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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
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Electronic Materials Letters
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.704
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1738-8090 - ISSN (Online) 2093-6788
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Preparation of Manganese Dioxide Supercapacitors by Secondary Construction
           of Three-Dimensional Substrates and Ion Embedding

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      Abstract: This work used a simple electrochemical reduction method to secondary construct the reduced nickel base (rNi Base) on nickel foam with a nano-core structure. The secondarily constructed base has a large specific surface area, which can increase the mass utilization of the active material. The rNi Base was used as a base for the reduction of nickel on Na+, K+, and \({\text{ }\text{NH}}_{\text{4}}^{\text{+}}\) , respectively. MnO2 was electrodeposited under three different cation pre-intercalation treatments, and the mechanism of the effect of different monovalent cations to guide the growth of MnO2 materials was investigated. Finally, rNi/MnO2&Na+ electrode with a special nano cauliflower structure was obtained. The special nanostructure of the electrode enhances its electrochemical performance, possessing 598 F g− 1 ultra-high specific capacitance at a current density of 1 A g− 1 and a high specific capacitance of 307.5 F g− 1 at a high current density of 20 A g− 1, and high specific capacitance maintenance rate of 92.7% after 500 cycles of charging and discharging at a current density of 2 A g− 1. In addition, the symmetrical supercapacitor assembled with this electrode has a very high specific capacitance (401.1 F g− 1 at a current density of 1 A g− 1) and energy density (80.22Wh kg− 1 at a power density of 599.99 W kg− 1). Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-07-21
       
  • Interfacial Adhesion Energies of Uniformly Self-Formed Cr2O3 Barriers for
           Advanced Co Interconnects

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      Abstract: The effects of Cr doping and postannealing on the interfacial adhesion energies between a Co interconnect and a SiO2 dielectric layer prepared by physical vapor deposition were systematically evaluated using a four-point bending test. Co, as a promising interconnect due to its scalability, is vulnerable to electromigration on its interface because the poor adhesion energy between Co and a barrier metal provides a diffusion path for atoms. To solve this problem, we suggest doping of Cr, which easily diffuses from the Co metal to the Co/SiO2 interface during postannealing, to form a uniformly distributed layer on the Co interface. Atomic force microscopy analysis clearly showed uniformly segregated Cr at the Co–Cr/SiO2 interface without hillocks or voids. The roughness root mean square values of annealed Co/TiN/Ti, annealed Co-4.7 at% Cr, and annealed Co-7.5 at% Cr were 0.72, 0.18, and 0.21 nm, respectively. In the four-point bending test, Co-4.7 at% Cr/SiO2 and Co-7.5 at% Cr/SiO2 were not delaminated at their interface, unlike pure Co and Co with the conventional barrier metal, which were delaminated at the interface with SiO2. In the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the Co–Cr/SiO2 interface, an increase in Cr–O bonding was clearly detected after annealing. Therefore, a properly annealed Cr2O3 self-forming barrier with strong interfacial reliability appears to be a promising diffusion barrier for Co interconnects. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-07-20
       
  • Experimental Study on the Preparation of MA@PS@Fe3O4 Phase Change
           Microcapsules to Inhibit the Development of Electric Branches in Epoxy
           Resin Cured Compounds

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      Abstract: Development of electric branches caused by partial discharge leads to degradation in the performance of epoxy resin insulation materials, which seriously threatens the safe and stable operation of power equipment. In this study, n-tetradecanol (MA)@polystyrene microsphere (PS)@Fe3O4 core–shell phase change microcapsules were designed and prepared. Doping 0.1 wt% phase change microcapsular material into the epoxy resin cured compound inhibited the development of electric branches. SEM and EDS tests showed that the phase-change microcapsules had monodisperse spherical core–shell structures with an MA encapsulation rate of 24.73% and excellent phase-change thermal storage capacity. Electric field simulations revealed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the microcapsule shell enhanced the local field strength of the cured epoxy resin and induced the development of electric branches toward the interior of the microcapsule. Moreover, doping of microcapsules into the epoxy resin significantly slowed the rate of temperature rise and thus inhibited further development of electric branches in epoxy resin cured products. In comparison with the epoxy resin cured without microcapsules, it was found that the longitudinal and transverse lengths of electric branches were reduced by 56.6% and 69.1%, respectively, in the epoxy resin cured with 0.1 wt% MA@PS@Fe3O4 microcapsules, and the electric branch initiation field strength was increased from 0.57 to 0.68 kV/mm. This indicated that MA@PS@Fe3O4 microcapsules significantly improved the electrical branch resistance of epoxy resin cured products, and this provides a new approach for extensive applications of epoxy resin insulation materials and safe and stable operation of power equipment. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-07-14
       
