Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
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 International Journal of Electronics and TelecommunicationsJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.216 Citation Impact (citeScore): 1Number of Followers: 8     Open Access journal ISSN (Print) 0867-6747 - ISSN (Online) 2300-1933 Published by Polska Akademia Nauk  [2 journals]
• KFOA: K-mean clustering, Firefly based data rate Optimization and ACO
routing for Congestion Control in WSN

• Authors: Savita Sandeep Jadhav, Sangeeta Jadhav
Pages: 658 - 665
Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) is assortment of sensor nodes proficient in environmental information sensing, refining it and transmitting it to base station in sovereign manner. The minute sensors communicate themselves to sense and monitor the environment. The main challenges are limited power, short communication range, low bandwidth and limited processing. The power source of these sensor nodes are the main hurdle in design of energy efficient network. The main objective of the proposed clustering and data transmission algorithm is to augment network performance by using swarm intelligence approach. This technique is based on K-mean based clustering, data rate optimization using firefly optimization algorithm and Ant colony optimization based data forwarding. The KFOA is divided in three parts: (1) Clustering of sensor nodes using K-mean technique and (2) data rate optimization for controlling congestion and (3) using shortest path for data transmission based on Ant colony optimization (ACO) technique. The performance is analyzed based on two scenarios as with rate optimization and without rate optimization. The first scenario consists of two operations as k- mean clustering and ACO based routing. The second scenario consists of three operations as mentioned in KFOA. The performance is evaluated in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio, energy dissipation and residual energy analysis. The simulation results show improvement in performance by using with rate optimization technique.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Low Leakage and Robust Sub-threshold SRAM Cell using Memristor

• Authors: Zeba Mustaqueem, Abdul Quaiyum Ansari, Md Waseem Akram
Pages: 667 - 676
Abstract: This work aims to improve the total power dissipation, leakage currents and stability without disturbing the logic state of SRAM cell with concept called sub-threshold operation. Though, sub-threshold SRAM proves to be advantageous but fails with basic 6T SRAM cell during readability and writability. In this paper we have investigated a non-volatile 6T2M (6 Transistors & 2 Memristors) sub-threshold SRAM cell working at lower supply voltage of VDD=0.3V, where Memristor is used to store the information even at power failures and restores previous data with successful read and write operation overcomes the challenge faced. This paper also proposes a new configuration of non-volatile 6T2M (6 Transistors & 2 Memristors) sub-threshold SRAM cell resulting in improved behaviour in terms of power, stability and leakage current where read and write power has improved by 40% and 90% respectively when compared to 6T2M (conventional) SRAM cell. The proposed 6T2M SRAM cell offers good stability of RSNM=65mV and WSNM=93mV which is much improved at low voltage when compared to conventional basic 6T SRAM cell, and improved leakage current of 4.92nA is achieved as compared.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Comparative Analysis of Procedures and Solutions to Improve Energy
Efficiency of Massive MIMO

• Authors: Ritu Singh Phogat, Rutvij Joshi
Pages: 677 - 686
Abstract: The blustery growth of high data rate applications leads
to more energy consumption in wireless networks to satisfy service
quality.Therefore, energy-efficient communications have been paid
more attention to limited energy resources and environmentally
friendly transmission functioning. Countless publications are
present in this domain which focuses on intensifying network
energy efficiency for uplink-downlink transmission.It is done either
by using linear precoding schemes, by amending the number of
antennas per BS, by power control problem formulation, antenna
selection schemes, level of hardware impairments, and by
considering cell-free (CF) Massive-MIMO.After reviewing these
techniques, still there are many barriers to implement them
practically. The strategies mentioned in this review show the
performance of EE under the schemes as raised above. The chief
contribution of this work is the comparative study of how Massive
MIMO EE performs under the background of different methods
and architectures and the solutions to few problem formulations
that affect the EE of network systems. This study will help choose
the best criteria to improve EE of Massive MIMO while
formulating a newer edition of testing stand-ards.This survey
provides the base for interested readers in energy efficient Massive
MIMO.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Subjective Assessment of the Speech Signal Quality Broadcasted by Local
Digital Radio in Selected Locations in Wroclaw under Studio and Home
Conditions

