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IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.192
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 84  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0278-0046
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Information

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      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Information

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      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics Information for Authors

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      Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Sensorless Current Balancing Control for Interleaved Half-Bridge
           Submodules in Modular Multilevel Converters

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      Authors: Aleksandr Viatkin;Mattia Ricco;Riccardo Mandrioli;Tamás Kerekes;Remus Teodorescu;Gabriele Grandi;
      Pages: 5 - 16
      Abstract: A new state-observer-based current balancing method for Modular Multilevel Converters with Interleaved half-bridge Sub-Modules (ISM-MMC) is presented in this article. The developed observer allows estimating currents through interleaved half-bridge legs in each submodule of ISM-MMC based only on arm current and submodule's capacitor voltage measurements. Then, the interleaved current balancing control uses the estimated currents to reduce the interleaved currents imbalance caused by upstream control actions. This technique minimizes the number of required current sensors in ISM-MMC, thereby reducing the converter's cost, weight, and volume. Capabilities of the proposed sensorless interleaved currents balancing control have been tested against standard parameter tolerances of the composing passive elements. In addition to that, a novel capacitor voltage balancing strategy for MMCs is developed. The new algorithm contains the main advantages of the classical sorting-based capacitor voltage balancing methods while providing an opportunity to decouple two balancing tasks of ISM-MMC, namely capacitor voltage and interleaved legs current balancing. The feasibility of the proposed methods is verified by extensive simulation and experimental tests on a laboratory prototype by the corresponding system response under the output characteristics variation and interleaved current control perturbation.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Simple 36-Pulse Rectifier With Passive Pulse-Tripling Circuit at the DC
           Side

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      Authors: Jingfang Wang;Anchen Chen;Lei Li;Chen Zhao;Xuliang Yao;Qiming Chen;
      Pages: 17 - 28
      Abstract: A series-connected 36-pulse rectifier with passive pulse-tripling circuit (PPTC) on the dc side is proposed in this article. The proposed rectifier consists of a series-connected 12-pulse rectifier and a PPTC. The PPTC includes a passive current forming network, a single-phase auxiliary transformer with dual secondary windings and two auxiliary single-phase rectifiers (ASRs). One ASR in PPTC is connected in series with the load to directly modulate the output current of rectifier bridges. The other ASR in PPTC is connected in parallel with the load to modulate the output current of rectifier bridges according to the relationship between its input voltage and load voltage. Composite modulation of the two ASRs increases the pulse number of the rectifier from 12 pulses to 36 pulses. The resulting rectifier obtains an approximate sinusoidal input current with less than 5% THD. Only a few low-capacity passive components are sufficient given the absence of active components in the proposed scheme. The proposed scheme presents advantages of simple circuit structure, easy implementation, and high reliability. Detailed analysis and experimental results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Five-Level Switched-Capacitor ANPC Inverter With Output Voltage Boosting
           Capability

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      Authors: Cassiano Rech;Wilmar A. P. Castiblanco;
      Pages: 29 - 38
      Abstract: This article proposes a three-phase five-level switched-capacitor active neutral point clamped converter, which can be characterized by voltage boost ability, low-voltage stress across semiconductor devices, and balance of floating capacitor voltage without any auxiliary circuits and/or sensors. Operating principles and modulation scheme of the proposed converter, as well as a comparative analysis with similar topologies are included. Simulation and experimental results for a three-phase prototype are given to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed five-level converter.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • VSFPWM Based on Circulating Current Ripple Prediction for ZVS in Two
           Paralleled Grid-Tied Inverters With Coupled Inductors

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      Authors: Qiao Li;Yafei Ma;Xuan Zhao;Dong Jiang;Yechi Zhang;
      Pages: 39 - 51
      Abstract: Zero voltage switching (ZVS) control is an effective and promising way to further improve the power density, efficiency and electromagnetic interference for the two paralleled silicon carbide inverters with coupled inductors. In this article, focusing on the popular 180o interleaved pulsewidth modulation (PWM), the circulating current ripple prediction model is first derived as a function of operating conditions in the time-domain. With the assistance of this model, the actual trajectory of phase-leg currents can be reconstructed by superposition of sampling fundamental current and predicted circulating current ripple, without adding any high-frequency current sensor or auxiliary circuit. By carefully considering the ZVS requirement of all switches, a variable switching frequency PWM (VSFPWM) for full range ZVS control is proposed in this article. The proposed VSFPWM shows a good performance of ZVS realization in various load situations, as well as a good dynamic response of the inverter during current step change. In addition, due to the real-time variation of switching frequency, the proposed VSFPWM demonstrates the obvious advantage in conductive EMI reduction. Both the simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the analysis and proposed method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Finite-Set Model Predictive Control for Hybrid Active Power Filter

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      Authors: Wai-Kit Sou;Pak-Ian Chan;Cheng Gong;Chi-Seng Lam;
      Pages: 52 - 64
      Abstract: A finite-set model predictive control (FS-MPC) with coupling capacitor voltage observer scheme is proposed for thyristor-controlled LC-coupling hybrid active power filter (TCLC-HAPF) in this article. It ensures the fast transient response, low steady-state error, and good robustness under both inductive and capacitive load situations. Generally, the implementation of FS-MPC for TCLC-HAPF requires sensing of coupling capacitor voltage and thyristor-controlled reactor current in addition to sensing load voltage, load current, and compensation current, which increases the system complexity and cost. To relax this problem, the simplified predictive model is first proposed, thus reducing the required sensing signals and system order. Then, a coupling capacitor voltage observer is utilized to reduce the hardware costs, which can obtain a comparable performance with directly sensed capacitor voltage. The delay compensation is also considered for the control delay in practical realization. Finally, the effectiveness and performance of the FS-MPC with coupling capacitor voltage observer for TCLC-HAPF are verified by simulated and experimental results.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Input Current Step-Tripling for 12-Pulse Rectifier Using a Passive
           Four-Tap Changer

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      Authors: Jingfang Wang;Yusheng Lv;Xuliang Yao;Lei Li;Qiming Chen;
      Pages: 65 - 75
      Abstract: To effectively suppress the input line current harmonics of a 12-pulse rectifier under slightly complex hardware, this article proposed an input line current step-tripling scheme for a 12-pulse rectifier using a novel passive four-tap changer (FTC). The proposed FTC consists of a retrofitted four-tap interphase reactor (RFT-IPR) and four auxiliary diodes. Two auxiliary diodes are connected to the inner taps of the RFT-IPR, but the other two auxiliary diodes are connected to the outer taps of the RFT-IPR. The inner and outer auxiliary diodes modulate and increase the output current states of the rectifier bridges together first; then, the FTC extends the 12-step to 36-step input line current, and the near sinusoidal input current with 3% THD is obtained. The proposed FTC not only has a very low capacity (2.6% of the output power) but also does not require any active switching device aside from four auxiliary diodes; thus, the proposed scheme is a cost-effective, reliable, and efficient solution to harmonics pollution. An experimental prototype with an output power of 2.4 kW is built, and the correctness of the theoretical analysis is verified by the experimental results.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Control of a Hybrid Modular Solid-State Transformer for Uninterrupted
           Power Supply Under MVdc Short-Circuit Fault

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      Authors: Jianwen Zhang;Yixin Zhang;Jianqiao Zhou;Jiacheng Wang;Gang Shi;Xu Cai;
      Pages: 76 - 87
      Abstract: Modular multilevel converter (MMC)-based solid-state transformers (M-SSTs) show promise in hybrid ac/dc distribution grids where there is need for a medium-voltage dc (MVdc) interface. It can be used to interconnect several distribution networks with different voltage forms and levels and enable flexible power flow among them. In an M-SST, the MVdc short-circuit fault is a critical issue due to the rapidity of the fault current, which can cause device damage and power failure of the low-voltage (LV) grids. Aiming at addressing this issue, this article proposes a fault-mode control strategy applied to a hybrid M-SST topology for uninterrupted power supply of its LV ports. The topology consists of a hybrid MMC with both half- and full-bridge submodules and isolated bidirectional dc–dc converters. Through the proposed control, the fault current is eliminated when an MVdc short-circuit fault occurs. The hybrid M-SST can keep uninterrupted power interaction between the MVac port and the LVdc port during the fault, thereby improving power supply reliability. Moreover, an improved capacitor voltage balance control and an optimized modulation scheme are developed and included in the uninterrupted operation scheme to maintain the harmonic performance of the ac port. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed topology and control are verified by simulation and experimental results.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Research on Master–Slave Windings Motor Drive System and Control
           Strategy

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      Authors: Zipeng Liang;Sideng Hu;Zhao Li;Mustafa Tahir;
      Pages: 88 - 98
      Abstract: To improve the torque performance limited by the low carrier ratio operation in motor drive system, a master–slave motor drive system based on dual stator winding structure is researched in this article. A high-frequency harmonic current is injected through the auxiliary windings to compensate the torque ripple and dynamic issue caused by the low carrier ratio. The basic operation principle in master–slave motor drive system is presented and then the turn ratio, mutual inductance, and carrier ratio in both windings are studied to achieve the optimization for the torque performance and power loss. The control method aiming at depression on toque ripple and load disturbance is proposed and gets merged with the vector control strategy. The loss analysis considering the injected high-frequency current is presented to compare with the three-phase system in high carrier ratio operation. It is found that a 30% total loss reduction can be achieved under the same torque ripple. Both simulation and experiments show the effectiveness of proposed master–slave windings system and the control strategy.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Decoupled Control Scheme for THD Reduction and One Specific Harmonic
           Elimination in the Modular Multilevel Converter

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      Authors: Qian Xiao;Shunfeng Yang;Yu Jin;Hongjie Jia;Josep Pou;Remus Teodorescu;Frede Blaabjerg;
      Pages: 99 - 111
      Abstract: This article proposes a decoupled control scheme for the modular multilevel converter (MMC) to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) and eliminate one specific harmonic. First, to realize the decoupled control between the ac and dc paths of the MMC, an improved nearest level control (INLC) method is proposed. It applies the round function to generate the ac output voltage levels, instead of the arm output voltage levels. Thus, a staircase wave is generated by the INLC method. Then, by adding an additional pulse to each quarter of the staircase wave, one specific harmonic can be eliminated without optimizing each conduction angle. Furthermore, a decoupled circulating current fuzzy control method is proposed to suppress the second-order harmonic and balance the arm energy. By this decoupled control structure, the output voltage and the circulating current can be controlled independently. Taking the fifth-order harmonic as an example, simulation and experimental results validate that the proposed scheme can simultaneously realize THD reduction and one specific harmonic elimination in the MMC output voltage.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Novel Detection and Localization Approach of Open-Circuit Switch Fault
           for the Grid-Connected Modular Multilevel Converter

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      Authors: Yu Jin;Qian Xiao;Hongjie Jia;Yanchao Ji;Tomislav Dragičević;Remus Teodorescu;Frede Blaabjerg;
      Pages: 112 - 124
      Abstract: The open-circuit fault detection and localization (FDL) technique can improve the reliability of the modular multilevel converter (MMC). However, the conventional software-based FDL methods usually have a heavy computation burden or a limited localization speed. This article proposes a simplified and fast software-based FDL approach for the grid-connected MMC. First, the errors between the measured state variables (the output current and the circulating current) and their estimated values are calculated. By comparing these errors with their threshold values, the switch fault can not only be detected but also be localized to the specific arm. Then, the capacitor voltages in this faulty arm are collected, and the submodule (SM) with the highest capacitor voltage is selected. To confirm the switch fault in this SM, a modified Pauta criterion is presented to check the abnormal voltage data. As a result, the computation burden of the proposed software-based FDL approach is significantly reduced, and the faulty SM can be localized in a short period. Simulation and experimental results verify that the proposed approach can effectively detect and localize different open-circuit faults, and it is immune to the step of power references.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Novel Modular Multilevel Converter Based on Interleaved Half-Bridge
           Submodules

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      Authors: Aleksandr Viatkin;Mattia Ricco;Riccardo Mandrioli;Tamás Kerekes;Remus Teodorescu;Gabriele Grandi;
      Pages: 125 - 136
      Abstract: A new Modular Multilevel Converter with Interleaved half-bridge Sub-Modules (ISM-MMC) is proposed in this article. The ISM-MMC exhibits higher modularity and scalability in terms of current ratings with respect to a conventional MMC while preserving the typical voltage-level adaptiveness. The ISM-MMC brings the known advantages of classical MMC to low-voltage, high-current applications making it a novel candidate for the sector of ultrafast chargers for all types of electric vehicles (EVs). This advanced topology makes it possible to easily reach the charging power of the EV charging system up to 4.5 MW and beyond with a low-voltage supply. To operate the new converter, a hybrid modulation scheme that helps to exploit the advantages of the interleaving scheme is implemented and explained in this article. It has been verified that the typical MMC control methods are still applicable for ISM-MMC. A comparative study between classical MMC and ISM-MMC configurations in terms of output characteristics and efficiency is also given. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the number of ac voltage levels is synthetically multiplied by the number of interleaved half-bridge legs in submodules. Simulations, hardware in the loop, and experimental tests are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed topology and the implemented modulation scheme.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Multidimensional Pulsewidth Modulation for Cascaded Split-Source Inverter

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      Authors: Seyed Hamid Montazeri;Jafar Milimonfared;Mohammad Reza Zolghadri;
      Pages: 137 - 146
      Abstract: Cascaded split-source inverter (CSSI) is a single-stage modular multilevel structure. This article proposes the multidimensional pulsewidth modulation (MD-PWM) for this topology. All multilevel modulations are a particular version of this approach. The principles of this geometrical method are based on selecting the optimal points and determining the switching sequences and time intervals. By considering the operational principles of CSSI, this method is modified to accurately control the voltage of dc links, charge inductors with constant duty cycles, control dc and ac sides of cells independently, and reduce the reverse recovery effects of input diodes. MD-PWM, with a low computational burden, can be implemented for CSSI with any number of voltage levels. The output power can be distributed equally or unequally among cells, and both buck and boost operation modes are realized for each cell. Also, this method is extended for the operation of the converter with unequal input sources. For an asymmetric topology with N cells, harmonics are located at multiples of N times switching frequency. Thus, this strategy eliminates low-frequency distortions from the output voltage of asymmetric CSSI. The simulation and experimental results verify the performance and accuracy of the proposed technique and mathematical relations.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Feedback Linearization of a Grid-Tied Synchronverter