  • Development of an Efficient and Controllable Nano-porous Copper with Good
           Wettability and Capillary Performance for Wicks of Vapor Chamber

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      Abstract: To meet the heat dissipation requirements of microelectronic devices, it is urgent to develop an efficient method to fabricate a controllable micro/nano structure for the wick in vapor chamber, which is widely investigated for its high thermal conductivity and small size. This work proposed a controllable fabrication of nano-porous copper (NPC) with high efficiency, which includes electrodeposition and dealloying. A uniform Cu–Zn alloy with single phase was prepared as the precursor for dealloying through electrodeposition. An innovative solution system for dealloying was developed for the fabrication of the bi-continuous NPC, in which the efficiency was improved ten times compared to the conventional acid solution. In addition, the effects of dealloying parameters on the NPC morphology and the process efficiency have also been studied systematically. Based on the above method, both good wettability and capillary performance were achieved by NPC with tunable pore size, which indicates its great application prospects in wicks for high-performance vapor chamber. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-07-13
       
  • Size Effect on the Electromigration Characteristics of Flip Chip Pb-free
           Solder Bumps

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      Abstract: To understand the size effect on electromigration (EM) behavior in flip chip Pb-free Sn-3.5Ag solder bumps, EM tests were performed with changes in the pad opening size and solder bump height at 140 °C and 4.6 × 104 A/cm2. Additionally, to exclude extrinsic factors such as Joule heating, EM behavior was observed using a multi Sn96.5Ag3.0Cu0.5 solder line sample at 150 °C and 6–7.5 × 104 A/cm2. The EM lifetime increased with decreasing pad opening size and bump height, and the EM critical current density (Jth) increased with decreasing line length. This result indicates that the EM resistance increases as the dimensions of the solder bump decreases, which can be understood by the EM jL product. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-07-04
       
  • Correction to: Development of a Vaporizer for Gradual Vaporization Control
           of Precursor Materials in the CVD Process

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      PubDate: 2022-07-01
       
  • On the Relationship Between the Porosity and Initial Coulombic Efficiency
           of Porous Carbon Materials for the Anode in Lithium-Ion Batteries

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      Abstract: Herein, we present a new model to investigate the cause of the low initial coulombic efficiency of lithium-ion battery (LIB) porous carbon anodes and discover its relationship with the porosity of these materials. According to the proposed model, the capacity of porous carbon LIB anodes is in a direct relationship with their porosity, which reduces by the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer occupying the cavities and decreasing the accessible surface area for the electrolyte. The introduced model in this study was compared with the data published in the literature and revealed a satisfactory agreement with them. As a result, it was concluded that the fraction of the mesopores occupied by SEI after the 1st cycle fluctuates around the value of 0.5 and is mostly in the range of 0.6−0.4. Thereby, it can be employed for the prediction of the first cycle coulombic efficiency (CE) of carbonaceous anodes as LIB anodes and optimization of their structure. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-22
       
  • Aluminum Oxide/Fluoride Self-Assembled Monolayer Double Gate Dielectric
           for Solution-Processed Indium Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

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      Abstract: A high-performance indium oxide (In2O3)-based thin-film transistor (TFT) was prepared with aluminum oxide/fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (Al2O3/F-SAM) double-gate dielectric layer. The Al2O3/F-SAM double gate dielectric layer improved the performance of the In2O3-based TFT by reducing the device leakage current. In addition, devices with a double-gate dielectric layer show improved stability under negative bias stress testing compared to devices with a single gate dielectric layer (Al2O3), shifting a threshold voltage by only 0.4 V. These results suggest that the Al2O3/F-SAM double-layer gate dielectric layer can enhance the performance of In2O3-based TFTs. Furthermore, it can be used to improve the performance of other metal oxide-based devices by minimizing the leakage current at low operating voltages at low cost. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
  • GIWAXS Analysis on Preferred Orientation in Metal Halide Perovskite Films
           Via Alkylamines

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      Abstract: We investigated the effects of the alkyl chain length of alkylamine ligands (AALs), known to modify metal halide perovskite crystallites, on the preferential alignment of the CsFAMA crystal domains using two-dimensional grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (2D GIWAXS) measurements at various incident angles. In the absence of AALs, most (100) perovskite crystals were tilted 45° from the surface normal; the ratio of the 45°-tilted to isotropically oriented (100) crystals was similar in both the surface and bulk regions. However, in the presence of AALs, the 45°-tilted (100) crystals decreased, while the isotropically oriented (100) crystals increased, in both regions. In addition, vertically oriented (100) crystals were formed in the presence of AALs, which were observed only in the surface region of AALs with short alkyl lengths. As the alkyl chain length increased, vertically oriented (100) crystals appeared in both the surface and bulk regions of the film, i.e., the whole region of the film. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-15
       