• Authors: Maurycy Jerzy Kin, Stefan Brachmański, Patrycja Zemankiewicz
Pages: 687 - 693
Abstract: In October 2018, local digital radio was launched to cover the agglomeration of Wroclaw. The implementation of this undertaking required many tests, including qualitative ones, that refer to both music and speech. This paper presents the results of subjective tests based on the evaluation of speech quality of signals recorded at various points in Wroclaw. Measurements were carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union as well as in ordinary acoustic conditions in listeners’ flats. The rating was made for male and female voices. The most important conclusion is that for speech signal assessment in meaning of the quality the test conditions do not influence the obtained results. The other fact confirmed in the experiment was that the receiving place of DAB+ signal in the Single-Frequency Network also does not affected the perceived voice quality.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• AH Method: a novel routine for vicinity examination of the optimum found
with a genetic algorithm

• Authors: Piotr Bilski, Daniel Andrzej Piętak, Paweł Jan Napiorkowski
Pages: 695 - 708
Abstract: The paper presents a novel heuristic procedure (further called the AH Method) to investigate function shape in the direct vicinity of the found optimum solution. The survey is conducted using only the space sampling collected during the optimization process with an evolutionary algorithm. For this purpose the finite model of point-set is considered. The statistical analysis of the sampling quality based upon the coverage of the points in question over the entire attraction region is exploited. The tolerance boundaries of the parameters are determined for the user-specified increase of the objective function value above the found minimum. The presented test-case data prove that the proposed approach is comparable to other optimum neighborhood examination algorithms. Also, the AH Method requires noticeably shorter computational time than its counterparts. This is achieved by a repeated, second use of points from optimization without additional objective function calls, as well as significant repository size reduction during preprocessing.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Fast Designing Ladder Diagram of Programmable Logic Controller for a
technological process

• Authors: Adam Szcześniak, Zbigniew Szcześniak
Pages: 709 - 714
Abstract: The article presents developed method and general principles of creating ladder diagrams, which are commonly used for systems with programmable logic controllers (PLC). Ladder diagrams are created for sequential control systems of technological processes, which are described by a connection pattern, time diagrams of the executive elements` operation. The executive elements are double-acting pneumatic or hydraulic actuators controlled by bistable electrovalves. A method of designing sequential systems enabling the creation of a ladder electro-pneumatic system is presented. The ladder diagram consists of two parts. One is responsible for controlling the valve coils, the other for the implementation of the memory block. The signals that control the transition to the next state are the signals described on the boundaries of the graph division. The synthesis of control systems and their verification was carried out using the computer aided program FluidSim by Festo.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Analysis of C-shape slotted MSPA for 5G sub band applications on three
different substrates

• Authors: P Nagaraju, Sachina D H, Imran Khan, H V Kumaraswamy, K R Sudhindra
Pages: 715 - 719
Abstract: A comparative analysis of a compact planar Square
patch Microstrip Multiband antenna on three different substrates
is proposed. The proposed design has a C-shaped slot etched on the
square radiating part and the antenna is energized using
microstrip feed line. RT Duroid (
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Design and Simulation of 2×2Micro Strip Circular Patch Antenna Array at
28 GHz for 5G Mobile Station Application

• Authors: Salim Abdulla Hasan, Abdulsattar Mohamed Ahmed, Mohanad Nawfal Abdulqader, Younis Shareef Dawood
Pages: 721 - 729
Abstract: This paper propose the design and simulation of 2  circular patch antenna array working at 28 GHz by using four inset feed  micro strip circular patch antennas to achieve beam forming with directivity around 13dB  which is required to overcome part of high path loss challenge for high data rate mm-5G mobile station application. Four element 2x2 array consists of two 1x2 circular patch antenna arrays based on power divider and quarter wavelength transition lines as a matching circuits. The designed  antenna array is simulated on Rogers RT 5880 dielectric substrate with properties of 0.5mm thickness, and dielectric constant =2.2 by using Computer System Technology (CST) software. The performances in terms of return loss, 3D–radiation pattern are evaluated at 28 GHz frequency band. The design also include the possibility of inserting four identical 2x2 antenna arrays at four edges of mobile station substrate to achieve broad space coverage by steering the beams of the mobile station arrays.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• A robust CNN Model for Diagnosis of COVID-19 based on CT scan images and
DL techniques

