Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
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 Electronic Materials LettersJournal Prestige (SJR): 0.704 Citation Impact (citeScore): 2Number of Followers: 4      Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles) ISSN (Print) 1738-8090 - ISSN (Online) 2093-6788 Published by Springer-Verlag  [2469 journals]
• Where to go for the Development of High-Performance H2 Storage Materials
at Ambient Conditions'

Abstract: Hydrogen is expected to overcome energy resource depletion because it is the most abundant element in the universe and because an ideal hydrogen energy cycle has the potential to exploit energy infinitely. Conventionally, hydrogen storage utilizes compression under high pressure (350–700 bar) into a tank and liquefaction in the cryotemperature regime (20 K). To mitigate the impractical operating conditions researchers have conducted adsorption-dependent research to increase the specific surface area (SSA) in physisorption and to decrease the H2 binding energy in chemisorption. Nevertheless, these strategies are still unlikely to reach the required the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) targets. To this end, researchers have tried to find hydrogen storage material to fit the H2 binding energy between the physisorption region and chemisorption region. Previous governing parameters, the SSA, and the H2 binding energy show no correlation to gravimetric H2 storage capacity (GHSC). In addition, no correlation between the H2 densification index (HDI) and the H2 binding energy is found as well, which means the latter cannot describe the H2-adsorbent interaction thoroughly. The several notable findings presented here suggest that the development of high-performance H2 storage materials can be realized through the optimal modulation of an underlying parameter that dominates the H2-adsorbent interaction. This paper highlights the necessity of research on what the underlying parameter that dominates the H2-adsorbent interaction is and on how it affects GHSC to develop H2 storage materials that meet the DOE targets. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2022-09-26

• Rapid Microwave Irradiation Synthesis and Photoelectrochemical Performance
of Cu3BiS3 Nanoparticles

Abstract: Abstract A photocatalytic material with high performance and low cost plays a decisive role in the industrialization of photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. In this work, Cu3BiS3 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by the microwave irradiation method, and the formation mechanism of Cu3BiS3 was studied. The Cu3BiS3 was a nanorod structure with 122 nm diameter and 41 nm length. The band gap was 1.31 eV and the EVB was located at 0.15 eV from the Mott-Schottky analysis. The Cu3BiS3 electrode exhibited an excellent HER performance with an onset potential of 870 mV, a Tafel slope of 251.07 mV/dec. And the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of Cu3BiS3 electrode was 7.2 Ω. The electrode also revealed the good photoelectric response ability. The electrode also revealed the good photoelectric response ability and good stability by time course of the photocurrents. This work provided a fast, low-cost method to prepare the Cu3BiS3 for photocatalysis water splitting.
PubDate: 2022-09-19

• Novel YBO3 Phosphors Doped with Ln3+ (Ce3+, Tb3+, Eu3+) Ions with Tunable
Color for WLED Applications

Abstract: In this work, YBO3 phosphors doped with Ln3+ (Ce3+, Tb3+, Eu3+) ions were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method using high temperature and high pressure environment. Structural property characterizations show all the samples have a similar spherical morphology and a hexagonal crystal structure with good crystallinity. PL spectra and CIE calculation show that the color of phosphors can be easily controlled by the species and atomic content of Ln3+ ions. White color is achieved as the atomic contents of Ln3+ ions are: 1% Ce3+, 3% Tb3+, and 0.5% Eu3+, respectively. Furthermore, LED devices based on ultraviolet chip were fabricated and characterized, and the results clearly demonstrated the tunable color of as-prepared phosphors. At the same time, co-doping Ce3+, Tb3+, and Eu3+ ions can well adjust the fluorescence lifetime of the three rare earth ions through energy transfer. These results show that the phosphor has broad application prospects in the field of display lighting such as LED. Graphic
PubDate: 2022-09-07

• Flexible Air Breathable Electroluminescent Device Based on Electrospinning
Process

Abstract: Alternative current electroluminescent device with excellent air permeability were fabricated by a facile electrospinning method, and the optimal fabrication conditions of the device substrate and light-emitting layer, such as voltage, acceptance distance, concentration, and propulsion rate, were determined. The microscopic morphology, luminance and air permeability of the samples were explored and analyzed. The characterization results show that the flexible alternative current electroluminescent device fabricated by electrospinning method exhibits excellent mechanical properties and high air permeability. The device can reach 55.74 cd/m2 at a voltage of 130 V and a frequency of 3 kHz, and the air permeability can reach 5.81 g/(h·m2). It is discussed that its excellent breathability is attributed to the overall microns fabric structure. On the basis of these results, we believe our electrospinningac process will accelerate development of more comfortable electroluminescent devices with the flexibility required for real-world applications. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2022-09-03