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      Authors: Claudio A. Busada;Sebastian Gomez Jorge;Jorge A. Solsona;
      Pages: 147 - 154
      Abstract: One of the main limitations of the classic control of the syncronverter is that there are not enough degrees of freedom to allow the designer to set the desired dynamics of the injected active and reactive powers ($p$ and $q$, respectively). Moreover, the classic control also results in great coupling between $p$ and $q$. To solve these issues, a controller based on the feedback linearization technique is presented in this article. The proposed strategy allows the designer to set the dynamics of $p$ and $q$, and also reduces the coupling between them to negligible levels. This controller also reproduces the behavior of the classic controller in steady state, modifying both $p$ and $q$ to changes in the grid frequency and point of common coupling voltage, respectively.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Comparative Study of Yokeless Stator Axial-Flux PM Machines Having
           Fractional Slot Concentrated and Integral Slot Distributed Windings for
           Electric Vehicle Traction Applications

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      Authors: Weiwei Geng;Yu Wang;Jing Wang;Jining Hou;Jian Guo;Zhuoran Zhang;
      Pages: 155 - 166
      Abstract: Due to the high-power density and compact structure, axial-flux permanent magnet (AFPM) machines have gradually received much attention with a view to researching breakthroughs in the next generation electric drive technology for electric vehicles in the recent decades. The AFPM machines with factional slot concentrated winding (FSCW) and yokeless stator, namely yokeless, and segmented armature (YASA) motors, have drawn much attention for its high-power density and potential manufacturability due to the concentrated winding and modular stator core configuration. However, the significant rotor loss resulting from the abundant armature reaction harmonics in FSCW machines imposes a great challenge to the rotor heat dissipation, especially when the pursuit of higher speed has become the trend for electric vehicle applications. On the other hand, distributed winding is widely used in high speed radial flux permanent magnet (PM) machines due to its low armature reaction harmonics. In order to figure out the advantages and disadvantages of various winding arrangement and rotor configuration of AFPM for electric vehicle applications, the comparative study of four AFPM machines with various winding configurations and rotor PM arrangements are comprehensively conducted in this article. First, the design and primary optimization of the four AFPM machines are conducted for the electric vehicle requirement specifications. Then, a comprehensive three-dimensional finite-element analysis (FEA) is employed to compare the electromagnetic performance including torque/power density, efficiency, and flux-weakening capacity. Furthermore, the guideline of winding selection of AFPM machines for electrical vehicle is given. Finally, a yokeless stator AFPM prototype with ISDW configuration is manufactured and tested to verify the validity of the FEA results, as well as confirm the comparison conclusion.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Neural Speed–Torque Estimator for Induction Motors in the Presence
           of Measurement Noise

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      Authors: Sagar Verma;Nicolas Henwood;Marc Castella;Al Kassem Jebai;Jean-Christophe Pesquet;
      Pages: 167 - 177
      Abstract: In this article, a neural network (NN) approach is introduced to estimate the nonnoisy speed and torque from noisy measured currents and voltages in induction motors with variable speed drives. The proposed estimation method is comprised of a neural speed–torque estimator and a neural signal denoiser. A new training strategy is introduced that combines large amount of simulated data and a small amount of real-world data. The proposed denoiser does not require nonnoisy ground-truth data for training, and instead uses classification labels that are easily generated from real-world data. This approach improves upon existing noise removal techniques by learning to denoise as well as classify noisy signals into static and dynamic parts. The proposed NN-based denoiser generates clean estimates of currents and voltages that are then used as inputs to the NN estimator of speed and torque. Extensive experiments show that the proposed joint denoising-estimation strategy performs very well on real data benchmarks. The proposed denoising method is shown to outperform several widely used denoising methods and a proper ablation study of the proposed method is conducted.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Position Sensorless Control for PMSM Drives With Single Current Sensor

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      Authors: Hao Yan;Wenjie Wang;Yongxiang Xu;Jibin Zou;
      Pages: 178 - 188
      Abstract: The aim of this article is an attempt to provide a more credible control mode or a fault-tolerant control strategy for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives when an unexpected failure occurs to the current or position sensor. Considering that, a position sensorless control method that uses only one current sensor is proposed. Different from a traditional position sensorless control scheme that utilizes additional current sensors to obtain information of multiple phase currents, only a single current sensor (SCS) arranged on one of the current branches is included among the whole control circuit. Three-phase currents are reconstructed by sequentially sampling the SCS under specific voltage vectors, and directly employed for motor position estimation. A nonlinear position observer established according to the gradient descent is adopted. Focusing on the special current-acquisition pattern in this article, a step-size optimization method based on golden section search is proposed to minimize position estimation error. The experimental results reveal that the method in this article is comparable to the traditional full-current-sensor method in terms of position estimation, which confirms the fault-tolerant capability as one certain sensor of the control structure malfunctions.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • An Analytical Prediction Model of Balanced and Unbalanced Faults in Doubly
           Fed Induction Machines

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      Authors: Frederic Maurer;Trond Leiv Toftevaag;Jonas Kristiansen Nøland;
      Pages: 189 - 199
      Abstract: In this article, we present the exact transient solution to the unbalanced and balanced faults in the doubly fed induction machine (DFIM). Stator currents, rotor currents, and stator fluxes have been validated using simulation and experiment. The work is meant to strengthen and fasten the predictability of large DFIMs in the design stage to comply with mechanical constraints or grid fault issues. Moreover, the analytical approach reduces the computational costs of large-scale stability studies and is especially suited to the initial phase, where plethora design computations must be carried out for the DFIM before it is checked for its transient interaction with the power system. The possibility to dynamically estimate the DFIM performance is simplified by original equations derived from first principles. First, case studies of two large $265 ,{rm MVA}$ DFIMs are used to verify the analytical approach, and to justify the proposed “large machine approximation” using simulation with an exact match. Finally, laboratory measurements were conducted on a 10.96 and a $1.94 ,{rm kVA}$ DFIM to validate the transient current peaks predicted in the proposed analytic expressions for two-phase and three-phase faults, respectively.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Current Reconstruction by One-Step Compensation for Permanent Magnet
           Synchronous Motor With Fixed Sampling Interval in Position Sensorless
           Control

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      Authors: Lisi Tian;Zaixiang Wang;Qiang Yu;Chaoquan Tang;Hao Zhang;
      Pages: 200 - 210
      Abstract: To improve the performance of position sensorless control with a single current sensor in low-speed range, an improved current reconstruction method is proposed. High-frequency voltage is injected to estimate the rotor position. The time interval between two sampling moments is fixed as the minimum sampling window time. Therefore, the phase current can be compensated by an online adaptive one-step method. And the time-aligned three-phase currents can be reconstructed. The influence of the error between time-aligned reconstructed currents and the full sensors sampling currents on sensorless control is discussed. With the proposed method, the injection frequency can be improved to half the switching frequency. Finally, a permanent magnet synchronous motor is sensorless controlled with the proposed method in the experiments.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Nonlinear Modeling, Identification, and Optimal Feedforward Torque Control
           of Induction Machines Using Steady-State Machine Maps

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      Authors: Julian Kullick;Christoph M. Hackl;
      Pages: 211 - 221
      Abstract: A novel but simple machine map-based modeling, identification, and optimal feedforward torque control (OFTC) approach for induction machines (IMs) is presented. It is based on, first, a generic, nonlinear transformer-like machine model considering nonlinear flux linkages (with magnetic saturation and cross coupling) and iron losses in the stator laminations in a novel, arbitrarily rotating but unique, robust, and reproducible ($d,q$)-reference frame; second, a holistic machine identification procedure, which evaluates steady-state measurements over a grid of ($d,q$) stator currents and produces temperature and frequency dependent machine maps, for example, flux linkages, torque, iron resistance, and efficiency; and third, a numerical offline optimization and extraction of different OFTC look-up tables (LUTs) for optimal current reference generation depending on reference torque and electrical frequency (and temperature). During the identification, stator winding temperature and electrical stator frequency of the IM are kept constant by an intelligent temperature and the speed control system. The presented measurement results for a squirrel-cage IM confirm that compared to constant flux operation or scalar V/Hz control, efficiency can be increased particularly in part-load operation by up to $text{7} ,%$ by Maximum Torque Per Losses minimizing copper and iron losses.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Speed Fluctuation Mitigation Control for Variable Flux Memory Machine
           During Magnetization State Manipulations

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      Authors: Yuxiang Zhong;Heyun Lin;Jiyao Wang;Zhiyong Chen;Hui Yang;
      Pages: 222 - 232
      Abstract: This article focuses on the dynamic performance improvement of variable flux memory machine (VFMM), particularly the speed fluctuation mitigation control during magnetization state (MS) manipulations. A model-compensation linear active disturbance rejection (LADR-MC) speed controller is proposed for VFMM speed regulation systems to compensate for the drastic disturbance during MS manipulation and to reduce both the torque and speed fluctuations. An extended state observer (ESO) is employed to provide real-time estimation of disturbances in a lumped term. Additionally, the machine parameters during MS manipulations are identified in advance and utilized in real time to improve the accuracy of disturbance estimation for the ESO. Then, the design procedure of the LADR-MC controller is explained in detail with formulas and diagrams. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed LADR-MC speed controller are verified by experimental results on a hybrid-magnetic-circuit VFMM prototype. The drive system employing the LADR-MC speed controller exhibits better performance in speed fluctuation mitigation compared with those based on the conventional proportional-integral and LADR controllers.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Modeling and Multilevel Design Optimization of an AC–DC
           Three-Degree-of-Freedom Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

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      Authors: Mengyao Wu;Huangqiu Zhu;Hao Zhang;Weiyu Zhang;
      Pages: 233 - 242
      Abstract: In this article, in order to improve the bearing capacity per unit area and reduce the nonlinearity and couplings of three-pole magnetic bearing, which is driven by a three-phase power inverter, a three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) six-pole hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) is proposed. To realize the larger bearing capacity and smaller volume, a multilevel design optimization is proposed to conduct multiobjective optimization. At first, the structure and working principle of the ac–dc 3-DOF six-pole HMB are introduced. Then, the suspension force mathematical models of the 3-DOF HMB based on the Maxwell tensor method are established. Next, the design variables and optimization objectives are selected, and the comprehensive sensitivity analysis is adopted to divide the design variables into three levels; the response surface method and multiobjective particle swarm optimization algorithm are applied to realize a compromise among the three optimization objectives. Finally, the results of the simulation and experiment verify the validity and correctness of the modeling and optimization design.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Vibration Reduction Design of Consequent Pole PM Machine by Symmetrizing
           Local and Global Magnetic Field

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      Authors: Shengdao Zhu;Jinghua Ji;Wenxiang Zhao;Guohai Liu;Christopher H. T. Lee;
      Pages: 243 - 254
      Abstract: The consequent pole permanent magnet (CPM) machine is well known for its high magnet utilization ratio and poor vibration performance. This article focuses on electromagnetic vibration and its reduction design in CPM machines, and the conventional surface-mounted permanent magnet (SPM) machine is used as a benchmark. First, the asymmetrical magnetic field and unbalanced radial force of the CPM machine are investigated with emphasis. The slot-pole combination and force modulation effect are the two reasons for the unbalanced radial force generation. Afterward, two new designs to reduce the vibration caused by the unbalanced radial force are proposed, and the reduction principles are described in detail. Finally, the prototypes of the 12-slot/10-pole SPM and proposed CPM machines are manufactured. The tests are conducted to validate the theoretical analysis and proposed vibration reduction design.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Consequent Pole Single Rotor Single Stator Vernier Design to Effectively
           Improve Torque Density of an Industrial PM Drive

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      Authors: Wenbo Liu;Jiyao Wang;Thomas A. Lipo;
      Pages: 255 - 264
      Abstract: The Vernier machine can utilize magnetic-gear effect, which conspicuously improves the torque production over other type of synchronous machines. However, a dual-rotor/dual-stator structure enabled high torque density Vernier design is often unfavorable for industrial applications, due to manufacturing complexity and thermal management challenges. This article successfully addresses this problem, by building magnetic-gear effect into a consequent pole enabled alternating flux barrier structure with single-rotor single-stator (SRSS). In this way, the proposed machine can achieve a superior torque density as a Vernier machine does, while maintaining an equivalent manufacturing complexity as a conventional SRSS synchronous machine. This article begins with elaborating generic analytical equations, which can transform into a Vernier machine or an SRSS synchronous machine. More specifically, the magnetic-gear effect is manifested in the equations, via stator teeth originating flux modulation concept and resulting multiharmonic field coupling effects. An SRSS Vernier topology with consequent pole and V-shape magnet is then proposed. A considerable 52.6% improvement on the torque production with comparable efficiency is validated by experiments, where the comparison is made over that of a benchmark rare earth PM machine. Power factor would fall behind with increasing current load. Overall, this new design achieves an outstanding torque density, showing solid potential and feasibility for industry adoption.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Rotor Attitude Estimation for Spherical Motors Using Multiobject Kalman
           KCF Algorithm in Monocular Vision

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      Authors: Sili Zhou;Guoli Li;Qunjing Wang;Jiazi Xu;Qiubo Ye;Shihao Gao;
      Pages: 265 - 275
      Abstract: This article proposes a rotor attitude estimation (RAE) method for spherical motors using the multiobject Kalman kernel correlation filter (MKKCF) algorithm in monocular vision. A permanent magnet spherical motor (PMSpM) is adopted as the research object, and a monocular area scan camera is equipped in the RAE system with a visual feature component mounted on top of the rotor output shaft. In the proposed MKKCF algorithm, the Kalman filter is used to enhance the robustness and accuracy of KCF tracker for each object. To simplify the proposed algorithm verification, a one-object tracking comparison is conducted among the KCF algorithm, the fast discriminative scale space tracking (FDSST) algorithm, and the Kalman KCF algorithm, and the results show that Kalman KCF tracker is more applicable for RAE. In addition, an RAE test bench is developed, and the MKKCF-based RAE method and the micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) (MPU9250) method are compared when estimating the rotor attitude. To set a benchmark, the contact rotor position measurement with encoders is used. The comparison results indicate that the MKKCF-based RAE method works with higher accuracy than the MEMS method. Finally, a closed-loop PMSpM control experiment is conducted by using the proposed MKKCF-based RAE method, and the practicability of the proposed method is proved.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • An Accurate Model of Magnetic Energy Harvester in the Saturated Region for
           