• Authors: Ahmed Hassan Eldeib, Mohammed Nagah Amr, Amin Ibrahim, Hesham Kamel, Sara Fouad
Pages: 731 - 739
Abstract: The 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) virus has caused damage on people's respiratory systems over the world.  Computed Tomography (CT) is a faster complement for RT-PCR during peak virus spread times. Nowadays, Deep Learning (DL) with CT provides more robust and reliable methods for classifying patterns in medical pictures. In this paper, we proposed a simple low training proposed customized Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) customized model based on CNN architecture that layers which are optionals may be included such as the layer of batch normalization to reduce time taken for training and a layer with a dropout to deal with overfitting. We employed a huge dataset of chest CT slices images from diverse sources COVIDx-CT, which consists of a 16,146-image dataset with 810 patients of various nationalities. The proposed customized model's classification results compared to the VGG-16, Alex Net, and ResNet50 Deep Learning models. The proposed CNN model shows robustness by achieving an overall accuracy of 93% compared to 88%, 89%, and 95% for the VGG-16, Alex Net, and ResNet50 DL models for the classification of 3 classes. When this relates to binary classification, the classification accuracy of the proposed model and the VGG-16 models were identical (almost 100% accurate), with 0.17% of misclassification in the class of Non-Covid-19, the Alex Net model achieved almost 100% classification accuracy with 0.33% misclassification in the class of Non-Covid-19. Finally, ResNet50 achieved 95% classification accuracy with 5% misclassification in the Non-Covid-19 class.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• The High-Level Practical Overview of Open-Source Privacy-Preserving
Machine Learning Solutions

• Authors: Konrad Kuźniewski, Krystian Matusiewicz, Piotr Sapiecha
Pages: 741 - 747
Abstract: This paper aims to provide a high-level overview of practical approaches to machine-learning respecting the privacy and confidentiality of customer information, which is called Privacy-Preserving Machine Learning. First, the security approaches in offline-learning privacy methods are assessed. Those focused on modern cryptographic methods, such as Homomorphic Encryption and Secure Multi-Party Computation, as well as on dedicated combined hardware and software platforms like Trusted Execution Environment - Intel® Software Guard Extensions (Intel® SGX). Combining the security approaches with different machine learning architectures leads to our Proof of Concept in which the accuracy and speed of the security solutions will be examined. The next step was exploring and comparing the Open-Source Python-based solutions for PPML. Four solutions were selected from almost 40 separate, state-of-the-art systems: SyMPC, TF-Encrypted, TenSEAL, and Gramine. Three different Neural Network architectures were designed to show different libraries’ capabilities. The POC solves the image classification problem based on the MNIST dataset. As the computational results show, the accuracy of all considered secure approaches is similar. The maximum difference between non-secure and secure flow does not exceed 1.2%. In terms of secure computations, the most effective Privacy-Preserving Machine Learning library is based on Trusted Execution Environment, followed by Secure Multi-Party Computation and Homomorphic Encryption. However, most of those are at least 1000 times slower than the non-secure evaluation. Unfortunately, it is not acceptable for a real-world scenario. Future work could combine different security approaches, explore other new and existing state-of-the-art libraries or implement support for hardware-accelerated secure computation.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Lightweight PUF-Based Gate Replacement Technique to Reduce Leakage of
Information through Power Profile Analysis

