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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
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Electronic Materials Letters
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.704
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1738-8090 - ISSN (Online) 2093-6788
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2467 journals]
  • Triboelectric Nanogenerators Based on Immobilized Living Microalgae for
           Biomechanical Energy Harvesting

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      Abstract: Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are gaining attention for energy supply because of higher demands in decentralized energy production. TENGs are known for being self-energy harvesters, converting wasted mechanical energy to useful electrical energy under an ambient environment. Advantages of TENGs include a clean energy supply, a wide range of materials selection, and an energy scavenging capability in the ambient environment. However, TENGs still suffer from their low electrical outputs compared to existing electrical supplies such as fuel cells and batteries. In bio-photovoltaic (BPV), there has been an interest in the use of microalgae, which are photosynthetic microorganisms capable of carbon capture and generating bioelectricity both day and night through electron transport chains via photosynthesis and cell respiration. To increase the current output of BPV, many have tried to immobilize living microalgal cells onto electrodes for higher mass transfers leading to higher photosynthetic rates. In this study, we have used immobilized living microalgae (Chlorella sp.) onto aluminium sheets to fabricate the TENG systems and investigate biomechanical energy harvesting. This proof of concept shows that this integration of microalgae with TENG can enhance the voltage and current output achieved by the dual operation modes of TENG. One issue raised during the tests was maintaining microalgae alive for several days, which has given opportunities for further studies in nutrient and light supplies to this innovative sustainable hybrid technology. The results confirm that the microalgae can be an excellent triboelectric layer in TENG for biomechanical energy harvesting. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-01-27
       
  • Determination of Particle Size Distribution in Oxide Abrasive Slurry After
           Chemical Mechanical Polishing Process Using Raman Spectroscopy

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      Abstract: Analysis of oxide abrasive slurry chemical species used for chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) have attracted tremendous interests because it is one of the most considerable factors for determining the polishing performance including material removal rate, static etching rate and the roughness of surface. In this study, we investigate the distribution of Al2O3 particle size in slurry and shear time effects through the particle size analysis before and after CMP process of TiN wafer. Furthermore, a novel method for determination of particle size distribution of alumina abrasives is developed by means of Raman spectra. Matching with Raman peaks of polished slurry, the Al2O3 particle size trend increased during the particle size of abrasives (alumina oxide) mixed in CMP slurries increased. Graphical Raman spectroscopy is a novel method for assuming the TiN wafer particle size in oxide abrasive slurries when the CMP process completed. It has little research for analyzing the compositions changes during the polishing time progressing. We obtained the Raman peak intensity trend to increase due to the abrasive particle size increase at the polishing time is 150 s.
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
       
  • Development of a Rock-Salt Structure for High Energy Density Lithium-Ion
           Batteries

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      Abstract: The lithium-ion battery has been extensively used as one of the most powerful energy storage devices, and its market is increasing by 10% annually. Among promising candidates for the high-performance cathode of the lithium-ion battery, disordered rock-salt structured cathode materials have attracted great attention due to their extended capacities and cost effectiveness over traditional cathode materials with the layered structure through the design of more accessible lithium-ion sites and low-cost transition metals. However, they have not yet been utilized owing to their low electronic/ionic conductivities and poor cycle life. To overcome the major hurdle for improving the electrochemical performance of the disordered rock-salt materials, we synthesize cation- and anion-doped disordered Li3NbO4 with rock-salt structures, Li1.3Nb0.43Ni0.27O2 and Li1.3Nb0.43Ni0.27O1.97F0.05, respectively, and decreased their particle sizes to reduce the Li-ion transport path. Enhanced electrochemical performances of the doped-disordered-rock-salt materials and their underlying mechanism have been addressed by cross-confirmation using various analysis techniques. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
       
  • Role of Liquid Metal in Flexible Electronics and Envisage with the Aid of
           Patent Landscape: A Conspicuous Review

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      Abstract: Wearable's become most widely used in the medical field to assess and monitor human body conditions even from remote locations. So, it should be weightless as well as functional at various temperature ranges. It is mandated that it should be functional with ultra-sensitiveness. The proper selection of conductive elements should be part of the measuring device. Based on these criteria, this review article is articulated. The effect conductor is metal, but metal is heavier, wearable should be slick thereby, the best material is liquid metal. So, the scope and implications of the liquid metal in flexible electronics are consolidated. Furthermore, the future scope of the wearable is assessed with the aid of patent landscape analysis, as a known fact is updated faster than other databases. As well-identified few technologies that have been applied as patents, it might have better growth owing to its technological advancements. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-01-16
       
