila, Mohammed Hicham Hachemi, Sihem Souiki, Reda Mosteghanemi, Chaima Mostefai
      Pages: 99 - 104
      Abstract: Localization is one of the oldest mathematical and technical problems that have been at the forefront of research and development for decades. In a wireless sensor network (WSN), nodes are not able to recognize their position. To solve this problem, studies have been done on algorithms to achieve accurate estimation of nodes in WSNs. In this paper, we present an improvement of a localization algorithm namely Gaussian mixture semi-definite programming (GM-SDP-2). GMSDP is based on the received signal strength (RSS) to achieve a maximum likelihood location estimator. The improvement lies in the placement of anchors through the Fuzzy C-Means clustering method where the cluster centers represent the anchors' positions. The simulation of the algorithm is done in Matlab and is based on two evaluation metrics, namely normalized root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and cumulative distribution function (CDF). Simulation results show that our improved algorithm achieves better performance compared to those using
      a predetermined placement of anchors.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Telecommunications Wireless Generations: Overview, Technological
           Differences, Evolutional Triggers, and the Future

    • Authors: Godfred Yaw Koi-Akrofi, Marcellinus Kuuboore Kuuboore, Daniel Adjei Odai, Albert Neequaye Kotey
      Pages: 105 - 114
      Abstract: This study expands on prior studies on wireless telecommunication generations by examining the technological differences and evolutional triggers that characterise each Generation (from 1G to 5G). Based on a systematic literature review approach, this study examines fifty (50) articles to enhance our understanding of wireless generation evolution. Specifically, this study analyses i) the triggers that necessitated the evolution of wireless telecommunication generations and ii) makes a case regarding why it is imperative to look beyond the fifth Generation (5G) network technologies. The authors propose areas for future research.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Application of MPLS Tunnel Service L2TP-VPN Optimization Concept with
           Traffic Engineering Method for Looping-Protection Service Analysis

    • Authors: Lukman Medriavin Silalahi, Setiyo Budiyanto, Imelda Uli Vistalina Simanjuntak, Rukhi Ali Effendi, Fernando Fernando, Agus Dendi Rochendi, Irfan Kampono
      Pages: 115 - 120
      Abstract: This research began when observations were made on any-to-any-connection services that require QoS (Quality of Service) and tunnel measurements. Tunnel is a technique to interconnect between local networks that are separated through a public network. Research questions found looping caused by traffic issues when sending data in the MPLS service layer-2 tunneling service. Furthermore, this research hypothesis proposes optimizing QoS performance in the application of the SR-TE (Segment Routing-Traffic Engineering) method in the MPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching) network and analyzing traffic based on MAC addresses using the looping-protection method. This research contributes to optimizing the MPLS network and is a recommended solution for simplifying control-plane operation, especially the SR-TE method and looping-protection in the L2-VPN MPLS service. The purpose of this study is to analyze the performance of MPLS networks, as well as analyze the application of L2-VPN (Layer 2 Virtual Private Network) MPLS networks. The targeted TKT (Technology Readiness Level) is 3rd-Level, which is an analytical and experimental proof of the MPLS tunnel network model on Layer-2 VPN services. The results of the research concluded that testing the SR-TE method is a solution to simplify the process of labeling data traffic that is global labelling, then the looping-protection method is a solution to eliminate looping indications. The QoS obtained has also shown an "excellent" category based on TIPHON standards.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Steganography in audio files – COTS software analysis

    • Authors: Piotr Marszałek, Piotr Bilski
      Pages: 121 - 126
      Abstract: The paper presents the analysis of the Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software regarding the ability to be used in audio steganography techniques. Such methods are a relatively new tool for hiding and transmitting crucial information, also being used by hackers. In the following work, the publicly available software dedicated to audio steganography is examined. The aim was to provide the general operating model of the information processing in the steganographic effort. The embedding method was analyzed for each application, providing interesting insights and allowing classifying the methods.
      The results prove that it is possible to detect the hidden message within the specific audio file and identify the technique that was used to create it. This may be exploited further during the hacking attack detection and prevention.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Real Time Implementation of Amphibious Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System for

    • Authors: M Arun Kumar, Dioline Sara, Nagarjuna Telagam, Balwinder Raj
      Pages: 127 - 132
      Abstract: Automating the tasks that require manpower has been considered as an area of active research in science and technology. Challenges in designing such systems include accuracy in the parameters of performance, minimal hardware, cost-efficiency, and security. The efficiency of drones designed for replacing humans is often evaluated using their weight, flying time, and power consumption. Herein, the prototype-based Drone model has been designed and discussed for horticulture applications. In this model, a horticulture drone has been designed for structuring and cutting of plants in street interstates. This methodology focuses on automation engineering that is utilized for cutting the plants in less time and less power, thereby diminishing the contamination that may happen by utilizing fuels. The epic part of this plan includes the less weight drone predesigned using Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Interactive Application (CATIA) V5 Software. The throttle for the motors is adjusted at 50% to get the required thrust for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to fly. Experimental results show that the horticulture drone has comparatively more flying time and less power consumption.Keywords— CATIA; UAV; Automation; Thrust; Throttle.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Blockchain System for Secure and Efficient UAV-to-Vehicle Communication in
           Smart Cities