  • The Effect of Solvent Mixing Ratios on the Exfoliation of 2D NiTe2 Thin
           Films for Transparent Electrodes

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      Abstract: NiTe2 thin films have been considered promising candidates for transparent electrodes due to their high electrical conductivity and 2-dimensional (2D) layered structure. The transparency of 2D thin films with layered structure can be further improved by the exfoliation process. In the process, the increase in electrical resistance should be minimized by maintaining electrical continuity in the thin film. In this study, the mixing ratio of ethanol, acetone, and DI water in the solvent for the liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) process was optimized to achieve high transmittance while suppressing the increase in electrical resistance. We prepared three solvents by varying the mixing ratio (ethanol:acetone:DI water = 2:4:4, 3:3:4, and 4:2:4). In the three mixed solvents, NiTe2 thin films were removed by two mechanisms: separation from the substrate and layer-by-layer exfoliation. Some of the NiTe2 grains were separated from the glass substrate in the early stage of the LPE process, and layer-by-layer exfoliation became the major mechanism when LPE proceeded longer than 6 h in the three solvents. Among the three solvents, the one with a 3:3:4 ratio more effectively suppressed the increase in electrical resistance during the separation of the NiTe2 thin film. The separation of NiTe2 grains provided an advantageous condition for layer-by-layer exfoliation. Additionally, the similarity of the polarization and dispersion ratio of 3-3-4 with the one of NiTe2 accelerated layer-by-layer exfoliation. The optimized solvent of 3-3-4 improved the transmittance of the NiTe2 thin film from 59.6% to 68.4% after the 8-h LPE process. Graphic
      PubDate: 2022-06-10
       
  • Engineering Magnetic Type Radio-Absorbers Based on Composites with a
           Dual-Phase Polymer Matrix

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      Abstract: This work is focused on the optimization of electromagnetic and mechanical properties of magnetic polymer composites for EMI applications as radio absorbers (RAs). Polymer composites with a dual-phase polymer matrix, vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in epoxy (ER), were investigated for fabricating highlyfilled manganese zinc ferrite (MnZn) and carbonyl iron (CI) composites with respect to radio-absorption and mechanical properties. The dielectric and magnetic properties of the composites were determined by the type, concentration as well as the polymer matrix composition. Increase of the filler and the PDMS concentration leads to an increase in magnetic losses due to a decrease in the demagnetizing field. The electromagnetic properties of the composites were evaluated in the RF band using the impedance method (1 MHz–3 GHz). Based on the complex permittivity (ε*) and the complex permeability (μ*), the reflection loss RL (dB) of single-layer metal-backed RAs were calculated. The RAs with a MnZn ferrite demonstrated a larger bandwidth to thickness ratio in comparison with the CI-based RAs due to a proper ratio between ε* and μ* which leads to the better impedance matching conditions. According to the mechanical analyses (DMA, Charpy impact strength) the significant increase of stiffness up to 125% and the impact strength up to 150% was achieved due to the optimal composition of the polymer matrix and the filler. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-08
       
  • Photoelectrochemical Performance of Tin Selenide (SnSe) Thin Films
           Prepared by Two Different Techniques

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      Abstract: A comparative study of visible light-driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell was performed for tin selenide (SnSe), synthesized by two different methods viz. solvothermal and electrodeposition. The SnSe films were characterized by XRD, EDS and SEM for structural, chemical, and morphological analysis, respectively. Optical characteristics were studied by UV–Vis-NIR and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. PL emission spectra reveal strong blue emission band around at 435 nm, which emphasize their potential application in optoelectronic devices. Photosensitivity and stability tests were carried out by chronoamperometric measurement. Mott–Schottky plots were employed to obtain the flat band potentials, which were further used for an explanation of their performances in PEC cells. An enhanced photocurrent was observed for solvothermally prepared SnSe (ST-SnSe) in comparison to electrochemically deposited SnSe (ED-SnSe) film. Efficiencies (η) of 0.62% and 1.25% were observed for ED-SnSe and ST-SnSe, respectively. Electropotential energy band diagrams of FTO/SnSe/electrolyte junction have been presented to explain the obtained results. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
       
  • Fabricating Fe3O4 and Fe3O4&Fe Flower-Like Microspheres for
           Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing in C and X Bands