• Aluminum Oxide/Fluoride Self-Assembled Monolayer Double Gate Dielectric
for Solution-Processed Indium Oxide Thin-Film Transistors

Abstract: A high-performance indium oxide (In2O3)-based thin-film transistor (TFT) was prepared with aluminum oxide/fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (Al2O3/F-SAM) double-gate dielectric layer. The Al2O3/F-SAM double gate dielectric layer improved the performance of the In2O3-based TFT by reducing the device leakage current. In addition, devices with a double-gate dielectric layer show improved stability under negative bias stress testing compared to devices with a single gate dielectric layer (Al2O3), shifting a threshold voltage by only 0.4 V. These results suggest that the Al2O3/F-SAM double-layer gate dielectric layer can enhance the performance of In2O3-based TFTs. Furthermore, it can be used to improve the performance of other metal oxide-based devices by minimizing the leakage current at low operating voltages at low cost. Graphical
PubDate: 2022-09-01

• GIWAXS Analysis on Preferred Orientation in Metal Halide Perovskite Films
Via Alkylamines

Abstract: We investigated the effects of the alkyl chain length of alkylamine ligands (AALs), known to modify metal halide perovskite crystallites, on the preferential alignment of the CsFAMA crystal domains using two-dimensional grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (2D GIWAXS) measurements at various incident angles. In the absence of AALs, most (100) perovskite crystals were tilted 45° from the surface normal; the ratio of the 45°-tilted to isotropically oriented (100) crystals was similar in both the surface and bulk regions. However, in the presence of AALs, the 45°-tilted (100) crystals decreased, while the isotropically oriented (100) crystals increased, in both regions. In addition, vertically oriented (100) crystals were formed in the presence of AALs, which were observed only in the surface region of AALs with short alkyl lengths. As the alkyl chain length increased, vertically oriented (100) crystals appeared in both the surface and bulk regions of the film, i.e., the whole region of the film. Graphical
PubDate: 2022-09-01

• ZnO/NiO nanofibers prepared by electrostatic spinning for rapid ammonia
detection at room temperature

Abstract: ZnO/NiO heterojunction nanofibers were synthesized by an electrostatic spinning technique in this work. The morphologies, crystal structures, and compositional features of the ZnO/NiO nanofibers were analyzed by SEM, TEM, XRD, and EDS characterization. ZnO/NiO nanofibers with Zn contents of 37.5 at% showed a 46% response to 300-ppm ammonia gas at room temperature (25 ± 1 ℃; 56 ± 3% RH), with fast response and recovery behavior (100 s /25 s). The existence of p-n heterojunctions on the surface of ZnO/NiO nanofibers, as well as surface ionic conduction, improved the response to ammonia gas in a synergistic manner. Graphical
PubDate: 2022-08-24

• Unraveling Adsorption Behaviors of Levelers for Bottom-Up Copper Filling
in Through-Silicon-Via

Abstract: Abstract A leveler is one of the most important additives for achieving defect-free Cu-filled through-silicon-via (TSV). In this study, we experimentally investigated TSV filling performance in the presence of three levelers, i.e., pyrrolidone, imine and diazonium. A detailed analysis of the mass change in the levelers from EQCM conclusively verified that the diazonium was strongly adsorbed on the copper surface at a current density of 10 mA/cm2. This behavior was attributed to its unique molecular structure, with a positively charged nitrogen and a carbocation from resonance structure. Observations of via filling suggested that the bottom-up fill performance was obtained in the presence of diazonium. The possible mechanism responsible for defect-free TSV filling is discussed in terms of the adsorption behaviors of levelers, which is dependent on their molecular structures.
PubDate: 2022-08-18

• Correction to: Engineering Magnetic Type Radio‑Absorbers Based on
Composites with a Dual‑Phase Polymer Matrix

PubDate: 2022-08-11

• High Performance and Flexible Electrodeposited Silver Mesh Transparent
Conducting Electrodes Based on a Self-Cracking Template