  • 3D Sacrificial Microchannels by Scaffold Removal Process for Electrical
           Characterization of Electrolytes

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      Abstract: 3D printing technology is promising for the fabrications of microfluidic devices. For both research and educational purposes, the efficient generations of highly organized microchannels are on demand. Here, we suggest a method to create 3D helix microchannels by using a 3D printed scaffold as sacrificial material for an acetone-treated removal process. We employed a desktop fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer which is friendly used for cheap-and-easy processes. 3D scaffold structures were made of acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) plastic via the FDM 3D printer. To increase the stability of the fabrications of polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) fluidic chambers, we developed a double PDMS casting process. As a frame layer, the first PDMS was casted in the space between a vertically standing 15 ml conical tube and a vacant 50 ml conical tube. Inside the PDMS frame layer, the second PDMS mixture solution was poured, followed by immersing the 3D printed scaffold. After curing, the PDMS block was shaped with a cutter, thus leaving both ends of the 3D scaffold open. For the removal and rinsing process, the PDMS block with the 3D scaffold were dipped in acetone and rinsed by chloroform, sequentially. Since the 3D printed ABS plastic was dissolved in acetone, the 3D scaffold was converted into 3D microchannel. The 3D sacrificial microchannels described here provide an insight for simple fabrications of 3D microfluidic structures. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-01-10
       
  • In-situ Observation and Modeling of Intermetallic Compound Growth Induced
           by Electromigration in Sn-2.5Ag Solder Joints with OSP and ENEPIG Surface
           Finish

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      Abstract: The predicted growth behavior of intermetallic compound (IMC) induced by electromigration of a Cu/organic solderability preservative (OSP)/Sn-2.5Ag solder/electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG)/Cu joint was calculated for a current density of 14 kA/cm2 and current application time of 600 h and validated experimentally. Under as-reflow conditions, thin Cu3Sn and scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 layers were produced near the OSP interface, and a (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 layer was formed near the ENEPIG interface. Cu6Sn5 islands and Ag3Sn with a β-Sn matrix were formed in the solder. The mobilities of Cu, Ni, and Sn atoms at the OSP and ENEPIG interfaces were calculated, and a relationship was found between IMC thickness and current application time. Under electron flow from the OSP to ENEPIG interface, the predicted total thickness (26.6 μm) of the IMCs (Cu3Sn, Cu6Sn5, and (Cu, Ni)6Sn5), was in agreement with the experimental value (24.7 μm). With electron flow reversed, the predicted IMC thickness (14.2 μm) was similar to the experimental value (13.2 μm). The application of current during electromigration only coarsened Cu6Sn5, regardless of the direction of electron flow. Finally, the Ni plating layer on the ENEPIG surface finish prevented the diffusion of Cu and suppressed electromigratory IMC growth by approximately 50%. Graphic abstract
      PubDate: 2023-01-07
       
  • Surface Functionalization of Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes by Self-assembled
           Monolayers for Direct Assembly of Pre-synthesized SnO2 Nanocrystals as
           Electron Transport Layers

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      Abstract: In this study, a (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) monolayer was used as an adhesion promoter to assemble pre-synthesized SnO2 nanocrystal (NC) arrays for use as electron transport layers (ETLs) in perovskite solar cells. The self-assembled monolayers on indium tin oxide (ITO) bottom electrodes interact with the SnO2 NCs via covalent bonding during the spin-coating process, leading to the formation of pinhole-free SnO2 NC layers, which enabled the growth of perovskite films with uniform microstructures. The device performance analyses showed that the resulting photovoltaic efficiency significantly increased from 10.68% to 15.52% with the use of the APTES monolayer. This increase in the photovoltaic efficiency can be attributed to the reduction in defects at the ETL/perovskite interface and in the bulk. This paper presents a facile, robust, and effective strategy to improve the grafting of SnO2 NCs on flat ITO substrates by using APTES, and thus, increase the quality of the ETL/perovskite interfacial structure. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-01-07
       
  • Nanoscale Etching of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 Without Etch Lag Using Chlorine Based
           Inductively Coupled Plasma