• Authors: N Mohankumar, M Jayakumar, Devi M Nirmala
Pages: 749 - 754
Abstract: The major challenge faced by electronic device designers is to defend the system from attackers and malicious modules called Hardware Trojans and to deliver a secured design. Although there are many cryptographic preventive measures in place adversaries find different ways to attack the device. Differential Power Analysis (DPA) attack is a type of Side Channel Attacks, used by an attacker to analyze the power leakage in the circuit, through which the functionality of the circuit is extracted. To overcome this, a lightweight approach is proposed in this paper using, Wave Dynamic Differential Logic (WDDL) technique, without incurring any additional resource cost and power. The primary objective of WDDL is to make the power consumption constant of an entire circuit by restricting the leakage power. The alternate strategy used by an adversary is to leak the information through reverse engineering. The proposed work avoids this by using a bit sequencer and a modified butterfly PUF based randomizing architecture. A modified version of butterfly PUF is also proposed in this paper, and from various qualitative tests performed it is evident that this PUF can prevent information leakage. This work is validated on ISCAS 85, ISCAS 89 benchmark circuits and the results obtained indicate that the difference in leakage power is found to be very marginal.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• An Experimental Bench for Testing a S-CAM Front Car Camera

• Authors: Sławomir Gryś
Pages: 755 - 760
Abstract: The paper presents an experimental stand for testing the front car camera S-CAM with embedded image recognition systems. The camera sends CAN messages these are converted to USART messages by microprocessor based system. The messages are interpreted by MATLAB script on the basis of database of traffic signs in accordance with Polish Road Code. The testing stand is mainly aimed for educating students interested in the fields of electronics and technologies related to automotive branch, as well. The second objective is a research on efficiency of traffic sign recognition system being one of functionalities of S-CAM camera. The technical specification of testing stand, its functionality and limitations were also discussed. The bench operation was illustrated with examples of stiff images, animation and real movies.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Sampler – open-source data acquisition module for quantum physics

• Authors: Grzegorz Kasprowicz, Thomas Harty, Sébastien Bourdeauducq, Robert Jördens, David Allcock, Daniel Slichter, David Nadlinger, Joseph W. Britton, Ana Sotirova
Pages: 761 - 766
Abstract: The Sinara hardware platform is a modular, open-source measurement and control system dedicated to quantum applications that require hard real-time performance. The hardware is controlled and managed by the ARTIQ, open-source software that provides nanosecond timing resolution and sub-microsecond latency. The Sampler is a general-purpose precision ADC sampling unit with programmable gain and configurable interface. It is used in numerous applications like laser frequency and intensity servo. This paper presents the Sampler module construction and obtained characteristics.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Design of a GSM 900 Energy Harvesting Model for a Remote-Control device

• Authors: Deepak Kumar Nayak, Arjuna Muduli
Pages: 767 - 773
Abstract: This paper deals with designing and simulation of an efficient RF-DC energy harvesting system for a remote control device. GSM downlink frequency of 935MHz to 960MHz and uplink frequency of 890MHz to 915MHz is taken as the RF source with centre frequency as 950MHz and 900MHz respectively. The simulation model has been created by using Advanced Design System (ADS) software. The performance of the circuit has been tested with matching and without matching circuits. The output voltage obtained was 0.372V DC and maximum efficiency up to 35.73% was achieved for the downlink GSM frequency by the lumped method for -10dB input source power. By considering more number of rectifier stages, output DC voltage can be increased and it can be utilized for replacing the DC battery of the remote control device.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Modeling and Design of a Highly Efficient Switch-Mode RF/Microwave Power
Amplifier Based-on Microstrip Bandpass Filter

• Authors: Farzad Moloudi, Omid Eslamipour, Ali Khoshnoud
Pages: 775 - 781
Abstract: This paper presents a broadband Switch-Mode Power Amplifier (SMPA) using a Band-Pass Filter (BPF) at the Output Matching Network (OMN). The proposed SMPA integrates a microstrip BPF as an output impedance matching network to significantly reduce the final circuit size. The microstrip lines of the filter simultaneously play the role of filtering and impedance matching. This proposed method reduces the size of the PA and reduces the power dissipation as much as possible. The BPF is placed at the output of the circuit using microstrip lines and the RT Duroid 6006 substrate. This BPF covers a wide bandwidth ranging from 3.0 GHz to 4.4 GHz. Simulation results show 9 – 14 dB gain with 44 – 56.6 % drain efficiency (DE %), and the output power of 39 – 41.3 dBm would be achieved across the frequency band from 3.0 GHz to 4.4 GHz.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Execution Simulation Design of Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) Device Ingress
Networks using GPON with FBG based on OptiSystem

