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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted by number of followers
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 313)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 138)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 133)
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 129)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 128)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 91)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
IET Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Electronics Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Machine Learning with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Advanced Electronics and Communication Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Superconductivity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Power Electronic Devices and Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sensors International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
e-Prime : Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ACS Applied Electronic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Automatika : Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications     Open Access  
npj Flexible Electronics     Open Access  
Elektronika ir Elektortechnika     Open Access  
Emitor : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access  
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Open Access  
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 2.192
Citation Impact (citeScore): 9
Number of Followers: 84  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0278-0046
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics Publication Information

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Information

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics Information for Authors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: These instructions give guidelines for preparing papers for this publication. Presents information for authors publishing in this journal.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Novel Control-Independent Online Fault Diagnosis of Interturn Short
           Circuits in SRMs Using Signal Injection Technique

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      Authors: Mahetab Alam;Saifullah Payami;
      Pages: 2157 - 2167
      Abstract: Most of the existing diagnosis techniques for interturn short circuits (ITSCs) in switched reluctance motors (SRMs) suffer from three major issues. 1) The problem of lower sensitivity where the system cannot detect an ITSC if a lower number of turns are short-circuited; 2) Interference of load variation on the detection reliability in which the fault index might initiate false alarm without any fault; 3) The dependency of the diagnosis system on the control strategy on which the motor is operating. This article proposes a novel method to diagnose ITSCs in SRMs independent of control schemes with better sensitivity and reliability using the signal injection technique. In SRMs, not all the phases take part in the torque production at any instant. The idle or inactive phase is injected with a high-frequency (HF) voltage signal for a preselected injection ratio within an electrical cycle. Any change in the winding parameters owing to an ITSC fault is deciphered by monitoring the HF currents generated in the phase windings. The results are validated experimentally for a four-phase 8/6 SRM employing two control strategies: 1) chopped current control and 2) angle position control.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Mains Current Distortion Analysis and Suppression Method for
           Third-Harmonic Injection Two-Stage Matrix Converter

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      Authors: Qingyun Chang;Bo Zhou;Chengjia Lu;Jiadan Wei;
      Pages: 2168 - 2177
      Abstract: Compared with the direct matrix converter and the two-stage matrix converter (TSMC), the third-harmonic injection TSMC (3TSMC) has significant advantages in the input reactive power control range and the maximum linear voltage transfer ratio. However, for nonunity input power factor operations and high-mains-frequency applications, there are input current distortions in the 3TSMC. Further analysis reveals that the actual injection current cannot track the reference without error in the conventional harmonic current injection circuit, resulting in the current distortions. Therefore, an improved circuit is proposed, which is based on the asymmetric H-bridge and does not need extra energy storage components or current sensors. The injection current in the improved circuit can follow the reference without error by injection current modulation, which means that the input current distortions are suppressed significantly. All theoretical considerations are verified by experimental results taken on a 3-kVA prototype.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • The Analysis of Current Sharing Effect for Two-Unit Paralleled Common
           Capacitor LLC Resonant Converter

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      Authors: Wei Tang;Hongliang Wang;Xiaonan Zhu;Wenhui Mo;Wenyong Gao;Xiumei Yue;
      Pages: 2178 - 2188
      Abstract: A passive current sharing method for paralleled LLC resonant converters is proposed in this article, and the current sharing effect of paralleled common capacitor LLC resonant converter is analyzed. The passive current sharing method is achieved by adding coupled impedance between the LLC resonant converters, and the coupled impedance can be inductive, capacitive, infinitely small, and infinitely large. Among them, it is traditional paralleled LLC resonant converter without current sharing ability when the coupled impedance is infinitely large. First, the mathematical model of paralleled common capacitor LLC resonant converter with coupled impedance is built based on fundamental harmonic analysis. Second, according to the mathematic model, the current sharing effect of the paralleled common capacitor LLC resonant converter of different coupled impedance under different parameter difference is analyzed, it is easy to see the current sharing effect is improved after the couple impedance is added, and in general, inductive coupled impedance has a better current sharing effect for paralleled common capacitor LLC resonant converter. Last, the theoretical analysis results are verified by simulation and experimental results.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Constant Common-Mode Voltage Strategies Using Sigma–Delta
           Modulators in Five-Phase VSI