Abstract: Metal network based transparent conducting electrodes are essential for the future optoelectronic devices due to their mechanical flexibility and compatible with large-scale manufacturing. In this report, we investigated the morphological, optical, electrical, and flexible properties of an electrodeposited silver (Ag) mesh transparent conducting electrodes based on a self-cracking template. An overly coated Ag mesh (ED-TE Ag mesh) was prepared onto glass and PET substrates by the sequential deposition steps including thermal evaporation and electroplating methods. The self-cracking template was lift-off prior to the over coating of Ag by the electrodeposition step. The surface morphologies of ED-TE Ag meshes are smooth and well interconnected. The Ag mesh thickness and line width are typically increased with the electroplating time from 0 s to 30 s. The ED-TE Ag mesh shows higher optoelectronic performance with a larger figure of merit (2827 (Ω/sq)−1) than the individual evaporated Ag mesh (756 (Ω/sq)−1) and the ITO film (311 (Ω/sq)−1). Moreover, the low sheet resistance (1.01 Ω/sq) of the ED-TE Ag mesh is observed at 30 s. The ED-TE Ag mesh exhibits almost stable resistance to both concave and convex bending tests, even at a smaller radius of curvature (<2 mm). Thus, these electrodes are more suitable for many flexible device applications like solar cells, displays, etc. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2022-08-11

• Room Temperature Synthesis of Perovskite Hydroxide, MnSn(OH)6: A Negative
Electrode for Supercapacitor

Abstract: A negative electrode is constructed based on MnSn(OH)6 nanocubes prepared by a simple precipitation method at room temperature for supercapacitor application. The as-prepared material was structurally and morphologically characterized with the help of XRD, FT-IR, Raman, XPS, FESEM, and HRTEM analyses. The uniform structure and fine edge morphology with high conductivity due to oxygen vacancies promote the redox reaction, which results in high pseudocapacitance. The electrochemical performance is investigated through a three-electrode cell system in a negative potential window (− 1.0 to 0.0 V). A maximum specific capacitance of 209 F/g is calculated at a specific current of 1 A/g. The electrodes also exhibit excellent cycling stability (79% specific capacitance retention after 3000 consecutive GCD cycles). Graphical
PubDate: 2022-08-07

• Highly Conductive, Flexible, and Robust Silver Nanowire-Embedded
Carboxymethyl
Cellulose/Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(Styrenesulfonate)
Composite Films for Wearable Heaters and On-Skin Sensors

Abstract: Highly conductive, flexible, and durable silver nanowire (AgNW)-embedded carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) (s-CMC/PEDOT:PSS) composite films were investigated for application in wearable heaters and on-skin sensors. The electrical conductivities of the CMC/PEDOT:PSS composites were optimized by controlling the PEDOT:PSS weight ratio in CMC, and the sheet resistance decreased significantly from 6828 (CMC:PEDOT:PSS = 1:5) to 83 Ω/sq (CMC:PEDOT:PSS = 1:17). Furthermore, AgNW networks were embedded onto the surface of the CMC/PEDOT:PSS films to further enhance their conductivity. The introduction of AgNW networks resulted in a significant decrease in the sheet resistance of the composites from 81 to 7 Ω/sq. In addition, the s-CMC/PEDOT:PSS composite film exhibited high mechanical stability in repeated bending tests. The uniformly distributed AgNWs inside the composites enhanced the electrical contact between the conducting PEDOT:PSS domains in the CMC matrix. Based on the highly conductive, flexible, and robust s-CMC/PEDOT:PSS composite films, high-performance wearable heating devices and on-skin sensors were fabricated. The wearable heater achieves a high temperature of 159.5 ℃ with uniform temperature distribution. Furthermore, on-skin sensors with s-CMC/PEDOT:PSS composites were conformably integrated on human skin which successfully detected various human motions, including finger bending, wrist bending, skin touch, ankle motions, and walking in real-time. The sensors exhibit high sensing performance with high sensitivity, conformability, superior mechanical robustness, and low power consumption. The high-performance s-CMC/PEDOT:PSS composite film could be a promising flexible and conductive composite material with new opportunities in next-generation electronics. Graphical
PubDate: 2022-08-04

• Preparation of Manganese Dioxide Supercapacitors by Secondary Construction
of Three-Dimensional Substrates and Ion Embedding