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      Abstract: Abstract La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) has been considered as a promising material for future electronic and spintronic device application due to its unique properties such as pure spin polarization, colossal magnetoresistance, and high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). To apply this promising material for practical application, large epitaxial LSMO layers should be etched into micro- and nano-scale device structures. However, a comprehensive study on the etch of LSMO has not been demonstrated yet. Herein, the etch rates of LSMO are studied using inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) method, while controlling critical etching parameters such as ICP source power, radio frequency (rf) chuck power, etching gas ratio, and chamber pressure. We found that the etching process can be applied to nanoscale structures (down to 100 nm) without etch lag effect, exhibiting smaller etch depth in smaller features. This study will provide a good reference for the etching and the engineering of LSMO toward future electronic and spintronic devices such as highly sensitive bolometers and low-power memory devices.
      PubDate: 2023-01-07
       
  • ZnFe2O4/Graphite Composite with High Performance as Anode Material for
           Lithium-Ion Batteries

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      Abstract: Abstract ZnFe2O4/graphite composite was synthesized by a thermal decomposition method using expanded graphite as matrix. The ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles with the size of 20–30 nm were embedded into the interlayers of graphite. The porous structure formed by the graphite sheets can not only alleviate the adverse effects caused by the volume change of the ZnFe2O4 during cycling, but also improve the lithium storage performance. The specific capacity of 1450 mAh g− 1 is achieved after 150 charge/discharge cycles at 0.1 A g− 1. Moreover, the composite still delivers the specific capacity of 229 mAh g− 1 at the ultrahigh current density of 10 A g− 1 after 1800 cycles, showing outstanding electrochemical performance and excellent cycling stability. The composite has great potential for use in the high-power lithium-ion batteries. Graphical Abstract
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Where to go for the Development of High-Performance H2 Storage Materials
           at Ambient Conditions'

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      Abstract: Hydrogen is expected to overcome energy resource depletion because it is the most abundant element in the universe and because an ideal hydrogen energy cycle has the potential to exploit energy infinitely. Conventionally, hydrogen storage utilizes compression under high pressure (350–700 bar) into a tank and liquefaction in the cryotemperature regime (20 K). To mitigate the impractical operating conditions researchers have conducted adsorption-dependent research to increase the specific surface area (SSA) in physisorption and to decrease the H2 binding energy in chemisorption. Nevertheless, these strategies are still unlikely to reach the required the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) targets. To this end, researchers have tried to find hydrogen storage material to fit the H2 binding energy between the physisorption region and chemisorption region. Previous governing parameters, the SSA, and the H2 binding energy show no correlation to gravimetric H2 storage capacity (GHSC). In addition, no correlation between the H2 densification index (HDI) and the H2 binding energy is found as well, which means the latter cannot describe the H2-adsorbent interaction thoroughly. The several notable findings presented here suggest that the development of high-performance H2 storage materials can be realized through the optimal modulation of an underlying parameter that dominates the H2-adsorbent interaction. This paper highlights the necessity of research on what the underlying parameter that dominates the H2-adsorbent interaction is and on how it affects GHSC to develop H2 storage materials that meet the DOE targets. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Toward High-Performance Quinoxaline Based Non-fullerene┬áSmall Molecule
           Acceptors for Organic Solar Cells

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      Abstract: Unfused non-fullerene acceptors with the advantages of simple synthesis, high yields, and low cost have received a lot of interest in recent years. Herein, we designed five structures (UF-M1–UF-M5) with unfused non-fullerene acceptors coupled to electron-deficient quinoxaline (Qx) as the core unit via electron-donating cyclo-penta-dithiophene (CPDT) as the conjugated backbone by modification in UF-Qx-2Cl taken as reference. Among all, mPW1PW91 method predicted λmax closest to the λmax of  UF-Qx-2Cl, so we implemented the mPW1PW91 method with a 6-31G(d,p) basis set for the optimization of designed geometries and their molecular electrostatic mapping (MEP). Further parameters like FMOs (frontier molecular orbitals), TDM (transition density matrix analysis), DOS (density of state analysis), electron–hole mobility rate (reorganization energies), dipole moment, and chemical quantum descriptive parameters were evaluated for organic photovoltaics. Among all, UF-M4 predicted better absorption in the gaseous and solvent phase (λmax = 726 nm and 789 nm respectively), lower bandgap (Eg = 2.03 eV), higher dipole moment (1.99 and 5.33 debye in gaseous and solvent phase respectively), better quantum chemical descriptive parameters, and higher electron mobility rate (λe = 0.00766 eV). The results reveal that the acceptor molecule UF-M4 that has been created performs better in studies and better opportunities for organic-photovoltaics. To summarize, the unfused non-fullerene-based acceptor modification technique has shown effective in paving the way for the development of promising photovoltaic materials. All currently projected acceptor contributors (UF-M1–UF-M5) should be targeted to produce future competent organic photovoltaics. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Inkjet Printed Quantum Dots Color Conversion Layers for Full-Color
           Micro-LED Displays