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      Authors: Fernando Acosta-Cambranis;Jordi Zaragoza;Néstor Berbel;Gabriel J. Capella;Luis Romeral;
      Pages: 2189 - 2198
      Abstract: This article proposes and studies different sigma–delta ($Sigma$$Delta$) modulation strategies for obtaining a constant common-mode voltage (CMV) by eliminating the CMV level transitions in a five-phase voltage source inverter (VSI). These techniques are based on choosing vectors that generate a constant CMV with values of 0.1$V_{text{dc}}$ or –0.1$V_{text{dc}}$. Because of the high-switching frequencies used with wide-bandgap semiconductors, pulse-width modulation techniques continually generate high dv/dt values. Therefore, the proposal to combine a $Sigma$$Delta$ modulation strategy with vector selections achieves a constant CMV level due to the elimination of its level transitions, a reduction in conducted electromagnetic interference and a high-efficiency converter operation. The average number of switching per transistor of the VSI is analyzed using the results from MATLAB/Simulink and PLECS simulations. Experimental results are obtained by applying the proposed $Sigma$$Delta$ modulation strategies on a VSI with silicon carbide MOSFETs. The results demonstrate the achievement of the aforementioned features.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Model Predictive Current Control of Nine-Phase Open-End Winding PMSMs With
           an Online Virtual Vector Synthesis Strategy

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      Authors: Haifeng Wang;Xinzhen Wu;Xiaoqin Zheng;Xibo Yuan;
      Pages: 2199 - 2208
      Abstract: The current error is hard to avoid for finite control set model predictive current control (FCS-MPCC) in nine-phase open-end winding permanent magnet synchronous motors. To overcome this problem, an online virtual voltage vector (V$^{3}$) synthesis strategy is proposed in this article. First, a group of V$^{3}$ s without harmonic voltage components are designed as the basic vectors for online synthesis. Then, two adjacent basic V$^{3}$ s and a zero vector are used to synthesize a new V$^{3}$, which can output arbitrary amplitude and phase angle in the fundamental space. The two basic V$^{3}$ s are directly selected from the located sector of the predicted reference voltage vector (RVV), and their duration ratio can be simply calculated according to the angle of the RVV in the sector. In this way, the zero error is realized between the new V$^{3}$ and RVV. Moreover, an online pulse generation algorithm corresponding to the new V$^{3}$ is proposed, which can calculate the symmetrical pulse sequences in real-time for the multiphase OW drive system without the space vector modulator. Finally, experimental results have verified the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed strategy, in comparison to existing FCS-MPCC in multiphase OW motor drive systems.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Comparison and Experimental Verification of Different Approaches to
           Suppress Torque Ripple and Vibrations of Interior Permanent Magnet
           Synchronous Motor for EV

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Daohan Wang;Chen Peng;Junchen Li;Chengqi Wang;
      Pages: 2209 - 2220
      Abstract: Interior permanentmagnet (IPM) motors have been the most promising solutions for electric vehicles (EV) drives in terms of torque/power density, compactness, and efficiency. However, IPM motors are vulnerable to large torque ripple and high-level electromagnetic vibrations due to the differences of d-&q-axis inductance and abundant spectrum of exciting forces. This article presents an intensive comparison of IPM motors with three design approaches to reduce cogging torque, torque ripple, and electromagnetic vibration. The design approaches compared cover skewing slot and segmented rotor approaches commonly used in industry, as well as a new asymmetric pole approach. A commercial 10 kW 8-pole/ 48-slots V-shaped IPM motor for EV traction is taken as the reference base. Extensive performance comparisons, including cogging torque, back-EMF, load current, load torque profiles, PM reliability, and torsional force were carried out. Besides, vibration aspects in terms of exciting force, modal property, and electromagnetic vibration response were also analyzed and compared. Finally, the prototypes with the mentioned three design approaches are produced, respectively, and intensive experimental tests were done to verify the analysis and comparison.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Design and Analysis of Wireless Resolver for Wireless Switched Reluctance
           Motors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Hui Wang;K. T. Chau;Christopher H. T. Lee;Xiaoyang Tian;
      Pages: 2221 - 2230
      Abstract: In this article, a wireless resolver is proposed and implemented for wireless switched reluctance (SR) motors, which can detect the rotor position and transfer the information to the primary side without involving any battery storage or active components at the secondary side. The key is to integrate wireless power transfer (WPT) into a variable reluctance resolver to detect and transmit the rotor position. Compared with previous wireless SR motors adopting the Hall effect position encoder and Bluetooth communication, the robustness is highly improved, and the communication delay caused by the connection interval can be solved. Therefore, the proposed system takes the definite advantages of better dynamic performance and sealability. Besides, there is no need to specially design the SR motor, as all existing SR motors and other similar kinds of motors can readily employ this wireless resolver. An experimental prototype has been built for verification, which works well from 100 to 900 rpm with 20 mm WPT distance, and the additional power for position detection can be limited to 1.05 W while the motor consumes 54 W.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Thermal Imbalance Among Paralleling Chips in Power Modules and the Impact
           From Traction Inverter System View

