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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted by number of followers
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 314)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 138)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 132)
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 129)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 128)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 91)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
IET Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Electronics Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Machine Learning with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Advanced Electronics and Communication Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Superconductivity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Power Electronic Devices and Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sensors International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
e-Prime : Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ACS Applied Electronic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Automatika : Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications     Open Access  
npj Flexible Electronics     Open Access  
Elektronika ir Elektortechnika     Open Access  
Emitor : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access  
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Open Access  
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription  

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IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.02
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 58  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0093-9994
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • IEEE Industry Applications Society Information

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications Publication Information

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications Information for Authors

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      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Overmodulation Strategy for Torque Balance of Dual-Motor Systems
           Considering Angle Offset

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      Authors: Bumun Jung;Pooreum Jang;Kwanghee Nam;Yoonjae Kim;
      Pages: 6869 - 6878
      Abstract: An overmodulation method is proposed for an in-wheel system where two motors are coupled to a sum gear. In the dual-motor dual-inverter single shaft systems, the output voltage magnitudes of two inverters are not the same in the overmodulation range due to the angle offset between two motors. In this article, to maintain torque balance in the overmodulation region, holding vectors are defined between adjacent vertices of two voltage hexagons. Around these vectors, the holding region is also defined by the holding angle. If a reference voltage vector is in the holding region, it is modulated to the holding vector; otherwise, it is modulated to the vector on the arc of inscribed circle. For a given the modulation index (MI), the holding angle is obtained based on the Fourier series expansion. The proposed method keeps the output voltages of two inverters the same even if two motors have the angle offset. Further, it has the characteristic of maintaining the linearity between the reference and output MI to the maximum MI. The proposed overmodulation method is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Analysis and Overview of Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) as
           Applied to Forest Products Applications

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      Authors: David C. Mazur;Rob A. Entzminger;John A. Kay;Corey A. Peterson;
      Pages: 6879 - 6885
      Abstract: As the evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT) pushes more devices to become intelligent, infrastructure within facilities must keep pace with the overall burden on the system. As the number of intelligent nodes within systems continues to increase, methods are needed in order to preserve network bandwidth and to provide reliable data sources for various control and reporting strategies. This article serves as an overview of message queuing telemetry transport and its applicability to process industries.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Analytical Assessment of Time-Varying Reliability and Penetration Limit of
           PV-Integrated Systems

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      Authors: Dilip Pandit;Nga Nguyen;Salem Elsaiah;Joydeep Mitra;
      Pages: 6886 - 6898
      Abstract: This article presents a discrete convolution-based method for reliability evaluation of a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system, where special consideration is given to the variable availability of PV array components. Along with the negative impacts of variable solar irradiance and ambient temperature on the PV power generation, they affect the reliability of PV system power electronic components. A variable availability model based on the power loss in the semiconductors of PV system components is needed to account for this effect in the reliability analysis. The article proposes a 3-D capacity outage model of a PV farm that accounts for the variable availability and the redundancies associated with the topologically complex multistring PV arrays. The outage model is used to construct a PV capacity outage probability and frequency table (COPAFT), which along with conventional generation COPAFT, is convolved with the distribution of load to determine system reliability. An integration limit assessment tool is also developed within the proposed framework, ensuring that the PV power integration does not violate the system frequency stability. Simulations on the modified IEEE RTS-79 system demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Var-Voltage Control Capability Constrained Economic Scheduling of
           Integrated Energy Systems

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      Authors: Bohan Xu;Yue Xiang;Junyong Liu;Youbo Liu;Li Pan;Mengqiu Fang;Tianhao Wang;
      Pages: 6899 - 6908
      Abstract: Economic scheduling is an important solution to improve the operational efficiency of integrated energy system (IES). Active power is the majority being considered in economic scheduling, ignoring the influence of var-voltage effect on scheduling. In this article, an agent-based var-voltage control (VVC) capability is developed, and integrated in the economic scheduling modeling of IES. First, we build the VVC agent model based on the Markov decision process, and the economic scheduling model of IES is built with the decision function of the VVC agent as a constraint. Then, because the decision function is highly nonconvex and nonlinear, a deep learning enabled surrogate model is proposed to solve the scheduling problem. In the surrogate model, we train a pooling multilayer perception (P-MLP) to fit the mapping relationship between scheduling and maximum voltage deviation under VVC. And the trained P-MLP is used to surrogate the decision function constraint. After surrogating, the scheduling problem is transformed into a mixed integer programming problem, which can be solved directly by calling the solver. Finally, the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method are tested by cases. The results show that the scheduling integrated with the VVC capability model can strictly meet safety constraints and reduce the operation cost of IES as well.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Improved Cascaded SOGI Control for Islanding-Synchronization in
           Photovoltaic System

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      Authors: Gaurav Modi;Bhim Singh;
      Pages: 6909 - 6919
      Abstract: This work presents an improved cascaded second-order generalized integrator (I-CSOGI) controlled photovoltaic system (PVS), which functions as an islanded system during grid interruption without energy storage. Here, a single-stage PVS structure is used, simplifying the control by automatically regulating the PV array operating point and dc-link voltage during the grid outage. The I-CDSOGI algorithm is exercised to determine the sensed voltages angle, frequency, and harmonics free positive sequence components of the sensed voltages and load currents. The advantage of the presented I-CDSOGI over the existing CDSOGI algorithm is that the gain of its frequency-locked loop is changed adaptively. It reduces the spurious change in the frequency during the sudden phase jump, which is experienced by the load voltages during synchronization. Hence, the repeated tripping of the power electronics switches, which isolates the PVS from the local grid, is reduced, and smooth synchronization is achieved. Furthermore, the cascading of two second order generalized integrator (SOGI) blocks eliminates the dc offset from the sensed signals and boosts the overall harmonics rejection capability, which enhances the angle and frequency estimation performance. A comparison is made to showcase the benefits of I-CSOGI compared with the existing SOGI-based methods in the PVS.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Joint Charging Infrastructure and Autonomous Fleet Planning Considering
           Distributed Renewable Resources

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      Authors: Xianchao Huang;Min Tian;Wenrui Tan;Yimeng Sun;Xuyang Pan;Henglin Tang;Zhaohao Ding;
      Pages: 6920 - 6930
      Abstract: Considering its unique operational characteristics, the autonomous mobility-on-demand (AMoD) system is playing a more and more critical role in the future transportation system. In this article, we consider a joint planning problem of autonomous fleet (i.e., vehicle type and fleet size) and charging infrastructure (i.e., the size of charging piles with various charging rates, distributed renewable resources) while accounting for the spatial–temporal demand-side flexibility of the AMoD system. We adopt an augmented network flow model to capture the autonomous fleet's charging, order serving, and rebalancing decisions. The proposed planning problem is modeled as a two-stage stochastic program and solved by multicut Benders decomposition techniques. Simulation experiments based on real-world data are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed planning scheme.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Determining the Insulation Resistance of DC Cables Used in Photovoltaic
           Systems Under Operational Conditions

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      Authors: Christos Melios;Andreas Dimitriou;Vasilios P. Androvitsaneas;Ioannis F. Gonos;Charalambos A. Charalambous;
      Pages: 6931 - 6941
      Abstract: This article investigates the effects of operating current, soil properties, and UV ageing on the insulation resistance of cables used in the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Based on standardized experimental tests, the temperature-dependent conductivity was measured, and therefore the temperature–conductivity relationship for each cable type is extracted. Using the Arrhenius equation, a mathematical model was developed, which provided the basis for subsequent simulations of the cable insulation resistance based on the thermal properties of the insulation material, surrounding soil, and the current flowing through the conductor. The simulation provided insights into the dynamic changes of the insulation resistance based on the operating parameters. Moreover, the experimental UV ageing of cables used in the PV industry provided important insights regarding the downgrading of the insulation resistance upon prolonged exposure to the sun.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Controlled Bidirectional DC Circuit Breaker With Zero Negative Current for
           High Load Shift Applications

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Venkata Raghavendra I;B. Satish Naik;T. Sreekanth;Andrii Chub;
      Pages: 6942 - 6951
      Abstract: Global electricity generation by renewable energy sources and the electrification of the transportation system are gaining more importance to mitigate climate change. The dc system plays a significant role in these developments. To protect dc systems, dc circuit breakers with advanced technology are required that are fast and reliable. Various solid-state dc circuit breakers, such as $Z$-source and $T$-source circuit breakers, have been presented in the literature to meet the dc system demand; however, these topologies suffer from limitations such as high conduction loss, complexity in design, no physical isolation, and presence of negative current flow in load during reclosing. To overcome the aforementioned limitations, a bidirectional solid-state dc circuit breaker (BD-SSCB) that detects the overload or short-circuit faults and responds instantaneously to mitigate the fault current has been proposed in this article. The controllable shutoff function is much needed in applications where sudden load change occurs continuously during the normal operation, such as varying acceleration of an electric vehicle. The proposed BD-SSCB is validated using spice simulations and hardware experiments with varying system parameters for a system rating of 400 V/10 A.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Research on VFTO Simulation Analysis of 1000 kV GIS Test Circuit
           Considering Dynamic Arcing Model

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yanze Zhang;Xiaoyue Chen;Han Cui;Junjie Si;Zeyu He;Baoquan Wan;Min Dai;Lei Wang;Jianben Liu;
      Pages: 6952 - 6959
      Abstract: In the research process of very fast transient overvoltage (VFTO), the accuracy of the switching arc model largely determines the calculation results of VFTO. How to more accurately simulate the arc striking and extinguishing process of the arc during the action of the disconnector is the key issue in the study of the arc model. In this article, the ATP-EMTP electromagnetic transient program was used to simulate arc damping with a series connection of a fixed-value resistance and a time-varying inductance, and the built-in MODELS module was used for programming to simulate the reignition and extinguishing process of the arc based on the gaseous dielectric theory and the energy balance theory. The model was applied to a 1000 kV gas insulated substation (GIS) test circuit. The relationship between the arc damping and arc voltage and current was analyzed, and the arc reignition law during opening and closing is studied. The arcing law obtained is compared with the experimental results of the existing literature, and the accuracy of the simulation model is verified. Simultaneously, the influence of the opening speed of the disconnector on VFTO was analyzed by simulation. The results show that when the opening speed is less than 0.7 m/s, the maximum value of VFTO in the test circuit increases with the increase in opening speed. After the VFTO amplitude reaches the maximum and continue to increase the opening speed, the VFTO amplitude decreases. This law is consistent with the experimental results of the existing literature, which proves that the arc model built in this article has a certain engineering application value.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Load Angle Based Loss of Excitation Protection Scheme for Parallel
           Connected Synchronous Generators

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ali Rostami;Navid Rezaei;Amin Jalilian;Behzad Naderi;Michael Negnevitsky;
      Pages: 6960 - 6969
      Abstract: The main weaknesses of impedance-based loss-of-excitation (LOE) relay are its maloperation during the power system disturbances (PSDs) and its long detection time during LOE events. In this article, to tackle the mentioned problems, a new LOE protection scheme is proposed based on load angle (δ) variation of parallel synchronous generators (SGs) connected to a point of connection (POC). It will be shown that during a PSD, the variation of δ for all parallel SGs is similar such that their δ increases or decreases simultaneously. However, it will be shown that when the LOE occurs for one of the parallel SGs, the δ of faulty SG increases while other SGs will experience reduction in their δ. Hence, when more than one SG is connected to a POC, the LOE event can be discriminated from PSDs. In the proposed scheme, when one SG is connected to the grid, the impedance-based relay is employed to enable the developed method to detect LOE/PSD. Since in a real-world application, the outage rate of the parallel SGs in a power plant during the emergency situations, periodic services, etc., is very low on a yearly basis, the contribution of the impedance relay in the proposed scheme is quite limited to some special circumstances. Comprehensive simulation studies have been conducted in MATLAB/Simulink environment (R2017b); the results prove high efficiency of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Case Study of a Renovation of a Historical University Department: The
           Nearly Zero-Energy Refurbished Buildings

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Riccardo Loggia;Alessandro Flamini;Andrea Massaccesi;Cristina Moscatiello;Luigi Martirano;
      Pages: 6970 - 6980
      Abstract: At the energy consumption level, buildings are currently the largest sector, therefore, the energy efficiency of these structures, assumes a priority role in refurbishing projects. The “building automation” as well as the redesign of the electrical and thermal system of a structure can offer significant contributions in terms of energy saving, comfort, and functionality. Recent policies introduced the nearly zero-energy building (nZEB) qualification. The challenge we are facing is to work on the refurbishment of existing buildings by identifying a model that on the one hand allows nZEB qualification and on the other hand applies to existing buildings with all the technical and economic constraints. The goal of this article is to present possible redevelopment projects, thanks to the use of software, applicable to the historical university department located in the center of Rome to compare the parameters and reference indices for calculating the performance of an nZEB included in the ministerial decree (DM) June 26, 2015. The building automation and the redesign of the thermal electrical system of the structure is one of the most important aspects to obtain nZEB evaluation but it is also important to change opaque vertical and horizontal structures and transparent envelopes.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Static Voltage Stability Assessment Considering Impacts of Ambient
           Conditions on Overhead Transmission Lines

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      Authors: Xueyong Jia;Xiaoming Dong;Bing Xu;Fujun Qi;Zhengqi Liu;Yue Ma;Yan Wang;
      Pages: 6981 - 6989
      Abstract: The static voltage stability assessment model is effective in analyzing system stability states. However, the electrothermal coupling relationship dependent on practical current-carrying and ambient conditions is generally ignored for models concerning overhead transmission lines, thereby introducing certain analysis errors. Therefore, this article proposes a unified power flow model which allows for the electrothermal coupling effect characterized by the balance of heat absorption and dissipation for overhead conductors. Moreover, the meteorological and geographic information around the transmission lines is involved as variables in the power flow calculation. Then, the Newton iteration formulations are restated and the improved power flow model is solved by continuously adjusting the variables and updating an extended Jacobian matrix. Then, the extended matrix corresponding to the final power flow solutions is used to establish the improved V–Q sensitivity and modal analysis methods, which allows one to evaluate system static voltage stability considering variations of ambient factors. Consequently, based on an IEEE 14-bus test system, the results obtained by the traditional model and the improved model are contrastively analyzed in different scenarios, which are substantially different from each other. The results illustrate that the consideration of ambient conditions around the transmission line will cause remarkedly impacts on the static voltage stability assessment results.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Coordinated Control Strategy and Physical Integration of a Multistation
           Integrated System

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      Authors: Qunhai Huo;Wenyong Wang;Ningyu Zhang;Jingyuan Yin;Jin Zhu;Tongzhen Wei;
      Pages: 6990 - 7001
      Abstract: The integration of distributed photovoltaic and new energy vehicles could further aggravate the over-voltage, over-load, and three-phase voltage unbalance in distribution networks. Multistation integrated system (MSIS) can resolve the aforementioned power quality issues. In this article, a new topology for a MSIS is proposed, which uses soft open point as the key equipment of the system and adopts the hierarchical power supply mode for a data center, electric vehicle charging pile, and other function stations. Based on the topology of the MSIS and smooth switching of the converter control mode, a coordinated control strategy is proposed to control the working mode of each function station and further optimize the system operation conditions. The small signal model of the MSIS is derived, which can provide theoretical support for the stable operation of the system. The simulation results of two different application scenarios verify that the proposed topology of the MSIS and coordinated control strategy effectively improve the voltage level of the distribution network, enhance the reliability of sensitive load power supply, and ensure safe and reliable operation of the MSIS. Finally, the fusion and integration functions of the MSIS are tested and verified. The on-site demonstration indicated a mutual win–win situation for the power supply company, energy supplier, equipment provider and users.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Flexible Step-Voltage Regulator for Unbalanced Distribution Networks