Abstract: This work used a simple electrochemical reduction method to secondary construct the reduced nickel base (rNi Base) on nickel foam with a nano-core structure. The secondarily constructed base has a large specific surface area, which can increase the mass utilization of the active material. The rNi Base was used as a base for the reduction of nickel on Na+, K+, and $${\text{ }\text{NH}}_{\text{4}}^{\text{+}}$$ , respectively. MnO2 was electrodeposited under three different cation pre-intercalation treatments, and the mechanism of the effect of different monovalent cations to guide the growth of MnO2 materials was investigated. Finally, rNi/MnO2&Na+ electrode with a special nano cauliflower structure was obtained. The special nanostructure of the electrode enhances its electrochemical performance, possessing 598 F g− 1 ultra-high specific capacitance at a current density of 1 A g− 1 and a high specific capacitance of 307.5 F g− 1 at a high current density of 20 A g− 1, and high specific capacitance maintenance rate of 92.7% after 500 cycles of charging and discharging at a current density of 2 A g− 1. In addition, the symmetrical supercapacitor assembled with this electrode has a very high specific capacitance (401.1 F g− 1 at a current density of 1 A g− 1) and energy density (80.22Wh kg− 1 at a power density of 599.99 W kg− 1). Graphical
PubDate: 2022-07-21
DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00359-3

• Interfacial Adhesion Energies of Uniformly Self-Formed Cr2O3 Barriers for

Abstract: The effects of Cr doping and postannealing on the interfacial adhesion energies between a Co interconnect and a SiO2 dielectric layer prepared by physical vapor deposition were systematically evaluated using a four-point bending test. Co, as a promising interconnect due to its scalability, is vulnerable to electromigration on its interface because the poor adhesion energy between Co and a barrier metal provides a diffusion path for atoms. To solve this problem, we suggest doping of Cr, which easily diffuses from the Co metal to the Co/SiO2 interface during postannealing, to form a uniformly distributed layer on the Co interface. Atomic force microscopy analysis clearly showed uniformly segregated Cr at the Co–Cr/SiO2 interface without hillocks or voids. The roughness root mean square values of annealed Co/TiN/Ti, annealed Co-4.7 at% Cr, and annealed Co-7.5 at% Cr were 0.72, 0.18, and 0.21 nm, respectively. In the four-point bending test, Co-4.7 at% Cr/SiO2 and Co-7.5 at% Cr/SiO2 were not delaminated at their interface, unlike pure Co and Co with the conventional barrier metal, which were delaminated at the interface with SiO2. In the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the Co–Cr/SiO2 interface, an increase in Cr–O bonding was clearly detected after annealing. Therefore, a properly annealed Cr2O3 self-forming barrier with strong interfacial reliability appears to be a promising diffusion barrier for Co interconnects. Graphical abstract
PubDate: 2022-07-20
DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00360-w

• Experimental Study on the Preparation of MA@PS@Fe3O4 Phase Change
Microcapsules to Inhibit the Development of Electric Branches in Epoxy
Resin Cured Compounds

Abstract: Development of electric branches caused by partial discharge leads to degradation in the performance of epoxy resin insulation materials, which seriously threatens the safe and stable operation of power equipment. In this study, n-tetradecanol (MA)@polystyrene microsphere (PS)@Fe3O4 core–shell phase change microcapsules were designed and prepared. Doping 0.1 wt% phase change microcapsular material into the epoxy resin cured compound inhibited the development of electric branches. SEM and EDS tests showed that the phase-change microcapsules had monodisperse spherical core–shell structures with an MA encapsulation rate of 24.73% and excellent phase-change thermal storage capacity. Electric field simulations revealed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the microcapsule shell enhanced the local field strength of the cured epoxy resin and induced the development of electric branches toward the interior of the microcapsule. Moreover, doping of microcapsules into the epoxy resin significantly slowed the rate of temperature rise and thus inhibited further development of electric branches in epoxy resin cured products. In comparison with the epoxy resin cured without microcapsules, it was found that the longitudinal and transverse lengths of electric branches were reduced by 56.6% and 69.1%, respectively, in the epoxy resin cured with 0.1 wt% MA@PS@Fe3O4 microcapsules, and the electric branch initiation field strength was increased from 0.57 to 0.68 kV/mm. This indicated that MA@PS@Fe3O4 microcapsules significantly improved the electrical branch resistance of epoxy resin cured products, and this provides a new approach for extensive applications of epoxy resin insulation materials and safe and stable operation of power equipment. Graphical
PubDate: 2022-07-14
DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00361-9

• Development of an Efficient and Controllable Nano-porous Copper with Good
Wettability and Capillary Performance for Wicks of Vapor Chamber