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Xiang Li;Yangang Wang;Guiqin Chang;Xuejiao Huang;Wei Gong;Yiyi Chen;Zhongxu Wang;Matthew Packwood;Haihui Luo;Guoyou Liu;
      Pages: 2231 - 2240
      Abstract: In a high-power semiconductor power module where multiple chips are populated in parallel, the thermal imbalance problem arises. In this article, the next-generation standard high-voltage insulated-gate bipolar transistor module for high-speed railcar traction is investigated to characterize the internal thermal imbalance among paralleling chips and evaluate the impact on temperature distribution in field application. The former is accomplished by a new test algorithm with a purposely designed module sample, while the latter is achieved via an advanced electro-thermal simulation from chip level to system level. The experimentally verified thermal network among paralleling chips reveals the multiple reasons for the thermal imbalance. A comparison between the simulation and experimental results regarding the paralleling chips’ power-cycling scenario helps to confirm the effectiveness of the chip model, the thermal network, and the electro-thermal simulation approach. A further electro-thermal simulation shows that the module internal thermal imbalance can lead to significant junction temperature discrepancy among paralleling chips in traction inverter applications, which should be taken into consideration for the long-term reliability assessment.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Simplified PWM Strategy for Open-Winding Flux Modulated Doubly-Salient
           Reluctance Motor Drives With Switching Action Minimization

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      Authors: Zhiyue Yu;Chun Gan;Kai Ni;Yu Chen;Ronghai Qu;
      Pages: 2241 - 2253
      Abstract: In this article, a simplified pulsewidth modulation (PWM) strategy is proposed for open-winding flux modulated doubly-salient reluctance motor (FMDRM) drives for switching action minimization and common-mode voltage (CMV) reduction. Conventionally, the open-winding converter topology is utilized to achieve the zero-sequence current flow path and dc-biased sinusoidal current excitation for the FMDRM, where the switching actions of power switches are doubled compared to the conventional modular three-phase converter, leading to higher switching losses. Different from the conventional space vector PWM scheme, the reference voltages of converter legs are directly calculated by the reference phase voltages in the proposed PWM scheme. In addition, a rotor-position-based sector division method is proposed to deal with the sector imbalance caused by the distorted back electromotive force (back EMF). Furthermore, different leg voltage clamping methods are respectively developed in odd and even sectors for switching action minimization, which can achieve voltage stress balance and CMV reduction. With the proposed scheme, the switching actions in each switching cycle can be reduced by half, which effectively increases the system efficiency of the FMDRM drive. Experiments are carried out on a three-phase 12/8 FMDRM prototype to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Improved Deadbeat-Direct Torque and Flux Control for PMSM With Less
           Computation and Enhanced Robustness

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      Authors: Wusen Wang;Chunhua Liu;Hang Zhao;Zaixin Song;
      Pages: 2254 - 2263
      Abstract: Deadbeat-direct torque and flux control (DB-DTFC) significantly improves the torque response performance compared with the conventional direct torque control. However, the existing DB-DTFC algorithm suffers from a relatively heavy computational burden due to its intricate derivation. Thus, two simplified DB-DTFC algorithms for permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) are proposed in this article to relieve the burden. The first one is based on the stator flux differential, and the second one is based on the complex power of PMSM. Furthermore, the performance of DB-DTFC highly relies on the accuracy of machine parameters. Thus, modified stator flux observer and electromagnetic torque observer are designed to enhance parameter robustness based on disturbance observer theory. The theoretical derivation of the proposed methods is investigated in-depth. Finally, both simulation and experimental results verify that the proposed deadbeat methods can maintain the deadbeat performances with a reduced computational burden. Meanwhile, the modified observer can help the deadbeat algorithms work well when machine parameters change.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • An Approach to Control SCR Bridge Rectifier to Suppress the Effect of Even
           Ordered Supply Voltage Harmonics on DC-Bus Capacitor of Adjustable Speed
           Drives