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      Authors: Zhaowei Liu;Yong Li;Huanyu Yang;Na Duan;Zhengyou He;
      Pages: 276 - 285
      Abstract: To reduce the size and weight of the magnetic energy harvester (MEH), the magnetic core should be designed to work in the maximum power region, i.e., in the saturated region. However, the conventional analysis model of the MEH, which ignores the phase difference between the primary and secondary currents, is only suitable for the unsaturated region. When the core is in the saturated region, the results of the numerical calculation severely deviate from the experimental observations due to the non-negligible phase difference. To address this vital problem, this article establishes an excitation current model (ECM) to calculate the phase difference caused by the magnetizing inductance. An accurate model of the MEH is presented based on the ECM in this article, which can calculate the harvesting power of the MEH in the saturated region. Besides, a strategy for finding the maximum power point is proposed, which can be used for the designing of the MEH. Finally, an experimental prototype is constructed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed analysis model and the design method of the MEH. The experimental results show that the proposed analysis model can maintain high accuracy when the magnetic core enters the saturated region, and the MEH designed by the proposed model can reach the expected power with a compact size. Compared with the theoretical value, the output voltage deviation of the MEH is only 0.4%, and the output power deviation is only 0.8%.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Modified Deadbeat Predictive Current Control Method for Single-Phase
           AC–DC PFC Converter in EV Charging System

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      Authors: Yuxuan Bi;Chao Wu;Tong Zhao;Houji Li;Junzhong Xu;Guohua Shu;Yong Wang;
      Pages: 286 - 297
      Abstract: In a single-phase charging system of electric vehicles, the current control performance of the single-phase ac–dc factor correction (PFC) converter with a deadbeat predictive current control (DPCC) method is affected by the distorted grid voltage, parameter dependence, and control delay. To tackle these problems, a modified DPCC method is proposed in this article. By introducing a phase adjustment parameter θc, which can be directly calculated according to the required power factor, into the grid voltage feedforward of the current loop, an improved input current control performance with lower harmonic components and higher power factor can be achieved when the converter operates at unity power factor. At the same time, compared with the traditional method, a reactive power compensation function is added in the modified DPCC and a deadtime compensation method is adopted in the modulation. Finally, a 7.8-kW single-phase PFC converter prototype is built to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Integrated Regenerative Braking Energy Utilization System for
           Multi-Substations in Electrified Railways

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      Authors: Junyu Chen;Yinbo Ge;Ke Wang;Haitao Hu;Zhengyou He;Zhongbei Tian;Yunwei Li;
      Pages: 298 - 310
      Abstract: This article proposes an integrated regenerative braking energy utilization system (RBEUS) to improve regenerative braking energy (RBE) utilization in electrified railways. The proposed RBEUS uses a traction substation energy storage system and two sectioning post converters to achieve coordinated RBE utilization in three consecutive traction substations via power-sharing and storage, and the power quality can also be improved. A hierarchically coordinated control strategy is developed based on the operation principle to provide real-time power management and control for the RBEUS. In the system layer, a centralized power management strategy is designed for operation mode management and active power command generation. It uses a sequential quadratic programming-based algorithm to solve the objective function to achieve optimal RBE utilization under different operation modes. In the converter layer, local controllers of the RBEUS enable converters to respond to the active power commands from the system layer and reactive power commands generated by themself for power flow control. The effectiveness of the proposed RBEUS is comprehensively verified by using a hardware-in-the-loop experiment. Besides, a comparison analysis of the proposed RBEUS and literature methods is conducted to testify the superiority of the RBEUS. The feasibility of RBEUS implementation is also discussed from fault protection and economy.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Periodic Time-Triggered Hybrid Control for DC–DC Converter Based on
           Switched Affine System Model

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      Authors: Wenjie Ma;Bo Zhang;
      Pages: 311 - 321
      Abstract: The introduction of the switched affine system opens new perspectives for the control design of dc–dc converters. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the continuous-time switching control methods, several sampled-data-based switching control approaches have been proposed in the literature. However, in these works, the solution of control parameters involves a nonlinear optimization problem. In addition, the designed switching laws are nonlinear functions about the system state, which require higher computational resources. In this article, a periodic time-triggered hybrid control is proposed based on a new design framework. All the design conditions are in linear matrix inequality formulations, which can be conveniently solved by common semidefinite programming software. Moreover, the proposed switching law is a linear function about the state, reducing the online computing burden. Finally, a unified view of the classical continuous-time switching scheme and the proposed method is established. Simulation and experiment tests on a buck–boost converter demonstrate the good performance of the proposed control strategy.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Capacity and Volume Balance of Buffering Converters for the Marine Pulsed
           Power System

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      Authors: Lei Sun;Wentao Huang;Ran Li;Fei Gao;Nengling Tai;Moduo Yu;
      Pages: 322 - 333
      Abstract: In marine integrated power systems (IPS), dc/dc converters have been widely used to buffer the power of pulsed loads. However, limited by ship space and safety, its buffering capacity and volume are conflicting and need to be balanced. Existing methods usually oversimplify the switching dynamic process caused by the different switching periods between the pulsed loads and converters, leading to oversizing or underpowering issues of the converts. To overcome this hurdle, this article proposes a millisecond-time-scale-based state-space averaging mode (MTS-SSAM) to analyze the dynamic process by taking pulsed loads period instead of the traditional converter period as the averaging operator. Based on MTS-SSAM, taking the system allowable voltage and current fluctuation rate and converter volume as the objective function, the converters’ parameters are optimized considering the balance between buffering capacity and volume. The proposed parameters optimization method can save 49% converter volume compared with existing methods. The simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the proposed SSAM and optimization method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Fast Self-Positioning-Based Optimal Frequency Control for Inductive
           Wireless Power Transfer Systems Without Communication

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      Authors: Kaiwen Chen;Ka Wai Eric Cheng;Yun Yang;Jianfei Pan;
      Pages: 334 - 343
      Abstract: A communication-free approach to achieve self-positioning optimal frequency control (SP-OFC) for a series–series-compensated wireless power transfer system is proposed in this article. Without any position sensor, the position of the receiver is located by only monitoring the winding current. The feasibility of optimal frequency control for achieving zero phase angle is elaborated based on the multiple transmitters charging condition. The proposed method involves no communication link with a small number of sensors, so the calculation effort in the controller is relieved. Hence, the control scheme can be fast, cost-efficient, and practically reliable. In addition, the technique allows random resonator parameters. Experimental results prove that the proposed SP-OFC process for high system efficiency at rated power level can be completed within 20 ms, and the phase difference can be controlled within 4.81° in the worst case. The system efficiency is proved to be improved by up to 14.3% by achieving optimal frequency. The interoperability of receivers with various coil shapes and positions is discussed in the form of the case study.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Low Parasitic-Inductance Packaging of a 650 V/150 A Half-Bridge Module
           

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      Authors: Shengchang Lu;Tianyu Zhao;Zichen Zhang;Khai D. T. Ngo;Rolando Burgos;Guo-Quan Lu;
      Pages: 344 - 351
      Abstract: Because of their fast-switching speed and small die size, gallium-nitride high electron mobility transistors are challenging to package for low parasitic inductance and high heat dissipation in power electronics applications. In this article, a packaging technique was developed for making half-bridge modules of a 650 V, 150 A enhancement-mode gallium-nitride power transistor. The package consists of the device chips interconnected between a printed circuit board and an aluminum-nitride direct-bonded copper substrate. The dice are bonded on the insulated ceramic substrate by silver-sintering to ensure high thermal performance and joint reliability. The source, drain, and gate pads are connected by silver-sintering gold-plated pins or silver rods, which are aligned by holes or grooves in the circuit board. For electrical insulation and mechanical robustness, the space surrounding the device is filled by injecting and curing an underfill polymer. Electrical and thermal simulations of the package show that the half-bridge module has a 1.122 nH power-loop inductance, and 0.099 °C/W junction-to-case thermal resistance. Packages of the half-bridge module were fabricated, and their static and dynamic performances were characterized.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Automatic Tuning Receiver for Improved Efficiency and EMI Suppression in
           Spread-Spectrum Wireless Power Transfer

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      Authors: Saidul Alam Chowdhury;Sang-Won Kim;Seong-Min Kim;Jungick Moon;In-Kui Cho;Dukju Ahn;
      Pages: 352 - 363
      Abstract: In spread-spectrum electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression, transmitter (TX) frequency is continuously modulated with fast speed. Conventional receiver (RX) autotuning methods cannot be used because of their slow response speed. Another limitation of conventional autotuning is their low efficiency if the incoming TX frequency is deviated far from RX nominal frequency (i.e., boundary of tunable range), even if the RX is reconfigured to tuned resonance. To solve the issues, the proposed PWM-tuning RX achieves constantly high efficiency even at the boundary of frequency tuning range. The proposed topology boosts the reflected resistance, thereby increasing the TX-to-RX efficiency compared to traditional variable tunings. We also propose an RX feedback loop which can track the fast-varying TX frequency and tune the RX capacitor accordingly. The step-response of proposed loop is fast (0.1 ms) in order to be suitable for spread-spectrum EMI suppression. The tuning mosfet achieves soft switching both at turn-on and turn-off. A simple grounded gate driving can be used. The measurement results show that the proposed ATR can improve the overall power transfer efficiency (PTE) by 7%–12% point for spread-spectrum ranging from 108 to 137 kHz, enabling 19.9 dB EMI suppression.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Variable Duty Control in Two-Mode LDC for Soft-Change at the Mode
           Transient

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      Authors: Seung-Hoon Lee;Dae-Hun Kwon;Jae-Kuk Kim;
      Pages: 364 - 372
      Abstract: Two-mode low-voltage dc–dc converter (LDC) has been proposed for high and wide input voltage range in order to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional converters. With two operational modes, the two-mode LDC reduce the voltage stresses on the switches and dc offset current. However, it has large differences of capacitor voltage resulting in voltage spike on the switch at the mode transient. Moreover, the dc offset current has large variation between two modes. In this article, a variable control for two-mode LDC is proposed for changing the operational mode softly. The two mode LDC employing the proposed control is shown to minimize the difference of capacitor voltage and dc offset current over the entire input voltage range. The proposed control is verified by a 350–800 V input and 13.9 V/600 W output laboratory prototype.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Four-Capacitor Model for Interprimary-Winding Capacitances
           Analysis in the Input-Series Transformer-Integration Converters

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      Authors: Tao Meng;Hongqi Ben;Chunyan Li;
      Pages: 373 - 383
      Abstract: The input-series transformer-integration (ISTI) converters are suitable for the high-input voltage multiple-output applications. In these converters, interprimary-winding capacitances are the unique stray capacitances of the integrated transformer, and energy influences of these capacitances cannot be ignored in the high-voltage applications. In order to analyze energy influences of the interprimary-winding capacitances, in this article, a four-capacitor model is proposed to represent these capacitances within arbitrary two primary windings of the integrated transformer. Based on the proposed model, energy varying of the interprimary-winding capacitances is analyzed in detail during each switching period. Furthermore, estimation of the four lumped capacitors is discussed. Finally, three different integrated transformers are designed for a 1-kV/60-W laboratory-made flyback ISTI converter, and validity of the proposed model is verified through the simulating and the experimental comparisons of these integrated transformers.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Soft-Switching Operation With a Variable Switching Frequency Control for
           Switched-Quasi-Z-Source Bidirectional DC–DC Converter in EVs

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      Authors: Yun Zhang;Shenghan Gao;Shihong Jing;Xin Huang;
      Pages: 384 - 395
      Abstract: The switched-quasi-Z-source bidirectional dc–dc converter (SQBC) has the characteristics of wide voltage gain and low voltage stress, and is suitable for the power interface between the supercapacitors and the dc bus in the multisource system of electric vehicles. On the basis of the SQBC, an optimal design method for inductance parameters and variable switching frequency control strategy are proposed in this article. While remaining the wide voltage gain and low voltage stress characteristics of the topology, the soft-switching operation within the full voltage gain range is achieved without adding additional auxiliary devices. The variable switching frequency control strategy keeps the converter operating at the critical soft-switching point with the lowest switching losses per switching cycle, further improving the operation efficiency of the converter. Finally, an experimental prototype with a rated power of P = 300 W, input voltage of Ulow = 50–150 V and output voltage of Uhigh = 300 V was built, and its maximum efficiency is 98.28%, which verified the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Novel Reconfigurable Topology-Enabled Hierarchical Equalization of
           Lithium-Ion Battery for Maximum Capacity Utilization

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      Authors: Haoyong Cui;Zhongbao Wei;Hongwen He;Jianwei Li;
      Pages: 396 - 406
      Abstract: Available capacity of lithium-ion batteries is directly linked to the mileage of the electric vehicle. The cell imbalance is recognized as a significant concern hindering the full utilization of pack capacity. Following the emerging concept of battery reconfiguration, this article proposes a dual-scale hierarchical equalization scheme enabled by a novel four-switch reconfigurable topology. In particular, a four-switch reconfigurable topology is proposed, for the first time, which enjoys the benefits of flexible reconfigurability, moderate complexity, and high fault tolerance. Relying on the new topology, a hierarchical equalization strategy is proposed incorporating the intramodule time-sharing intervention and inter-module splitting recombination. This endeavor contributes to achieving all-cell flexibility, which further promises the all-cell equalization and maximum capacity utilization. Hardware-in-the-loop results validate that the proposed reconfigurable topology-enabled hierarchical equalization strategy can improve the pack capacity utilizing rate by 11.3%.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Lithium-Ion Battery Calendar Health Prognostics Based on
           Knowledge-Data-Driven Attention

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      Authors: Tianyu Hu;Huimin Ma;Kailong Liu;Hongbin Sun;
      Pages: 407 - 417
      Abstract: In real industrial electronic applications that involve batteries, the inevitable health degradation of batteries would result in both the shorter battery service life and decreased performance. In this article, an attention-based model is proposed for Li-ion battery calendar health prognostics, i.e., the capacity forecaster based on knowledge-data-driven attention (CFKDA), which will be the first work that applies attention mechanism to benefit battery calendar health monitor and management. By taking the battery empirical knowledge as the foundation of its crucial part, i.e., the knowledge-driven attention module, the CFKDA has realized a satisfactory combination of the complementary domain knowledge and data, which has improved both its theoretic strength and prognostic performance significantly. Experimental studies on practical battery calendar ageing demonstrate the superiority of CFKDA in forecasting and generalizing to unwitnessed conditions over both state-of-the-art knowledge-driven and data-driven calendar health prognostic models, implying that the introduction of domain knowledge in CFKDA has brought a significant performance improvement.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Peak Current Reducing Method for Input-Independent and Output-Series
           Modular Converters With LC-Branch-Based Power Balancing Unit