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      Abstract: With the ever-growing demands for larger size and high resolution displays, Micro-light-emitting diode (Micro-LED) display with quantum dots (QDs) film as color conversion layers (CCLs) has become one of the most promising candidates of future display for its advantages in low power consumption and wide color range. In this study, we report a novel full-color display based on blue Micro LED, which has patterned red and green QDs color conversion (QDCC) layers fabricated by inkjet printing (IJP). A structure of double-layer bank was designed to reduce color deviation, prevent crosstalk, and flatten the QDCC layer. By optimizing the thickness of the red/green QDCC layers and the wavelength of blue Micro LED backlights, a full-color QDCC-LED display with 228 PPI resolution and size of 1.11-inch was successfully fabricated and showed superb performance. We not only effectively reduced crosstalk, but also improved the color conversion efficiency of QDs. In addition, this QDCC-LED display prepared by embedded bonding process shows a color gamut of 107.53% NTSC. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Synthesis and Electrochemical Investigation of Hetero Bimetallic Complexes
           CoMn2O4 Micro Rods for Novel Supercapacitor Electrode

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      Abstract: Supercapacitors have been emerging tool with high power density in energy storage system. The energy storage capability of supercapacitors depends on electrochemical performance of transition metal oxide based electrode materials. Because of the co-existence of two metal ions and synergistic effects of elements, binary metal oxides, AB2O4 (A or B = Ni, Co, Mo, Mn, and so on), have more active reaction sites and high electrical conductivity than other binary transition metal oxides. To improve the best electrochemical performance, cobalt manganese oxide (CoMn2O4) is synthesized via simple hydrothermal method. The CoMn2O4 rod is characterized to analyse its crystalline structure, functional group vibrations, surface morphology and elemental conformations. The electrochemical performance of CoMn2O4 is analysed using cyclic voltammetry, galvano-static charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectrum techniques. The cyclic voltammetry result reveals that pseudo capacitive behaviour of CoMn2O4 compound. The charge–discharge cycling stability of CoMn2O4 rod is analysed in 5 A g−1 up to 10,000 cycles. Asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using CoMn2O4 Activated Carbon which also obeys pseudo capacitive behaviour. The energy density is analysed as 28.7 Wh kg−1 at current density 1 mA for asymmetric supercapacitor device. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Synthesis of Cross-like TiO2 Thermally Derived from Ammonium
           Oxofluorotitanate Mesocrystals Under Different Calcination Temperatures
           and Their Photocatalytic Activity

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      Abstract: Synthesis of anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalysts with excellent photocatalytic activity is of great importance in photocatalytic application. In this work, a cross-like anatase TiO2 structure is obtained by thermal treatment of precursors synthesized in an electrochemical cell with mixed phases of (NH4)2TiOF4 and NH4TiOF3. When calcined at various temperatures, these obtained anatase TiO2 products could preserve their original morphologies and structures until 750 °C and kept anatase phase from rutile till 900 °C showing better thermal and structural stability, which was probably associated with fluoride contents on the surface of anatase TiO2 products after conversion from (NH4)2TiOF4 and NH4TiOF3 precursors. The photocatalytic activity of prepared TiO2 samples over methyl orange is investigated. The photocatalytic activity of mesocrystalline TiO2 cross decreases with the increase of the calcination temperature of ammonium oxofluorotitanates except for a best performance at 600 °C. The calcination temperature-dependent catalytic performance of the products could be ascribed to the removal of fluorine, nitrogen, or hydroxyl radicals on the surface, and the change of crystallinity and crystallite size with varying heating temperatures. The results indicated that anatase TiO2 mesocrystals calcined at 600 °C showed the highest photocatalytic performance more likely owing to well-defined morphology, good microstructure, and suitable crystallite size. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Evaluation of MgCo2O4 Nanoparticles as a Gas Sensor for the Detection of
           Acetone in the Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Range