• Authors: Arafat Abdallah Shabaneh, Masa Loai Melhem
Pages: 783 - 791
Abstract: Consumers require high-speed data transmission for different activities, such as smartphone usage, live broadcasting of news, and video conferencing. Therefore, a reliable communication network is needed to provide this kind of service to users. Fiber to the home (FTTH) is an optical fiber architecture that uses fiber cables in the access network for direct and final connection to homes or offices of customers. Networks based on FTTH can offer high performance, speed, and quality. An optical fiber communication system based on FTTH device ingress network using gigabit passive optical networks (GPONs) with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and optical amplifier is designed and analyzed in this study. The developed design based on the FTTH device and FBG shows a low bit error rate (BER) for downstream and upstream configurations with an optical fiber length of 20 km. Downstream and upstream configurations achieve a Q-factor of 89.5 and 181.3, respectively. Achievable sensitivity of the developed system is −28 dBm, while the received signal based on OptiSystem is −25.59 dBm. FTTH with FBG will play a major role in the future and provide effective solutions for a wide variety of applications in network communication systems and data transmission rates.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Power-Ground Plane Impedance Modeling Using Deep Neural Networks and an

• Authors: Chan Hong Goay, Zheng Quan Cheong, Chen Eng Low, Nur Syazreen Ahmad, Patrick Goh
Pages: 793 - 798
Abstract: This paper proposes a deep neural network (DNN) based method for the purpose of power-ground plane impedance modeling. A composite DNN model, which is a combination of two DNNs is used to predict the Z-parameters of power ground planes from their design parameters. The first DNN predicts the normalized Z-parameters whereas the second DNN predicts the original maximum and minimum values of the non-normalized Z-parameters. This allows the method to retain a high accuracy when predicting responses that have large variations across designs, as is the case with the Z-parameters of the power-ground planes. We use the adaptive sampling algorithm to generate the training and validation samples for the DNNs. The adaptive sampling algorithm starts with only a few samples, then slowly generates more samples in the non-linear regions within the design parameters space. The level of non-linearity of the regions is determined by a surrogate model which is also trained using the generated samples as well. If the surrogate model has poor prediction accuracy in a region, then the adaptive sampling algorithm will generate more samples in that region. A shallow neural network is used as the surrogate model for non-linearity determination of the regions since it is faster to train and update. Once all the samples have been generated, they will be used to train and validate the composite DNN models. Finally, we present two examples, a square-shaped power ground plane and a square-shaped power ground plane with a hollow square at the center to demonstrate the robustness of the DNN composite models.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Performance Analysis of LEACH with Deep Learning in Wireless Sensor
Networks

• Authors: Hardik K Prajapati, Rutvij Joshi
Pages: 799 - 805
Abstract: Thousands of low-power micro sensors make up Wireless Sensor Networks, and its principal role is to detect and report specified events to a base station. Due to bounded battery power these nodes are having very limited memory and processing capacity. Since battery replacement or recharge in sensor nodes is nearly impossible, power consumption becomes one of the most important design considerations in WSN. So one of the most important requirements in WSN is to increase battery life and network life time. Seeing as data transmission and reception consume the most energy, it’s critical to develop a routing protocol that addresses the WSN’s major problem. When it comes to sending aggregated data to the sink, hierarchical routing is critical. This research concentrates on a cluster head election system that rotates the cluster head role among nodes with greater energy levels than the others.  We used a combination of LEACH and deep learning to extend the network life of the WSN in this study.  In this proposed method, cluster head selection has been performed by Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The comparison has been done between the proposed solution and LEACH, which shows the proposed solution increases the network lifetime and throughput.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Impact of Finite-Sized Aperture on the Performance of Differential
Multihop DF-FSO Network