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      Authors: Yizhan Zhuang;Fei Liu;Wenhui Huang;Shiwen Wang;Jianbo Jiang;Shangzhi Pan;Xiaoming Zha;
      Pages: 418 - 429
      Abstract: Input-independent and output-series (IIOS) modular converters are characterized by high step-up ratio and independent maximum power point tracking and can therefore be used to integrate renewable energy into medium voltage dc grids. However, the associated power mismatch can lead to voltage imbalance of the submodules(SMs). At present, the only solution using no extra active switch involves the insertion of an LC-branch-based power balancing unit (PBU) between every two adjacent SMs (the SM and PBU share the switches). However, the considerable peak current of the shared switches threatens the security of the switches and increases the power loss. Therefore, this article considered the peak-current problem. A dual active bridge (DAB) converter was employed as the SM of the IIOS converter. The basis for the large peak current associated with the shared switches was analyzed and a peak current reducing method using the DAB inner-phase-shift control was proposed. The contribution of this article is that the current stress can be reduced and the power efficiency can be increased. A two-SM and 1000-W down-scaled experimental prototype was developed for verification of the theoretical analysis results. The peak currents and efficiencies with and without the proposed method were compared with experimental results.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Blockchain-Enabled Demand Management and Control Framework Driven by
           Deep Reinforcement Learning

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      Authors: Rui Ma;Zhehan Yi;Yingmeng Xiang;Di Shi;Chunlei Xu;Haiwei Wu;
      Pages: 430 - 440
      Abstract: The rapid development of Internet-of-Things in smart grid has enabled millions of grid-connected distributed controllable resources (DCR; e.g., electric vehicles, controllable loads) to provide service to the grid, such as frequency regulation and demand response. The integration of these DCRs may become a large virtual power plant network with various characteristics. This poses great challenges from both control and management perspectives, e.g., computation/communication burden, optimization complexity, scalability limitation, prosumer privacy, etc. In this article, we propose an effective autonomous incentive-based DCR control and management framework to integrate a large amount of DCRs to provide grid services, which simultaneously provides accurate active power adjustment to the grid, optimizes DCR allocations, and maximizes the profits for all prosumers and system operators. A model-free deep deterministic policy gradient-based method is designed to find the optimal incentives in a continuous action space to encourage prosumers to adjust their power consumptions. The method is implemented in a consortium open-source blockchain platform, Hyperledger Fabric, which facilitates controls and transaction management. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the framework, extensive experimental studies are conducted using real-world data.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A New Virtual Inductance Control Method for Frequency Stabilization of
           Grid-Forming Virtual Synchronous Generators

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      Authors: Yaqian Yang;Jiazhu Xu;Chang Li;Weiming Zhang;Qiuwei Wu;Ming Wen;Frede Blaabjerg;
      Pages: 441 - 451
      Abstract: Frequency stabilization is the premise of guaranteeing grid-friendly integration of virtual synchronous generator (VSG). Based on that premise, this article, focused on frequency stability, establishes the small signal model of grid-forming VSG system. At first, the mechanism of frequency oscillation occurring in system of active- and reactive-power coupling is analyzed by the defined feedback effect factor in this article. Besides, a new dynamic model is established for identifying dynamic interaction of voltage magnitudes and frequency by means of feedback effect. The analytical results of established models agree with that of eigenvalue analysis. Furthermore, a new virtual inductance control strategy is proposed to mitigate the unstable oscillation of frequency and powers, enhance damping performance, and improve stability margins. Unlike the conventional virtual inductance control, which is reliable on dual-loop control framework, the proposed virtual inductance control in this article is based on principle of energy conservation and can be applicable for the grid-forming inverter without inner dual-loop control structure. Finally, the proposed modeling as well as virtual inductance control method is experimentally verified.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Harmonic Transfer-Function-Based αβ-Frame SISO Impedance Modeling of
           Droop Inverters-Based Islanded Microgrid With Unbalanced Loads

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      Authors: Jian Guo;Zhiqiang Meng;Yandong Chen;Wenhua Wu;Shuhan Liao;Zhiwei Xie;Josep M. Guerrero;
      Pages: 452 - 464
      Abstract: Impedance-based approachis generally studied for stability analysis of the power electronic converter-based system. Considering multiple-frequency coupling effects, in this article, we establish the harmonic transfer function (HTF) based αβ-frame impedance models of droop inverters based islanded microgrid with unbalanced loads. Therein, the HTF-based αβ-impedance modeling methods of unbalanced loads, as well as droop inverters in parallel, are proposed. Afterward, the HTF-based αβ-frame impedance models are equivalent to single-input single-output (SISO) impedances for simpler impedance measurement and stability analysis, preserving the αβ-frame coupling and multiple-frequency coupling characteristics. Finally, the experimental measurement results verify the accuracy of the αβ-frame SISO impedances. Besides, the stability analysis based on the SISO impedance models accurately reveals low-frequency oscillations of the islanded microgrid with unbalanced loads, further verifying the effectiveness of the SISO impedance models.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Observer-Based Backstepping Sliding Mode Control Design for Microgrids
           Feeding a Constant Power Load

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      Authors: Mohammad Alipour;Jafar Zarei;Roozbeh Razavi-Far;Mehrdad Saif;Nenad Mijatovic;Tomislav Dragičević;
      Pages: 465 - 473
      Abstract: This article deals with the problem of controller design for dc microgrids that feed constant power loads. To design the proposed controller, first by the use of the exact feedback linearization approach, the linear model of Brunovsky's canonical representation of the system has been obtained to address the nonlinearity problem of the system. Then, the desired control technique is developed by a combination of sliding mode and backstepping control approaches in which a nonlinear disturbance observer is utilized to estimate the disturbance. The overall stability of the system is analyzed based on the Lyapunov approach. A suitable and practical sliding surface is one of the controller strengths that allow the bus voltage to track the reference voltage with high accuracy and fast transient response. Finally, to prove the mentioned claims, an experimental setup has been constructed and the proposed controller is implemented. The experimental results have been analyzed and error analysis is performed. The results confirm the superiority of the proposed controller compared to state-of-the-art controllers.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Minimum Backflow Power and ZVS Design for Dual-Active-Bridge DC–DC
           Converters

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      Authors: Fei Xu;Junwei Liu;Zheng Dong;
      Pages: 474 - 484
      Abstract: Significant improvement in the power efficiency of dual-active-bridge dc–dc converters can be achieved by implementing zero voltage switching (ZVS) which is facilitated by a negative switch current at the switching instant. Such negative current, however, causes undesirable backflow power that counteracts the efficiency gain. Thus, the conditions for achieving ZVS and maintaining minimum backflow power (MBP) are often conflicting. A design that implements ZVS and MBP simultaneously is, thus, desirable. While, existing research is short of exploring the accurate condition of MBP and ZVS. This work fully considers the influence of output capacitance of power switches on ZVS and tries to implement ZVS and MBP of a dual-active-bridge dc–dc converter by controlling the inductor current to a minimum value at the turn-off instant of a power switch. The expression of the minimum switching current for ZVS and MBP is first derived by considering the resonant transient process in dead time. The transmission power range with ZVS and MBP can be maximized by selecting appropriate voltage conversion ratio according to different values of minimum current. An optimal extended phase-shift control for enlarging the operating region for ZVS and MBP of a dual-active-bridge dc–dc converter is designed. The optimization method is experimentally verified.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • High Step-Up SEPIC-Based Trans-Inverse DC–DC Converter With
           Quasi-Resonance Operation for Renewable Energy Applications

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      Authors: Sara Hasanpour;Tohid Nouri;Frede Blaabjerg;Yam P. Siwakoti;
      Pages: 485 - 497
      Abstract: This article proposes a new single switch trans-inverse high step-up converter applicable in sustainable sources of energies such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell (FC). Through developing a single-ended primary-inductor converter by a three-winding built-in transformer (BIT) mixed with a switched-capacitor voltage multiplier cell, high voltage gains as well as low voltage stress across the mosfet can be achieved to reduce the required duty cycle and the conduction losses. The third winding of the BIT acts in a trans-inverse manner whose turns ratio should be lower than unity. Hence, with a lower number of windings the voltage gain can also be improved. Furthermore, the quasi-resonance operation of the proposed converter, reduces the associated switching losses of the mosfet and also guarantees zero current switching of diodes through the whole switching cycle. Meanwhile, low input current of the proposed converter serves as an interesting feature to maintain PV and FC lifetime. The detailed steady-state analysis of the proposed high-efficiency converter is presented with an extensive performance comparison to explore its advantages. Finally, a 200-W prototype with 20–250-V voltage conversion is developed in the laboratory to examine the carried steady-state analysis.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Stable Maximum Power Extraction and DC Link Voltage Regulation for
           PMVG-Based WECS

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      Authors: Young Hoon Joo;Ruban Antonysamy;Thirumoorthy Ramasamy;Seong Ryong Lee;
      Pages: 498 - 508
      Abstract: This study discusses the power maximization and dc-link voltage regulation problems of a permanent magnet vernier generator (PMVG)-based wind energy conversion system. To do this, first, the dynamical model of PMVG-based wind turbine is developed and presented. Then, the overall control structure is configured utilizing a back-to-back converter with a machine-side converter (MSC) and a grid-side converter (GSC). At this time, the sliding-mode control scheme with the modified enhanced exponential reaching law is proposed for both MSC and GSC control to achieve maximum power extraction and stable dc link voltage, respectively. Furthermore, the sliding manifold’s stability condition is derived using the Lyapunov function, which guarantees a better transient performance and tracking accuracy. Finally, the proposed control scheme’s superiority and efficiency are demonstrated using theoretical simulations on 5 kW PMVG-based and 1.5 MW permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind turbine systems and empirical findings derived from a grid-connected 5 kW PMVG-based wind turbine in the experimental setup.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Hybrid-Frame Control Based Impedance Shaping Method to Extend the
           Effective Damping Frequency Range of the Three-Phase Adaptive Active
           Damper

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      Authors: Zhiheng Lin;Xinbo Ruan;Hao Zhang;Liguo Wu;
      Pages: 509 - 521
      Abstract: The grid-connected inverter may get unstable due to variation of grid impedance. To improve the system stability, an adaptive active damper, which emulates an adaptive tuning virtual resistor, can be introduced at the point of common coupling. However, subject to the control bandwidth, the virtual resistor is actually a frequency- dependent impedance, and its damping performance is impaired. In this article, we propose an impedance shaping method to make the virtual impedance be resistive in a wider frequency range, and it is implemented under hybrid frame for directly controlling the active power of the active damper and eliminating the influence of the cross-coupling terms on the emulation of a virtual resistor. Finally, the prototypes of a 3-kVA three-phase active damper and a 6-kVA three-phase LCL-type grid-connected inverter are fabricated and tested in the lab. The experimental results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control methods for the three-phase adaptive active damper.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Genetic Algorithm Assisted Parametric Design of Splitting Inductance in
           High Frequency GaN-Based Dual Active Bridge Converter

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      Authors: Chang Wang;Tiberiu-Gabriel Zsurzsan;Zhe Zhang;
      Pages: 522 - 531
      Abstract: Splitting and placing interfacing inductance on both sides of the transformer has been proven to be an effective method, which extends the zero-voltage switching region for all the switching devices in the dual active bridge (DAB) converter. With the trend toward operating in higher frequency, achieving higher power density and higher efficiency, the converter model becomes more complex due to the non-negligible parasitic components that brings new challenges to DAB converter design. Traditional analytical methods have made it hard to imitate the proposed converter easily and precisely. Thus, artificial intelligence techniques are able to be utilized to assist the design process. When considering the converter system as a gray-box model, the metaheuristic algorithm can be implemented for the targeted design inside such a gray-box. In this article, a genetic algorithm (GA) is employed in the DAB converter parametric design with an explicit fitness desire to help in discovering the high frequency oscillation (HFO) problem. Consequently, the splitting inductance tuning method is proposed for eliminating the HFO problem and minimizing inductors’ loss. The methodology of implementing GA into converter parametric design, and the proposed splitting inductance tuning method are introduced and verified with a 1 MHz gallium nitride high-electron-mobility transistor based DAB converter prototype. The comparitive experimental results prove the effectiveness of the splitting inductance tuning method and achieve 4% efficiency enhancement with 200 W power delivering.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Impedance Characteristic Analysis and Stability Improvement Method for
           DFIG System Within PLL Bandwidth Based on Different Reference Frames

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      Authors: Bin Hu;Heng Nian;Meng Li;Yuming Liao;Jun Yang;Hao Tong;
      Pages: 532 - 543
      Abstract: The phase-locked loop (PLL) will have a negative impact on the stability of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) system under inductive weak grid. Some PLL-less methods have been presented to remove the PLL such as switching the synchronous reference frame to the virtual reference frame or αβ-frame. Based on the equivalent single-input single-output impedance model, it is found that the DFIG systems implemented in the virtual reference frame or αβ-frame are more stable than synchronous reference frame. The reason is that the stator voltage will disturb the reference current calculation of the virtual reference frame and αβ-frame, then introduce a reference calculation matrix Gcal. This matrix will keep the phase of DFIG system always −90° around fundamental frequency, then narrow the negative resistance band and enhance the phase margin (PM). In order to further illustrate the stability improvement caused by Gcal, this article proposes a stability improvement method by emulating the Gcal in synchronous reference frame, so as to improve the PM while retaining the advantages of PLL under unbalanced or harmonically distorted voltage, and fault ride through. The experimental results validate the aforementioned conclusions.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Control of ILC in an Autonomous AC–DC Hybrid Microgrid With
           Unbalanced Nonlinear AC Loads

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      Authors: Shatakshi Jha;Bhim Singh;Sukumar Mishra;
      Pages: 544 - 554
      Abstract: This article presents a multiobjective control scheme for a bidirectional interlinking converter (ILC) of renewable energy based ac–dc hybrid microgrid. The prime focus of the power management algorithm is to feed the ac loads, and dc loads from ac source, and photovoltaic battery energy storage (BES), respectively. The second objective is to utilize the solar power to maximum capacity, by feeding it to dc load, BES, and ac load, in the given order of priority. The ac and dc subgrids operate independently, while supporting each other in case of overloading/underloading, thus reducing the amount of power reserve required in each, and eliminating the need of dump loads. The ANFIS-MN-based power quality control is integrated in order to ensure the total harmonics distortion of ac source current remains below 5% as per IEEE 519 standard, irrespective of the nature of load connected. In addition, the ILC control prevents any negative sequence currents from entering the ac source, even if there is any open circuit fault leading to unbalanced loading on the three phases. The performance of ANFIS-MN-based ILC control is demonstrated to be superior when compared with the conventional and contemporary techniques under different scenarios.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Embedded Distributed Temperature Sensing Enabled Multistate Joint
           Observation of Smart Lithium-Ion Battery