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      Authors: Bevin K C;Ashu Verma;Sumit K Chattopadhyay;
      Pages: 7002 - 7012
      Abstract: This article presents a new device named flexible step-voltage regulator (FSVR) based on a multiwinding transformer for unbalanced distribution networks. While the traditional step-voltage regulator (SVR) can be used to control the voltage magnitude only, the proposed device can be used to control both voltage magnitude and phase angle for each phase independently. This allows greater flexibility during voltage control in unbalanced distribution networks. A mathematical model of the FSVR is derived for implementation in unbalanced power flow analysis. Simulation studies for IEEE 13 bus and IEEE 34 bus test networks demonstrate the effectiveness of the FSVR over the traditional SVR in reducing real power losses and voltage imbalance in the distribution network. A scaled-down model of the FSVR is designed in the lab to demonstrate the proof of concept.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • An Online Electricity Market Price Forecasting Method Via Random Forest

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      Authors: Peng Wang;Keqi Xu;Zhaohao Ding;Yuling Du;Wenyu Liu;Beibei Sun;Zhizhong Zhu;Huidi Tang;
      Pages: 7013 - 7021
      Abstract: Electricity price forecasting (EPF) is essential to the bidding strategy formulation and market operation. Since EPF is important in the electricity market, lots of forecasting approaches are proposed. However, the new scene caused by the volatility of renewable power generation and other volatility factors has made previous methods inaccurate and inapplicable. To address this problem, we propose an online self-adaptive forecasting method based on random forest, which is different from the traditional batch learning. Our approach takes possible fluctuations of the market into consideration, and adapts to them by maintaining training sets of different sizes. A case study using actual electricity market data has shown that our proposed approach obtains higher accuracy than ordinary approaches, as well as sheds light on possible concept drift in the market.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Ground Fault Location Method for DC Systems Through Multiple Grounding
           Connections

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      Authors: Jose Manuel Guerrero;Daniel Serrano-Jimenez;Kumar Mahtani;Carlos A. Platero;
      Pages: 7022 - 7033
      Abstract: Direct current (dc) systems have an increasingly important role in electrical systems, especially photovoltaic (PV) solar power plants and battery storage systems as they are essential for the development of more sustainable, efficient, and reliable electrical systems. PV panels and batteries are generally composed of multiple series-parallel cells. This fact makes their fault diagnosis challenging, especially against ground faults as these systems are generally ungrounded. In this article, a ground fault location method for dc sources with multiple series-parallel cells is proposed. It estimates the faulty branch, the faulty cell location inside this branch and its fault resistance. The method is based on the output current measurement of each branch and on the voltage measurement on a grounding resistor, which is switched between three positions: the positive, the midpoint and the negative terminals of the protected dc system. To validate it, several computer simulations and experimental tests on a battery pack have been carried out. The results obtained proves an excellent performance for faulty cell location and fault resistance estimation, although further investigations are required to better discern the faulty branch.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A New Reconfigured Electricity Market Bidding Strategy in View of
           Players' Concerns

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      Authors: Oveis Abedinia;Ali Ghasemi-Marzbali;Venera Nurmanova;Mehdi Bagheri;
      Pages: 7034 - 7046
      Abstract: The electricity market has become a competitive model due to generation, transmission, distribution, and large-scale investments in microgrids where no electricity supplier intends to set the price. However, the competition itself provides opportunities for the buyer to be able to experience more profit. Based on the available optimal bidding model, the supplier can only offer the final bid. Hence, active participation on the demand side creates an efficient and reasonable electricity market, and also promotes additional optimal allocation of economic resources. This article has concentrated over the final marginal bidding price and creating an optimal bidding strategy for consumers. It has specifically focused and proposed a new optimized model for electricity market bidding to improve and obtain a maximum turnover and profit for players. Since the solution of the aforementioned issue is inadequate due to multiple decision variables in mathematical and classical methods; a new enhanced Harris Hawks optimization (HHO) is proposed. Trapping into local optimum point can be occurred in different optimization algorithms, while the proposed model has simple and efficient structure, without derivative operator, which is integrated with mathematical techniques to increase local and global search abilities. The standard HHO algorithm is utilized to increase the probability of entrapment in local optima through increasing the number of optimization variables; however, the challenge of large number of variables is resolved through proposing a novel local/global operators. The proposed model is examined with a standard IEEE system in 2-scenarios, with symmetric and asymmetric information through finding the optimal solution desirably.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Double-Consensus-Based Distributed Energy Management in a Virtual Power
           Plant

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      Authors: P. M. Naina;K. S. Swarup;
      Pages: 7047 - 7056
      Abstract: The penetration of distributed generators increases the significance of virtual power plants (VPP) in the electricity market paradigm. The conventional VPP energy management system relies on a trustable centralized coordinator, which is vulnerable to single-point failure and requires a high-bandwidth communication network. This article proposes a robust, fully distributed consensus-based algorithm (RFDCA) for optimal dispatch of VPP participants in power systems with a practical communication network, which considers noise, communication delay, and a dynamically switching communication topology. The profit maximization problem is decomposed into subproblems using dual decomposition and solved using a double consensus approach, which uses a monotonically decreasing consensus gain function to suppress the adverse effects of communication delay and noise. One of the main advantages of this method is that the VPP participants need not share their private information with anyone, thereby preserving their privacy. Another advantage of the proposed approach is that it can deal with networks of different sizes and topologies. Simulations are carried out on standard 15-node VPP and IEEE 39-bus test systems to illustrate the efficacy of the RFDCA approach. The algorithm removes the need for a central controller in the VPP system, and the faster convergence of the algorithm extends its application in real-time energy management.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Novel Data-Driven Method to Estimate Invisible Solar Power Generation: A
           Case Study in Taiwan

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      Authors: Thi Bich Phuong Nguyen;Yuan-Kang Wu;Manh-Hai Pham;
      Pages: 7057 - 7067
      Abstract: As the penetration of photovoltaic (PV) solar generation has increased, a significant number of residential and commercial solar PV systems have been installed without meters. The majority of these systems, however, are also not monitored by power system operators. Therefore, the uncertainty of the net load owing to this “invisible” solar power generation has raised additional challenges for power system operation. To reduce the impact of this, we propose a novel method to estimate the total solar power generation in a large region from a small representative subset. The proposed method is capable of capturing all relevant information that could assist in the identification of the representative subsets. Moreover, different optimization algorithms are utilized and evaluated to select the optimal number of clusters and representative subsets. As a case study, the power generation of 166 PV sites in Taiwan was collected and analyzed. The proposed method demonstrates a significant improvement in estimating aggregated power generation compared to other existing methods.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Graph Attention Enabled Convolutional Network for Distribution System
           Probabilistic Power Flow

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      Authors: Huayi Wu;Minghao Wang;Zhao Xu;Youwei Jia;
      Pages: 7068 - 7078
      Abstract: Probabilistic power flow (PPF) is pivotal to quantifying the state uncertainties of distribution power systems. However, it is very challenging due to underlying complex correlations among renewable outputs. To address this problem, a graph attention enabled convolutional network (GAECN) is proposed to approximate PPF in this article. Specifically, the graph convolutional layer of GAECN is used to aggregate the correlations among the nodal power injections during the training process. Within this layer, a full self-adaptive graph convolutional operation is proposed to automatically capture and learn the implicit correlation for achieving significantly enhanced accuracy of PPF. This layer is then followed by the convolutional neural network to capture the uncertain generation of renewable energy to achieve the robust computation of system state variable distributions. The simulation results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method in IEEE 33, PG&E 69-node, 118-node, and practical 76-node distribution systems.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Calculation of Stator Natural Frequencies of Electrical Machines
           Considering Complex Boundary Conditions

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      Authors: Zezhi Xing;Xiuhe Wang;Wenliang Zhao;Fujie Wang;
      Pages: 7079 - 7087
      Abstract: The accurate calculation of the natural frequencies of the stator is an important prerequisite for predicting and improving electromagnetic vibration in electrical machines. In this article, the stator core and the enclosure are regarded as cylindrical shells with axial ribs attached inside and outside the shells, respectively. Considering the moment of inertia and the shear deformation of the cylindrical shell, the displacement functions of the mid-surface in cylindrical shell are expressed as a superposition of orthogonal polynomials, the natural frequencies including axial, and circumferential modal shapes under different boundary conditions are obtained by combining the energy method and the Gram–Schmidt orthogonalization method, and the accuracy of the calculation results is verified by the finite element method and modal test. Considering the orthogonality of the stator material and specific slot structure, the natural frequencies of the stator including the stator core, windings, and enclosure are accurately obtained, the actual constraints of the end covers on the enclosure are accurately simulated by the simply supported boundary conditions.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Electromagnetic Design Characterization of a Dual Rotor Axial Flux Motor
           for Electric Aircraft

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      Authors: Dorsa Talebi;Matthew C. Gardner;Sri Vignesh Sankarraman;Ahmad Daniar;Hamid A. Toliyat;
      Pages: 7088 - 7098
      Abstract: This article presents and evaluates a dual rotor axial flux permanent magnet motor for electric aircraft applications. Several features, including grain-oriented electrical steel, Halbach arrays, and wires with rectangular cross sections, are used to improve torque density and efficiency. A novel winding arrangement is used to mitigate interturn short-circuit faults. Rather than simply optimizing the motor by itself, this article evaluates the tradeoffs between motor performance and its interfaces with the drive, thermal management system (TMS), and mechanical structure. This information can be used along with similar analyses of these subsystems to select the design with the system-level optimal performance. This article uses finite-element simulations to characterize tradeoffs among active mass, efficiency, fundamental frequency, power factor, axial forces on the rotors, and cooling surface area. Several designs exceed 95% efficiency at takeoff with less than 8 kg of active mass. While high pole counts, a large outer radius, and short stator teeth tend to optimize the magnetic performance at takeoff, this can reduce cruise efficiency, reduce the surface area through which the TMS can extract heat, increase the fundamental frequency the drive must supply, increase the structural mass required to support the rotors, and introduce complexity to the manufacturing process. Further analysis for a selected design reveals that the power factor can be significantly improved with a minimal torque penalty via field weakening due to significant saturation in the stator teeth.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Power Tracking Excitation Control and Its Parameter Optimization of
           Dual-Excited Synchronous Generator

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      Authors: Guorui Xu;Zijing Li;Zhenzhen Wang;Weili Li;Yang Zhan;Haisen Zhao;Wenmao Liu;Yingli Luo;
      Pages: 7099 - 7109
      Abstract: A dual-excited synchronous generator (DESG) with two field windings on the rotor has better dynamic characteristics and high stability. However, the realization of the function needs a reasonable excitation control strategy. In this article, a power tracking excitation control (PTEC) is proposed to improve the operating performances of the DESG. The dynamic processes of a 300-MW DESG with the PTEC are calculated after the disturbance of the torque and reactive power by the time-stepping finite element model, and the results are superior to those adopting the traditional dual-channel excitation control. To further improve the dynamic characteristic of the DESG, the sensitivities of the control parameters of the PTEC to the dynamic characteristic indices are studied. The fuzzy control rules are built based on the sensitivity analysis results and the control parameters are optimized by the fuzzy control method. It revealed the variation laws of the optimized control parameters along with the active and reactive power deviations and their variable rates. The results show that the DESG adopting the optimized control parameters has better dynamic characteristics. The study can provide the theoretic basis for enhancing the system damping effect and suppressing the system oscillation.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Winding Embedded Liquid Cooling for Slotless Motors in Transportation
           Applications

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      Authors: Ritvik Chattopadhyay;Md Sariful Islam;Junyeong Jung;Rajib Mikail;Iqbal Husain;
      Pages: 7110 - 7120
      Abstract: A novel winding embedded liquid cooling (WELC) concept is presented to improve the thermal management of slotless motors for transportation applications. The concept introduces liquid cooling channels through the non-magnetic thermal plastic winding support in a slotless motor to reduce the thermal resistance between the heat source and the sink. This article demonstrates the efficacy of the WELC concept for a 11.5-kW slotless motor using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A lumped parameter thermal network has also been developed for the WELC concept, which has been validated using the CFD analysis. The simulation results of WELC concept have been experimentally validated for an 11.5-kW slotless motor. It is shown that the WELC concept can achieve a continuous current density of 19.0 A(rms)/mm$^{2}$ for an allowable temperature rise of 80 $^{circ }$C; the achieved continuous current density is 35% higher than that of a conventional axial in-slot water jacket cooling. The short time (18 s) peak current density achieved with the WELC concept is 39.8 A(rms)/mm$^{2}$.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Suppression of Winding AC Copper Loss in High-Speed Electrical Machines by
           a Practical Transposition Technique

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      Authors: Xinyue Chen;Haiyang Fang;Xinggang Fan;Haobo Hu;Dawei Li;Ronghai Qu;
      Pages: 7121 - 7130
      Abstract: The ac copper loss, which results from the skin effect, the proximity effect, and the bundle-level circulating current, is widely concerned in high-speed electrical machines since they grow rapidly with the frequency. While the skin effect can be easily suppressed by the utilization of thinner wires, the circulating current is generally restrained by a complicated transposition technique. Moreover, the transposition technique is better suited to the preformed winding other than the random-wound winding, hence, it is still difficult to suppress the circulating current ac loss in the random-wound winding. In this article, a practical transposition technique is proposed for the circulating current loss suppression for high-speed electrical machines with random-wound windings. To implement this technique, a specific winding former is designed and manufactured. The proposed transposition technique is verified in a 200 kW, 54 000 r/min high-speed permanent magnet machine, contributing to a reduction of 55.2% copper loss compared to the untransposed winding. The experiment result indicates that the proposed transposition technique is practical in engineering.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Comparative Analysis of AC Copper Loss With Round Copper Wire and Flat
           Copper Wire of High-Speed Stator-PM Flux-Switching Machine

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      Authors: Wenfei Yu;Wei Hua;Zhiheng Zhang;Zhongze Wu;Peixin Wang;Weiguo Xia;
      Pages: 7131 - 7142
      Abstract: In the high-speed flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machine, the ac copper loss issue in the armature winding conductor is very prominent, due to the high-frequency leakage magnetic field in stator slot, which seriously affects the machine performance. To model and calculate ac copper loss more accurately, a coupled electric circuit-magnetic field model is constructed based on 2D-finite element method, and consequently the influence of modeling methods and winding types on ac copper loss calculation of a 12-slot/10-pole (12/10) 54.7 kW/10 kr/min FSPM machine is investigated. First, ten simplified ac copper loss calculation models are established to deal with the problem of large consumption of calculation time and computer resources caused by the excessive number of wires, small size of winding conductors, high precision modeling, and mesh refinement. Second, the influences of voltage-/current-source and steady/rotating rotor are considered, and the ten models are evaluated in terms of computing time and accuracy. Third, based on the preferred model from the ten models, the effects of frequency, round/flat wires, and wire sizes on ac copper loss are further studied. Fourth, to investigate the influence of flux leakage at the end of winding on ac copper loss, a 3-D ac copper loss calculation model with different axial lengths of winding end space is established. Fifth, the change process of ac copper loss and transient temperature of winding under short time overload condition are obtained combined with the bidirectional coupling model between electromagnetic and thermal field method through multiple iterations of electromagnetic loss and temperature. Finally, the stator modules of round and flat copper wires are manufactured, respectively, and an experimental modular device is built to measure the ac copper loss, which confirms t-e improved accuracy of the predictions by the proposed model.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Estimation of Electromagnetic Force Using Strain Gauges Attached to Iron
           Cores

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      Authors: Yifei Cai;Candra Adi Wiguna;Yusuke Fujii;Kyohei Kiyota;Hiroya Sugimoto;Akira Chiba;
      Pages: 7143 - 7152
      Abstract: A novel electromagnetic force estimation using strain gauges attached to a laminated iron core method is proposed. Based on the strain gauge output, the electromagnetic force that occurs on the air-gap surface of the core is estimated with compensations for magnetostriction and nonuniform strain distribution. The proposed method is validated by comparing the electromagnetic force calculated in the finite element analysis and an experiment on a pair of C-shaped laminated iron cores. This article focuses on the force estimation in a pair of simple C-shaped cores, which are aimed at being a part of the stator and rotor of a switched reluctance machine. In future research, this basic approach will be extended to the estimation of the radial forces in switched reluctance motors to reduce the vibration and acoustic noise.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • AC Loss Analysis and Modular Cryostat Design of a 10-MW High-Temperature
           Superconducting Double Stator Flux Modulation Machine