• Authors: Deepti Agarwal, Poonam Yadav
Pages: 807 - 813
Abstract: This paper investigates the differential binary modulation for decode-and-forward (DF) based relay-assisted free space optical (FSO) network under the effect of strong atmospheric turbulence together with misalignment error (ME). The atmospheric fading links experience K-distributed turbulence. First we derive novel closed form expression for average bit error rate (BER) and outage probability (OP) in terms of Meijer’s G function. Further, the OP of differential DF-FSO system with multiple relays is derived. We also analyze the asymptotic performance for the sake of getting the order of diversity and the coding gain. The power allotment term is utilized to examine the effect of different power allotment techniques on BER and OP. The simulation results have been used to validate the derived analytical results.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• A Review on Feasible and Reliable Underwater Wireless Optical
Communication System for Achieving High Data Rate and Longer Transmission
Distance

• Authors: Lenin Joseph, Sangeetha Anandan
Pages: 815 - 823
Abstract: Underwater Wireless Optical Communication (UWOC) offers significant research prospective with major challenges in the design and implementation. UWOC is capable of providing high rate of data transmission across large distances. This paper attempts to focus on the intricacies of practical implementations and open research issues of UWOC systems. Critical advances and progresses made in the field, modelling techniques and link design challenges are summarised. The purpose of this review is to give suggestions towards feasible and reliable UWOC design with improved performance. Finally the major points are summarized so that it will assist the future research in UWOC.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• A Survey on Efficient Routing Strategies For The Internet of Underwater
Things (IoUT)

• Authors: Manal Al-Bzoor, Walaa Ayyad, Ola Alta'ani
Pages: 825 - 830
Abstract: The Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) is an emerging technology that promised to connect the underwater world to the land internet. It is enabled via the usage of the Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network (UASN). Therefore, it is affected by the challenges faced by UASNs such as the high dynamics of the underwater environment, the high transmission delays, low bandwidth, high-power consumption, and high bit error ratio. Due to these challenges, designing an efficient routing protocol for the IoUT is still a trade-off issue. In this paper, we discuss the specific challenges imposed by using UASN for enabling IoUT, we list and explain the general requirements for routing in the IoUT and we discuss how these challenges and requirements are addressed in literature routing protocols. Thus, the presented information lays a foundation for further investigations and futuristic proposals for efficient routing approaches in the IoUT.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Low Complexity Multiplier-less Modified FRM Filter Bank using MPGBP
Algorithm

• Authors: A. K. Parvathi, V Sakthivel
Pages: 831 - 840
Abstract: The design of a low complexity multiplier-less narrow transition band filter bank for the channelizer of multi-standard software-defined radio (SDR) is investigated in this paper. To accomplish this, the modal filter and complementary filter in the upper and lower branches of the conventional Frequency Response Masking (FRM) architecture are replaced with two power-complementary and linear phase filter banks. Secondly, a new masking strategy is proposed to fully exploit the potential of the numerous spectra replicas produced by the interpolation of the modal filter, which was previously ignored in the existing FRM design. In this scheme, the two masking filters are appropriately modulated and alternately masked over the spectra replicas from 0 to 2$\pi$, to generate even and odd channels. This Alternate Masking Scheme (AMS) increases the potency of the Modified FRM (ModFRM) architecture for the design of a computationally efficient narrow transition band uniform filter bank (termed as ModFRM-FB). Finally, by combining the adjoining ModFRM-FB channels, Non-Uniform ModFRM-FB (NUModFRM-FB) for extracting different communication standards in the SDR channelizer is created. To reduce the total power consumption of the architecture, the coefficients of the proposed system are made multiplier-less using the Matching Pursuits Generalized Bit-Planes (MPGBP) algorithm. In this method, filter coefficients are successively approximated using a dictionary of vectors to give a sum-of-power-of-two (SOPOT) representation. In comparison to all other general optimization techniques, such as genetic algorithms, the suggested design method stands out for its ease of implementation, requiring no sophisticated optimization or exhaustive search schemes. Another notable feature of the suggested approach is that, in comparison to existing methods, the design time for approximation has been greatly reduced. To further bring down the complexity, adders are reused in recurrent SOPOT terms using the Common Sub-expression Elimination (CSE) technique without compromising the filter performance.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• LoRaWAN communication implementation platforms