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      Authors: Zhongbao Wei;Jian Hu;Hongwen He;Yifei Yu;James Marco;
      Pages: 555 - 565
      Abstract: Accurate monitoring of the internal statuses is highly valuable for the management of the lithium-ion battery (LIB). This article proposes a thermal-model-based method for multistate joint observation, enabled by a novel smart battery design with an embedded and distributed temperature sensor. In particular, a novel smart battery is designed by implanting the distributed fiber optical sensor internally and externally. This promises a real-time distributed measurement of LIB internal and surface temperature with a high space resolution. Following this endeavor, a low-order joint observer is proposed to coestimate the thermal parameters, heat generation rate, state of charge, and maximum capacity. Experimental results disclose that the smart battery has space-resolved self-monitoring capability with high reproducibility. With the new sensing data, the heat generation rate, state of charge, and maximum capacity of LIB can be observed precisely in real time. The proposed method validates to outperform the commonly-used electrical-model-based method regarding the accuracy and the robustness to battery aging.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Three-Port Forward Converters With Compact Structure and Extended Duty
           Cycle Range

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      Authors: Guohua Zhou;Qingxin Tian;Haoze Li;
      Pages: 566 - 581
      Abstract: A series of three-port forward converters with a compact structure and extended duty cycle range is presented for the standalone renewable energy system. Bidirectional power-flow port embedding and switch device sharing can be used to derive these converters from conventional two-switches forward converters. In comparison to the conventional two-switch forward converter, only one switch and one diode are added to build an energy storage port with bidirectional power flow characteristics, which has the benefits of compact structure and low cost. Meanwhile, the embedding of the energy storage port provides an additional demagnetization loop for the magnetic inductor, which extends the duty cycle range of the forward converter so that the proposed converter no longer requires a duty cycle of less than 0.5 as in the case of conventional forward converters. The proposed converters also offer the advantages of fewer components, easy control, and independent control of power flow between multiple ports when compared to similar solutions. Finally, an experimental setup with a photovoltaic battery as an application is developed, and the experimental results verify the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed topology and control method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Multi-Objective Synchronization Control for Dual-Robot Interactive
           Cooperation Using Nonlinear Model Predictive Policy

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      Authors: Yuhao Zhang;Xingwei Zhao;Bo Tao;Han Ding;
      Pages: 582 - 593
      Abstract: Humans can simultaneously exert force and maintain motion states on both arms with synchronous attributes to accomplish interactive cooperation tasks. To endow dual robots with the same remarkable capability, a multi-objective synchronization control scheme is investigated in this article. The feedback laws for each robot are twofold. Specifically, the integral of the past synchronization force errors is adopted to design an impedance-based force feedback law. Moreover, the integral of the future predicted synchronization motion errors is used to establish a motion feedback law based on the nonlinear model predictive policy. The stability of the closed-loop system is theoretically proven. The practical performance of the proposed method is verified by a dual-robot mirror grinding experiment, where each robot exhibits high-accuracy motion capability and force compliance behavior. The experiment results show that the synchronization accuracy of position, velocity, and force is within 1 mm, 0.1 mm/s, and 1 N, respectively.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Object Clustering With Dirichlet Process Mixture Model for Data
           Association in Monocular SLAM

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      Authors: Songlin Wei;Guodong Chen;Wenzheng Chi;Zhenhua Wang;Lining Sun;
      Pages: 594 - 603
      Abstract: Semantic simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) with a monocular camera is particularly attractive because of the deployment simplicity and economic availability. Data association problem which assigns unique identities for objects shown in multiple frames plays a fundamental role in semantic SLAM. Previous prevalent methods which mainly focused on associating geometric KeyPoints are no longer suitable. Some naive methods that rely on object distance or 2-D/3-D Intersection over Union are also vulnerable when occlusions happen. In this article, we propose a novel data association method for cuboid landmarks based on Dirichlet process mixture model. By jointly considering object class, position, and size, our method can perform data association robustly. We evaluated our method in simulated datasets, public benchmark KITTI, and on a real robot in an office environment. Experimental results show that our method not only associates cuboids robustly but also achieves SOTA pose estimation accuracy in monocular SLAMs.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Chase and Track: Toward Safe and Smooth Trajectory Planning for Robotic
           Navigation in Dynamic Environments

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      Authors: Chaoqun Wang;Xiangyu Chen;Chenming Li;Rui Song;Yibin Li;Max Q.-H. Meng;
      Pages: 604 - 613
      Abstract: In this article presents a trajectory planning approach toward safe and smooth robot motion in dynamic environments. We develop a hierarchical planning framework with a global planner generating the shortest path between the robot and the navigation target. Specially, a virtual target (VT) is set to run on the global path with a designed velocity. At the local level, the robot chases the VT and tracks the global path when traveling through the dynamic environment. We employ the model predictive control (MPC) framework for the local path generation. In particular, the prediction horizon of the MPC is adaptively changed concerning the distance between the robot and the VT. It implicitly reflects the crowdedness of the environment, which helps reduce the environmental uncertainty. Besides, we develop an event-triggered mechanism that executes the local plan aperiodically to release the computational burden. Based on the local chasing and tracking performance, we develop a global path replanning scheme in response to the untraversable area emerging in the dense environment. The developed framework is validated through extensive experiments in dynamic environments, demonstrating that the robot can reach the target faster and showcase a safer and smoother trajectory in the navigation.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Ultrasound-Guided Wired Magnetic Microrobot With Active Steering and
           Ejectable Tip

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      Authors: Zhengxin Yang;Lidong Yang;Moqiu Zhang;Neng Xia;Li Zhang;
      Pages: 614 - 623
      Abstract: Interventional therapy is popular in modern surgical procedures for the treatment of vascular diseases. However, it remains challenging to smoothly steer the guidewire/catheter into distal tortuous lumen environments. In this article, a wired magnetic microrobot (WMM) is proposed for approaching hard-to-reach regions. The WMM consists of a commercial guidewire and an assembled tip module, which has two working modalities with a magnetically triggered switch. The tethered mode has high efficiency and reliability, where the forward–backward motion is controlled by the feeding device and the steering motion is actuated by the directional external magnetic field. The untethered mode has enhanced flexibility, where the ejected helical bullet is wirelessly propelled by the rotating external magnetic field. A homemade actuation system is adopted for large-workspace magnetic control and medical imaging-based feedback. Targeted scanning is conducted based on real-time segmentation of the vessel region in ultrasound (US) images and estimation of the vascular distribution. Both transverse and longitudinal views are used for visual tracking under different modes. With the proposed system, the WMM can be navigated in a 3-D tubular structure over a distance of 1000 mm, and the whole procedure can be performed under US imaging monitoring.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • High Precision Calibration for Three-Dimensional Vision-Guided Robot
           System

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      Authors: Zhicheng Liu;Xilong Liu;Zhiqiang Cao;Xurong Gong;Min Tan;Junzhi Yu;
      Pages: 624 - 634
      Abstract: Calibration is an important premise for vision-guided robot system, especially for precise industrial operations on curved surfaces. Most of existing methods focus on one or partial union of errors including assembly error of the robot, relative pose error between the vision unit and the robot, or installation error of end effector, which is still challenging in practice. To solve this problem, this article proposes a new calibration method based on error correction matrix by which different manifestations of each error is unified. As the nonlinear equations formed by these matrices cannot be solved analytically, a numerical optimization solution based on Lie algebra is presented. Specifically, the matrices acquisition is formulated as the problem of minimizing the sum of distance deviations between actual and ideal tool center points. This problem is then solved by differentiating these matrices with a form of left multiplicative perturbation. In this way, a high precision joint calibration with multisource errors is achieved. The proposed method is verified by simulations and experiments.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • SPT-Based Composite Hierarchical Antidisturbance Control Applied to a
           Quadrotor UAV

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      Authors: Yijia Xie;Xiang Yu;Yang Shi;Lei Guo;
      Pages: 635 - 645
      Abstract: Although the flight control of quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles have been widely studied, it is still very challenging to suppress multiple disturbances and efficiently utilize the inherent multi time-scale characteristics. As a well-known antidisturbance strategy, composite hierarchical antidisturbance control (CHADC) can compensate and attenuate disturbances simultaneously, thus enhancing the control performance of complex systems significantly. In the meantime, the singular perturbation theory (SPT) is employed to analyze the multi time-scale properties, and the original system is decomposed into the slow and fast subsystems. In this article, we present an antidisturbance control scheme based on the SPT and CHADC to enhance the capability of antidisturbance. A novel composite hierarchical antidisturbance (CHAD) predictor–corrector is proposed for the slow subsystem to integratively handle the disturbances from guidance and control perspective, and a CHAD ${{H}_{infty }}$ controller is employed for the fast subsystem subject to external disturbances and inertial uncertainties. Meanwhile, the compensability of disturbance is explicitly analyzed. Finally, experiments are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Hybrid Filtered Disturbance Observer for Precise Motion Generation of a
           Powered Exoskeleton

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      Authors: Kyeong-Won Park;Jungsu Choi;Kyoungchul Kong;
      Pages: 646 - 656
      Abstract: Lower-limb exoskeletons are promising applications of robotic rehabilitation for people with motor impairment. As current studies have tailored the design of gait trajectories for the target users, realizing a high-precision motion control is a critical issue for safe and effective assistance. The walking assistance involves unique characteristic phases that embody different physical constraints and requirements for assistance. Conventional methods often utilized gain-switching control for time-varying adaptation. However, despite their intuitiveness as well as simplicity, the control performance was unsatisfying due to unmodeled responses by human behavior and continuous interaction with the external environment. To tackle these challenges, this study proposes a hybrid control method applied to the disturbance observer that can provide robust robotic rehabilitation. The proposed method adaptively identifies the exoskeletal system as a hybrid nominal model and online exchanges model-based tracking controllers parallelly to the gait phase of a user. Furthermore, a unique filter named allowance filter is introduced to compensate for the plant dynamics, preventing instability of the inverted plant and realizing digital implementation. In this article, a practical user with complete paraplegia participated in the experiments for verification of the proposed methods.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Balancing and Tracking Control of Ballbot Mobile Robots Using a Novel
           Synchronization Controller Along With Online System Identification

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      Authors: Dinh Ba Pham;Xuan Quang Duong;Duc Sang Nguyen;Manh Cuong Hoang;Duong Phan;Ehsan Asadi;Hamid Khayyam;
      Pages: 657 - 668
      Abstract: Ballbots are omnidirectional self-balancing platforms that can be exploited in many applications to detect, track, or interact with objects or humans, such as a service robot. Ballbot will enable mobile robots to stand tall and move elegantly through busy environments. However, maintaining equilibrium through synchronization of motion between the ball and the body of a Ballbot is still an open research problem. This article presents a synchronization control (SC) design, with synchronization and coupling errors for Ballbots to stabilize the body and control ball transfer simultaneously. The proposed SC method is applied to the two 2-D planar models of a Ballbot robot. The dynamic model of the Ballbot is derived, and parameters are identified online using the intelligent particle swarm optimization method. The proposed controller is proven to guarantee asymptotic convergence to zero errors in tracking and synchronization. The stabilizing and transferring problems are investigated through several simulations and experiments by using an actual Ballbot platform. Moreover, the controller performance is compared with an augmented proportional derivative controller and a partial feedback linearization controller. The results and comparisons demonstrate a superior stabilization accuracy of the proposed SC method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • New Stabilization Controller of State-Constrained Nonholonomic Systems
           With Disturbances: Theory and Experiment

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      Authors: Zhongcai Zhang;Shengmiao Zhang;Yuqiang Wu;
      Pages: 669 - 677
      Abstract: In this article, a new stabilization control strategy is designed for a kind of nonholonomic system under full-state constraints and external disturbances. First, a stabilization controller for the first input is proposed to divide the entire control process into two stages. Then, using state transformations, the remaining original system is converted into an unconstrained system for which the stabilization controller is designed based on dynamic surface control. Stability analysis has established that the developed stabilization control algorithm can achieve the desired stabilization control objectives and the predefined full-state constraints. Meanwhile, all closed-loop signals keep bounded in the whole control process. Simulation and experiment results are given finally to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stabilization control algorithm.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Topology Optimization for the Manufacturable and Structurally Safe
           Synchronous Reluctance Motors With Multiple Iron Webs and Bridges

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      Authors: Changwoo Lee;Jaewook Lee;In Gwun Jang;
      Pages: 678 - 687
      Abstract: The goal of this article is to develop a new topology optimization framework that can secure the manufacturability of the synchronous reluctance motors (SynRMs) with multiple iron webs and bridges while satisfying the required electromagnetic and mechanical performances. In the SynRM, multiple iron webs and bridges are crucial to achieve a higher torque and a structural safety. A minimum thickness of the web and bridge should also be guaranteed to achieve manufacturability. To acquire the optimal SynRM that can satisfy the above characteristics, a two-stage topology optimization framework is proposed with an individual filtering-and-penalization scheme. This proposed scheme can individually control the number and thickness of multiple iron webs and bridges in the rotor to obtain the manufacturable and structurally safe SynRMs. For the abovementioned purpose, topology optimization is formulated to minimize a torque ripple while satisfying the desired average torque, structural compliance, and a rotational moment of inertia. Average torque and structural compliance are evaluated by performing the electromagnetic and structural finite element analyses, respectively, at each iteration of topology optimization. Here, design-dependent loads are considered in the radial and circumferential directions to reflect a high-speed rotation. Through investigating the optimized SynRM designs with various filter radii, the relationship among the torque, structural pattern, and stress distribution is examined. Finally, the experimental results with the manufactured prototypes validate the feasibility and potential of the proposed design method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Positive and Negative Pressure Soft Linear Brake for Wearable
           Applications

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      Authors: Jae Hyuck Jang;Altair Coutinho;Yeong Jae Park;Hugo Rodrigue;
      Pages: 688 - 698
      Abstract: Linear brakes are devices used to restrict relative linear motions between two points. The use of soft robotic technology has enabled the fabrication of lightweight linear brakes making use of frictional forces generated by a vacuum on jamming layers. This kind of device has significant potential for wearable devices as they are lightweight yet produce significant linear tensions which can be used to transfer loads or to selectively prevent certain motions of the body. However, vacuum-based devices have limitations in terms of maximum pressure and due to the decreasing frictional forces as the jamming layers decrease in contact area as they separate during the motion. This article introduces a positive and negative pressure linear brake where both positive and negative pressure is applied to jamming layers located inside of a pouch motor which is pressurized using positive pressures. This results in a soft linear brake capable of large braking forces and of adjusting its behavior through the variation of both positive and negative pressures. The proposed brake could sustain a linear tensile force approaching 500 N even at lower pressures and was implemented as a lower back support device intended for factory and healthcare workers.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • An Impact Inertial Piezoelectric Actuator Designed by Means of the
           Asymmetric Friction