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      Authors: Yuanzhi Zhang;Yi Cheng;Ronghai Qu;Dawei Li;Yuting Gao;Qian Wang;
      Pages: 7153 - 7162
      Abstract: Superconducting (SC) machines are one of the best candidates for large-scale direct-drive wind power generation because of its high torque density. In a traditional SC synchronous machine, either armature windings or field windings need to rotate, which makes the structure of the machine complicated. To solve this problem, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) double stator flux modulation (DSFM) machine was proposed. In this machine, the armature windings and SC field windings are placed in outer stator and inner stator, respectively, and the machine works through flux modulation effect by reluctance rotor. Due to modulation effect, there is a high content of harmonic in this machine. Thus, it is important to analyze harmonics influence on SC coils, especially the SC coils ac loss. In this article, the losses of a 10MW HTS-DSFM machine are calculated and analyzed. It turns out that the ac losses of SC coils in this machine is higher compared with the traditional SC synchronous machine. From analytical calculation, the ac magnetic field perpendicular to the tape surface have strong impacts on the SC coils. In order to reduce the ac losses, some suppression methods are adopted on machine structures and SC thermostat. Then, cryostats are designed and the cooling budgets are evaluated. At last, the comprehensive performances of the machine are calculated and its economy in the long term is verified.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Dynamic Model for Prediction of Hysteresis and Loss Property of Soft
           Material Under Multiple Harmonic Magnetizations

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      Authors: Xiaojun Zhao;Liu Yang;Rui Wang;Kang Huang;Lei Zhou;Lichun Dong;
      Pages: 7163 - 7170
      Abstract: This article presents an improved algorithm for identification of the excess loss statistical parameter to get more accurate prediction of multiple harmonic magnetic hysteresis and loss properties of grain-oriented silicon steel sheets. Magnetic hysteresis characteristics of a specimen are measured on a magnetic measurement platform. Static hysteresis property can be simulated accurately by the Preisach model. The excess loss field expression under multiple harmonic magnetizations is constructed based on an extraction algorithm for the statistical parameters of excess loss. According to the equivalence of loss separation and field separation, a new dynamic model is established. In the case of different multiple harmonic magnetizations, the magnetic hysteresis characteristics obtained by predictions are compared with the test results. Also, the influences of peaked flux density, harmonic order, and harmonic content upon the total iron loss are investigated.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Rotor Loss and Temperature Field of Synchronous Condenser Under
           Single-Phase Short-Circuit Fault Affected by Different Materials of Rotor
           Slot Wedge

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      Authors: Guorui Xu;Peidong Hu;Zhiqiang Li;Haisen Zhao;Yang Zhan;
      Pages: 7171 - 7180
      Abstract: A synchronous condenser (SC) can provide the dynamic reactive power for the ultra-high-voltage direct current converter station during the system voltage drop caused by the single-phase short-circuit fault, which is one of the prevalent faults. However, the single-phase short-circuit fault can also result in the increase of the rotor loss and temperature and thus restrict the transient operating ability of the SC. A key factor that affects the rotor loss and temperature rise is the material of the rotor slot wedges. For a 300-MVar SC with the rotor slot wedges made of the aluminum, beryllium bronze, and stainless steel, the rotor loss and temperature distribution under the single-phase short-circuit are calculated by coupling the electromagnetic and temperature field models of the SC with the models of the power grid. The variations of the rotor losses along with the rotor slot wedge conductivity are revealed. The rotor regions, where the highest temperature rise appears, are obtained. According to the maximum permissible temperature of the rotor material, the transient operating ability of the SC withstanding the single-phase short-circuit fault is obtained. This article can provide the theoretic basis for improving the transient operating ability of the SC.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Thermal Network Modeling and Thermal Stress Evaluation for a High-Power
           Linear Ultrasonic Motor

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      Authors: Xiang Li;Chaohao Kan;Taian Ren;Faxuan Chen;Pengtao Guo;Zhiyuan Yao;
      Pages: 7181 - 7191
      Abstract: This article presents a high-efficient thermal analysis methodology and outlines a set of useful design guidelines for high-power linear ultrasonic motors. A thermal network modeling technique is introduced to rapidly calculate the temperature rise for a typical high-power linear ultrasonic motor with a V-shaped stator. First, a six-terminal equivalent circuit for Langevin piezoelectric transducer considering the prestress bolt loss and all three losses in piezoelectrics is proposed to calculate the stator loss. Then, the calculated losses along with the friction loss are used as inputs into the developed thermal network model to calculate the temperature rise of critical parts of the motor. Furthermore, an analytical mechanical model combined with the proposed thermal network is established to calculate the temporal–spatial distribution of the stator thermal stress for evaluating its fatigue under the heating-up process. Finally, some experimental measurements and finite-element simulations are conducted to validate the theoretical analyses.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Research on High Frequency Vibration Reduction Using Carrier Phase Shifted
           PWM for 4-Module 3-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

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      Authors: Zicheng Liu;She Yan;Haiyang Fang;Dong Jiang;Ronghai Qu;Qiyuan Wang;Yunsong Xu;
      Pages: 7192 - 7200
      Abstract: This article investigates the effect of the carrier phase shifted pulsewidth modulation on the vibration reduction of inverter-fed multiphase permanent magnet synchronous motors. This approach reduces vibration by changing the order of the carrier harmonic-induced electromagnetic force on the stator. Experiments verify that this method can effectively suppress vibration at a specific carrier frequency, but the vibration reduction effect depends on the carrier frequency, the modal frequency of the motor and the phase-shifted angles.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Research and Analysis on Design Characteristics of High-Speed Permanent
           Magnet Claw Pole Motor With Soft Magnetic Composite Cores for Wide
           Temperature Range

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      Authors: Shuaijun Chu;Deliang Liang;Shaofeng Jia;Yang Liang;
      Pages: 7201 - 7213
      Abstract: As the operating temperature of the motor increases, the material properties will be seriously affected, such as soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, and winding insulation properties. For high-speed permanent magnet motors, the higher loss density and smaller heat dissipation area make the impact of temperature more serious. However, according to the test standard, the magnetic properties are usually measured at room temperature, ignoring the effect of temperature. To accurately design magnetic devices, it is necessary to understand the behavior of magnetic materials at different temperatures. In this article, a new high-speed permanent magnet claw-pole motor with soft magnetic composite for a wide temperature range is proposed. The design process mainly includes the calculation and analysis of material temperature characteristics, bearing support, topological structure, rotor stress calculation, and so on. Finally, a prototype is manufactured and tested to verify the design process.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Analytical Validation of Dual-Pole Permanent Magnet Machine Theory

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      Authors: Fakhrossadat Ghoroghchian;Aliakbar Damaki Aliabad;Ebrahim Amiri;
      Pages: 7214 - 7225
      Abstract: Dual-pole line start permanent magnet (PM) synchronous machine is an emerging technology for replacing induction machines in two-speed applications, such as air coolers, compressors, and pumps. The machine structure includes two magnetic pole numbers on a single rotor layout and two separate sets of stator windings. Due to the unconventional and complex rotor structure, to this date, the design and analysis have solely been based on finite element (FE) method. This article aims to analytically validate the theory and the overall functionality of dual-pole PM machines in both steady state and transient regime. For this propose, a detailed magnetic circuit model is developed for calculating the PM flux distribution and the back electromotive force waveform. However, a single magnetic circuit cannot adequately represent the flux flow of the armature reaction, since the path of the armature flux is a function of rotor position. This is even more challenging in dual-pole machines, where the armature flux is originated from two different sets of stator winding. To avoid the necessity of having multiple magnetic circuits, the concept of magnetic islands is employed to capture the motor response at the loaded condition. For verification, analytical results are all supported via FE, and partially with experimental tests.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Analysis of Mechanical Stress and Vibration Reduction of High-Speed Linear
           Motors for Electromagnetic Launch System

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      Authors: Song Chi;Jianhu Yan;Jian Guo;Yuxi Zhang;
      Pages: 7226 - 7240
      Abstract: This article presents a structural strength analysis and noise reduction method for high-speed long primary moving-magnet-type linear synchronous motors (MMT-LSMs) applied to electromagnetic launch systems under high acceleration. The stresses and deformations of the mover and frame at different mover offset distances are analyzed and calculated to reveal that the permanent magnets (PMs) placed ectally on both sides of the mover core are easily damaged and need to be protected by sleeves. Then, the mover stresses with different sleeve materials and varied PM-sleeve interference values are compared for subsequent optimization. Furthermore, tooth harmonic is the main cause of vibration and noise when electromagnetic force waves are exerted on this MMT-LSM. Three improved methods are discussed comprehensively to reduce vibration and noise, including pole/slot combination, slot width, and pole arc coefficient. Finally, the experiment platform is built with the implementation of the modal and vibration acceleration experiments to verify the proposed analysis method.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Magneto-Structural Combined Dimensional and Topology Optimization of
           Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Rotors

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      Authors: Feng Guo;Nanjun Tang;Ian P. Brown;
      Pages: 7241 - 7250
      Abstract: A magneto-structural combined dimensional and topology optimization approach for interior permanent magnet synchronous machine (IPMSM) rotor design is proposed using the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) density-based topology optimization method. This method optimizes the location and dimensions of the permanent magnets (PMs) embedded in the rotor, while simultaneously optimizing the lamination flux barriers using topology optimization. To allow for the location and dimensions of the PMs to change a Laplace smoothing mesh deformation technique is used. Three examples of IPMSM rotor optimizations are presented to demonstrate the proposed approach. In addition, a geometric template-based optimization is carried out for a comparison to one of the dimensional and topology optimized examples to better illustrate the difference.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Detection and Compensation of Interturn Short Circuit in Interior
           Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines Under Two-Level Voltage Source
           Inverter Limitations

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      Authors: Pablo Castro Palavicino;Woongkul Lee;Bulent Sarlioglu;
      Pages: 7251 - 7262
      Abstract: In this article, proof of concept of interturn short circuit (ISC) detection and shorted turns current reduction with d-axis current injection along with torque compensation is shown. This article evaluates the feasibility of implementing the detection and compensation of an ISC in an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine fed by a two-level voltage source inverter (VSI). First, the proposed method detects the ISC fault using a current observer capable of detecting a specific disturbance related to the ISC. Then, once the ISC is detected, the possibility of compensating for an ISC is evaluated. With a two-level VSI, the options for fault compensation are somewhat limited; however, a significant reduction in the shorted turns current can be achieved by adequately injecting d-axis current to cancel out the magnetic flux from the permanent magnet. Moreover, a small q-axis current can be injected with minimum flux to use the saliency torque. Experimental results obtained from a prototype manufactured specifically for ISC testing proof the feasibility of the proposed technique.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Thrust Ripple Suppression for Linear Induction Machines Based on Improved
           Finite Control Set-Model Predictive Voltage Control

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      Authors: Wei Xu;Samir Abdelazem Hamad;Syed Arslan Bukhari;Mahmoud F. Elmorshedy;Mosaad M. Ali;Ahmed Diab;
      Pages: 7263 - 7274
      Abstract: In this article, two kinds of finite control set-model predictive voltage control (FCS-MPVC) methods have been proposed for linear induction machine to eliminate the cumbersome selection of the weighting factor (WF), achieve lower ripples of both thrust and flux, and reduce the heavy calculation steps. The first method, FCS-MPVC I, uses one voltage vector (VV) during the whole control period, and the second method, FCS-MPVC II, uses two VVs. Moreover, the proposed methods use a single cost function without any WF. This function consists of the errors between primary voltage references with their predicted values in the αβ-axis. Depending on the distance between the reference VV (RVV), as calculated using the deadbeat control method, and all candidate VVs (CVVs), the first proposed method, FCS-MPVC I, can select the nearest VV to the RVV as the optimal VV (OVV), which can reduce the redundant evaluation work greatly. Meanwhile, the second proposed method, FCS-MPVC II, applies two VVs, active VV and null VV, to adjust the duty ratio effectively. To avoid the iterated evaluation for all CVVs, one simplified search order excluding unsuitable CVVs has been proposed to determine the optimal OVV, which selects only one active VV from the two adjacent active VVs in the sector owning the RVV. Afterward, based on a prototype of 3-kW arc induction machine with a large radius, extensive simulation and experiments have fully demonstrated that the proposed methods can get much lower thrust ripples and less calculation steps effectively, compared with those of conventional finite control set-model predictive thrust control strategy.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Fault-Tolerant Control Methods for Reduced Torque Ripple of Multiphase
           BLDC Motor Drive System Under Open-Circuit Faults

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      Authors: Hyeoncheol Park;Taeyun Kim;Yongsug Suh;
      Pages: 7275 - 7285
      Abstract: Multiphase brushless direct current (BLdc) motors with high efficiency and power density are widely used in electric propulsion systems of a wide variety of applications including electric vehicles, submarines, and electric ships. The multiphase motors used in these applications must operate stably without generating large torque ripple in various fault scenarios. In this article, three fault-tolerant control (FTC) methods (minimum double phase, half phase, and multiple phases) are compared with reduce torque ripple by controlling the magnitude and phase angle of healthy phase currents under open-circuit failure. The proposed FTC methods were validated through the hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a 12-phase BLdc motor.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Stroke Estimation Method for Linear Oscillatory Machine Using an
           Improved Sliding Mode Observer

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      Authors: Wei Xu;Kaiju Liao;Qizhe Wang;Lili Bai;Yifan Gong;Essam M. Rashad;Ion Boldea;
      Pages: 7286 - 7296
      Abstract: For the linear compressor system driven by a linear oscillatory machine (LOM), the piston stroke is very important to realize the high working efficiency for the whole system. In order to obtain precise and reliable piston stroke signals without using the position sensor, this article proposes a stroke estimation method for the LOM using an improved sliding mode observer (SMO). For the improved SMO, the integral sliding surface is chosen to reduce the chattering phenomenon and the steady-state error of the system, and a novel reaching law is introduced to construct the sliding control law, which can further reduce the influence of the sliding chattering. Due to the piston stroke being obtained by integrating the back electromotive force (EMF) as estimated by the improved SMO, the pure integration saturation problem will occur due to that the measured current and voltage signals always contain some dc components. In order to cope with this problem, a self-adaptive bandpass filter is designed, which can obtain a filtered signal with almost no amplitude and phase deviation by adaptively adjusting its center frequency. Simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed improved SMO has higher stroke estimation accuracy than the back EMF integration and the conventional SMO.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Novel Force Estimation Method for Magnetic Lead Screw-Based RotLin
           Actuator

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      Authors: Lang Bu;Yasutaka Fujimoto;
      Pages: 7297 - 7307
      Abstract: This article proposes a method to precisely estimate the load force of magnetic lead screw (MLS)-based series elastic actuators (SEAs) in real time. The elastic transmissions of MLS-based SEAs generally comprise permanent magnets (PMs). Owing to the magnetic pole distortion and the characteristic nonlinear force of PMs, conventional force estimation methods are less accurate for MLS-based actuators than for SEAs with mechanical springs. In the proposed method, to precisely estimate force of MLSs, the nonlinear force characteristic of an MLS is modeled with a sinusoidal force model, and the magnetic force hysteresis phenomenon is predicted based on Bouc–Wen-type hysteresis equations. Moreover, a method called the relative displacement normalization method is proposed to detect the magnetic pole distortion and to compensate for the related force estimation error. In addition, the proposed method is applied to a rotary-linear (RotLin) actuator, which is a novel MLS-based linear SEA. The force estimation accuracy is experimentally evaluated by comparison with existing methods. The results demonstrate that the root-mean-square error of the proposed method is less than that of the existing polynomial model by up to 81.2%. Finally, a force controller and a static force control system is designed with the proposed model to prove its feasibility.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Optimal Sliding Mode Control of a Symmetrical Six-Phase Induction
           Generator for Wind Turbines