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      Authors: Seshadri Gopalan;Krishna Vasudevan;Dinesh Kumar;
      Pages: 2264 - 2276
      Abstract: Electrolytic capacitors used in adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are affected more by low-frequency currents than high frequency. It is shown in this article that even-ordered harmonics in the supply voltage create a 150 Hz current component in the dc bus, and impact the heating in the capacitor. It is further shown that the total harmonic distortion of the current drawn by the ASD is adversely affected due to the even-ordered harmonics. This article discusses a cost-effective approach based on suitable triggering of the silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs) in the bridge of ASD to suppress the effect of even-ordered harmonics on capacitor ripple current and source current. Using parameters taken from capacitor datasheets, and the supply voltage characteristics from field studies, exhaustive simulation studies are presented to identify an approach to the determination of various thresholds required. The applicability of the method to the ASDs of various power levels is also presented. The proposed strategy is analyzed by simulations under different grid impedance and harmonic combination cases and validated by a hardware test setup.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Novel Efficient Hybrid Compensation Topology for Wireless Power Transfer

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      Authors: Saman Rezazade;Amir Shahirinia;Reza Naghash;Navid Rasekh;Seyed Ebrahim Afjei;
      Pages: 2277 - 2285
      Abstract: Wireless power transfer systems require compensators to improve efficiency by increasing transfer power between transmitter and receiver. The most commonly used compensators are series-series (SS), series–parallel, and double-sided LCC. This article analyzes the comparison between typical compensators focusing on transfer efficiency. Due to these characteristics of typical compensators, a hybrid compensation topology is designed based on two compensators. Hybrid compensation topology is capable of switching between SS and double-sided LCC topologies. Two ac switches are used on the transmitter and receiver for switching mode in hybrid compensation topology with wireless communication links, and its variation algorithm is clarified. A novel compensation topology guarantees system’s efficiency for a wide range of loads based on the maximum efficiency of two compensation topologies. The possibility of a proposed hybrid compensator is verified with an experimental prototype used for massive vehicles.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • On the Application of Extended Grounded Slot Electrodes to Reduce
           Noncirculating Bearing Currents

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      Authors: Konstantin Vostrov;Juha Pyrhönen;Markku Niemelä;Pia Lindh;Jero Ahola;
      Pages: 2286 - 2295
      Abstract: Power-electronic-converter-induced motor bearing currents are a widespread problem in the field of electrical drives. Parasitic capacitances between the electrical machine's parts provide a path for leakage currents, which finally harm metallic ball bearings. Remembering that end-windings have a significant contribution in building up stray capacitances, a countermeasure affecting both the lamination stack and end-winding areas is needed. This article focuses on a countermeasure against the noncirculating bearing currents in the cluster of solutions at the motor side. The electrostatic shielding approach, which is a known principle to reduce capacitive couplings, is applied in electrical machines every now and then. In this article, the principle of slot-embedded grounded electrodes is extended to cover also the end-windings. Thus, the electrodes provide a better shaft-to-ground voltage mitigating effect compared to the case where electrodes are applied only in the lamination stack area. The feasibility and effectiveness of such a countermeasure are investigated. Different options in terms of scaling of both the machine size and diameter of the electrodes were analyzed and corresponding conclusions were pointed out.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Stator Winding Temperature and Magnet Temperature Estimation of IPMSM
           Based on High-Frequency Voltage Signal Injection

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      Authors: Hwigon Kim;Hyun-Sam Jung;Seung-Ki Sul;
      Pages: 2296 - 2306
      Abstract: The interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) has been widely used as the traction motor in electric/hybrid vehicles because of its high torque density and wide operating speed range. During the operation of the IPMSM, the stator winding temperature and magnet temperature should be monitored to prevent winding insulation breakdown and irreversible demagnetization and to improve the torque accuracy. This article devised a method involving the use of a high-frequency (HF) resistance and an HF inductance for estimating these two temperatures at low motor speeds. The relationship between the HF impedance and both temperatures was determined and verified using an experimental setup in which both temperatures could be measured. Based on the relation, the temperature estimation method has been proposed, in this article, and verified by the experimental test. The proposed method was used to estimate the stator winding and the magnet temperatures simultaneously for 6000 s, and the maximum error was 6 °C and 3 °C for the stator winding and magnet temperature, respectively, even when the load and the temperatures varied considerably.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Wireless-Power-Transfer-Based Three-Phase PMSM Drive System With Matrix
           Converter