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      Authors: Wuxiang Sun;Zhi Xu;Kuifeng Wang;Xuan Li;Jinyan Tang;Zhaojun Yang;Hu Huang;
      Pages: 699 - 708
      Abstract: With simple structure and control, impact inertial piezoelectric actuators are one promising type for precision positioning with large working stroke and high resolution. However, their applications still face some challenges, especially the incompatibility between speed and resolution as well as the motion instability due to the overturning moment. Therefore, innovative design of impact inertial actuators is urgently required. In this article, by designing an asymmetric compliant mechanism with a thick end and a thin end to generate asymmetric friction between the driving feet and U-groove, a novel impact inertial piezoelectric actuator was proposed. Its structure design, working principle, and output performances were addressed in detail. The results indicated that the thick end and thin end had quite different stepping characteristics, and the ideal stepping characteristic with quite small backward motion was achieved at the thick end. The displacement-time curves confirmed the motion stability of the actuator for bidirectional motions, and the small difference in forward and reverse speeds was explored. This actuator achieved the maximum speed of 7311 μm/s, the resolution of 221 nm, vertical and horizontal loading capacities being over 20 N and 1.4 N, respectively. Performance comparison with some previous impact inertial actuators further demonstrated the advancement.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Self-Tuning LCC/LCC System Based on Switch-Controlled Capacitors for
           Constant-Power Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging

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      Authors: Zhichao Luo;Yiyan Zhao;Meng Xiong;Xuezhe Wei;Haifeng Dai;
      Pages: 709 - 720
      Abstract: In this article, a self-tuning LCC/LCC wireless power transfer system based on switch-controlled capacitors is proposed to maintain a high power factor on the primary inverter side and fixed output power on the secondary side against self or mutual inductance variation of the magnetic coupler. The PI control on the primary side and the method of gradient descent on the secondary side are proposed based on the proposed normalized mistuned LCC/LCC circuit model. Only two switch-controlled capacitors on each primary and secondary side are used to implement the control scheme without the Wi-Fi communication or parameter identification. A 3 kW experiment setup was built in the lab and two different magnetic shields, namely ferrite and nanocrystalline, were tested on the secondary pad. According to the experiment results, the proposed system is proven to be able to maintain a high power factor (>0.9) and the desired dc output power against 52% mutual inductance variation and 12% self-inductance variation of the secondary pad. The proposed system can be applied as a wireless charger for electric vehicles or a high-power wireless charger test bench.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Low Detent Force DS-PMSLM Based on the Modulation of Cogging and End
           Forces

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      Authors: Chi Zhang;Feixue Chen;Shuheng Qiu;Tianyou Pei;Weiwei Gao;Jinhua Chen;Jie Zhang;Guilin Yang;
      Pages: 721 - 730
      Abstract: This article presents a low detent force double-sided permanent-magnet synchronous linear motor (DS-PMSLM), which contains two flat-type stators and a mover. The mover is constituted of a fiberglass support plate and Halbach array permanent magnets attached on both surfaces of this plate, which provides a large thrust force and low mover mass for high dynamic response. For the sake of reducing the thrust ripple, a modulation method of the cogging and end forces is proposed based on the destructive interference. The even-order harmonics in cogging and end forces are reduced by adjusting the width of the side slots and the lengths of end teeth, respectively. In order to reduce the odd-order harmonics of the detent force, the cogging force and end force are modulated to reverse phases and identical amplitudes by changing the equivalent lengths of four end teeth. An integrated subdomain analytical model considering the cogging and end effects is built to optimize five structural parameters of the stators for low detent force. Finally, the prototype and testing platforms are set up and the experimental results validate that the proposed DS-PMSLM can achieve a low thrust ripple of less than 1.5$ %$.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Adaptive Implicit Inverse Control for a Class of Butterfly-Like Hysteretic
           Nonlinear Systems and Its Application to Dielectric Elastomer Actuators

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      Authors: Yue Wang;Xiuyu Zhang;Zhi Li;Xinkai Chen;Chun-Yi Su;
      Pages: 731 - 740
      Abstract: In this article, a butterfly-like Prandtl–Ishlinskii (PI) hysteresis model and a novel neural network based adaptive implicit inverse control scheme to describe and control the butterfly-like hysteresis are proposed. The main contributions are: 1) a butterfly-like PI model is developed for the purpose of predicting the hysteresis effects and the model is feasible for controller design; 2) an implicit inverse control scheme especially for mitigating the butterfly-like hysteresis is implemented, which avoids the construction of the direct inverse of the butterfly-like PI model; 3) an adaptive implicit inverse control approach, which integrates the neural network and the implicit inverse technique into the output-feedback control is developed for eliminating the butterfly-like hysteresis and an arbitrarily small $L_{infty }$ norm of tracking error is achieved. The proposed modeling and control methods are validated experimentally via the dielectric elastomer actuator based motion control platform.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A 400-V Half Bridge Gate Driver for Normally-Off GaN HEMTs With Effective
           Dv/Dt Control and High Dv/Dt Immunity

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      Authors: Siyuan Yu;Qi Zhou;Gang Shi;Tianyang Wu;Jing Zhu;Long Zhang;Weifeng Sun;Sen Zhang;Nailong He;Ye Li;
      Pages: 741 - 751
      Abstract: This article presents two techniques to address the reliability issues caused by dv/dt under fast switching conditions of gallium nitride high electron mobility transistors. The first technique called active overdrive voltage control is proposed to adjust the gate driving strength according to the rising speed of the switching node (dv/dt) adaptively and, thus, decrease the dv/dt without increasing too much switching loss. The second technique is three-branch high-voltage level shifter (TBLS), which can improve the dv/dt immunity without compromising the signal transmission speed. The common mode current caused by dv/dt can be copied and then compensated by a transient current provided by the auxiliary branch. Combining the above techniques, a 400 V half bridge gate driver IC is fabricated by silicon-on-insulator BCD process. Compared with the gate driver IC utilizing the conventional open-loop output stage, the proposed gate driver IC reduces the turn-on switching loss by 16.2% for the same level of peak dv/dt at 400 V 10 A application. In addition, the proposed TBLS can achieve the dv/dt immunity up to 100 V/ns meanwhile the propagation delay less than 14 ns, enabling megahertz operation frequency.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Practical Terminal Sliding-Mode Control and Its Applications in Servo
           Systems

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      Authors: Hanlin Dong;Xuebo Yang;Huijun Gao;Xinghuo Yu;
      Pages: 752 - 761
      Abstract: This article’s primary motivation is to propose a nonsingular and continuous terminal sliding-mode (TSM) control with reduced chattering, which is able to rapidly stabilize the second-order plant with high precision. To this end, a novel sliding-mode manifold, coined as practical TSM (PTSM) one, is first constructed. Once the proposed sliding surface is reached, a Lipschitz-continuous but slope-steep generalized velocity will be established at the origin such that the global nonsingularity of the equivalent control is ensured. The fast dynamic response with local high gain characterizes the sliding behavior inside the unit neighborhood of the origin. Importantly, the analytical solution of the proposed sliding-mode reduced-order system is deduced, which indicates that the finite time taken to slide into a preset small neighborhood of the origin can be calculated. The above designability of convergence time is necessary for control practices with accurate time sequence planning. Further, the corresponding globally singular-free PTSM reaching law with reduced chattering is designed based on the super-twisting algorithm. Finally, several groups of linear-motor-based control experiments verify the superiorities of proposed controllers.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Output Feedback Tracking Control for a Class of Nonlinear Systems With
           Sensor Uncertainties

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      Authors: Wanli Wang;Yan Lin;Qingrui Meng;
      Pages: 762 - 772
      Abstract: In this article, we consider adaptive output feedback tracking for a class of nonlinear systems with uncertain parameters, multiplicative and additive sensor uncertainties, and external disturbances. A state observer and an adaptive controller are constructed based on gain scaling technique by which a dynamic gain is designed to compensate for the effects of the sensor uncertainties. The adaptive controller is linear-like and, therefore, is simple and easy to implement. It is shown that with this proposed scheme, all states of the closed-loop system are bounded and the real tracking error can converge to an arbitrarily small residual set. Simulation and experiment are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • On Sign-Projected Gradient Flow-Optimized Extended-State Observer Design
           for a Class of Systems With Uncertain Control Gain

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      Authors: Yongshuai Wang;Zengqiang Chen;Mingwei Sun;Qinglin Sun;Minnan Piao;
      Pages: 773 - 782
      Abstract: If one cannot obtain the accurate prior information of the controlled object in advance, it will take much effort to get good dynamic performance. To this end, this article proposes an online estimation method to deal with disturbances and uncertainties for a class of systems with uncertain control gain. Based on the extended-state observer scheme, the estimation problem of disturbance and uncertain control gain is transformed to the convex optimization problem and solved by the sign-projected gradient flow, then the estimation can be applied to compensate disturbance and design controller. Moreover, the exponential and ultimate boundedness is obtained for the derived closed-loop system, together with rigorous theoretical analysis and proof. Finally, both the numerical simulations and the experiment on a brushless dc motor demonstrate that the proposed design has a better tracking performance and stronger robustness to deal with disturbances and uncertainties compared with the existing methods.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Blockchain Protocol-Based Predictive Secure Control for Networked Systems

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      Authors: Yi Yu;Guo-Ping Liu;Xingwei Zhou;Wenshan Hu;
      Pages: 783 - 792
      Abstract: Networked control systems (NCSs) are widely used in practical applications because of their flexibility in deployment. However, due to the dependence on the communication network, NCSs could be vulnerable to malicious cyberattacks. To address this problem, a novel blockchain technology-assisted networked predictive secure control approach is presented for the first time in this article. First, the introduction of blockchain technology brings a significant boost to the inherent resilience of the NCS in an active manner without relying on any prior knowledge of the system or potential attacks. However, blockchain technology would induce time delays unfavorable to the NCS, which could result in the low real-time performance of the control system. Subsequently, a networked Kalman filter-based predictive control is specially designed to compensate for the low real-time property of blockchain technology. A detailed analysis of the security and stability of the closed-loop NCS with the developed networked predictive secure controller is also presented, while sufficient conditions for the closed-loop system to be simultaneously stable and safe in a probabilistic sense are given. Finally, to verify the performance of the proposed approach in terms of practicality, an experimental prototype of a photovoltaic (PV)-based power generation system subjected to random cyber-attacks is built for voltage regulation.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Disturbance Estimation Approach to Self-Calibration of Gimbal Resolver-
           to-Digital Conversion System

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      Authors: Haitao Li;Xiangwen Chen;Gang Liu;Xinfang Cui;
      Pages: 793 - 802
      Abstract: High-precision position measurement of the gimbal servo system is indispensable to accurate torque output of the control moment gyroscope (CMG). This article addresses the systematic error of the resolver caused by the nonideal output signals of the resolver in the gimbal resolver-to-digital (R/D) conversion system. Due to the limitation of the structure and installation space of the CMG, it is impractical to install additional high-precision sensors to calibrate the raw angular position. Thus, this article proposes a new self-calibration method based on the discrete extended state observer (DESO) to compensate the systematic error of the resolver. The systematic error of the resolver is observed through iterating the resolver systematic estimation error and the compensation table is generated by the output of the DESO. Then, the steady-state error and dynamic performance of the DESO is analyzed and simulated. Finally, the proposed self-calibration method is verified by experiments, which show that the angular position control accuracy is significantly improved, which enhances the speed precision of the gimbal servo system.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Fixed-Time Neural Control of Robot Manipulator With Global Stability and
           Guaranteed Transient Performance

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      Authors: Chengzhi Zhu;Yiming Jiang;Chenguang Yang;
      Pages: 803 - 812
      Abstract: Nowadays, due to many limitations in reality, the optimization of tracking precision and convergence time has attracted the attention of researchers in robotics community. In this article, a fixed-time adaptive neural network (NN) controller is proposed for unknown robot manipulators. A switching mechanism is integrated into the control design such that the semiglobal stability of the conventional NN control systems can be extended to global stability. The time-varying barrier Lyapunov function and the fixed-time control technique are incorporated into the controller design to guarantee the prescribed motion constraints and the fixed-time convergence simultaneously. Compared with some existing fixed-time NN control algorithms, the assumption that NN weight should be upper bounded can be relaxed in our work. Finally, the simulation and experiment studies are respectively carried out based on an unknown 2-degree of freedom robot and a Baxter robot to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed control scheme.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Variational Bayesian-Based Moving Horizon Estimation of Toolface for
           Rotary Steerable Drilling Tool Systems

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      Authors: Yichun Niu;Li Sheng;Ming Gao;Yuechao Wang;Donghua Zhou;
      Pages: 813 - 823
      Abstract: This article is concerned with the estimation problem of Toolface for dynamic point-the-bit rotary steerable drilling tool systems. First, considering the unknown frequency and amplitude of vibration during the drilling process, the Toolface system is modeled as a time-varying stochastic system with unknown and time-varying noise covariance matrices. Under the assumption that the noises and their covariance matrices, respectively, obey the Gaussian distribution and the inverse Wishart distribution, the variational Bayesian-based moving horizon estimation algorithm is proposed. Then, the state and the noise covariance matrices are inferred by iteratively updating their approximate posterior probability distributions. Finally, simulations and experiments are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the developed estimation scheme.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Suspension Control Strategies Using Switched Soft Actor-Critic Models for
           Real Roads

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      Authors: Hwanmoo Yong;Joohwan Seo;Jaeyoung Kim;Myounghoe Kim;Jongeun Choi;
      Pages: 824 - 832
      Abstract: In this article, we propose learning and control strategies for a semiactive suspension system in a full car using soft actor-critic (SAC) models on real roads, where many road profiles with various power of disturbance exist (e.g., speed bumps and general roads). Therefore, a technique that enables deep reinforcement learning to cover different domains with largely different reward functions is proposed. This concept was first realized in a simulation environment. Our proposed switching learning system continuously identifies two different road disturbance profiles in real time such that the appropriately designed SAC model can be learned and applied accordingly. The results of the proposed switching SAC algorithm were compared against those of advanced and conventional benchmark suspension systems. Based on the results, the proposed algorithm showed smaller root-mean-square values of the $z$-directional acceleration and pitch at the center of the body mass. Finally, we also presented our successfully implemented SAC training system in a real car on real roads. The trained SAC model outperforms conventional controllers reducing the $z$-directional acceleration and pitch, similar to the simulation results, which is highly related to the riding comfort and vehicle maneuverability.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Accelerated and Adaptive Power Scheduling for More Electric Aircraft Via
           Hybrid Learning