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      Authors: Omar Bouyahia;Franck Betin;Amine Yazidi;
      Pages: 7308 - 7317
      Abstract: In this article, a sliding mode control (SMC) is applied to regulate the delivered power of a symmetrical six-phase induction generator. For this, the SMC strategy associated to the field-oriented control strategy is used in order to adjust the inner current loops of a squirrel cage six-phase induction generator (SC6PIG). In this way, the control algorithm switches between positive and negative feedback according to the position of the operating point in the phase plane. This technique guarantees the robustness of the SC6PIG in case of the loss of one to three stator phases or machine converter legs. The switching line slope and the initial operating point have been set so that the system starts with a negative feedback, then it continuously switches back and forth to positive feedback in order to maintain the desired trajectory of the system. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of this technique since the delivered power of the SC6PIG presents the same dynamics in healthy or faulty modes with one to two phase losses.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Fault-Tolerant Torque Controller Based on Adaptive Decoupled Multi-Stator
           Modeling for Multi-Three-Phase Induction Motor Drives

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      Authors: Sandro Rubino;Fabio Mandrile;Eric Armando;Iustin Radu Bojoi;Luca Zarri;
      Pages: 7318 - 7335
      Abstract: Among the multiphase solutions, multi-three-phase drives are becoming more and more widespread in practice as they can be modularly supplied by conventional three-phase inverters. The literature reports several control approaches to perform the torque regulation of multi-three-phase machines. Most of such solutions use the vector space decomposition (VSD) approach since it allows the control of a multi-three-phase machine using the conventional control schemes of three-phase drives, thus reducing the complexity of the control algorithm. However, this advantage is practically lost in the case of open-three-phase faults. Indeed, the postfault operation of the VSD-based drive schemes requires the implementation of additional control modules, often specifically designed for the machine under consideration. Therefore, this article aims to propose a novel control approach that allows using any control scheme developed for three-phase motors to perform the torque regulation of a multi-three-phase machine both in healthy and faulty operation. In this way, the previously mentioned drawbacks of the VSD-based control schemes in dealing with the faulty operation of the machine are avoided. Moreover, the simplicity of the control algorithm is always preserved, regardless of the machine's operating condition. The proposed solution has been experimentally validated through a 12-phase induction motor, rated 10 kW at 6000 r/min, using a quadruple-three-phase configuration of the stator winding.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Clamping Modulation Scheme for Low-Speed Operation of Three-Level Inverter
           Fed Induction Motor Drive With Reduced CMV

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      Authors: Greeshma Nadh;Arun Rahul S;
      Pages: 7336 - 7345
      Abstract: This article introduces a family of carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM) schemes for three-level (3 L) inverter fed motor drive for low-speed operation. The proposed PWM in dual-inverter topology (DIT) simultaneously clamps two phases of each inverter throughout the fundamental cycle, which reduces the switching transition in the pole voltage and common-mode voltage (CMV). Four PWM variants in the family (i.e., PWM-1–PWM-4) are discussed and compared with conventional discontinuous PWM schemes. A mapping of the gating pulse is derived to extend the proposed PWM to a classical 3 L inverter fed star-connected motor drive. The gating pulses are generated using triangular carrier comparison with synchronous sampling. The steady-state and dynamic performances of PWM are validated both in DIT fed open-end winding induction motor (IM) drive and neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter fed star-connected IM drive. It is observed that the proposed PWM gives inherent capacitor voltage balance in the NPC topology. PWM-1 has a higher linear modulation range than conventional zero clamp PWM and leads to reduced CMV in the NPC topology. PWM-2 and PWM-3 give reduced CMV in DIT. PWM-4 has fault tolerance to single-phase open-switch and short-switch failure in DIT.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • ANN Optimization of Weighting Factors Using Genetic Algorithm for Model
           Predictive Control of PMSM Drives

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      Authors: Chunxing Yao;Zhenyao Sun;Shuai Xu;Han Zhang;Guanzhou Ren;Guangtong Ma;
      Pages: 7346 - 7362
      Abstract: Model predictive control (MPC) has become one of the most attractive control techniques due to its outstanding dynamic performance for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives. However, the tuning of weighting factors for the cost function of MPC is a time-consuming procedure and weighting factors can significantly affect torque ripples of PMSM drives. For the purpose of optimizing the weighting factors in cost functions of MPC, this article proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) based method, which applies genetic algorithm as the back propagation algorithm. Since this method is trained offline, it does not increase any computation complexity of MPC. Consequently, any optimization targets that combine the performance metrics of MPC are defined and the optimal weighting factors for the given targets can be fast and precisely found through the proposed method. Besides, this method is robust to the variations of motor parameters like stator resistance and permanent magnet flux. The superiority of the proposed method over conventional ANN is evaluated by comparative simulations, in terms of current total harmonic distortion, tracking performance, and neutral-point potential balance. Finally, the feasibility and robustness of the proposed method are verified on the platform of PMSM drives fed by three-level T-type inverter.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • An All Silicon Carbide 3 kV/540 V Series-Resonant Converter for Electric
           Aircraft Systems

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      Authors: Xinyuan Du;Fei Diao;Zhe Zhao;Yue Zhao;
      Pages: 7363 - 7372
      Abstract: In this work, an all silicon carbide (SiC) series-resonant converter (SRC) design is proposed and demonstrate to achieve a single stage dc-to-dc conversion from 3 kV to 540 V (±270 V) for future electric aircraft applications. The proposed SRC consists of a neutral-point-clamped converter using 3.3-kV SiC MOSFETs on the primary side, an H-bridge converter using 900-V SiC MOSFET on the secondary side and a high-frequency (HF) transformer. The detailed design methods for the SRC power stage and the HF transformer are presented. Especially, a tradeoff between the complexity for the cooling system and the need for high power density and voltage insulation is addressed in the transformer design, leading to a novel multilayer winding structure design to enhance the insulation capability and also the mechanical robustness. The proposed bobbin design is realized using additive manufacturing. The detailed analysis and modeling of the parasitic capacitance between sections introduced by fringe electrical field are presented. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed SRC design, a 25-kW converter prototype using 3.3-kV SiC discrete devices has been developed with a peak efficiency of 99.08% achieved in experimental studies.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Switched Capacitor-Based 13-Level Inverter With Reduced Switch Count

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      Authors: Shirazul Islam;Marif Daula Siddique;Atif Iqbal;Saad Mekhilef;Mohammed Al-Hitmi;
      Pages: 7373 - 7383
      Abstract: In this article, a 13-level switched capacitor multilevel inverters (SC-MLI) based single-phase inverter is proposed in which desired levels of output ac voltage are realized with reduced number of switch counts. The proposed inverter requires 12 switches, three diodes, one input dc source, and three capacitors. The requirement of less number of switches reduces the requirement of gate drivers, which enhances power density of converter. The second challenge in SC-MLI is to maintain self-voltage balancing across the capacitors. The self-voltage balancing capability becomes poor at low values of modulation index. The capacitors connected in proposed SC-MLI are capable to maintain the self-voltage balancing without requiring auxiliary circuits or complex control strategies. The operation of capacitors is self-balanced at all regions of modulation index values. The comparison of the proposed SC-MLI is carried out with state-of-art SC-MLIs discussed in the literature using the parameters like peak inverse voltage and total standing voltage. The switches connected in the proposed 13-level SC-MLI undergoes less voltage stress as compared to the SC-MLI configurations discussed in the literature. The proposed SC-MLI is highly competent to achieve good power quality and is capable to ensure voltage balancing of capacitors even at low values of modulation index. The validation of the proposed inverter topology is carried out using a laboratory prototype. The efficiency of the converter claimed using the simulation results is observed to be 96.2% while the efficiency evaluated using the experimental results is 94.1% at 500 W.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Study on Comparison of Power Losses Between UPQC and UPQC-DG

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      Authors: Sisir Kumar Yadav;Ashish Patel;Hitesh Datt Mathur;
      Pages: 7384 - 7395
      Abstract: In the era of modern power distribution network, the motivation to use green and clean energy resources for fulfilling the need of energy demand is gaining abruptly. This has enhanced the use of power electronics-based conversion devices leading to deterioration of power quality in the power distribution network. Several compensating custom devices, such as static compensators (STATCOMs), dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs), and unified power quality conditioner (UPQC), etc., have been developed in recent decades. UPQC consists of shunt active power filter (APF) and series APF connected in back-to-back fashion with a shared DC-link. In the case of UPQC-DG, a distributed generator (DG) is also connected at the DC-link. In the existing literature available, UPQC integrated with DG is found to be a promising topology which can simultaneously compensate for power quality issues and integrate DG into the grid. Its functionality and performances have been presented by many researchers, but a detailed investigation on its power losses is missing. This article presents a detailed comparison of conventional UPQC, UPQC-DG, and UPQC-independent DG (UPQC-IDG) in terms of their respective power losses and further enhances the criteria for selecting the best possible configuration to be used practically based on requirements and economical viability. In this executed work, the power losses are compared among UPQC, UPQC-DG, and UPQC-IDG for different steady-state and dynamic operating conditions. The power losses in all configurations are inclusive of conduction losses, filtering losses, and switching losses, found using simulation and empirical studies. The comparative study is based on computer simulations performed in MATLAB/Simulink and real-time simulation using Opal-RT.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Adaptive Modulation of Resonant DAB Converters for Wide Range ZVS
           Operation With Minimum Reactive Circulating Power

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      Authors: Linton David James;Carlos Alberto Teixeira;Richardt H. Wilkinson;Brendan P. McGrath;Donald Grahame Holmes;Jan Riedel;
      Pages: 7396 - 7407
      Abstract: Resonant mode dual active bridge (DAB) bidirectional dc–dc converters using either an inductive–capacitive–inductive (LCL) or a capacitive–inductive–capacitive (CLC) ac-port network offer several performance benefits compared to more conventional nonresonant filter DAB topologies. This includes a reduction in the circulating power between the two bridges, which consequently enables the conduction loss to be minimized and the physical converter volume to be reduced. However, these gains also require that soft-switching is maintained, which is very challenging to achieve across all operating conditions, particularly at light loads. This article investigates the zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) capability of resonant mode DAB converters, applying Fourier analysis to the converter modulation patterns to quantify the ZVS boundaries analytically. The resulting analytic formulations also quantify the DAB real and reactive power flows, which subsequently enables the identification of modulation conditions that improve the converter's soft-switching and reactive circulating power flow behavior. The analysis is verified using detailed time-domain PSIM simulations matched to experimental DAB converters equipped with both LCL and CLC filters.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • &rft.title=IEEE+Transactions+on+Industry+Applications&rft.issn=0093-9994&rft.date=2022&rft.volume=58&rft.spage=7408&rft.epage=7420&rft.aulast=Ayyanar;&rft.aufirst=Haleema&rft.au=Haleema+Qamar;Hafsa+Qamar;Nikhil+Korada;Rajapandian+Ayyanar;">Control and Performance of 240-Clamped Space Vector PWM in Three-Phase
           Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Converters Under Adverse Grid Conditions

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      Authors: Haleema Qamar;Hafsa Qamar;Nikhil Korada;Rajapandian Ayyanar;
      Pages: 7408 - 7420
      Abstract: This paper evaluates the performance of relatively new PWM method i.e., 240$^circ$-Clamped Space Vector PWM (240CPWM) in three phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) converters under various grid voltage conditions. 240CPWM is a minimum switching loss PWM method that reduces the switching loss by 85% at unity power factor and has better THD as compared to conventional space vector PWM (CSVPWM). A unique six-pulse dynamically varying DC link voltage is required for 240CPWM. Typically, a three-phase grid-connected PV system consists of a DC-DC stage followed by a DC-AC stage. In this work, DC-DC stage is operated in close loop control to shape the dynamic DC link voltage required for 240CPWM. DC-AC stage is operated in current control mode using proportional integral (PI) along with harmonic compensator (HC) to ensure sinusoidal grid currents along with maximum power point tracking. The modulation index of DC-AC stage is uncontrolled and fixed at the maximum value, and the primary control mechanism is changing the magnitude, phase and waveshape of the DC link voltage. The coordinated control of DC-DC and DC-AC stage is ensured for better dynamic performance and grid support functions. Finally, the performance of grid connected PV converter with 240CPWM is validated using a three-phase 3 kW, 208 V hardware prototype under non-unity power factors, voltage unbalance and voltage sag/swell conditions for the first time. The implemented control with 240CPWM achieves smooth operation under non-unity power factor and grid voltage disturbance conditions with THD as low as 3.5% and peak combined efficiency of DC-DC and DC-AC stage as 96.4%.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Novel Quadratic High Gain Boost Converter With Adaptive Soft-Switching
           Scheme and Reduced Conduction Loss

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      Authors: Nikhil Korada;Raja Ayyanar;
      Pages: 7421 - 7431
      Abstract: In this article, an improved soft-switching quadratic boost converter is proposed. Instead of inserting an additional active clamp or auxiliary zero-voltage transition circuit at the switching node, the proposed topology connects the high-voltage switching node to the input diode node by replacing one of the input diodes with a low-rated switch. The proposed topology can attain soft-switching condition for all the switches and input diode turns-off under zero-current switching (ZCS). The operation of input-side switch not only aids zero-voltage switching (ZVS) turn-on for the main switch but also helps in reducing the conduction loss. Also, the input-side switch operates under ZCS turn-on and ZVS turn-off, making it a loss economical solution. An adaptive timing scheme for driving the input switch is proposed, which can ensure soft-switching condition under varying gain and load range. The detailed operational modes, analysis, and design considerations of the proposed topology are presented. A 250 W hardware prototype is built to validate the performance of the proposed converter operating at 100 kHz switching frequency. Results with adaptive soft-switching scheme shows that the converter is modulated to achieve its best efficiency condition under various system conditions. A peak efficiency of 96.1% at 155 W and efficiencies above 95.75% over a wide load range are achieved using all Si devices.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Design of Electric Vehicle Battery Charger With Reduced Switching
           Frequency Variation

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      Authors: Pratik Pramod Nachankar;Hiralal M. Suryawanshi;Pradyumn Chaturvedi;Dipesh Atkar;Ch. L. Narayana;Devasuth Govind;
      Pages: 7432 - 7444
      Abstract: This article presents the design of an electric vehicle (EV) battery charger isolation stage for minimizing switching frequency variation with the proposed duplex control. Traditionally, the realization of an EV charger with a resonant power conversion stage involves extreme frequency variation in the constant voltage (CV) mode resulting in switching losses, imposes severe constraints on the optimal design of magnetics, and presents control complexities due to secondary resonance and degraded pulsewidth modulation resolution. In this context, reported hybrid control strategies are complex and entail the simultaneous variation of control variables. In order to simplify control complexity and design constraints, the EV charger isolation stage with the quadruple rectifier and employing the proposed duplex control is presented with notable frequency reduction. Furthermore, the effect of high-frequency transformer nonidealities on the soft-switching range is delineated. The proposed duplex control contributes to the efficiency enhancement of the EV charger over a comprehensive range during CV charging, ensures soft switching, and prevents secondary resonance. It also offers continuous resonant current to overcome the underutilization of the transformer arising from high-frequency distortions. To validate the presented analysis, a 1.25-kW hardware prototype is designed and tested in the laboratory, and experimental results are presented.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Highly Efficient Si-/SiC-Based Hybrid Active NPC Converter With a Novel
           Modulation Scheme

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      Authors: Satish Belkhode;Anshuman Shukla;Suryanarayana Doolla;
      Pages: 7445 - 7456
      Abstract: With the increasing demand for high-performance power electronic systems, the semiconductor device utilization has gained significant importance. This article proposes the Si/SiC devices based active neutral-point-clamped converter comprising SiC-based H-bridge structure. A novel pulsewidth modulation (PWM) scheme is also proposed that results in an effective utilization of the switching devices. In the proposed converter, the Si devices are soft-switched for all power-factor loading conditions. Therefore, high efficiency can be obtained even at high switching frequency operation with wide range of power factor values. Further, the conduction losses of the SiC mosfets are minimized by strategically selecting the switching states in such a way that the SiC mosfets conduct in parallel conduction paths during the null state operation. This leads to further enhanced efficiency. This article presents the detailed operating principle of the proposed topology operated with the presented PWM scheme. Moreover, a device loss analysis is presented to evaluate the conduction and switching losses of the proposed topology. The presented experimental results validate the performance parameters of the proposed topology with the proposed PWM scheme. Finally, the proposed PWM scheme is compared with the existing PWM schemes using efficiency values of the proposed and some of the prominent existing converter configurations.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Design and Implementation of a Two-Stage Resonant Converter for Wide
           Output Range Operation