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      Authors: Chuhan Li;Zheng Wang;Yang Xu;
      Pages: 2307 - 2317
      Abstract: Wireless power transfer system has played an important role in rail transit, industrial production, and daily life. This article proposes a wireless power transfer permanent-magnet synchronous motor (WPT-PMSM) drive system based on the matrix converter (MC). The direct conversion of low-frequency ac and high-frequency ac is realized without dc link by using MC. The dual LCC compensation network is designed for better performance. In addition, a new control method has been proposed for the proposed WPT-PMSM drive to operate stably. In particular, the bidirectional power flow is achieved with the proposed WTP-PMSM drive and related control scheme. Through the mathematical modeling, the coordinated control of power converters on both sides of the coupling coil is achieved and the reactive power of the LCC compensation network is eliminated. The experiments on a 1 kW and 85 kHz laboratory prototype of the WPT-PMSM drive are presented to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Flux Saturation Model Including Cross Saturation for Synchronous
           Reluctance Machines and Its Identification Method at Standstill

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      Authors: Tae-Gyeom Woo;Sang-Woo Park;Seung-Cheol Choi;Hak-Jun Lee;Young-Doo Yoon;
      Pages: 2318 - 2328
      Abstract: This article proposes a magnetic flux saturation model that well represents the cross saturation of synchronous reluctance machines (SynRMs) and a parameter estimation method of the proposed saturation model. Existing magnetic flux models do not satisfy the reciprocity condition or express cross saturation well. The proposed flux saturation model consists of terms for self-saturation and cross saturation, and it expresses well the nonlinear relationship between current and flux of SynRMs, as well as satisfies the reciprocity condition. The data of flux saturation are obtained at standstill using the hysteresis voltage injection method. Using the flux saturation data, the parameters of the flux saturation model are estimated. Because the proposed magnetic flux saturation model includes an arctangent function, it is not possible to estimate parameters directly using the linear least-squares method (LSM). However, the proposed parameter estimation method integrates the self-saturation model and transforms it into a polynomial to which linear LSM can be applied. In addition, parameters related to cross saturation are also estimated using linear LSM. Therefore, the proposed parameter estimation method is easy to implement and can be applied to general-purposed inverter products. The effectiveness of the proposed model and its identification method are experimentally evaluated with a 1.5-kW SynRM. Additionally, the identified model is verified with the accuracy of the maximum torque per ampere table and the performance of sensorless control of the tested motor.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Dynamic Modeling and Analysis of Electric Motor With Integrated Magnetic
           Spring Driving Weaving Loom Application

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      Authors: Mohamed N. Ibrahim;Peter Sergeant;
      Pages: 2329 - 2338
      Abstract: This article presents the dynamic modeling and analysis of an electric motor with integrated magnetic spring (EMMS) when it is coupled to a weaving loom application. The EMMS can provide the majority part of the oscillating part of the load in a passive way by the magnetic spring. The electric motor provides the average torque and the remaining oscillating part in an active way. This reduces the energy consumption. To create an accurate dynamic model for the EMMS, lookup tables are generated from a finite-element model. Further, a 4-bar linkage mechanism is employed to emulate the behavior of the shedding mechanism of a real weaving loom application. Eventually, the whole system dynamic model was created in Matlab environment. Moreover, a complete experimental setup was constructed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed dynamic model and the EMMS behavior. It is shown that the proposed dynamic model effectively predicts the performance of the EMMS system. Besides, it is proved that the EMMS can effectively reduce the energy consumption of the weaving loom application. The amount of reduction in the energy consumption depends on the designed magnetic spring. For the considered application, it can reach 57%.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Predictive Torque Control of Induction Motor Based on a Robust Integral
           Sliding Mode Observer