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      Authors: Bowen Xu;Fanghong Guo;Lantao Xing;Yu Wang;Wen-An Zhang;
      Pages: 833 - 845
      Abstract: In recent studies, the power scheduling in more electric aircraft (MEA) has been formulated as a mixed-integer quadratic programming problem. Many model-driven methods, such as branch-and-bound algorithms, are advocated to solve it. However, these methods are often prone to considerably high complexities, which makes real-time processing a problem. In this article, a two-stage hybrid learning-based optimization approach is proposed to address this challenging issue. In the first stage, the task of optimizing integer variables is considered as a multilabel classification problem, which is solved by a data-driven method, i.e., ensemble deep neural networks (EDNNs). In the second stage, with the obtained integer solutions, the problem is transformed into a quadratic programming problem that can be quickly solved by model-driven numerical optimization methods. Compared to the state-of-the-art power scheduling algorithms, the model-driven and data-driven methods can compensate each other so that this two-stage hybrid learning-based approach can achieve orders of magnitude speedup in computational time, while guaranteeing the optimal scheduling performance. The structures of EDNNs are well designed so that the proposed approach can adapt to varying operating conditions in MEA. An offline simulation test and an online hardware-in-the-loop test validate the above advantages of the proposed approach.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Event-Triggered Formation Tracking Control With Application to Multiple
           Mobile Robots

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      Authors: Zipeng Huang;Robert Bauer;Ya-Jun Pan;
      Pages: 846 - 854
      Abstract: In this article, we address the distributed event-triggered leader–follower formation tracking control problem of general linear multiagent systems with a dynamic leader in sampled-data settings. A novel locally computable state-estimate-based event generator is established for each follower agent to regulate the interagent communication at each sampling instant. Then, we propose a distributed formation tracking protocol based on the triggered sampled information such that the formation tracking control problem can be formulated as a stability-analysis problem of the closed-loop formation error dynamics. The event generator and formation tracking controller gains can then be co-designed using the feasible linear matrix inequality conditions that are derived from Lyapunov-based stability-analysis methods that guarantee the ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop formation error dynamics. Finally, numerical simulations along with experiment implementations were conducted for a group of linearized unicycle-type mobile robots to demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Analysis and Design of Active Disturbance Rejection Control With an
           Improved Extended State Observer for Systems With Measurement Noise

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      Authors: Youwu Du;Weihua Cao;Jinhua She;
      Pages: 855 - 865
      Abstract: This article presents a new method that employs the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) paradigm to handle the control problem for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown disturbances and measurement noise. An improved extended state observer (ESO) is devised to separate disturbance estimation from state reconstruction and a new parameter is used to adjust disturbance-rejection performance independently. This increases the flexibility of system design and makes the gain of the improved ESO (IESO) small compared to that of a conventional ESO in the ADRC. A low-pass filter is added to the IESO. This changes the slope of the magnitude curve of the Bode diagram from $-20$ dB/dec to $-40$ dB/dec at high frequencies for measurement noise, which improves the noise-suppression performance. Comparison with a conventional ESO reveals the superiority of the IESO in disturbance rejection and noise suppression. The presented method is validated by simulation and experimental results.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Analysis and Design of Adaptive Cruise Control for Smart Electric Vehicle
           With Domain-Based Poly-Service Loop Delay

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      Authors: Wanke Cao;Shao Liu;Jianwei Li;Zhaolong Zhang;Hongwen He;
      Pages: 866 - 877
      Abstract: Domain-based electronic and electrical (E/E) architectures have been regarded as a possible upgrade to distributed E/E architectures currently used in electric vehicles. In a distributed E/E design, E/E components are directly connected to the automobile bus. Domain-based architectures split E/E components into distinct domains depending on their functions, which clearly benefits software upgrading and wire harness reduction. However, due to its heterogeneous topology with multiple network protocols, domain-based E/E architecture introduces complicated multilink and multinode delays into the control loop. The delays may degrade and even deteriorate the stability of adaptive cruise control (ACC) employing domain-based E/E architecture. To this end, this article proposes a heterogeneous-topology loop delay analysis by introducing a notion of poly-service loop delay. With a graphical pattern, the analytical process is presented in depth. The worst-case loop delay is calculated using an upper-boundary mathematic equation. Then, a hierarchical cyber-physical control method for ACC is designed. The upper level is intended to achieve desired acceleration based on vehicle and intervehicle motion states. And the lower level is intended to mitigate the negative impact of loop delays and provide reliable acceleration tracking. The results of cosimulation and hardware-in-loop experiment verify effectiveness of proposed approaches.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Modeling and Robust Control for Tendon–Sheath Artificial Muscle System
           Twist With Time-Varying Parameters and Input Constraints: An Exploratory
           Research

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      Authors: Xiangyu Wang;Ningbo Yu;Jianda Han;Yongchun Fang;
      Pages: 878 - 887
      Abstract: Tendon–sheath artificial muscle (TSAM) is a type of artificial muscle, which is widely used in robotic flexible endoscopies. The characteristics of the tendon force/position transmission were studied recently, but the control issue of the TSAM twist is still barely concerned. In this article, an effective robust control scheme is proposed for the TSAM twist, which achieves satisfactory tracking performance. First, a rigorous model was developed for the TSAM twist with consideration of parameters uncertainty and actuator input constraints, moreover, the disturbance of the discontinuous friction (Coulomb friction) was analyzed. Next, by applying some signal operation methods, a nonlinear robust controller was designed. In addition, the stability of the control strategy was proven theoretically by utilizing Lyapunov-based theory. Finally, a series of hardware experiments were conducted on a robotic flexible ureteroscope test-bed. The feasibility of the proposed model, the effectiveness and robustness of the designed control method were extensively validated.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Control of Beam-Pendulum Dynamics in a Tower Crane With a Slender Jib
           Transporting a Distributed-Mass Load

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      Authors: Jiahui Ye;Jie Huang;
      Pages: 888 - 897
      Abstract: Tower cranes with slender jib transporting bulky loads are commonly applied in the construction site. Human-operated commands induce vibrations of the cantilever jib, swing, and twisting of the suspended load. Coupled oscillations among jib deflection, load swing and load twisting exhibit complex dynamic behavior. Furthermore, coupled-system frequencies significantly differ from uncoupled frequencies of the jib and pendulum. Unfortunately, little attention has been directed at the coupled-oscillation dynamics and control of jib deflection, load swing, and load twisting. A dynamic model of a tower crane slewing a slender jib and moving a distributed-mass load is derived. The fully coupled effects among jib deflection, load swing, and load twisting are described in the model. Then, an equation for predicting coupled-system frequencies is presented from the analytical model. Meanwhile, a hybrid piecewise smoother is proposed to filter out coupled oscillations among jib deflection, load swing and load twisting. Many experiments validate the utility of frequency-estimation equation and verify the success of the smoother.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Statistical Diagnosis for Quality-Related Faults in BIW Assembly Process

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      Authors: Yu-kai Fu;Guang-Hong Yang;Hong-Jun Ma;Hao Chen;Bo Zhu;
      Pages: 898 - 906
      Abstract: The assembly process of a car body-in-white (BIW) in a body shop is a very important link in complete vehicle manufacturing process, and BIW dimension quality control is the most important part of BIW quality control. The quality-related fixture fault diagnosis problem is proposed in smart dimension control loop [established in BMW Brilliance Automotive company (BBA)] aiming to detect locating fixture fault, which could seriously influence BIW dimension quality. This article introduces a novel statistical quality-related fault diagnosis method by combining Kalman filter and generalized likelihood ratio test, making system innovation as a basic fault diagnosis tool and establishing a hypothesis test between fixture-fault-free model and fixture-faulty model to detect potential fixture fault, meanwhile estimates fixture fault occurred station by maximum likelihood estimate. The fixture fault diagnosis flowchart is built to decrease false and missing alarm rate in actual production process. The case study based on the real BIW component assembly process data from BBA demonstrate that this fault diagnosis method can accurately post fixture fault warning and send correct order to on-site workers to maintain locating fixture in a batch of products.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Online DC-Link Capacitance Monitoring for Digital-Controlled Boost PFC
           Converters Without Additional Sampling Devices

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      Authors: Zhaoyang Zhao;Pooya Davari;Weiguo Lu;Frede Blaabjerg;
      Pages: 907 - 920
      Abstract: Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (Al-Caps) are widely used in the dc link of ac/dc applications; however, they are one of the weakest components in power electronic converters. With the degradation of Al-Cap, its capacitance (C) decreases, and the equivalent series resistance increases. Based on this, many efforts have been made to realize condition monitoring (CM) of Al-Caps. Unfortunately, additional hardware (including current sensors and sampling circuits) and/or powerful data processing tools are usually required, which increases the cost and would bring new reliability risks. Considering this issue, this article presents a transient-based CM scheme for dc-link capacitors in digital-controlled boost power factor correction (PFC) converters, which does not need additional sampling devices. By analyzing the relationship between large-signal transient voltage profile and dc-link capacitance, a calculation model is established. Based on the sampled voltage and current signals used for digital control, the dc-link capacitance can be online estimated. Its feasibility is validated in simulation with a boost PFC operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode. Furthermore, taking a 1-kW boost PFC operating in CCM as a case study, experimental results illustrate that the estimation errors of the dc-link capacitance are less than 3.5% (error of a single test) and 1.5% (average error of multiple tests).
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Tuning-Free Bayesian Estimation Algorithms for Faulty Sensor Signals in
           State-Space

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      Authors: Shunyi Zhao;Ke Li;Choon Ki Ahn;Biao Huang;Fei Liu;
      Pages: 921 - 929
      Abstract: Sensors provide insights into the industrial processes, while misleading sensor outputs may result in inappropriate decisions or even catastrophic accidents. In this article, the Bayesian estimation algorithms are developed to estimate unforeseen signals in sensor outputs without tuning. The optimal Bayesian estimation method is first derived by incorporating a Gaussian distribution specifying potential unmodeled dynamics into the measurement equation. Since its performance depends on tuning parameters, an iterative Bayesian estimation algorithm is developed using the variational inference technique. Specifically, an inverse Wishart distribution is introduced to describe the predicted covariance of abnormal signals. We then estimate it together with the other independent Gaussian distributions to conditionally approximate the joint posterior distribution, by which the effects of tuning parameters can be replaced adaptively. Testing the proposed algorithms through a simulated electromechanical brake model and a real experimental system shows that the proposed algorithm can satisfactorily estimate additive sensor faults online and services as a sensor monitor that simultaneously provides the locations and magnitudes of faulty signals without tuning.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Failure Prevention in DC–DC Converters: Theoretical Approach and
           Experimental Application on a Zeta Converter

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      Authors: Marco Bindi;Fabio Corti;Francesco Grasso;Antonio Luchetta;Stefano Manetti;Maria Cristina Piccirilli;Alberto Reatti;
      Pages: 930 - 939
      Abstract: In this article, we propose a monitoring procedure based on a multilayer neural network with multivalued neurons (MLMVN) capable of preventing catastrophic failures of dc–dc converters. The neural classifier allows both the detection of any malfunction and its localization. Thanks to the low computational complexity, the proposed method operates online, estimating the deviations of the passive components from their nominal values: this allows control strategies to be promptly adopted and operation of the dc–dc converter to be kept in high efficiency and reliability conditions. Since measuring the voltage and current on each component increases the complexity of the system, a testability analysis is proposed with the aim of identifying the minimum number of measurements needed to distinguish the classes of failure. To make the testability phase easier and more intuitive, a graphical representation is proposed. As a case study, prognostic analysis has been applied to prevent catastrophic failures in a synchronous Zeta converter. Several fault conditions have been analyzed through simulations and experimental tests. The obtained results confirm the ability of the proposed method to prevent failures and, also, show that the application of MLMVN results in a better performance than classic solutions available in the literature, such as support vector machine.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • A Novel Plug-and-Play Factor Graph Method for Asynchronous
           Absolute/Relative Measurements Fusion in Multisensor Positioning

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      Authors: Shiyu Bai;Jizhou Lai;Pin Lyu;Bowen Ji;Bingqing Wang;Xin Sun;
      Pages: 940 - 950
      Abstract: The presence of asynchronous absolute and relative measurements has posed a great challenge to the current multisensor positioning method in robotic systems. Although traditional factor graph methods possess a capability of plug-and-play, only a compromised performance can be obtained when dealing with an increasing number of asynchronous observations. In this article, a novel plug-and-play factor graph method for asynchronous absolute/relative measurements fusion in multisensor positioning is proposed. Different from traditional methods, a fixed-rate graph model is formed. The variable nodes in the graph are built at a fixed update rate to do the optimization, which is not affected by the arrival of measurements. Asynchronous absolute and relative measurements between two successive variable nodes are associated with corresponding variable nodes in the graph via the propagation of closed-form inertial measurement unit (IMU) preintegration. The simulations, datasets, and field tests are carried out to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the closed-form IMU preintegration method has better dynamic adaptability in fusion system to formulate the association with asynchronous measurements. On this basis, the proposed method can integrate asynchronous measurements in a plug-and-play manner and achieve better performance compared to current methods. Meanwhile, the computational load can also be reduced.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Structural Coupled Electromagnetic Sensing of Defects Diagnostic System

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      Authors: Gaige Ru;Bin Gao;Dong Liu;Qiuping Ma;Haoran Li;Wai Lok Woo;
      Pages: 951 - 964
      Abstract: Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) detection methods are widely used to detect pipeline defects. However, it is limited by the detection orientation and magnetization. Besides, bulky excitation systems are incapable of adapting to the complex detection environments. This article proposes a new electromagnetic structured coupling sensing of merging alternating current field measurement and MFL within a multiparameter system for different types of pipeline defects detection. In particular, a novel electromagnetic coupling sensor structure is proposed, which enables simultaneous interaction between the excitation modes of yoke and coil. Magnetic yoke is integrated to magnetizing the axial pipeline to detect the circumferential surface and subsurface defects while the coil excites the circumferential uniform alternating current field and recognizes the axial defect. The novel structured sensing is highly sensitive to the detection of both surface and subsurface defects. Simulation and experiments on defects in several samples have been conducted to validate the reliability and efficiency of the proposed system.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Blind-Zone-Free Metal Object Detection for Wireless EV Chargers Employing
           DD Coils by Passive Electromagnetic Sensing