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      Authors: Nicola Zanatta;Tommaso Caldognetto;Davide Biadene;Giorgio Spiazzi;Paolo Mattavelli;
      Pages: 7457 - 7468
      Abstract: This article proposes and analyzes a two-stage isolated dc–dc converter for electric vehicle charging applications, where high efficiency over a wide range of battery voltages is required. It employs a first preregulation stage and a second half-bridge LLC stage, integrated with the first. The second stage is always operated at resonance, ensuring high efficiency. The first preregulation stage is responsible for the desired input-to-output voltage conversion ratio and the zero-voltage switching operation of all the switches. This allows low conversion losses even with voltages that may vary over a wide range. The article presents the conversion structure, the converter analysis, the design of the magnetic elements, and demonstrates the converter operation considering an experimental prototype interfacing a ${750text{-}} mathrm{V}$ dc-link with an output bus with nominal voltage range ${250} mathrm{}$–${500}, mathrm{V}$. The implemented module is rated ${5},text{kW}$ and achieves a peak efficiency of $boldsymbol{98.0%}$ at ${3text{-}} text{kW}$ output power.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Optimal Design of Resonant Network for Resonant Converter

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      Authors: Yadong Wang;Wencheng Zhao;Bangyin Liu;Wanjing Li;
      Pages: 7469 - 7478
      Abstract: The dc transformer based on CLLC resonant converter is widely researched in the dc microgrid due to its excellent bidirectional power transfer capacity. Many resonant network design methods assume that the resonant current is constant during the deadtime. It may lead to hard switching or large conduction loss. Besides, the effects of deadtime on soft switching have not been closely analyzed. This article proposes an optimized design method to minimize conduction losses while achieving zero voltage switching, and it can easily obtain the optimal region and deadtime selection range. Parametric design and deadtime selection principles are derived based on the time-domain models, and then the design method and corresponding procedure are developed. Finally, a 4-kW 500-kHz CLLC resonant converter prototype is built to verify the feasibility of the proposed optimal design method.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Battery Energy Support to Cascaded H-Bridge Converter-Fed Large-Scale PV
           System During Unbalanced Power Generation

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      Authors: Subhasis Nayak;Anandarup Das;Raymundo E. Torres-Olguin;Salvatore D'Arco;Giuseppe Guidi;
      Pages: 7479 - 7489
      Abstract: The cascaded H-bridge (CHB) multilevel converter is an attractive solution for integrating photovoltaic (PV) generators with the ac grid. However, the power generated in the PV panels may be unequal due to partial shading, temperature change, and dust layer accumulation leading to unequal and unbalanced power between the phases and possible violation of power quality constraints. Fundamental frequency zero-sequence voltage (FFZSV) injection can be applied, but this method can produce overmodulation in conditions with high PV power mismatch. A new FFZSV is proposed in this article assuming a CHB with a battery energy support (BES) to compensate for the effects of unbalanced PV power generation. A barycentric coordinate representation helps to determine the capacity of the BES required. A coordinated control between the PV system and BES is also proposed in the article. Additionally, a novel approach to deliberate FFZSV injection is discussed in this article by which the maximum charge and discharge rate for the BES can be obtained along with balanced current injection into the grid. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified in numerical simulations and with experimental results.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Discrete Time Adaptive Observer for Capacitor Voltage Estimation of MMC

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      Authors: Jagannath Samantaray;Rupak Chakraborty;Anubrata Dey;Sohom Chakrabarty;
      Pages: 7490 - 7498
      Abstract: Modular multilevel converters (MMC) are increasingly gaining its importance in HVDC, drive applications due to several attributes such as modularity, scalability, low device stress, excellent output voltage waveform. For MMC operations, it is important to accurately measure the voltages across the individual capacitors of submodules (SMs). These voltage sensors, while upgrading for high voltage applications, may cause a few concerns in terms of cost, complexity, and data acquisition system. To avoid all these, a discrete time adaptive observer (DTAO) is proposed in this article to observe the voltages across the capacitors of the SMs and use the observed values for closed-loop operation of the MMC. The proposed observer is designed by considering the parametric uncertainty in the MMC and its convergence is proved mathematically. Moreover, the DTAO is compared with existing observation techniques for MMC SM capacitor voltages. The efficacy of the proposed observer is shown through simulation and validated using an experimental setup.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Common-Mode Voltage Elimination Method With Active Neutral Point Voltage
           Balancing Control for Three-Level T-Type Inverter

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      Authors: Mohammadreza Lak;Bing-Rong Chuang;Tzung-Lin Lee;
      Pages: 7499 - 7514
      Abstract: Nowadays, the three-level T-type inverters (3LT2Is) are widely employed in applications with high-performance requirements. The 3LT2Is commonly suffer from neutral point voltage (NPV) unbalance and common-mode voltage (CMV) variation. The medium vector pulse width modulation (MVPWM), which generates the reference voltage using medium and V0[OOO] zero voltage vectors, eliminates the CMV variation in 3LT2Is. However, it cannot keep the NPV balance, negatively affecting power quality. This article proposes a hybrid method to simultaneously eliminate CMV variation and guarantee the NPV balance without topological change or extra hardware. The proposed method uses MVPWM when NPV is balanced, eliminating CMV variation. If NPV goes unbalanced, it utilizes novel high/low triangle PWM (H/LPWM) and MVPWM in a hybrid manner to balance the NPV. The H/LPWM, similar to MVPWM, synthesizes voltage using medium and V0[OOO] voltage vectors to maintain the CMV elimination advantage during the NPV balancing process. However, the difference between H/LPWMs and MVPWM switching patterns adjusts the average neutral point current to balance the NPV. Noteworthy that the proposed method provides NPV balancing ability for the entire power factor range. As a result, it is usable for various applications of 3LT2I, such as photovoltaic inverters and motor drives. The proposed method is carrier-based, which reduces the execution time and simplifies the practical implementation. The simulation study and experimental evaluation have been accomplished, and their results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Linear Matrix Inequality-Based Multivariable Controller Design for Boost
           Cascaded Charge-Pump-Based Double-Input DC–DC Converter

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      Authors: Mummadi Veerachary;Akankshi Trivedi;
      Pages: 7515 - 7528
      Abstract: An analysis and controller design of double-input dc–dc converter (DIDDC) is introduced in this article. This converter is integrated with buck and boost converters at the front-end and a charge pump on the back-end. Salient features of this topology are as follows: (i) ripple content is low in source currents, (ii) both the dc sources are connected through an inductor, which gives rise to a smooth source current waveform, (iii) both the sources supply power to load either in standalone or simultaneously together, and (iv) two control–loops (one for source current regulation, while the second one for load voltage regulation) are sufficient enough to ensure power transfer/management from dc sources to load. To ensure power management on the input dc sources while keeping a stable closed-loop converter system, a multivariable diagonal controller is designed. The first diagonal controller performs the load voltage regulation task, while the second controller regulates input of source-2 dc current. From the control point of view, the double-input single-output converter becomes a two-input two-output control problem and exhibits control–loop interactions due to the power flow from two different sources to load through common elements. The impact of off-diagonal elements’ interactions is accounted by using decouplers. The H∞ robust control theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) principles are adopted to design reliable controllers. The structured controller of fixed order (PID) is designed by enforcing the necessary type LMIs. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of multivariable controllers of the DIDDC, a 60/24 V to 48 V, 150 W, 50 kHz topology prototype is constructed, and the power management aspects are investigated experimentally. Load voltage regulation, source current regulation, load shar-ng on the input dc sources, and power management aspects of LMI-based controllers were tested extensively for all possible disturbances. In all these test cases, the closed-loop double-input converter system is stable and robust in rejecting a variety of disturbances created.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Vibration Performance of a Power Electronic Transformer Under Different
           Phase-Shift Modulation Methods

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      Authors: Dong Jiang;Xiaokang Peng;Zicheng Liu;Pengye Wang;She Yan;Ronghai Qu;
      Pages: 7529 - 7538
      Abstract: Power electronic transformers (PETs) have attracted extensive attention in the fields of renewable energy and energy storage, and ac/dc hybrid distribution systems. This article analyzes the vibration generation and conduction of the high-frequency transformer, which is a key component of the PET. An experimental study is presented on the vibration characteristics of a ferrite transformer under different switching frequencies and phase-shift modulation methods. What is more, based on the three vibration sources of the transformer, a quantitative mathematical description between the core vibration acceleration and the excitation voltage and current is obtained under different phase-shifting modulation modes. The errors between the numerical calculated values and the experimental data are basically within 10%, which verifies the validity of the research and prediction of PETs vibration characteristics under different modulation modes.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Asymmetric 49-Levels Cascaded MPUC Multilevel Inverter Fed by a Single DC
           Source

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      Authors: Samuel Carvallho Silva Júnior;Cursino Brandão Jacobina;Edgard Luiz Lopes Fabricio;Alan Santana Felinto;
      Pages: 7539 - 7549
      Abstract: This work studies a multilevel inverter topology composed of two MPUC7s cascaded connected fed by only one dc power source by using a high-frequency link (HFL). This topology can provide up to 49 voltage levels by using four asymmetrical dc links, 12 power switches, and an HFL system. The dc link with higher voltage is fed by a dc source. The other dc links, with lower voltage, are supplied from the main one via high-frequency transformer with unidirectional power flow that processes up to 33% of the load power. A nearest-level control, analysis of power distribution among each dc link, and the HFL system design are presented in detail. Besides, comparisons with other multilevel topologies using HFL are carried out. Experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical studies.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Evaluating On-State Voltage and Junction Temperature Monitoring Concepts
           for Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor Devices

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      Authors: Niklas Fritz;Tobias Kamp;Timothy A. Polom;Maximilian Friedel;Rik W. De Doncker;
      Pages: 7550 - 7561
      Abstract: Monitoring or estimating the junction temperature of power semiconductor devices is a requirement for degradation monitoring and predictive maintenance of power-electronic converters and usually achieved by online measurement of a temperature-sensitive electrical parameter (TSEP). Many TSEPs rely on switching transients and, thus, depend on the design of a switching cell, driving significant calibration efforts. Instead, utilizing the on-state voltage of a power semiconductor device as TSEP is attractive, as it only depends on the load current and the output characteristic of the device. This independence of the switching cell design enables on-state voltage monitoring circuits to be seamlessly integrated into products that are already mass produced. However, an effective on-state voltage monitoring circuit has to measure small on-state voltages accurately and fast while withstanding high off-state voltages. This article experimentally evaluates three candidate circuits that take on this challenge: a circuit derived from a Wheatstone bridge, a dynamically compensated voltage divider, and a circuit using an auxiliary MOSFET. PCBs are designed, featuring all three circuit concepts, and experiments are carried out to compare the candidate circuits in terms of dynamic performance and resolution. Finally, the potential for integration into commercial products is outlined, illustrated, and discussed.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Domestic Induction Heating System With Standard Primary Inductor for
           Reduced-Size and High Distance Cookware

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      Authors: Emilio Plumed;Ignacio Lope;Jesús Acero;José Miguel Burdío;
      Pages: 7562 - 7571
      Abstract: In this article, a hybrid wireless power transfer system, which combines induction heating (IH) and inductive power transfer functionalities, is proposed to improve the performance of a domestic IH application with small loads weakly coupled to distant inductors. Considering the basic single-inductor domestic IH application, the proposed system adds a secondary inductor with a series compensation capacitor directly attached to the small ferromagnetic cookware. The extended distance can be used to implement the glassless induction concept, where the ceramic glass of typical cooktops is substituted by the kitchen surface itself. The design of the secondary coil is carried out by means of a combination of finite-element and electrical simulations. A design process, including the housing of the resonant capacitors and the selection of the secondary winding number of turns and cabling, is presented. As a result, a prototype is implemented and tested under working conditions up to 1500 W at several distances. Experimental results validate the electrical modeling and simulation. Moreover, thermal results confirm the feasibility of the proposal and validate the adopted strategies for the capacitor housing.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Winding Structure of Air-Core Planar Inductors for Reducing
           High-Frequency Eddy Currents

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      Authors: Koji Orikawa;Shotaro Kanno;Satoshi Ogasawara;
      Pages: 7572 - 7580
      Abstract: High-frequency converters with high power density have shown promise in recent years. Air-core planar inductors built with printed circuit boards can eliminate problems associated with the use of magnetic materials, such as iron loss and magnetic saturation. However, conventional air-core planar inductors suffer from eddy current loss. Eddy currents affect the resistance and inductance of the inductor. This article proposes a stranded wire structure to reduce eddy currents more than that in the conventional spiral wire structure. Eddy currents can be reduced by splitting the windings as well as currents of each split winding are balanced in the proposed structure. Seven types of air-core planar inductors were built, and their resistances, inductances, and impedances were measured to evaluate the effects of different structures on eddy currents. Furthermore, the temperature distribution of the planar inductors was measured while supplying a sinusoidal voltage with a power amplifier. The experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed stranded wire structure. Furthermore, the experimental result shows that the stray capacitance of the inductor can be reduced as a by-product of the proposed stranded wire structure.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Ramp-Rate Limitation Control of Distributed Renewable Energy Sources Via
           Supercapacitors

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      Authors: Kyriaki-Nefeli D. Malamaki;Francisco Casado-Machado;Manuel Barragán-Villarejo;Andrei Mihai Gross;Georgios C. Kryonidis;Jose Luis Martinez-Ramos;Charis S. Demoulias;
      Pages: 7581 - 7594
      Abstract: The growing penetration of converter-interfaced distributed renewable energy sources (CI-DRES) has posed several challenges into the electric power systems, e.g., the instability caused by the intermittent nature of the primary sources, power quality issues, etc. Several algorithms have been proposed to mitigate the CI-DRES power fluctuations and reduce high active power ramp-rates (RRs) at the point of common coupling (PCC) with the grid using energy storage systems (ESS). However, these algorithms present some drawbacks. In this article, a new ramp-rate limitation (RRL) control method is proposed to address existing gaps in the technical literature. This algorithm is performed considering the connection of a supercapacitor (SC) at the dc-link of a DRES converter. The relationship between the SC voltage and the degree to which the RRL is achieved is established, aiming to reduce the SC voltage fluctuations and increase the SC life time. The RRL control is validated in a real experimental testbed and compared to state-of-the-art approaches. This control is also modeled in Matlab/Simulink in order to perform techno-economic investigations on the influence that several parameters (SC size, SC charging/discharging cycles, cost, etc.) have on the achieved RRL at the DRES PCC.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Robust Control for Solar and SyRG Based Hydro Generation Microgrid With
           Grid Synchronization

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      Authors: Rohini Sharma;Bhim Singh;
      Pages: 7595 - 7607
      Abstract: The control of a microgrid is quite challenging thus this work implements a robust and fast control technique based on an enhanced second-order generalized integrator with a modified frequency locked loop (ESOGI-MFLL) for switching operation between an islanded and the grid-connected mode. For phase angle estimation, a circular limited cycle oscillator frequency locked loop with an inner loop filter (CLO-FLL-WIF) is implemented instead of a conventional phase-locked loop technique to provide better synchronization performance for polluted grid voltages. This microgrid is combing a solar photovoltaic (PV) generation, a synchronous reluctance generator for pico-hydro generation, and the battery, which works in both standalone and grid-connected modes while feeding local loads uninterruptedly. The output power conversion of a PV array is influenced by irradiation of the solar PV array; therefore, a maximum power point tracking namely an incremental conductance method is used. The implemented control techniques are used for fundamental extraction of load components of voltage and currents for assessment of reference currents with their respective phases of synchronization while maintaining the required IEEE power quality standard-519. In addition, the comparative results validate the faster response of ESOGI-MFLL control algorithm to the existing control algorithm. Simulated and test results of a microgrid for islanded, switching mode, and grid-connected mode demonstrate its performance under load unbalance and generation perturbation.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Reduced Capacitor Energy Requirements in Battery Energy Storage Systems
           Based on Modular Multilevel Converters