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      Authors: Mahdi S. Mousavi;S. Alireza Davari;Vahab Nekoukar;Cristian Garcia;Long He;Fengxiang Wang;Jose Rodriguez;
      Pages: 2339 - 2350
      Abstract: The parameter estimators and the disturbance observers are two widely used methods for the robustness improvement of the model predictive control schemes. This article presents a hybrid solution to improve the robustness of predictive torque control (PTC) for induction motor (IM) drive. A novel integral sliding mode observer (ISMO)-based ultralocal model and an adaptive observer are combined in the proposed method to establish a robust prediction model for the PTC. The stator current prediction model of the conventional PTC contains different parameters and variables of the IM that increase the sensitivity of the method. The proposed method solves this problem by replacing the conventional stator current prediction model with the ISMO-based ultralocal model, which does not require the IM’s parameters. On the other hand, the stator flux prediction model of the PTC just depends on the stator resistance. So, an adaptive Luenberger observer is utilized to cancel the effect of resistance variation from the stator flux prediction model. The proposed ISMO and the Luenberger observer are constructed based on the Lyapunov theory to guarantee the stability of the proposed control method. The experimental validation of the proposed method is performed. Also, the robustness of this method has been validated experimentally.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Zero-Sequence Current Suppression Method for Fault-Tolerant OW-PMSM Drive
           With Asymmetric Zero-Sequence Voltage Injection

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      Authors: Chong Zhang;Chun Gan;Kai Ni;Zhiyue Yu;Yu Chen;Haochen Shi;Ronghai Qu;
      Pages: 2351 - 2362
      Abstract: For the open winding permanent magnet synchronous motor (OW-PMSM) with leg open-circuit faults, a novel zero-sequence current (ZSC) suppression method with asymmetric zero-sequence voltage (ZSV) injection is proposed in this article. To realize the fault-tolerant control (FTC) in leg open-circuit fault conditions, the leg-sharing method is developed, where the output terminal of the faulty leg is connected to that of the remaining equivalent leg. However, the ZSC increases in the FTC mode, which causes severe torque ripple and system performance degradation. If the traditional ZSC suppression method is still adopted, the suppression performance is decreased. Besides, an undesired voltage vector is introduced, resulting in current distortion. To solve these problems, a novel ZSC suppression strategy is put forward. By asymmetrically adjusting the voltage output of the remaining legs, the ZSC of OW-PMSM in FTC mode can be effectively suppressed. Moreover, the proposed strategy is suitable for both the single-leg and double-leg FTC modes, where the ZSC suppression performance is almost the same as that of the traditional method in normal operation mode. Furthermore, experiments are performed on an OW-PMSM to verify the effectiveness of the proposed ZSC suppression scheme.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Direct Speed Control Based on Finite Control Set Model Predictive Control
           With Voltage Smoother

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      Authors: Hiroaki Kawai;Zhenbin Zhang;Ralph Kennel;Shinji Doki;
      Pages: 2363 - 2372
      Abstract: A direct speed control strategy based on finite control set model predictive control (FCS–MPC) with a voltage smoother is presented herein. In the proposed concept, a finite set of smoothed voltage vectors characterized by an adjustable amplitude and a movable origin is introduced as voltage candidates in the FCS–MPC scheme. The controller predicts the future current and speed and outputs the optimal smoothed voltage using pulse-width modulation. Owing to this control scheme, an abrupt change in the output voltage, which causes a large current ripple, is avoided without additional computational costs. Simulation and experimental results obtained using a permanent magnet synchronous motor fed by a two-level three-phase inverter show that the proposed method effectively reduces the current ripple while achieving a high dynamic drive compared with the conventional FCS–MPC scheme.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Cascaded Modular Multilevel Converter and Cycloconverter Based Machine
           Drive System

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      Authors: Yue Zhang;Fujin Deng;Jiehua Hou;Pengyuan Jiang;Hanlu Zhang;Kangshun Zhu;Yihua Hu;Sergio Vazquez;
      Pages: 2373 - 2384
      Abstract: Low-speed drive is one of the challenges for modular multilevel converters (MMCs) due to large capacitor voltage fluctuation. In this article, a cascaded MMC and cycloconverter (CCV) based machine drive system is proposed to ensure stable operation of medium-voltage and low-speed machine. The MMC provides medium-frequency ac voltage for the CCV, and the CCV converts the medium-frequency ac input to low-frequency ac output required by the machine. Detailed analysis about MMC's operation frequency, device current stress, and submodule (SM) capacitance are given in this article. Proposed drive system can operate at zero/low frequency under rated load torque, while the SM capacitance is much smaller than that in existing methods. Simulation and experimental studies are conducted, and the results verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Unidirectional Step-Up DC–DC Converter Based on Interleaved Phases,
           Coupled Inductors, Built-In Transformer, and Voltage Multiplier Cells