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      Authors: Songyan Niu;Shuangxia Niu;Cheng Zhang;Linni Jian;
      Pages: 965 - 974
      Abstract: Metal object detection (MOD) is crucial for the safe operation of ground-assembled wireless electric vehicle charging (WEVC) systems. Electromagnetic sensing by passive coils is a reliable MOD method for high-power applications, such as WEVC. Previous designs of sensing coils are mainly targeted at the systems with unpolarized coils (e.g., circular coils). However, they are not suitable for those with DD-coil-coupling engaged due to the fundamentally different field pattern. To fix this problem, in this article, a field-oriented design of sensing coils is proposed, which mainly aims at blind-zone elimination while maintaining high sensitivity and cost-effectiveness. The blind zone arising from axial symmetry of the field is removed by size-modulated C-shape coil units. And removing the central blind spot relies on an extra patch coil by utilizing the characteristic of parallel magnetic flux generated by DD coils. Tested by 13 positions (central blind spot excluded) where MOs might exist using a 3-kW WEVC prototype, the optimized sensing coils completely remove the axial blind zones when 50 mV is set as the threshold voltage. Moreover, for the central blind spot, the proposed patch coil can stably identify MO intrusion no matter if the prototype operates in light-load or heavy-load conditions.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Two-Dimensional Equivalent Circuit Model of Ultrasonic Wireless Power
           Transmission

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      Authors: Yuwei Du;Yufei Zhao;Zhenxing Wang;Heyang Wang;Jianhua Wang;Yingsan Geng;Liqiong Sun;
      Pages: 975 - 984
      Abstract: In this article, piezoelectric ceramic is a core device of an ultrasonic wireless power transmission (UWPT) system. The most commonly used piezoelectric ceramic in research and applications of UWPT has a ring-like shape. The piezoelectric ceramic rings usually work in the presence of significant radial and axial vibrations as long as they are not extremely thin. However, in most studies related to the UWPT, only the axial vibration mode is considered. The Mason equivalent circuit model of axial vibration is widely used and the effect of radial vibration on the whole system is ignored. In this article, first, a method to analyze the piezoelectric ceramic ring considering the radial-axial coupled vibration is proposed. Second, the analytical expressions of the constitutive equations of the piezoelectric ceramic ring are derived. Third, a new form of analytical equations is constructed, and a novel two-dimensional equivalent circuit of the UWPT system considering the radial-axial coupled vibration of the piezoelectric ceramic ring is proposed. Fourth, the input and output characteristics of the proposed model and the conventional Mason equivalent circuit model are simulated using MATLAB. Last, the simulation results are compared and verified by experiments. The results demonstrate that the proposed model can describe the system resonance more accurately and comprehensively than the conventional Mason model. As a whole, this study increases the accuracy of the equivalent circuit model of the UWPT system and has important theoretical significance for UWPT research.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • An Ultrathin Flexible Loudspeaker Based on a Piezoelectric Microdome Array

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      Authors: Jinchi Han;Jeffrey H. Lang;Vladimir Bulović;
      Pages: 985 - 994
      Abstract: Ultrathin, lightweight, high-performance, low- cost, and energy-efficient loudspeakers that can be deployed over a wide area have become increasingly attractive to both traditional audio systems and emerging applications such as active noise control and immersive entertainment. In this article, a thin-film loudspeaker is proposed based on an active piezoelectric layer embossed with an array of microscale domes. Actuation of these freestanding domes contributes to excellent sound generation by the loudspeaker, for example, 86 dB sound pressure level at 30-cm distance with 25-V (rms) excitation at 10 kHz, regardless of the rigid surface on which it is bonded. The acoustic performance is further tunable by designing the dome dimensions. The proposed loudspeaker also exhibits high bandwidth, which extends its prospects into the ultrasonic range. The loudspeaker weighs only 2 g, is 120 μm thick and can be manufactured at low cost. These advantages make the proposed loudspeaker a promising candidate for ubiquitous applications in existing and emerging industrial and commercial scenarios.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Enhanced IDA-PBC Applied to a Three-Phase PWM Rectifier for Stable
           Interfacing Between AC and DC Microgrids Embedded in More Electrical
           Aircraft

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      Authors: Maxime Lapique;Shengzhao Pang;Jean-Philippe Martin;Serge Pierfederici;Mathieu Weber;Sami Zaim;
      Pages: 995 - 1004
      Abstract: To cope with future goal of efficiency, next generation of more electrical aircraft is likely to embed reconfigurable microgrid for the primary electrical distribution. The stability analysis of such time-varying structure is challenging. Conventional linear and nonlinear approaches failed to produce proper answers from a practical point of view. Under conditions, passivity property of each equipment is sufficient to ensure stability of the overall microgrid. But with improper passivity-based control (PBC) design, the passivity property may not be propagated. The main contribution of this article is to propose a modified IDA-PBC procedure that will ensure the passivity properties of the system regarding its electrical inputs and outputs involved in the interconnection. Thus, for electrical microgrids resulting from the interconnection of controllable equipment, input/output filters, and electrical lines, if all the equipment embed the proposed control, the whole microgrid have passive properties and the global stability of the system is ensured. Moreover, this article will also present how to achieve the proposed control with high transient and robust performances thanks to nonlinear parameters’ estimator preserving the passivity proper. Experimental validation of the proposed control in representative electrical conditions is provided.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Unified Modeling for Multiple-Energy Coupling Device of Industrial
           Integrated Energy System

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      Authors: Yang Liu;Jun Zhao;Linqing Wang;Wei Wang;
      Pages: 1005 - 1015
      Abstract: Data-driven unified modeling for multiple energy-coupling device (MECD) with considering the changing of operation modes (OMs) triggered by seasonal variation or the alteration of production rhythm is a challenging task. To overcome this, in this article, an unified modeling framework by using four-order tensor-based generalized interval type-2 fuzzy neural network is proposed, which considers the multiple operation property of MECD generated in the production process. The unified modelling of MECDs lie in the aspects of input and output of multiple energy media, OMs, working mode, which are related to analyze the structure difference of various type, specification, the changing of OMs triggered by demand response, and the alteration of season affected on working mode. Moreover, a model-guided rule pruning and recalling strategy was presented for avoiding the catastrophic forgetting of fuzzy rules in the process of modeling. A series of real-world data collected from a steel industrial park are selected for verifying the effectiveness of the proposed method; the established unified model has a widespread applicability and its prediction result outperforms state-of-the-art approaches in aspect of flexibility and accuracy.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • K-Means Clustering-Based Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis for
           Multimodal Emotion Recognition in Human–Robot Interaction

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      Authors: Luefeng Chen;Kuanlin Wang;Min Li;Min Wu;Witold Pedrycz;Kaoru Hirota;
      Pages: 1016 - 1024
      Abstract: In this article, K-meansclustering-based Kernel canonical correlation analysis algorithm is proposed for multimodal emotion recognition in human–robot interaction (HRI). The multimodal features (gray pixels; time and frequency domain) extracted from facial expression and speech are fused based on Kernel canonical correlation analysis. K-means clustering is used to select features from multiple modalities and reduce dimensionality. The proposed approach can improve the heterogenicity among different modalities and make multiple modalities complementary to promote multimodal emotion recognition. Experiments on two datasets, namely SAVEE and eNTERFACE‘05, are conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method produces good recognition rates that are higher than the ones produced by the methods without K-means clustering; more specifically, they are 2.77% higher in SAVEE and 4.7% higher in eNTERFACE‘05.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Accurate SOC Prediction and Monitoring of Each Cell in a Battery Pack
           Considering Various Influencing Factors

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      Authors: Linhui Zhao;Pengliang Qin;
      Pages: 1025 - 1035
      Abstract: Accurate prediction and monitoring of the state of charge (SOC) of each cell in a battery pack are of great significance for safe driving of electric vehicles. Subject to the factors of differences between cells, temperature, and aging, the accuracy of existing SOC prediction methods may be affected in applications. This article employs a data-driven method with a proposed novel transfer learning framework considering conditional probability distribution adaptation to solve the impact of the aforementioned influencing factors on SOC prediction and obtains a favorable SOC prediction result for each cell. As experiments of actual battery pack provided by China First Automobile Work based demonstrated, the proposed method can accurately predict SOC of each cell under different influencing factors by using only one cell modeling data. Moreover, the proposed method is robust against model parameter uncertainties, sensor noise, etc.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • $epsilon$ -Stealthy+Attack+Under+Stochastic+Communication+Protocol:+An+Application+to+Networked+Permanent+Magnet+Synchronous+Machine+Systems&rft.title=IEEE+Transactions+on+Industrial+Electronics&rft.issn=0278-0046&rft.date=2023&rft.volume=70&rft.spage=1036&rft.epage=1046&rft.aulast=Zhang;&rft.aufirst=Xiu-Xiu&rft.au=Xiu-Xiu+Ren;Guang-Hong+Yang;Xiao-Guang+Zhang;">Statistical-Based Optimal $epsilon$ -Stealthy Attack Under Stochastic
           Communication Protocol: An Application to Networked Permanent Magnet
           Synchronous Machine Systems

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      Authors: Xiu-Xiu Ren;Guang-Hong Yang;Xiao-Guang Zhang;
      Pages: 1036 - 1046
      Abstract: This article presents the $epsilon$-stealthy attack against cyber-physical systems under the stochastic communication protocol (SCP), which is used to avoid data collisions. The aim is to develop an optimal attack strategy to degrade the estimation performance maximally, while remaining a certain level of stealthiness characterized by the Kullback–Leibler divergence. Taking the SCP-introduced effects into account, a novel attack model is proposed, where only a part of the transmitted data is utilized to construct the attack signal at each time instant. Subsequently, the optimization problem is formulated. Different from the existing results, where only the numerical solution is given, the analytical expression of the optimal attack parameters is presented, where the analytical solution has more advantage in analyzing how the parameters affect the attack performance. Finally, the numerical simulations on a three-tank system and the experiments performed on a networked permanent magnet synchronous machine prototype system are provided to validate our results.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • DEID-Based Control of Networked Rapid Control Prototyping System: Design
           and Applications

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      Authors: Guangpu Huang;Xiang Wu;Fanghong Guo;Li Yu;Wen-An Zhang;
      Pages: 1047 - 1056
      Abstract: This article presents a novel networked rapid control prototyping (NRCP) system, which can significantly facilitate the theoretical analysis and product design of networked control systems (NCSs). The NRCP system consists of a PC controller equipped with MATLAB/Simulink software and an embedded target designed with open-source hardware, e.g., Raspberry Pi and STM32. Therefore, it benefits from the following advantages, such as simple structure, low cost, convenient deployment, and robust scalability. In order to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed NRCP, a networked magnetic levitation control system (NMLCS) is developed on the basis of this NRCP system. Furthermore, a discrete-time equivalent-input-disturbance (DEID)-based model predictive control approach is proposed for NMLCS to deal with the common practical issues in NCSs, such as time delay and disturbance. Specifically, the time delay is modeled as delay-induced disturbance (DID), whose influence is effectively estimated and eliminated by the designed controller. Several experimental case studies are performed to verify the effectiveness of the NRCP, the DEID-based control algorithm, and the analytical method of DID.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Neural Predictor-Based Dynamic Surface Predictive Control for Power
           Converters

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      Authors: Xing Liu;Lin Qiu;Jose Rodríguez;Wenjie Wu;Jien Ma;Zhouhua Peng;Dan Wang;Youtong Fang;
      Pages: 1057 - 1065
      Abstract: In this letter, a neural predictor-based dynamic surface predictive control framework, endowed with the merits of adaptive dynamic surface control and finite control-set model predictive control, is proposed where the estimation of neural predictor is incorporated to identify the system dynamics and lumped unknown uncertainties. The key features of the proposal are that, first, the issue of “explosion of complexity” inherent in the classical back-stepping control is avoided, second, the model uncertainties and disturbances are explicitly dealt with, and, third, the tedious determination procedure of weighting factors is removed. These features lead to a much simpler adaptive predictive control solution, which is convenient to implement in applications. Furthermore, a Lyapunov function is constructed, and the stability analysis is given. It demonstrates that all signals in the closed-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, this proposal is experimentally assessed, where the performance evaluation of steady-state and transient-state confirms the availability of the proposed solution for modular multilevel converter.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Constant Current and Constant Voltage Charging of Wireless Power Transfer
           System Based on Three-Coil Structure

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      Authors: Yiming Zhang;Zhiwei Shen;Wenbin Pan;Hui Wang;Yuanchao Wu;Xingkui Mao;
      Pages: 1066 - 1070
      Abstract: Constant current (CC) and constant voltage (CV) charging are two charging stages for li-ion batteries in an electric vehicle wireless charging system. Based on the three-coil structure, this letter proposes a novel reconfigurable topology to achieve CC and CV charging. The transmitting coil is split into two windings with one winding having a turn number much smaller than the other. The two windings are fully compensated and connected to the corresponding inverter phase. The system can be reconfigured to perform as the two-coil structure with a CC output or as the three-coil structure with CV output. Unlike existing methods, the working frequency is fixed and only one relay is utilized to achieve the shift of CC and CV charging, which has the advantages of simpleness and low cost. An experimental prototype with 94.4% maximum efficiency is implemented to validate the proposal.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Adaptive Fuzzy Q-Learning Control Design and Application to Grid-Tied
           Nine-Level Packed E-Cell (PEC9) Inverter

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      Authors: Meysam Gheisarnejad;Mohammad Sharifzadeh;Mohammad-Hassan Khooban;Kamal Al-Haddad;
      Pages: 1071 - 1076
      Abstract: This letter applies a multiagent fuzzy Q-learning (FQL) algorithm, incorporated with a model-free nonlinear controller (MFNC), entitled FQL-MFNC for stabilized controlling of a recently introduced grid-connected nine-level Packed E-Cell (PEC9) inverter under dynamical operation. Unlike previous tuning schemes, which concentrate on extracting mathematical formulation of a controlled plant, this letter investigates a fuzzy Q-learning agent for optimal design of PEC9. In first step, the fuzzy reinforcement learning is adopted to tune the MFNC controller in the simulation environment. In fact, the FQL algorithm finds the optimal policy based on a reward function for adjustment of the MFNC control coefficients to guarantee the grid-connectivity requirements under PEC9 dynamical operation are met. The experimental tests are conducted to assure efficiency and practicability of the designed multi-agent FQL-MFNC scheme on the single-phase grid-connected PEC9 inverter.
      PubDate: Jan. 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 1 (2023)
       
 
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