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      Abstract: The acetone contained in human breath is of great interest for the health sector as it is a marker that allows to diagnose and control diabetes in a non-invasive way. However, its concentration is extremely low. Therefore, high-performance acetone sensors are still a challenge. With this in mind, MgCo2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using a microwave-assisted colloidal route with subsequent calcination. Structural and morphological characterizations were done through various techniques. The MgCo2O4 sensor was fabricated with the sample calcined at 500 °C. The sensing results showed that the sensor could detect acetone vapors ranging from 0.5 to 50 ppm at an optimum operating temperature of 250 °C with a high response, repeatability, stability, and selectivity. These sensing characteristics revealed that MgCo2O4 could be used as a new sensor material to detect acetone in exhaled human breath. Graphical
      PubDate: 2023-01-01
       
  • Correction: Selective Area Epitaxy of Complex Oxide Heterostructures on Si
           by Oxide Hard Mask Lift-Off

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      PubDate: 2022-12-30
       
  • Correction to: Unraveling Adsorption Behaviors of Levelers for Bottom-Up
           Copper Filling in Through-Silicon-Via

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      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • Characterization of Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 Solid Electrolyte with an Added
           Sintering Aid

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      Abstract: In compliance with the current trends, lithium secondary batteries are gaining attention as next-generation eco-friendly energy sources. However, the conventional liquid electrolytes are limited by their propensity to cause explosions and fires. Several studies have been conducted on solid electrolytes owing to their stability and enlargement advantages. However, the mass production of solid electrolytes through the processing of crystallized glass is challenging because of the high cost, processing difficulty, and extensive equipment requirements. The potential alternative strategy of using a molding and sintering manufacturing method is limited by performance degradation due to the presence of pores in the sintered body. To improve the performance of the Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 solid electrolyte sintered body, Bi2O3 was applied as a sintering aid, which improved its physical and electrochemical characteristics. The addition amount of the sintering aid was varied to determine the optimal sintering conditions. A characteristic evaluation was conducted using the as-determined conditions, and reliability was ensured by evaluating long-term chemical durability. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
       
  • Visible Light Induced g-C3N4/TiO2/Ti3C2 Ternary Z-scheme Heterojunction
           Photocatalyst for Efficient Degradation

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      Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation has received considerable emphasis since it shows significant possibilities in environmental pollution. In this work, ternary Z-scheme heterojunction g-C3N4/TiO2/Ti3C2 photocatalysts are designed and fabricated. The Z-scheme heterojunctions formed on the surfaces of g-C3N4 and TiO2 dramatically modify the photocatalytic performances of the compound under illumination. Meanwhile, in this process, multilayer Ti3C2, as the transport medium of Z-scheme heterojunction, is tightly bonded to TiO2 generated by hydrothermal oxidation and g-C3N4 with large specific surface area, which effectively facilitates the space charge separation and depresses the charge recombination. When the addition amount of TiO2/Ti3C2 is 80 mg and calcined at 450 ℃ for 4 h, g-C3N4/TiO2/Ti3C2 has the greatest photocatalytic performance, and the kinetic constant for degradation methyl orange (MO) was about 3.62 times that of g-C3N4 and 14.55 times that of Ti3C2, respectively. This work illustrates that g-C3N4/TiO2/Ti3C2 has outstanding potential and offers novel insights for designing and synthesizing new ternary heterojunction materials. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00377-1
       
  • Controlled p-type Doping of Black Phosphorus Using AuCl3 Molecules and Its
           Diode Applications

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      Abstract: Modulating reliable doping of two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP) is crucial for building complementary logic devices based on BP channels. However, most studies on doping techniques for BP devices have aimed to realize n-type doping effect rather than p-type one. Herein, we demonstrate AuCl3 molecular doping of BP devices to realize the p-type doping effect. After AuCl3 doping on BP, small Au nanoparticles are formed on the surface of BP flakes. Such AuCl3-doped BP devices exhibit a clear transition from ambipolar to unipolar behaviors (p-type characteristics) as doping time gradually increases. This p-type doping effect originates from the electron withdraw ability due to the spontaneous interaction between the AuCl3 and unpaired electrons in BP. Using our doping strategy, we fabricate 2D diode devices consisting of a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer and BP flakes. We confirm a clear rectifying behavior, which is more enhanced using AuCl3-doped BP devices, compared with pristine BP one. Consequently, these devices exhibited good responsivity of 2.4 A W− 1 and detectivity of 2.5 × 1011 Jones, when illuminated with 530 nm light. Graphical
      PubDate: 2022-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00375-3
       
 
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