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      Authors: Marcelo Flavio Guepfrih;Gierri Waltrich;Telles Brunelli Lazzarin;
      Pages: 2385 - 2395
      Abstract: This article proposes a unidirectional high step-up dc–dc converter. The study approaches principle of operation, analysis, guide design, and experimental validation. The high-voltage gain is reached using coupled inductors and voltage multiplier cells (VMC). An interleaved structure of two phases is employed to provide a low-current ripple in the input side. The current balance between the phases occurs due to the insertion of a built-in transformer, which also contributes to increasing the voltage gain. The energy from the leakage inductances is reused, reducing voltage spikes across the semiconductors. Additionally, the proposed converter provides an input–output common ground, which is a requirement for many applications. To verify the proposed converter, a 1-kW prototype, 48–800 V, and 16.67 of voltage gain, was designed and tested. The maximum peak efficiency reached was 94.89% and the rated power efficiency was 93.86%.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Low Computational Burden Model Predictive Control for Single-Phase
           Cascaded H-Bridge Converters Without Weighting Factor

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      Authors: Tingting He;Mingli Wu;Ricardo P. Aguilera;Dylan Dah-Chuan Lu;Qiujiang Liu;Sergio Vazquez;
      Pages: 2396 - 2406
      Abstract: In this article, a low computational burden model predictive control (MPC) strategy without weighting factor is proposed for the single-phase cascaded H-bridge CHB converters. To reduce the switching state candidates, a hierarchy control algorithm is proposed. The grid current is controlled by selecting a subregion from the designed 2-D control plane, instead of the entire area. Two vectors are chosen in one sampling period for more accurate tracking. Then, the voltage balancing is achieved by selecting the optimal switching state from the subregion candidates to form the above two vectors. The cost function can be constructed of one variable: load voltage. Therefore, the weighting factor can be eliminated. No tuning or retuning processes are required in the proposed method. To reduce the computational time further, the principle of eliminating the switching state candidates operating the same voltage balancing performance is proposed. Conventional and proposed MPC methods are verified by experimental tests via a laboratory setup of a three-cell connected CHB converter. Steady-state and transient operations demonstrate that the proposed method guarantees less distortion grid current and shorter execution time (reduced from 15 to 3 $mu s$). Fast response speed to variations in voltage reference and load resistance can be achieved t.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Real-Time Sensor Fault Identification and Remediation for Single-Phase
           Grid-Connected Converters Using Hybrid Observers With Unknown Input
           Adaptation

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      Authors: Jinhui Xia;Ze Li;Xiaonan Gao;Yuanbo Guo;Xiaohua Zhang;
      Pages: 2407 - 2418
      Abstract: Unexpected faults that occur in the sensors of the single-phase grid-connected converter (SGC) may deteriorate the control performance ofthe grid current and dc-link voltage and pose risks to the connected distributed generation system. This article proposes an unknown input sliding mode observer (UI-SMO) based sensor fault identification and remediation strategy. Therein, an UI-SMO is established that integrates the observations of the grid current and dc-link voltage with the reconstruction of the unknown input (i.e., load condition of the SGC). Such an observer-based analytical redundancy generates the residuals that indicate the abnormalities of the sensors for fault identification. An adaptive fault-tolerant control (AFTC) strategy for the SGC is developed, where an automated control system reconfiguration with unknown input adaptation is seamlessly implemented by substituting the data reported by the faulty sensors with their observed values. Extensive simulation and experimental studies validate the effectiveness of the proposed UI-SMO-based sensor fault identification and AFTC strategy of the SGC.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Improved Control Strategies for Totem-Pole PFC With True Full Range ZVS
           Operation