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      Authors: Jean M. L. Fonseca;Siddavatam Ravi Prakash Reddy;Kaushik Rajashekara;Krishna Raj Ramachandran Potti;
      Pages: 7608 - 7619
      Abstract: Battery energy storage systems (BESS) based on modular multilevel converters (MMCs) allow battery packs to be integrated into the electrical grid in a modular fashion. Inherent to the operation of the MMC, the module's dc-link capacitor voltage experiences oscillations at grid frequency and its harmonics. This article investigates the close relation between this voltage oscillation and the battery current ripple. The precise capacitor energy requirements for various operations of BESS-MMC, which include arm/phase power balancing and state-of-charge balancing are analyzed in this article. Furthermore, this article also explores the relation between the controller design and the submodule's (SMs) capacitor sizing in terms of its energy requirements. Design guidelines for the SM level voltage control to attenuate battery ripple and detailed analysis for the capacitor energy requirement in each operating mode are presented. The control and capacitor sizing design are validated in real-time using embedded microprocessors in a Typhoon-based controller hardware-in-the-loop environment.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Complete Small-Signal Modelling and Adaptive Stability Analysis of
           Nonlinear Droop-Controlled Microgrids

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      Authors: Hassan Abdelgabir;Mohammad N. B. Shaheed;Ali Elrayyah;Yilmaz Sozer;
      Pages: 7620 - 7633
      Abstract: Nonlinear droop control has been introduced to establish an effective power-sharing between distributed generators without the need for communication links in microgrids (MGs). However, one of the missing studies in the literature is the effects of nonlinear droop relations on the stability of the MGs. In this article, the stability of an inverter-based MG operating with the nonlinear frequency droop-control has been analyzed. A complete small-signal state-space linearized model of the MG system, with optimized nonlinear droop relations, has been developed considering the dynamics of the overall system and is updated periodically. The stability of the system is then checked online at different operating points. Small-signal stability analysis of an islanded MG was performed using MATLAB/Simulink and the results were experimentally verified on an MG setup.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Phase Current Reconstruction Method With an Improved Direct Torque Control
           of SRM Drive for Electric Transportation Applications

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      Authors: Deepak Ronanki;Krishna Reddy Pittam;Apparao Dekka;Parthiban Perumal;Abdul R. Beig;
      Pages: 7648 - 7657
      Abstract: Acquisition of the accurate phase currents is indispensable for the control and protection of switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives for electric transportation applications. Existing phase current reconstruction techniques for SRM are implemented under the current control techniques, which generate large torque pulsations. Therefore, the direct torque control (DTC) method can be adopted to minimize torque pulsations and to enhance transient performance in electrified vehicles. However, the existing current estimation methods cannot be applied to DTC strategies due to the simultaneous conduction of all phases at any switching instant. Furthermore, it offers a lower torque per ampere ($T/A$) ratio and draws a high source current. This article addresses the aforementioned concerns by proposing a cost-effective phase current reconstruction method with an improved DTC strategy for a 4-kW four-phase SRM drive. This method employs a 16-sector partition method with a new voltage vector selection by detecting zero-current regions of each phase. As a result, the long-tail currents can be avoided, thereby limiting the simultaneous conduction of all phases. The simulation and test results show that the proposed DTC has minimal torque pulsations, high $T/A$ ratio, low converter losses, and lower source current ripple in comparison to the existing DTC schemes under various operating conditions. Also, the proposed phase current estimation method effectively reconstructs the phase currents under both steady-state and transient operating conditions.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • External Liquid Cooling Method for Lithium-Ion Battery Modules Under
           Ultra-Fast Charging

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      Authors: Yudi Qin;Zhoucheng Xu;Jiuyu Du;Haoqi Guo;Languang Lu;Minggao Ouyang;
      Pages: 7658 - 7667
      Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs) are booming all over the world for a low carbon emission and greener environment. The fast charging is an urgent demand for consumers. However, the dramatic temperature rising during high-power charging has a high risk of trigging thermal runaway and other safety issues. This article proposes an external liquid cooling method for lithium-ion battery module with cooling plates and circulating cool equipment. A comprehensive experiment study is carried out on a battery module with up to 4C fast charging, the results show that the three-side cooling plates layout with low coolant temperature provides better temperature control effect, while the coolant velocity and type have very weak impact. Then the simulation model with high precision is built for ultra-fast charging, and a safe charging range under 5C charging is proposed. The safe charging range under 5C can be increased by 50.1%. The environment close to the room temperature demonstrates the best effects of external cooling. For actual applications in the EVs, the circulating cooling equipment outside EVs can be integrated with high-power charging infrastructure and provide a 117 km improvement in mileage under 5C safe charging which indicates a tremendous application prospect.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Functional Link Neural Network for Wide Load Operation of Bidirectional
           Onboard Charging System of E-Rickshaw

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      Authors: Utsav Sharma;Bhim Singh;
      Pages: 7668 - 7679
      Abstract: This article investigates the functional link neural network assisted deadbeat predictive current control for an onboard charger (OBC) of an e-rickshaw with multistep charging capability. This control algorithm is presented for wide load operation of OBC since a multistep charging scheme is introduced to reduce the electricity consumption by OBC in the course of the peak load hours. The presented grid-connected OBC topology has two stages interconnected with the dc link capacitor. The first stage is a front-end converter to regulate the voltage at the dc link capacitor. Moreover, it regulates the power quality within the IEEE-519 standard. Furthermore, a dc–dc converter to regulate the charging current is the second stage of the OBC. Keeping this in view, a bidirectional interleaved isolated single ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC) converter topology is utilized. To analyze the performance of the OBC under distinct operating conditions such as grid voltage variations, an experimental prototype of the bidirectional OBC, is developed. Furthermore, the efficacy of the bidirectional operation of the designed system is analyzed through the vehicle to grid operation.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Solar PV Integration to E-Rickshaw With Regenerative Braking and
           Sensorless Control

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      Authors: Biswajit Saha;Bhim Singh;Aryadip Sen;
      Pages: 7680 - 7691
      Abstract: This article proposes a novel drivetrain design of a solar-powered e-rickshaw with the controller. Hall-Effect position sensorless brushless dc (BLDC) motor drive often suffers from delayed commutation at high speed and even at low speed, conventional control does not work well due to low magnitude of back EMF. Here, the proposed sensorless control with commutation error compensation is implemented, which drives the motor over the entire range. A simple commutation error compensation algorithm is designed to detect the freewheeling pulses, reducing the control complexity for low-cost EV application and eliminating low pass filter requirement. Moreover, a zero-crossing detection (ZCD) algorithm is suggested, which inherently compensates the delay and removes the need of any additional phase compensator. A fixed delay digital filter is used to eliminate any unwanted spikes in ZCD circuit. For effective MPPT control, a modified Landsman converter is used, which provides ripple-free current at output and reduces the requirement of ripple filter at front end. The BLDC motor drive is capable of energy regeneration, which reduces the range anxiety for EV. The solar energy and the battery ensure that the vehicle never runs out of power irrespective of the climate conditions. The average distance covered by the vehicle on a single charge is improved.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Research on Dual 12-Phase 12-Slot Winding Permanent-Magnet Propulsion
           System Based on All-SiC Power Module

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      Authors: Junjie Zhu;Jingxin Yuan;Ziling Nie;Jin Xu;Xiong Zeng;
      Pages: 7692 - 7700
      Abstract: All-SiC power modules have lately received great attention for multiphase motor propulsion systems due to their low radiator temperature and high efficiency. However, the application of all-SiC power modules for dual 12-phase 12-slot winding permanent-magnet propulsion systems remains an ongoing challenge, owing to synchronous operation. In an effort to overcome this challenge, this article quantified and compared the all-SiC power module with Si-insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) to underpin the all-SiC power module as the preferred choice for propulsion inverter application. The motor mathematical model and control strategy were illustrated in detail. Moreover, the crucial features of the propulsion inverter and synchronous control were elucidated by the theoretical and experimental analysis. The synchronous switching of the dual all-SiC power modules allowed the same slot windings to achieve excellent operation. The experimental results were given for the operation of propulsion systems based on all-SiC power modules. The motor operations under different speeds were investigated as well. Finally, the fault tolerance of the dual 12-phase 12-slot permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) was validated under an open circuit.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Electrostatic Separation of Tribocharged Granular Mixtures of Two or More
           Plastics Originating From WEEE

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      Authors: Imed-Eddine Achouri;Mohamed-Fodil Boukhoulda;Karim Medles;Gontran Richard;Thami Zeghloul;Lucian Dascalescu;
      Pages: 7701 - 7708
      Abstract: Electrostatic separation is able to process mixtures of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment. The efficiency of the electrostatic separation depends on the electric charge acquired by the particles in the appropriate tribocharging devices. The aim of this work is to validate the possibility of using a roll-type electrostatic separator to sort mixtures of particles that are difficult to process by other means. In this type of separator, the plastic particles are charged by triboelectric effect. Two types of charging devices have been used: fluidized bed and rotating multicylinder. Two series of experiments were performed with samples composed in equal proportions of: first, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS); second, polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). A third series of experiments were carried out with a mixture of three plastics: PP, PE, and ABS, and the last series of experiments were carried out with a mixture of four plastics of (PE/PP/ABS/PS), with an average particle diameter ranging between 3 and 6 mm. The efficiency of the electrostatic separation was evaluated by measuring the charge, purity, and recovery of the granules collected at the outlet of the electrostatic separation. The results confirm that the separation of ABS/PS and PP/PE mixtures is feasible and the best separation results were obtained using the fluidized bed tribocharger.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Behavior of Insulating Particles in an Electrostatic Separator Associated
           With a New Spiral-Type Tribocharger

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      Authors: Mohammed Rezoug;Mohamed Fodil Boukhoulda;Seddik Touhami;Wessim Aksa;Karim Medles;Lucian Dascalescu;
      Pages: 7709 - 7715
      Abstract: Electrostatic separation processes are emerging as the solution of choice for recycling waste from end-of-life equipment in various industries. The separation of the different constituents of such plastic mixtures is the key to successful recycling. The main objective of this work was the development of a new spiral-type tribocharging device with application in the field of electrostatic separation. The spiral charger offers a very high charging rate compared to other triboelectric systems. It favors collisions of the particles with the inner wall, which is very efficient to separate a mixture of ternary particles. The study was conducted with samples of various medium-sized (2–5 mm) granular plastics, for several values of air velocity, pipe length, and particle mass in the turbocharging device. The spiral charger was associated with a belt-type electrostatic separator to process a granular insulating mixture, consisting of three types of plastic products Polyvinyl Chloride, Polypropylene, and Polystyrene. This work also aims at numerically simulating the dynamic behavior of insulating particles in belt-type electrostatic separators. The good separation obtained for this ternary mixture shows the efficiency of the new tribocharger.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Multioutput Hybrid Solar Inverter With No Right Half-Plane Zero and
           Reduced Common-Mode Leakage Current

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      Authors: Simanta Kumar Samal;Rajeev Kumar Singh;Ranjit Mahanty;
      Pages: 7716 - 7727
      Abstract: In this article, a multioutput-based transformerless hybrid solar inverter (TLHSI) with no right half-plane zero (RHPZ) and reduced common-mode leakage/ground current is presented for photovoltaic (PV) based microgrid applications. In the proposed multioutput TLHSI, two magnetically coupled inductor coils are placed between the input and dc output sides along with a dc-link capacitor to continuously provide the stored energy to the dc load so that the RHPZ is eliminated and, thus, makes it a minimum phase system. Furthermore, a hybrid unipolar sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation technique is established to nullify the high-frequency components of common-mode voltage across the PV to ground stray capacitor. Also, it normalizes both dc and ac loads at the same instant from a single dc input during each operating state of the proposed TLHSI. The shoot-through issue is resolved in the proposed TLHSI, which increases the system reliability. Furthermore, as the deadtime is not required in between the switching pulses, the quality of the inverter output voltage improves. The performance analysis of the proposed TLHSI is compared with the existing topologies. To validate the performance of TLHSI, a scaled down 340 W laboratory prototype is developed.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Grid-Interfaced Photovoltaic–Battery Energy Storage System With Slime
           Mold Optimized Adaptive Seamless Control

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      Authors: Mukul Chankaya;Aijaz Ahmad;Ikhlaq Hussain;Bhim Singh;Syed Bilal Qaiser Naqvi;
      Pages: 7728 - 7738
      Abstract: This article presents a photovoltaic (PV)–battery energy storage (BES) system functioning in both grid-tied and standalone modes while performing multifunctional operations, including reactive power compensation, power balancing, and power quality enhancement. The PV–BES system ensures uninterrupted power supply to the critical loads even during seamless transitions from grid-tied mode to islanded mode, and vice versa. The incremental conductance technique controls the boost converter and confirms maximum PV power extraction. The bidirectional converter connects BES to the dc bus. The dc bus voltage $({{V}_{dc}})$ is regulated by a slime mold optimized proportional-integral controller to limit the dynamic state variation and improve stability. The voltage-source converter (VSC) is controlled by a minimum kernel-risk-sensitive mean p-power loss algorithm during the grid-synchronization mode. In contrast, the voltage control algorithm executes islanded control of VSC. The VSC control transition is achieved seamlessly without any significant disturbance at the point of common coupling. The hardware test results demonstrate that the present system remains stable during dynamic conditions and performs adequately as per the IEEE 519-2014 standard.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Feedback-Based Flexible Compensation Strategy for a Weak-Grid-Tied
           Current-Controlled Converter Under Unbalanced and Harmonic Conditions

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      Authors: Suresh Maganti;Narayana Prasad Padhy;
      Pages: 7739 - 7753
      Abstract: Due to ever-increasing power demand and high renewable energy penetration, the power system's harmonics and voltage unbalancing have become significant power quality issues. In this aspect, because of the multifunctioning ability of the power electronic converters, the grid-connected power electronic converter-based distributed generations are expected to provide desired compensation whenever required. Especially in a weak grid environment, the compensation draws more attention due to constricted coupling between the voltage and current at the point of common coupling as a consequence of high grid impedance. Therefore, this article presents a feedback-based flexible compensation strategy for a weak-grid-tied distributed generation (DG) to enhance the compensation of harmonics and voltage unbalance in the system. The main uniqueness of the proposed work is to seamlessly embed a flexible harmonic loop with a fundamental current control loop for achieving three control targets: voltage harmonic compensation, DG line current harmonic rejection, and voltage unbalance compensation. Achieving control targets require voltage feedback and no need to measure nonlinear load current. In order to execute flexible harmonic compensation (i.e., from voltage harmonic compensation to DG line current harmonic rejection) through the harmonic loop, the proposed strategy generates a harmonic reference from voltage feedback and inherent current feedback. The delay introduced by the harmonic compensators is accurately compensated distinctly to improve the performance of the harmonic loop. The voltage unbalance compensation is achieved through the fundamental current control loop by improving the fundamental positive sequence voltage and decreasing negative sequence components concurrently. To enhance the flexibility between two different targets (i.e., flexible harmonic compensation and voltage unbalance compensation), the harmonic and unbalanced compensations are execu-ed on an individual target basis, subjected to the converter's maximum current and system voltage constraints. The proposed compensation strategy offers better harmonic suppression and voltage unbalance compensation than conventional methods. Because it exactly acts upon modulation signals and directly regulates sequence components and voltage harmonics. Furthermore, the proposed control's detailed design and stability analysis is presented, and its superiority is validated through simulations and real-time experimentations.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • An Interval Analysis Scheme Based on Empirical Error and MCMC to Quantify
           Uncertainty of Wind Speed