Abstract: To meet the heat dissipation requirements of microelectronic devices, it is urgent to develop an efficient method to fabricate a controllable micro/nano structure for the wick in vapor chamber, which is widely investigated for its high thermal conductivity and small size. This work proposed a controllable fabrication of nano-porous copper (NPC) with high efficiency, which includes electrodeposition and dealloying. A uniform Cu–Zn alloy with single phase was prepared as the precursor for dealloying through electrodeposition. An innovative solution system for dealloying was developed for the fabrication of the bi-continuous NPC, in which the efficiency was improved ten times compared to the conventional acid solution. In addition, the effects of dealloying parameters on the NPC morphology and the process efficiency have also been studied systematically. Based on the above method, both good wettability and capillary performance were achieved by NPC with tunable pore size, which indicates its great application prospects in wicks for high-performance vapor chamber. Graphical
PubDate: 2022-07-13
DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00357-5

• Size Effect on the Electromigration Characteristics of Flip Chip Pb-free
Solder Bumps

Abstract: To understand the size effect on electromigration (EM) behavior in flip chip Pb-free Sn-3.5Ag solder bumps, EM tests were performed with changes in the pad opening size and solder bump height at 140 °C and 4.6 × 104 A/cm2. Additionally, to exclude extrinsic factors such as Joule heating, EM behavior was observed using a multi Sn96.5Ag3.0Cu0.5 solder line sample at 150 °C and 6–7.5 × 104 A/cm2. The EM lifetime increased with decreasing pad opening size and bump height, and the EM critical current density (Jth) increased with decreasing line length. This result indicates that the EM resistance increases as the dimensions of the solder bump decreases, which can be understood by the EM jL product. Graphical
PubDate: 2022-07-04
DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00356-6

• Correction to: Development of a Vaporizer for Gradual Vaporization Control
of Precursor Materials in the CVD Process

PubDate: 2022-07-01
DOI: 10.1007/s13391-021-00311-x

• Interfacial Engineering of In2O3/In2S3 Heterojunction Photoanodes for
Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation

Abstract: Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is one of the critical energy conversion techniques to prepare for future energy demands. Among the various trials to construct effective water splitting semiconductor photoelectrodes, In2O3/In2S3 heterostructures can be promising candidates for their advantageous properties in solar water oxidation. Herein, we synthesized In2O3 nanorods on FTO substrate through a direct glancing angle deposition method. Subsequently, the In2S3 layer was conformally coated on In2O3 nanorods through facile chemical bath deposition. As synthesized photoanodes of In2O3/In2S3 form type II junction, leading to considerable cathodic onset potential shift with the increased photocurrent density compared to pristine samples. To further enhance PEC properties, the interficial engineering strategies of the Co ion doping and the deposition of ultra-thin Al2O3 film were carried out. Co ion could facilitate the charge transfer in photoanodes through the increased surface area, and the 2 nm Al2O3 layer coated above the photoanode effectively worked as the passivation layer to stabilize the photoanodes in alkaline electrolytes environments. This work would contribute to developing efficient photoanodes through various nanoscale engineering strategies. Graphical
PubDate: 2022-05-30
DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00346-8

• Recent Advances for Fabricating Smart Electromagnetic Interference
Shielding Textile: A Comprehensive Review

Abstract: A sharp elevation in the generation of electromagnetic interference (EMI) is observed, directly proportional to the increase in digital and electronic appliances. With the high growing population and enhancement in the number of electrical devices used in personal, industrial and medical sites, the issues arising due to EMI are also at their peak. EM wave interference is known to cause malfunctioning of the nearby electronic devices, destroying the signals and affecting human health, causing nausea, headaches, neural deformities etc. To avoid the harmful effect of these interferences, the personnel in its vicinity need a shielding material, protecting them from the ill effects of the electromagnetic waves. In this review article, EMI shielding textiles are being focused upon. Cotton, spandex, PET, PAN, silk fabric, etc., are modified through various methods and techniques like drop-casting, layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly, click chemistry, and inkjet printing to perform the function of shielding of EM waves. These smart, flexible, hydrophobic and light weighing fabrics can be revolutionary in diminishing the deteriorating effects of EM waves in the human body. Surface modified having high electrical conductivities and EMI SE of up to and beyond 90 dB in various frequency ranges have been reported, providing promising and alternative personal protective equipment for electromagnetic interference shielding. Graphical
PubDate: 2022-05-04
DOI: 10.1007/s13391-022-00344-w

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