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      Abstract: Magnetic composites have received increasing attention for electromagnetic wave absorption (EMA) applications. However, the practical EMA performance of the materials is severely hampered by mismatching impedance characteristics and finite electromagnetic attenuation capacity. Controlling the components and building the architecture fabrication is necessary to solve these issues. Herein, a series of Fe3O4, Fe3O4&Fe and Fe microspheres with flower-like hierarchical structures were constructed through a solvothermal method followed by an annealed process. This hierarchical structure and the synergy effect of dielectric dissipation and magnetic loss capacity offer Fe3O4 a perfect impedance matching, providing an excellent EMA performance of an effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) of 4.0 GHz and a reflection loss (RL) of 67.9 dB. Meanwhile, the coordination of the hierarchical structures and the multiple components endow Fe3O4&Fe composites with an EAB as wide as 5.7 GHz (9.0–14.7 GHz) and a RL as strong as 78.7 dB at 1.88 mm, which covers 75% X and 45% Ku bands. Such a remarkable lightweight and broad properties is due to the decent X band impedance matching and appropriate attenuation capacity. Therefore, this work highlights the significant of regulating the hierarchical structure and components to enhance the EMA performances. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-04
       
  • Nanoimprinting of Perovskite Layer for Light-Harvesting Effect in
           Photovoltaic Devices

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      Abstract: A light-harvesting effect was successfully achieved in photovoltaic devices by the structuring of an active perovskite layer through nanoimprinting. This was done by transforming a commercial CD-R pattern into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film. The latter was then used for replicating the perovskite layers under increased pressures and temperatures. The Young’s modulus of the PDMS film was regulated by the mixing ratio of the base and curing agents, and the average height of the pattern was reported for an optimal 5:1 base-to-curing agent ratio. Under these conditions, the replication efficiency reached 80% at a pressure of ~ 4.9 kPa. To investigate the manner in which the structuring of these patterned perovskite layers affects optoelectronic devices, we incorporated them into photovoltaic cells. This resulted in improved J–V characteristics, as observed from an increase in both fill factor (FF) and short circuit current density (Jsc), from 73.20 to 76.35% and from 12.853 to 15.532 mA cm−2, respectively. The increase in FF was attributed to a large contact area between the perovskite and electron transport layers, while the increase in Jsc was due to the enhanced light-trapping of the periodic grating patterns of the perovskite layer. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
       
  • Interfacial Engineering of In2O3/In2S3 Heterojunction Photoanodes for
           Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation

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      Abstract: Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is one of the critical energy conversion techniques to prepare for future energy demands. Among the various trials to construct effective water splitting semiconductor photoelectrodes, In2O3/In2S3 heterostructures can be promising candidates for their advantageous properties in solar water oxidation. Herein, we synthesized In2O3 nanorods on FTO substrate through a direct glancing angle deposition method. Subsequently, the In2S3 layer was conformally coated on In2O3 nanorods through facile chemical bath deposition. As synthesized photoanodes of In2O3/In2S3 form type II junction, leading to considerable cathodic onset potential shift with the increased photocurrent density compared to pristine samples. To further enhance PEC properties, the interficial engineering strategies of the Co ion doping and the deposition of ultra-thin Al2O3 film were carried out. Co ion could facilitate the charge transfer in photoanodes through the increased surface area, and the 2 nm Al2O3 layer coated above the photoanode effectively worked as the passivation layer to stabilize the photoanodes in alkaline electrolytes environments. This work would contribute to developing efficient photoanodes through various nanoscale engineering strategies. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
       
  • Sezawa Guided Mode on Periodic Grooves of GaN/Sapphire Substrate

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      Abstract: Gallium nitride could exhibit strong piezoelectric properties which could be further developed for high frequency devices, telecommunication applications, and many more. In this study, we explored theoretically and experimentally the potential Sezawa guided mode in the groove structure along the GaN/Sapphire interface. Computational analysis with Finite Element Method demonstrates the presence three peaks of particular modes at specifics resonance frequencies and interestingly with high energy confinement inside the GaN. The experimental data of insertion loss peak graph extrapolated from s-parameter measurement showed that the results of frequency response are correspond to three peaks of the particular modes hence validate the computational results. This finding is attributed to the locally resonant mechanism that confines the energy in the periodic structure that prevents radiation of energy. This particular propagation can be exploited to enable the development of Sezawa-GaN platform to be operational in the liquid medium, for sensor and actuator applications. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-05-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00345-9
       
  • Recent Advances for Fabricating Smart Electromagnetic Interference
           Shielding Textile: A Comprehensive Review