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      Authors: Xiaoyu Shen;Yagang Zhang;Jinghui Zhang;Xiaokun Wu;
      Pages: 7754 - 7763
      Abstract: The widespread existence of uncertainty makes power system control and decision-making face various risks, especially the interconnection of modern large-scale power systems, which makes its influence range more extensive. In smart grid, the renewable energy prediction and uncertainty analysis methods represented by wind power generation have attracted extensive attention. In this study, an adaptive parameter selection method based on Kullback−Leibler divergence is designed to fully extract the potential information of data. The grey wolf optimization based on reverse learning is used for prediction optimization, identifying historical data, processing dynamic information, and improving the accuracy of the model. In interval prediction, an interval prediction method combining empirical error, quantile statistics, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo is creatively proposed to generate a large number of independent error cases, and form a series of interval predictions with given confidence according to the quantile of random simulation results. Taking wind speed forecasting as an example, it is verified that the method proposed in this article has good performance. Using interval analysis to quantify the volatility and randomness can provide new ideas for load forecasting in power system and renewable energy output forecasting.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Stochastic Power System Dynamic Simulation and Stability Assessment
           Considering Dynamics From Correlated Loads and PVs

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      Authors: Ketian Ye;Junbo Zhao;Nan Duan;Daniel Adrian Maldonado;
      Pages: 7764 - 7775
      Abstract: The integration of uncertain photovoltaics (PVs) and flexible loads leads to uncertainties in the power system dynamic simulation results. Furthermore, geographically close PV farms are correlated and may exhibit nonlinear correlations. This article proposes a copula-based sparse polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) framework for quantifying the impacts of uncertain dynamic PVs and loads on power system dynamic simulations and stability. The dynamics include both PV and load stochasticity and those governed by differential and algebraic equations. The copula statistics are utilized to accurately characterize the dependence structure of PVs and further used to develop the copula-PCE for quantifying the impacts of uncertain PVs and loads. A probabilistic TSI is also developed to assess the uncertainties from PVs and loads on the system stability. To address the cases, where both stable and unstable conditions coexist, a preprocessing step via sample classification is proposed. The effects of different dependence structures of PVs and different numbers of uncertain sources are investigated. Comparison results with other methods on the modified IEEE 39- and 118-bus systems, including the Monte Carlo method, Latin hypercube sampling, and traditional PCE without consideration of uncertain input correlations show that the proposed method is able to accurately quantify the uncertain dynamic simulations and transient system stability while being computationally efficient.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Cooperative Energy Transaction Model for VPP Integrated Renewable Energy
           Hubs in Deregulated Electricity Markets

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      Authors: Ghulam Mohy-ud-din;Kashem M. Muttaqi;Danny Sutanto;
      Pages: 7776 - 7791
      Abstract: This article proposes a cooperative energy transaction model for a virtual power plant (VPP) developed as a bilevel optimization program based on the Stackelberg game in the deregulated electricity markets. The VPP integrates multiple renewable energy hubs consisting of electric vehicle charging stations with photovoltaic and battery energy storage systems. The proposed model derives co-optimized strategic decisions for the VPP operator in the day-ahead (joint active power, reserve, and reactive power) markets while considering the balancing market operation. The proposed model is reformulated as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPECs) using the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions and the strong duality theorem. For an efficient solution, the MPEC is approximated as a mixed-integer linear program by applying the Fortuny-Amat transform on the complementarity and slackness conditions and the binary expansion on the bilinear terms. The uncertainties of the renewables, loads, and prices are modeled using stochastic scenarios. Finally, comparative case studies of a VPP in an IEEE 33 node active distribution network show that the proposed model improves the profit by strategic cooperative energy transactions.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Extended State-Based OSG Configurations for SOGI PLL With an Enhanced
           Disturbance Rejection Capability

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      Authors: Abdullahi Bamigbade;Vinod Khadkikar;
      Pages: 7792 - 7804
      Abstract: Changes in the orthogonal signal generator (OSG) configuration of the standard second-order generalized integrator-based phase-locked loop (S-SOGI PLL) have shown to offer an improved low-voltage ride-through capability. However, the resulting PLLs: highpass SOGI (H-SOGI) and lowpass SOGI (L-SOGI) PLLs have no dc-offset estimation capability and lack robustness to disturbances. Therefore, this article focuses on maximizing the merits of H-SOGI and L-SOGI PLLs for grid and industrial applications by incorporating dc-offset estimation and enhancing their disturbance rejection capability. Accordingly, two varieties of SOGI PLLs, namely: extended state highpass SOGI (ES-H-SOGI) and extended state lowpass SOGI (ES-L-SOGI) PLLs are proposed. In the proposed PLLs, states of the OSGs are extended to achieve dc-offset estimation and rejection, while frequency-adaptive implementation of the moving average filter (MAF) is developed to achieve complete harmonic rejection at off-nominal frequencies of the input voltage. To alleviate the undesirable effect of the MAF in terms of the PLL's slow transient response, frequency-adaptive implementation of a phase-lead compensator is introduced. In this article, design guideline that achieves an optimal tradeoff between disturbance rejection and dynamic performance in the ES-H-SOGI and ES-L-SOGI PLLs is presented. Finally, experimental comparison between the proposed ES-H-SOGI and ES-L-SOGI PLLs and their ES-S-SOGI PLL counterpart is carried to show that the proposed PLLs outperform the ES-S-SOGI PLL in terms of dynamic performance while achieving enhanced disturbance rejection capability.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Novel Configuration of a Hybrid Offshore Wind-Wave Energy Conversion
           System and Its Controls for a Remote Area Power Supply

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      Authors: Safdar Rasool;Kashem M. Muttaqi;Danny Sutanto;
      Pages: 7805 - 7817
      Abstract: This article aims to develop a novel hybrid offshore wind-wave energy conversion system (HOW-WECS) configuration which can successfully feed a stable power to the customers of remote communities in near-shore areas or remote islands. The proposed configuration uses a minimum number of converters for the integration of the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind energy system with the direct-drive linear permanent magnet generator (DDLPMG) based wave energy system. Advanced control schemes for the DFIG and the DDLPMG are presented to enhance the power extraction from the implemented HOW-WECS. The dynamic and the transient performance of the proposed system and the associated control schemes are tested under various operating scenarios and electrical fault conditions. The dynamic performance was acceptable as the implemented control strategies were able to keep the stator voltage and the stator current of the DFIG sinusoidal and balanced, the frequency excursions are within the acceptable band, and the common ac-bus voltage of the distribution network stable under all operating scenarios. The results prove the effectiveness of the proposed system under transient conditions and the ability of the proposed HOW-WECS to recover quickly to gain its pre-fault conditions once the fault was cleared.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Prediction for Dissolved Gas in Power Transformer Oil Based On TCN and GCN

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      Authors: Diansheng Luo;Jie Fang;Hongying He;Wei-Jen Lee;Zhenyuan Zhang;Hongtao Zai;Wengang Chen;Ke Zhang;
      Pages: 7818 - 7826
      Abstract: Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) is an important method to identify internal faults of transformers. A novel predictive method for dissolved gas content in transformer oil based on temporal convolutional network (TCN) and graph convolutional network (GCN) is proposed in this article. First, a TCN based on dilated causal convolution algorithm is designed to extract feature information from both current data and historical data of each gas content. Since the correlation coefficients among different gases may affect the accuracy of the prediction, a topological structure diagram is constructed to describe the relationship among different gases. Then, a GCN is designed to predict the gas content in the desired time horizon by using the information obtained from the topological structure diagram. The elements in the adjacency matrix of GCN are replaced by Pearson correlation coefficients to improve the accuracy of the prediction. The test results show that the proposed method in this article achieves high accuracy for the prediction of dissolved gas content in transformer oil. Compared with back propagation neural network, long short-term memory network and TCN, the mean absolute error of the predicted result by the proposed method is reduced by 12.23, 11.18, and 3.81%, respectively.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Parametric Uncertainty Compensation and Ripple Mitigation Control for
           Family of Z-Converters

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      Authors: Mohit Kachhwaha;Shivam Chaturvedi;Deepak Fulwani;
      Pages: 7827 - 7837
      Abstract: Unlike VSIs, the single-stage inverters (SSIs) from the family of Z-converters are capable of boosting input dc to a desired ac voltage. The Z-network of these converters consists of a symmetric X-shaped network or a combination of inductors and capacitors. The basic Z-source converter (ZSC), connected in X-shaped fashion is modeled as a fourth-order system. This can be further modeled as a second-order system to reduce the sensor count but this may lead to an unstable system if there is an asymmetry in network parameters. Also, the source current of SSIs contains second-order ripple current (SRC) component, which oscillates at twice the supply frequency and has detrimental effects on sources. To alleviate the above problems, a parametric uncertainty compensation and ripple mitigation (PUCRM) control methodology is proposed. PUCRM control can be used to maintain stability and achieve desired performance during parametric uncertainties in the dc–dc stage and to reduce SRC propagating to the sources while feeding ac loads. PUCRM consists of a nominal dual-loop PI controller, which regulates the SSIs to achieve desired performance and a nonlinear integral sliding mode component that mitigates the uncertainties and ripple component. The proposed method is verified using simulation and experimentation.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Port Impedance Measurement and Current Injection Response Analysis for
           PLCs

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      Authors: Wei Qiu;Liang Zhang;He Yin;Kaiqi Sun;Lawrence C. Markel;DaHan Liao;Zhi Li;Ben W. Mcconnell;Yilu Liu;
      Pages: 7838 - 7846
      Abstract: Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are used to control devices throughout the power system since they have fast control capabilities and can utilize multiple types of communication interfaces. Therefore, studying and mitigating their vulnerabilities to electromagnetic pulse is important for the reliability of PLC operations. In this article, an effective impedance measurement scheme is proposed and demonstrated for three PLCs to estimate their susceptibility to an electromagnetic pulse. The equivalent nonuniform transmission line model is established to eliminate the impact of the fixture in the de-embedding process. Then, different parameters of the impedance measurement setup are explored. Based on the measured impedance, the equivalent circuit is established to calculate the response of the device when subjected to the electromagnetic pulse. The voltage and current responses of different interfaces are compared utilizing the developed pulsed current injection (CI) method. Finally, the impedance measurement scheme is verified through testing using three measuring instruments. And the CI simulation experiments reveal the characteristics and susceptibilities of different PLCs interfaces, indicating that some protection measures are required for the reliable operation of the PLC.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Linear Eddy Current Speed Sensor for Speed Measurement of Conductive
           Objects

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      Authors: Mehran Mirzaei;Pavel Ripka;Vaclav Grim;
      Pages: 7847 - 7856
      Abstract: This article presents the novel structure of an eddy current sensor for linear speed measurements. The sensor has one excitation coil and two pairs of antiserially connected pick-up coils, which are located inside and outside the excitation coil. The design and modeling of the sensor are considered with an air core and with a magnetic yoke (core) to compare their performances in terms of sensitivity and nonlinearity error. The experiments and the analysis are performed at different excitation frequencies and speeds. A novel three-dimensional analytical method is developed and utilized for parametric analysis and for the design of this sensor. The simulation results are compared with measurements up to 16.7 m/s (60 km/h). The achieved nonlinearity error is as low as 0.3%.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Dynamic Forecasting of Solar Energy Microgrid Systems Using Feature
           Engineering

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      Authors: Muamar Mohamed;Farhad E. Mahmood;Mehmmood A. Abd;Ambrish Chandra;Bhim Singh;
      Pages: 7857 - 7869
      Abstract: The intermittent and stochastic nature of solar energy generation systems, climate change, and the inefficiency of modern power systems due to zero inertia have created many challenges for on-grid operators. Solar forecasting systems based on machine learning algorithms are an emerging and effective solution that uses Big Data related to weather phenomena. However, the predictive ability of these algorithms is hampered by the sporadic nature of solar energy generation. In this article, a robust hybrid machine learning system that utilizes multiple linear regression (MLR) and a Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) was tested on solar power plant sites of varying capacities in Germany (100–8500 kW). The volume of Big Data features can be reduced by focusing on the features that significantly improve the reliability of the mid-term forecasting system. In this way, drastic fluctuations in the prediction of photovoltaic (PV) power generation can be avoided. The results of our approach are evaluated regarding real-world data using the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) with feature engineering, and principal component analysis (PCA), in order to forecast PV energy, rank, and track the importance of feature engineering for different PV capacities. Furthermore, we found that the need for selectivity and reduction of performance error was supported by ridge regression. In addition, the proposed novel XGBoost forecast system decreased the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) by 30% and 18%, respectively, compared to the Autoencoder and long short-term memory (LSTM) for same datasets. Furthermore, the CoD determination coefficient ($R^{2}$) increased by 85% compared to the statistical model's autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA).
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Optimal Operation of WL-RC-QLMS and Luenberger Observer Based Disturbance
           Rejection Controlled Grid Integrated PV-DSTATCOM System

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      Authors: Shailendra Kumar;Dulichand Jaraniya;Rajasekhara Reddy Chilipi;Ahmed Al-Durra;
      Pages: 7870 - 7880
      Abstract: This article deals with a widely linear reduced-complexity quaternion least mean square (WL-RC-QLMS) controlled two-stage photovoltaic (PV) grid system. The WL-RC-QLMS-based current control method is developed, and the function of this control technique is to attenuate the higher order and suborder harmonic components from the distorted load currents, even when the load currents are nonlinear and/or unbalanced. Moreover, the Luenberger observer is used to control the dc-link voltage. The Luenberger observer is equipped with the cascaded state observers, which can reject the overshoot and undershoot at the dc bus voltage rapidly and precisely. The proposed WL-RC-QLMS controller is modeled and the controller is developed in a Simulink environment and validated on a laboratory prototype. The grid current condition measured in terms of total harmonics distortion is found under the restraint of IEEE 519 standard in different working conditions, which exhibits the efficacy of the implemented control.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Adaptive Optimal Greedy Clustering-Based Monthly Electricity Consumption
           Forecasting Method

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      Authors: Yuqing Wang;Zhiyang Fu;Fei Wang;Kangping Li;Zhenghui Li;Zhao Zhen;Payman Dehghanian;Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad;João P. S. Catalão;
      Pages: 7881 - 7891
      Abstract: Accurate monthly electricity consumption forecasting (MECF) is important for electricity retailers to mitigate trading risks in the electricity market. Clustering is commonly used to improve the accuracy of MECF. However, in the existing clustering-based forecasting methods, clustering and forecasting are independently performed and lack coordination, which limits the further improvement of forecasting accuracy. To address this issue, an adaptive optimal greedy clustering-based MECF method is proposed in this article. First, a metric of predictability is defined based on the goodness of fit and the cluster's average electricity consumption. Under a predefined number of clusters, the greedy clustering algorithm achieves the optimal division of individuals with the goal of maximizing predictability. Then, an adaptive method is designed to select the optimal number of clusters from a variety of clustering scenarios according to the prediction accuracy on the validation dataset. The effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method have been verified on a real-world dataset.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Multiobjective Coordinated Operation for Multienergy Hubs: A Bargaining
           Game Approach

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      Authors: Shuai He;Nian Liu;Ruizhi Li;
      Pages: 7892 - 7906
      Abstract: The energy hub (EH) is an essential part of the energy conversion supply process, which integrates multienergy forms to improve energy efficiency effectively. A multiobjective optimization model, including exergy loss and operation cost, is established to balance the efficiency of energy utilization and cost. Due to EH and users being connected by a thermal network, a thermal network model that considers the time delay and loss is established. An interaction framework based on the bargaining game theory is proposed to realize the coordination between EHs and heat station (HS). Furthermore, models, such as thermal exergy, thermal network, and bargaining game goal, are linearized. It dramatically reduces the computational cost and can easily be solved by Cplex or Gurobi. Finally, numerical studies with three EHs and one HS demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. In the case study, the overall cost of EH and HS can be reduced by 2.60% through the interaction of electric power, thermal power, and exergy loss.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Modified LMS Control for a Grid Interactive PV–Fuel Cell–Electrolyzer
           Hybrid System With Power Dispatch to the Grid