    • Authors: Suganthi Evangeline, Ashmiya Lenin, Vinoth Babu Kumaravelu
      Pages: 133 - 138
      Abstract: In a smart city environment, Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) enables the vehicle to generate and communicate messages for safety applications. There exists a challenge where the integrity of the message needs to be verified before passing it on to other vehicles. There should be a provision to motivate the honest vehicles who are reporting the true event messages. To achieve this, traffic regulations and event detections can be linked with blockchain technology. Any vehicle violating traffic rules will be issued with a penalty by executing the smart contract. In case any accident occurs, the vehicle nearby to the spot can immediately send the event message to Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). It will check for its credibility and proceed with rewards. The authenticity of the vehicle inside the smart city area is verified by registering itself with UAVs deployed near the city entrance. This is enabled to reduce the participation of unauthorized vehicles inside the city zone. The Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA256) and Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA-192) are used for communication. The result of computation time for certificate generation and vehicles involvement rate is presented.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Improved Two-Dimensional Double Successive Projection Algorithm for
           Massive MIMO Detection

    • Authors: Sourav Chakraborty, Nirmalendu Bikas Sinha, Monojit Mitra
      Pages: 139 - 146
      Abstract: In a massive MIMO system, a large number of receiving antennas at the base station can simultaneously serve multiple users. Linear detectors can achieve optimal performance but require large dimensional matrix inversion, which requires a large number of arithmetic operations. Several low complexity solutions are reported in the literature. In this work, we have presented an improved two-dimensional double successive projection (I2D-DSP) algorithm for massive MIMO detection. Simulation results show that the proposed detector performs better than the conventional 2D-DSP algorithm at a lower complexity. The performance under channel correlation also improves with the I2D-DSP scheme. We further developed a soft information generation algorithm to reduce the number of magnitude comparisons. The proposed soft symbol generation method uses real domain operation and can reduce almost 90% flops and magnitude comparisons.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Quick Handover in 5G for High Speed Railways and Highways Using Forward
           Handover and PN Sequence Detection

    • Authors: Mohammad T. Kawser, Kazi Md. Abir Hassan, Md. Atiqul Haque, Sakif Ahmed, Mohammad Rubbyat Akram
      Pages: 147 - 153
      Abstract: The cellular users, on high speed railways and
      highways, travel at a very high speed and follow a nearly straight
      path, in general. Thus, they typically undergo a maximum
      frequency of handovers in the cellular environment. This requires
      a very fast triggering of the handover. In the existing method of
      handover in 5G cellular communication, for high speed users,
      neither the decision-making of handover nor the triggering of
      handover is sufficiently fast. This can lead to poor signal quality
      and packet losses and in the worst case, radio link failure (RLF)
      during a handover. This paper proposes a forward handover based
      method, combined with PN sequence detections, to facilitate a
      quicker handover for high speed users on railways and highways.
      The proposed method adds some complexity but can offer a
      significant improvement in the overall handover delay. A simplistic
      simulation is used to demonstrate the improvement of the proposed
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Study of Obstacles Effect on Mobile Network and WLAN Signal Strength

    • Authors: Kavinesh S Radhakrishna, Lee Yeng Seng, Kok Yeow You, Thiruvarasu Muthu Krishnan, Ng Si Ting
      Pages: 155 - 161
      Abstract: In the era of continuous advancement in wireless technologies, path loss, also known as channel attenuation, is a drop in signal strength from the transmitter to the receiver. Path loss modelling is critical in designing fixed and mobile communication systems for various applications. This paper focuses on the received power (dBm) and free space path loss (FSPL) on various distances and frequencies such as 5240 MHz for wireless local area network (WLAN) and frequency such as 2100 MHz for the mobile network such as Celcom. As a result, able to analyze the correspondence between received power (dBm) and distance of each related frequency and the correspondence between FSPL (dB) and distance of each corresponding frequency and able to analyze the effect of obstacle on received power (dBm) and frequency.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Biologically Inspired Energy Efficient Routing Protocol in Disaster