• Authors: Joanna Szewczyk, Mariusz Nowak, Piotr Remlein, Aleksandra Głowacka
Pages: 841 - 854
Abstract: A key role in the development of smart Internet of Things (IoT) solutions is played by wireless communication technologies, especially LPWAN (Low-Power Wide-Area Network), which are becoming increasingly popular due to their advantages: long range, low power consumption and the ability to connect multiple edge devices. However, in addition to the advantages of communication and low power consumption, the security of transmitted data is also important. End devices very often have a small amount of memory, which makes it impossible to implement advanced cryptographic algorithms on them. The article analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of solutions based on LPWAN communication and reviews platforms for IoT device communication in the LoRaWAN (LoRa Wide Area Network) standard in terms of configuration complexity. It describes how to configure an experimental LPWAN system being built at the Department of Computer Science and Telecommunications at Poznan University of Technology for research related to smart buildings.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• An analysis of BSS coloring mechanism in IEEE 802.11ax dense networks

• Authors: Marek Natkaniec, Natalia Bieryt
Pages: 855 - 862
Abstract: The paper presents an analysis of BSS coloring scheme defined in IEEE 802.11ax standard. The efficiency of dense networks for different scenarios was analyzed and compared. This analysis covers various topologies and work configurations through the use of multiple parameters of the PHY and MAC layers. A positive impact of the coloring mechanism on the QoS was observed. The study also analyzed the impact of the RTS/CTS mechanism on the obtained network performance and adequate prioritization of various traffic classes. It was shown that the proper selection of the coloring mechanism parameters in the IEEE 802.11ax standard has a strong impact on QoS and the performance of dense networks.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Application of a control algorithm for the master unit of a distributed
photovoltaic system

• Authors: Mariusz Świderski, Amadeusz Gąsiorek
Pages: 863 - 866
Abstract: The presented distributed photovoltaic system is made of divided into individual modules photovoltaic panel, consisting of several photovoltaic cells properly connected and coupling them with low-power DC / DC converters. The essence of the research is to increase the reliability of the system and the resultant efficiency of the entire system, so that it is possible to convert solar radiation energy into electricity with the greatest efficiency. The article focuses on the presentation of the implementation and tests of the overriding control algorithm, the task of which is to provide full functionality fora distributed photovoltaic system. The control is designed to minimize the negative effects of shadows on the operation of the photovoltaic system and conduct self-diagnostics. The conclusion for the carried out work is the formulation of hardware and interface requirements for the further development of the project.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Comparative Analysis and Fusion of MRI and PET Images based on Wavelets
for Clinical Diagnosis

• Authors: Jinu Sebastian, Dr. G. R. Gnana King
Pages: 867 - 873
Abstract: Nowadays, Medical imaging modalities like Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT), and Computed Tomography (CT) play a crucial role in clinical diagnosis and treatment planning. The images obtained from each of these modalities contain complementary information of the organ imaged. Image fusion algorithms are employed to bring all of this disparate information together into a single image, allowing doctors to diagnose disorders quickly. This paper proposes a novel technique for the fusion of MRI and PET images based on YUV color space and wavelet transform. Quality assessment based on entropy showed that the method can achieve promising results for medical image fusion. The paper has done a comparative analysis of the fusion of MRI and PET images using different wavelet families at various decomposition levels for the detection of brain tumors as well as Alzheimer’s disease. The quality assessment and visual analysis showed that the Dmey wavelet at decomposition level 3 is optimum for the fusion of MRI and PET images. This paper also compared the results of several fusion rules such as average, maximum, and minimum, finding that the maximum fusion rule outperformed the other two.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• An Enhanced Approach for Image Edge Detection Using Histogram Equalization
(BBHE) and Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO)