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      Authors: Sooraj Suresh Kumar;Nirmal Mukundan C. M.;Jayaprakash P.;
      Pages: 7907 - 7918
      Abstract: The power flow from a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is highly variable and creates complexities in the power scheduling for the utility. In this article, a grid-connected PV–fuel cell–electrolyzer hybrid system with a fixed power dispatch to the grid using a modified least mean square (LMS) algorithm is proposed. The modified LMS algorithm has been used to control the power flow to the grid besides controlling the power quality at the point of common coupling. Any variation in the PV power is balanced by power from the fuel cell by introducing a power management scheme. Furthermore, self-sufficiency in hydrogen supply for the fuel cell is achieved by using the excess PV production to power an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen from water. The sizing of sources and electrolyzer for a 38-kW commercial load and scheduled power dispatch to the grid has been done using a deterministic balance approach to achieve a carbon-neutral energy generation. The performances of the system during steady-state and transient conditions are verified by extensive simulation analysis with MATLAB Simpower system block set. Finally, experimental analysis using a hardware prototype is used to corroborate the simulation results.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Data-Driven Load Pattern Identification Based on R-Vine Copula and Random
           Forest Method

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      Authors: Mengqiu Fang;Yue Xiang;Bohan Xu;Tianhao Wang;Li Pan;Youbo Liu;Junyong Liu;
      Pages: 7919 - 7929
      Abstract: Massive residential power consumption information provides data support for the mining and analysis of load patterns. This article proposes a complete framework for load pattern identification, which mainly includes the clustering module and the classification module. Considering that the high-dimensional load profiling dataset will bring a heavy computational burden, multiple dimensional scaling is introduced in the process of data preprocessing. Then, an innovative mixture model based on regular vine copula mixture model (RVMM) is adopted for clustering typical load patterns. Finally, a random forest (RF) classifier constructed with certain load characteristic indexes and RVMM clustering results is employed as a supervised classification model to predict the categories of subsequent new customers, and the accuracy is calculated by the 10-fold cross-validation. It is demonstrated in the case study that the proposed RVMM algorithm exhibits better performance in the clustering validity evaluation. Besides, higher accuracy is achieved by the RF classifier.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Implementation and Field Test of Optimal Pump Scheduling in the
           Multiproduct Refined Oil Transmission System

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      Authors: Shengshi Wang;Jiakun Fang;Xiaomeng Ai;Shichang Cui;Lianyong Zuo;Miao Li;Bin Li;Qicong Liu;
      Pages: 7930 - 7941
      Abstract: Optimal pump scheduling ensures the safe and economic operation of the oil pipelines, which is also of vital significance for energy conservation as well as carbon emission reduction. This article proposes a framework adapting the data-driven pressure loss estimation with the long short-term memory neural network (LSTM-NN) and pump characteristics fitting with quadratic polynomials to model-based optimal pump scheduling for the multiproduct refined oil transmission system. The data-driven methods are data-adaptive with periodical field data in a rolling-training manner, and thus can reflect actual working conditions in the transmission pipelines. The presented LSTM-NN for pressure loss estimation integrating the characteristics of multiproduct refined oil pipeline transmission has good performance with an acceptable mean squared error of 0.016 MPa2 in real applications. The optimization model makes the time precision down to the minute level, which is more convenient for the system dispatchers to operate the pumps following the optimal schedule. Practical implementation and field test are carried out in a real-world pipeline system, which verifies that the proposed framework is more practical and better-performed than the manual schedule.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Solid-State Bipolar Pulse Power Generator for Dielectric Barrier
           Discharge Applications

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      Authors: Mohammad Nasir Uddin;Hesamodin Allahyari;Yazdan H. Tabrizi;Hamid Bahrami;
      Pages: 7942 - 7951
      Abstract: This article provides a distinctive unipolar/bipolar high voltage pulse power generator (PPG) architecture that produces exponential waveform with a rise time in the range of nanosecond. The setup is fit for dielectric barrier discharge applications, in practice. In this work, a push-pull circuit with a three-winding transformer is utilized on the charging side, as well as a quasi-resonant between the transformer leakage inductance and the capacitor on the discharging side to boost the voltage gain. As a result of the two windings on the primary side, and the bidirectional switches on the high voltage side, the tool offers either unipolar or bipolar high voltage pulses from a relatively low dc source. In addition to accomplishing the high gain objective, the effort focuses on lowering the number of circuit elements in contrast to previously studied topologies. The generator functions in discontinuous conduction mode, which enhances system efficiency by allowing complete positive and/or negative waves to be generated while lessening conduction losses. The pulse generator operation intervals are described in depth. The simulation results will demonstrate how this topology outperforms the prior models. Moreover, a 1000-V experimental prototype is also implemented to validate the projected PPG-enhanced properties in real-time.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Grid-Scale Virtual Energy Storage to Advance Renewable Energy Penetration

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      Authors: Joydeep Mitra;Nga Nguyen;
      Pages: 7952 - 7965
      Abstract: It is now widely recognized that energy storage enables increased integration of renewable resources. One of the uses of storage is to provide synthetic inertia, making up for some of the inertia lost from displaced conventional generation, thereby maintaining frequency stability. However, energy storage systems continue to be very expensive, and this motivates the development of innovative approaches to mitigate some of the challenges posed by renewable resources. This article presents a novel method called “grid-scale virtual energy storage” that harvests free energy storage from properties inherent to control of multiarea power systems, thereby increasing the amount of renewable generation that a system can tolerate before its frequency stability is compromised. The concept of virtual energy storage proposed here is based on the surplus of necessary energy that is required to restore the system frequency to within a safe range of the nominal frequency. In a dynamic sense, virtual energy storage is very responsive and is not limited by the operation time and capacity. Moreover, it can be exchanged easily among control areas and does not require installation and implementation expenses as it takes advantage of the existing diversity of area control errors in interconnected systems and employs an appropriate frequency control method. It also helps in reducing the reserve requirement, regulation capacity, transmission loading, and wear and tear on the power system by functioning as normal energy storage. In this article, the proposed new approach is explained mathematically, and its operation is analyzed using a mathematical model and simulation in order to validate its effectiveness.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Optimal MPPT and BES Control for Grid-Tied DFIG-Based Wind Energy
           Conversion System

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      Authors: Bisma Hamid;Ikhlaq Hussain;Sheikh Javed Iqbal;Bhim Singh;Souvik Das;Nishant Kumar;
      Pages: 7966 - 7977
      Abstract: As the wind energy is progressively pursued to supplement conventional power generation, the stochastic wind behavior considerably deteriorates power quality (PQ) and stability of the connected grid. This article is attributed to the comprehensive control design of the grid-integrated doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind energy system that aims to address encountered wind variability and PQ intricacies. Battery energy storage with bidirectional dc–dc converter control is assimilated at the dc-link of the DFIG that regulates the dc-link voltage to mitigate the wind power fluctuations in specified grid power modes. A higher order adaptive control for grid-interfaced converter accurately computes desired weights of various components to exercise accurate power balance and PQ control. Moreover, a novel Jaya particle swarm optimization algorithm is adopted for the optimal tuning of wind maximum power point tracking and the dc-link voltage PI controller parameters that significantly improves steady-state and dynamic responses of both the controllers. The rotor speed converges faster with precise reference tracking that leads to almost zero steady-state error using optimized PI controller gains. Along with the attenuated initial overshoot and fast settling time during sudden large step wind speed change, the dc-link voltage also characterizes superior response with optimal tuning during load unbalance and abnormal grid voltage conditions. The presented control strategy analyzes the capability of DFIG system under variable wind-speed changes, specified grid power modes, load changes, and other grid disturbances. The satisfactory system response is endorsed through experimental results conducted on a laboratory prototype.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Accommodation and Vergence Responses to Electronic Holographic Displays
           and Super Multiview Holographic Stereograms

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      Authors: Haruki Mizushina;Ippei Negishi;Junya Nakamura;Yasuhiro Takaki;Hiroshi Ando;Shinobu Masaki;
      Pages: 7978 - 7987
      Abstract: Electronic holography is an ideal 3-D display technique to ameliorate the vergence-accommodation conflict, which is a possible cause of visual fatigue and discomfort from viewing conventional stereoscopic 3-D displays. Previous studies have measured accommodative and vergence responses to holographic images and to real objects, and the results showed that these responses are in good agreement. To demonstrate the effectiveness of electronic holography as a possible solution to the vergence-accommodation conflict caused by viewing conventional stereoscopic 3-D displays, we measured both accommodative and vergence responses to reconstructed images of holograms and super multiview holographic stereograms. We also measured responses to real objects located at various distances and conventional two-view stereo images for comparison. The results indicate that the accommodative responses to the electro-holographic display and super multiview holographic stereogram change with the vergence response in a similar manner, as is the case with real objects as compared to conventional two-view stereo display. This suggests that the electronic holographic display and super multiview holographic stereograms are promising candidates for resolving the vergence-accommodation conflict.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • A Secondary-Resonance MHz Active-Clamp Flyback Converter With Partial
           Power Processing

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      Authors: Shanshan Gao;Houkun Song;Yijie Wang;Rui Xu;Dianguo Xu;
      Pages: 7988 - 7997
      Abstract: A 1 MHz active-clamp flyback converter for solar street-lighting applications, featuring a partial power processing, is proposed in this article. The secondary-side resonance between the output capacitor and transformer leakage inductor is utilized to reduce rms current and conduction losses. In comparison with the traditional light-emitting diode drivers based on full power converters (FPCs), the proposed approach that uses partial power converters (PPCs) can significantly improve the overall system efficiency by eliminating the redundant power handling process. The universal schemes are discussed and the optimal solution is eventually determined by the partial power ratio. The advantages of PPC compared with FPC in device stress, losses, and regulation capability are demonstrated by simulation. With GaN devices, a 100 W/1 MHz prototype was built to verify the analysis. The experimental results show that the proposed topology can reduce the power rating of the converter by up to about 80% while increasing the system efficiency by up to 95.8%.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Thermal Management of LEDs Packages Within Inclined Enclosures for
           Lighting Applications

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      Authors: Khaoula Ben Abdelmlek;Zouhour Araoud;Laurent Canale;Fayçal Ben Nejma;Kamel Charrada;Georges Zissis;
      Pages: 7998 - 8007
      Abstract: LED lighting still suffers from its thermal problem linked mainly to the increase in junction temperature. The situation becomes more and more aggravated when it comes to decorative lighting. Indeed, this type of lighting application sometimes requires that the heat sink of the LED lamp be integrated into a narrow space, such as false or sloped ceilings, which limits the transfer of heat to the outside. In this article, the current study reports a numerical analysis of natural convection heat transfer around rectangular heat sink for LEDs lighting applications. The radiator is put in an inclined cavity with an orientation angle varying from 0° to 60°. The effects of the enclosure inclination and its length on thermal behavior, flow structure in the cavity as well as on optical properties of the light source were highlighted. The CFD simulation showed a significant effect on the heat transfer rate when varying the cavity length (presented as an aspect ratio A) and its orientation. A = 4 was determined as an optimal cavity aspect ratio, and it was found that higher orientations are more sensitive to the increase of the length of the cavity. For θ = 60°, the luminous efficiency is ameliorated by about 10% when increasing the cavity length from one to four. Accordingly, we proposed correlations in simple form to predict the heat transfer rate for different configurations studied.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Invisible and Readable Checkerboard as Watermark With Temporally
           Brightness Modulation

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      Authors: Hiroshi Unno;Kazutake Uehira;
      Pages: 8008 - 8014
      Abstract: This aticle describes invisibility and readability in terms of the size of the basic unit of information that was attached to a displayed image by using our proposed method. The proposed method enables us to invisibly attach information to a displayed image on a flat panel display (FPD) and to extract the information from a captured video image of the displayed image. The information was attached to a single-color component of the displayed image by using temporal and spatial brightness modulation. The information was arranged within a given rectangular area of the displayed image as a black-and-white checkerboard pattern. The checkerboard pattern was used because it is a typical example of a t2-D pattern with a high density. The checkerboard pattern consists of squares having the same side length L. L was changed to examine the invisibility and readability in terms of the size of the basic unit of information. First, we assessed invisibility to the human eye of the information attached to the displayed image on the FPD. The experimental results showed that the degree of invisibility was 90% or over for all L when a frame rate for the displayed image was 60 fps. That is, the invisibility is independent of L. We also examined readability of the attached information for a video camera. The experimental results showed a lower limit value of L that satisfied the readability.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Luminance Imaging Measurements for Façades With Asymmetrical Light
           Reflection

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      Authors: Catalin Daniel Galatanu;Laurent Canale;
      Pages: 8015 - 8021
      Abstract: The subject of the research is to reduce light pollution produced by architectural lighting, by decreasing the luminous flux reflected to the sky, but without diminishing the visibility of façades at night. The article is a continuation of the authors' previous article, which showed that a façade with asymmetric reflection can be obtained when using only ordinary materials with diffuse reflection. The method consists of the use of horizontal decorative microprofiles (fins), with dimensions that are easy to achieve technologically. The optimization of the geometry of these profiles is the objective of this article. For optimization, generalized modeling of light reflection in MATLAB is used, through original scripts. These scripts also automatically generate the mesh necessary for the discretization of the façade, for profiles whose angle is modified for the whole range of technologically feasible values. Based on numerical simulations, an optimal domain is identified, based on which the experimental program of effective measurements of the luminance of the façade is optimized, by using imaging.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Influence of Rotor Slot Wedge Materials on Rotor Losses of Turbogenerator
           During Loss of Excitation

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      Authors: Guorui Xu;Zeyu Yuan;Meihong Song;Zhenzhen Wang;Yang Zhan;Haisen Zhao;
      Pages: 8022 - 8032
      Abstract: A short period of steady-state asynchronous operation after loss of excitation can improve the reliability of turbogenerator. The rotor damping structure of the turbogenerator can provide asynchronous torque and, thus, play an important role in improving the asynchronous operating ability. The rotor slot wedges as a part of rotor damping structure often made of aluminum, beryllium bronze, or stainless steel. The different materials of the rotor slot wedges can affect not only the asynchronous operating ability of the turbogenerator but also the rotor losses. The selection of material for the rotor slot wedges is therefore a key factor that should be carefully considered in the design of turbogenerator. In this article, the effect of the rotor slot wedges made of different materials on the asynchronous operating ability, rotor loss densities, and loss distributions of the turbogenerator after loss of excitation is investigated by time-stepping finite element model. The variations of the asynchronous operating ability and the rotor losses are revealed along with the rotor slot wedge conductivity. The rotor regions where the losses are significantly affected by the rotor slot wedge material are obtained. The results provide theoretic basis for improvement of the asynchronous operating ability and reduction of the rotor loss of turbogenerator.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
  • Harmonic Contribution Detection of Iron and Steel Plants Based on
           Correlation of Time-Synchronized Current and Voltage Signals

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      Authors: Mustafa Çalişkan;Özgül Salor;Mehmet Çiydem;
      Pages: 8033 - 8044
      Abstract: In this research work, a new harmonic responsibility measure is proposed to extract the amount of harmonic responsibility of each plant supplied from the point of common coupling (PCC). The proposed method uses a function of the correlation coefficients between the voltage and current signals measured synchronously at the PCC. After the verification of the method on synthetic data generated in simulation environment, field data measurements of voltage and current are used to test the practicability of the proposed method. Harmonic contributions of the iron and steel (I&S) plants obtained using the proposed method are compared with the results of one existing method in the literature and it has been shown that harmonic responsibilities of the plants can be obtained for each harmonic order. The harmonic currents absorbed by the shunt harmonic filters of the I&S plants from the rest of the system are also identified effectively with the proposed method to determine the actual source of the harmonics. The proposed method can serve the needs of the active power filters and other compensation systems to improve the effectiveness of those systems in reducing individual distorting effects of the I&S plants supplied from a PCC of the electricity transmission system.
      PubDate: Nov.-Dec. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 6 (2022)
       
 
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