    • Authors: Shankar Dattaray Chavan, Amruta Sharad Thorat, Monica Shivaji Gunjal, Anup S Vibhute, Kamalakar Ravindra Desai
      Pages: 163 - 168
      Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) plays a crucial role in many industrial, commercial, and social applications. However, increasing the number of nodes in a WSN increases network complexity, making it harder to acquire all relevant data in a timely way. By assuming the end node as a base station, we devised an Artificial Ant Routing (AAR) method that overcomes such network difficulties and finds an ideal routing that gives an easy way to reach the destination node in our situation. The goal of our research is to establish WSN parameters that are based on the biologically inspired Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) method. The proposed AAR provides the alternating path in case of congestion and high traffic requirement. In the event of node failures in a wireless network, the same algorithm enhances the efficiency of the routing path and acts as a multipath data transmission approach. We simulated network factors including Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Throughput, and Energy Consumption to achieve this. The major objective is to extend the network lifespan while data is being transferred by avoiding crowded areas and conserving energy by using a small number of nodes. The result shows that AAR is having improved performance parameters as compared to LEACH, LEACH-C, and FCM-DS-ACO.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • An optimization of network performance in IEEE 802.11ax dense networks

    • Authors: Marek Natkaniec, Mateusz Kras
      Pages: 169 - 176
      Abstract: The paper focuses on the optimization of IEEE 802.11ax dense networks. The results were obtained with the use of the NS-3 simulator. Various network topologies were analyzed and compared. The advantage of using MSDU and MPDU aggregations in a dense network environment was shown. The process of improving the network performance for changes in the transmitter power value, CCA Threshold, and antenna gain was presented. The positive influence of BSS coloring mechanism on overal network efficiency was revealed. The influence of receiver sensitivity on network performance was determined.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Background Traffic Simulator - The Tool for WLAN Background Traffic
           Generation in ns-3 Environment

    • Authors: Szymon Stryczek, Mikołaj Gwiazdowicz, Marek Natkaniec
      Pages: 177 - 183
      Abstract: In the paper, the BTS (Background Traffic Simulator) tool is proposed to capture network traffic and then reproduce it in a simulations using the ns-3 simulator extension module. This new method of generating background traffic allows for repetitive testing of simulation scenarios under real network conditions. The authors described the differences between the previously available methods and the proposed solution. The operation of all the most important elements of the proposed tool has been described. The influence of the generated background traffic on the simulation scenario was presented as well as the results of the operation.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • Throughput, Spectral, and Energy Efficiency of 5G Massive MIMO
           Applications Using Different Linear Precoding Schemes

    • Authors: M. Mourad Mabrook, Ibrahim Salah Ibrahim, Kamel Hussein Rahouma, Aziza I. Hussein
      Pages: 185 - 191
      Abstract: — A promising massive multiple input multiple output (M-MIMO) system is required to meet the growing need for highly traffic data, highly-resolution of streaming video, and intelligent communication on the fifth-generation wireless networks (5G). M-MIMO systems are essential for the optimization of the trade between energy efficiency (EE), throughput (R), and spectral _efficiency (SE) in wireless 5G networks. M-MIMO system architecture is proposed in this paper to enhance the trade-off between energy efficiency and uplink and downlink throughput at the optimum EE. Furthermore, using linear precoding techniques such as M MMSE, RZF, ZF, and MR, the EE-SE trade-off is optimized for uplink and downlink (M-MIMO) systems. The analysis of simulation results proved that throughput (R) is enhanced by increasing the number of antennas at optimum EE. After that, the proposed trading scheme is optimized and improved using M_MMSE compared to RZF, ZF. Finally, the results prove that M_MMSE gives the optimum trade-off between EE and R at the proved optimum ratio between the number of active antennas and the number of active users UEs
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • An Unexpected Result on Modelling the Behavior of A/D Converters and the
           Signals They Produce

    • Authors: Andrzej Marek Borys
      Pages: 193 - 198
      Abstract: In this paper, we show that the signal sampling operation considered as a non-ideal one, which incorporates finite time switching and operation of signal blurring, does not lead, as the researchers would expect, to Dirac impulses for the case of their ideal behavior.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
  • European Quantum Strategy – global and local consequences

    • Authors: Ryszard S. Romaniuk
      Pages: 199 - 206
      Abstract: Europe has to face strong competitive challenges in the field of QIT from other regions of the world. The tools for the effective implementation of the challenges related to the start, we hope, of building a quantum civilization are both common and individual in particulari European countries. Joint projects in the field of QIT, usually narrowly focused, are announced by large European Agencies and are related to their activities. Large-scale collaborative projects are of course the domain of the EC. National projects depend heavily on the capabilities of individual countries and vary greatly in size. The most technologically advanced European countries invest hundreds of millions of Euros in national QIT projects annually. The largest European FET class project currently being implemented is the Quantum Flagship. Although the EQF is basically just one of the elements of a large and complicated European scene of development of quantum technologies, it becomes the most important element and, in a sense, a dominant one, also supported from the political level. There are complex connections and feedbacks between the elements of this quantum scene. National projects try to link to the EQF. Here we are interested in such connections and their impact on the effectiveness of QIT development in Europe, and especially in Poland.
      PubDate: 2023-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 69, No. 1 (2023)
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