• Authors: Parveen Kumar, Tanvi Jindal, Balwinder Raj
Pages: 875 - 880
Abstract: The Edge detection is a customarily task. Edge detection is the main task to perform as it gives clear information about the images. It is a tremendous device in photograph processing gadgets and computer imaginative and prescient. Previous research has been done on moving window approach and genetic algorithms. In this research paper new technique, Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) is applied which is galvanized through the social foraging conduct of Escherichia coli (E.coli). The Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) has been practice by analysts for clarifying real world optimization problems arising in different areas of engineering and application domains, due to its efficiency. The Brightness preserving bi-histogram equalization (BHEE) is another technique that is used for edge enhancement. The BFO is applied on the low level characteristics on the images to find the pixels of natural images and the values of F-measures, recall(r) and precision (p) are calculated and compared with the previous technique. The enhancement technique i.e. BBHE is carried out to improve the information about the pictures.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• Template Matching Using Improved Rotations Fourier Transform Method

• Authors: Marvin Chandra Wijaya
Pages: 889 - 898
Abstract: Template matching is a process to identify and localize a template image on an original image. Several methods are commonly used for template matching, one of which uses the Fourier transform. This study proposes a modification of the method by adding an improved rotation to the Fourier transform. Improved rotation in this study uses increment rotation and three shear methods for the template image rotation process. The three shear rotation method has the advantage of precise and noisefree rotation results, making the template matching process even more accurate. Based on the experimental results, the use of 10°angle increments has increased template matching accuracy. In addition, the use of three shear rotations can improve the accuracy of template matching by 13% without prolonging the processing time.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• On implementation of efficient inline DDoS detector based on AATAC
algorithm

• Authors: Piotr Wiśniewski, Maciej Sosnowski, Wojciech Burakowski
Pages: 889 - 898
Abstract: Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks constitute a major threat in the current Internet. These cyber‑attacks aim to flood the target system with tailored malicious network traffic overwhelming its service capacity and consequently severely limiting legitimate users from using the service. This paper builds on the state-of-the-art AATAC algorithm (Autonomous Algorithm for Traffic Anomaly Detection) and provides a concept of a dedicated inline DDoS detector capable of real-time monitoring of network traffic and near-real-time anomaly detection.The inline DDoS detector consists of two main elements: 1) inline probe(s) responsible for link-rate real-time processing and monitoring of network traffic with custom-built packet feature counters, and 2) an analyser that performs the near-real-time statistical analysis of these counters for anomaly detection. These elements communicate asynchronously via the Redis database, facilitating a wide range of deployment scenarios. The inline probes are based on COTS servers and utilise the DPDK framework (Data Plane Development Kit) and parallel packet processing on multiple CPU cores to achieve link rate traffic analysis, including tailored DPI analysis.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

• I.FAST and EURO-LABS perfect legacy of ARIES

• Authors: Ryszard S. Romaniuk
Pages: 899 - 905
Abstract: CERN hosted on May 2-6, 2022, the first annual
meeting of the H2020 I.FAST project to support innovation in the
field of science and technology of particle accelerators. The project
has a completely different character from its predecessors in this
area of research. It was approved for implementation a year ago
by the EC with the highest marks. It is worth looking at why
projects such as ARIES, I.FAST and EURO-LABS are so easily
accepted. This alleged ease of acceptance is an appearance. Behind
the acceptance, in conditions of extremely tough competition, is the
excellent organization of the submitting community that has been
developed over the years, as well as the perfect, well-thought-out
preparation of the material. The author, a participant in the
ARIES and other EC projects in the field of particle accelerator
science and technology, presents here, on specific examples, his
subjective opinions on how to prepare materials for high-output
projects for the EC FP. The author hopes that these remarks may
be useful in the process of submitting research projects from
Poland in international cooperation to the EC in the best possible
way. The science and technology of particle accelerators is an
excellent area of showing such examples because it is
interdisciplinary and includes the following components: building
of research infrastructure, applied physics, mechatronics,
materials engineering, automation and robotics, electronics, ICT,
innovation, cooperation with industry, and social.
PubDate: 2022-11-30
Issue No: Vol. 68, No. 4 (2022)

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