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      Abstract: A sharp elevation in the generation of electromagnetic interference (EMI) is observed, directly proportional to the increase in digital and electronic appliances. With the high growing population and enhancement in the number of electrical devices used in personal, industrial and medical sites, the issues arising due to EMI are also at their peak. EM wave interference is known to cause malfunctioning of the nearby electronic devices, destroying the signals and affecting human health, causing nausea, headaches, neural deformities etc. To avoid the harmful effect of these interferences, the personnel in its vicinity need a shielding material, protecting them from the ill effects of the electromagnetic waves. In this review article, EMI shielding textiles are being focused upon. Cotton, spandex, PET, PAN, silk fabric, etc., are modified through various methods and techniques like drop-casting, layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly, click chemistry, and inkjet printing to perform the function of shielding of EM waves. These smart, flexible, hydrophobic and light weighing fabrics can be revolutionary in diminishing the deteriorating effects of EM waves in the human body. Surface modified having high electrical conductivities and EMI SE of up to and beyond 90 dB in various frequency ranges have been reported, providing promising and alternative personal protective equipment for electromagnetic interference shielding. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-05-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00344-w
       
  • Raman Shift of Surface Reaction and Plasma Induced Surface Damage by
           TNF3/BNF3 Reactive Ion Etching Process

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      Abstract: We examined the conditions for process optimization with the exposure of hot H2/NF3 mixture to a chemical oxide on the Si surface. Etching characteristics are described; then the etching mechanism is discussed based on the Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) observations that occurred during the etching. This research viewed the hydrogen/NFs based reactive clean process as an oxide, silicon clean process technology to enhance product reliability by improving light controlled etching, which is considered one of the factors that can weaken contact resistance when forming gates and below 10 nm pattern profiles. Furthermore, the existing properties that occur when applied to nanoscale sized holes and trenches with high aspect ratio were also discussed. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00341-z
       
  • Crystallite Size Effect on X-ray-instigated Photocurrent Properties of
           PbWO4 Thick Film

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      Abstract: X-rays are widely used in many domains such as clinical diagnostic, imaging, industrial inspection, and environmental safety, allowing researchers for innoviative superior low-dose sensor development. In direct detection type of X-ray, X-ray photons are directly absorbed by photoconductors such as HgI2, PbI2, and BiI3 that are the available X-ray semiconductor detectors. This study analyzes the properties of micro and nanocrystalline PbWO4 prepared as thick film above the interdigitated electrode for direct photon detection. PbWO4 was found to have a better attenuation value of ~ 6.13 cm2/g at 70 keV as compared with the existing semiconductor detectors. The X-ray-instigated photocurrent behavior of PbWO4 was measured at various low doses by an intra-oral 70 keV machine connected with a Keithley model 2450 measuring source meter. Maximum sensitivity was found to be about 0.40 and 9.80 nC/mGycm3, respectively, for micro and nanocrystalline PbWO4, obtained at 7.97 mGy dose. The nanocrystalline PbWO4 thick film displayed more than twenty-four times sensitivity as compared with the microcrystalline PbWO4 film by virtue of the nanocrystalline size effect on X-ray detection. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-03-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00339-7
       
  • Review on Ti3C2-Based MXene Nanosheets for Flexible Electrodes

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      Abstract: MXenes have recently gained significant attention owing to their exceptional metallic electrical conductivity, good chemical inertness, and excellent hydrophilicity. Among the various two-dimensional MXenes, which are made up of atomic layers of transition metal carbides and nitrides, Ti3C2Tx is one of the most promising and versatile materials for application in various electronic devices. In fact, there has been a rising trend of using Ti3C2-based MXene nanosheets as flexible electrodes for different electronic devices. Ti3C2-based MXenes have shown the potential to be utilized as flexible and conductive electrodes in electrical energy storage devices, light-emitting devices, photodetectors, and flexible strain sensors. Thus, this review focuses on Ti3C2-based MXene nanosheets and MXene/polymer composite films, which are widely used as flexible and electrode layers in electronic devices, such as supercapacitors, solar cells, light-emitting devices, energy harvesting devices, power generating devices, and flexible strain sensors. First, we have briefly discussed the structure, conductivity, work function, and synthesis processes of Ti3C2 nanosheets based on the most recently published research articles. Then, we discussed the recent advances in the modification methods for Ti3C2-based MXenes to render them suitable for application as conductive electrode layers in various flexible electronic devices. The last section highlights the current challenges in the development and application of Ti3C2-based MXenes and future perspectives. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00337-9
       
 
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