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      Authors: Jie Chen;Weiyu Tai;Benxin Xun;Chunying Gong;Jiawei Chen;
      Pages: 2419 - 2430
      Abstract: Zero voltage switching (ZVS) of power semiconductor devices is an effective way to improve the efficiency and power density of the power electronic converters with extremely high switching frequency. This article aims to analyze and realize the true full-range ZVS operation of a totem-pole power factor correction circuit. The available ZVS control strategies are investigated, and the conditions for the realization of full-range ZVS operation are analyzed. It is revealed that the existed control strategies did not consider the influence of the dead-time, resulting in the failure of ZVS operation in some input voltage ranges. To address this issue, two feasible retrofitted control strategies, namely the turn-off current optimization control and the adaptive dead-time control, are proposed. The merits and drawbacks of the two control strategies are carefully analyzed and compared. It is found that the adaptive dead-time control can not only achieve the true full range ZVS but also significantly reduce the loss of the freewheeling diodes. The design consideration of key parameters is discussed. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed control and the correctness of the theoretical analyses are verified by simulation and experiment.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Magnetic Coupling Resonant-Based Air-Isolated Module for High Voltage
           Pulse Generators

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      Authors: Feiyu Wu;Lisheng Zhao;Shoulong Dong;Xiaoyu Zhou;Weirong Zeng;Chenguo Yao;Liang Yu;
      Pages: 2431 - 2439
      Abstract: In this article, an air-isolated module with adjustable insulation based on magnetic coupling resonance is proposed for high-voltage pulse generators. The insulation level can be adjusted rapidly over a wide range by changing the air gap. By virtue of invariable dielectric properties of air, the module can avoid electrical aging and reduce the risk of electrical breakdown. Tests are performed from insulation and power supply, respectively. Finally, a 24-stage air-isolated pulse generator prototype is tested. The results reveal that dc isolation level of the proposed module can be easily changed in a wide range, while maintaining stable power supply to multiple gate drivers. This module, which is no less cheap and light than existing isolators, provides a high compatible isolating solution in solid-state pulse generators under different applications.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • The Design and Development of a Novel 10 kV/60 kA Hybrid DC Circuit
           Breaker Based on Mixed Solid-State Switches

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      Authors: Zhanqing Yu;Xin Yan;Xiangyu Zhang;Lu Qu;Zhizheng Gan;Yulong Huang;
      Pages: 2440 - 2449
      Abstract: Hybrid DC circuit breakers (HDCCBs) have excellent performance in terms of breaking speed and low losses and have become the mainstream technology for dc fault isolation in dc grids. However, because of the breaking limitation of the solid-state branch in HdcCBs, the existing HdcCBs are still weak in breaking high current. Although the breaking ability can be improved by series and parallel devices, the cost will increase rapidly, and it is very difficult to share current by paralleling a single type of device. This article proposes a novel HdcCB topology that combines two types of power electronic devices in solid-state branches to meet the requirement of a large breaking capacity in dc grids. The structure and breaking principles of this novel topology, which aims to break high current, are introduced. The design methods of the key parameters are presented. Then, the current breaking ability of the novel topology is verified by developing a prototype completing a 10 kV/60 kA breaking test in 3 ms. Finally, this novel topology is compared with other dc circuit breakers at the same breaking level, which shows that this novel topology has obvious advantages in cost and volume with fewer devices.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Coupled-Inductor-Based Bidirectional DC–DC Converter With High Voltage
           Conversion Ratio and Sensorless Current Balance

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      Authors: Renjun Hu;Haixia Qi;Zhixing Yan;Weibin Wu;Jun Zeng;Junfeng Liu;
      Pages: 2450 - 2460
      Abstract: In this article, a coupled-inductor (CI)-based bidirectional dc–dc converter with a high voltage conversion ratio (VCR) and low voltage stress is proposed. The topology can achieve high VCR by employing two CIs; moreover, the interleaved technique overcomes the defect of large current ripple in CI. A sensorless current balance between the two CIs is also realized without an auxiliary circuit and complex control method. The pulsewidth modulation plus phase-shift control is employed, where the duty cycle D is used to adjust the VCR, and the phase-shift angle ϕ is used to control the direction and amount of the transferred power. In addition, all switches can achieve soft-switching under a wide operation range. The steady-state analysis of the proposed converter is analyzed in detail, followed by comprehensive experimental verification under a 1-kW prototype.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Voltage-Balancing Dual-Active-Bridge (VB-DAB) Converter for Bipolar DC
           Distribution System

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      Authors: Minsu Lee;Dongmin Choi;Jongyoon Chae;Sungmoon Cheon;Gun-Woo Moon;
      Pages: 2461 - 2471
      Abstract: This article proposes a new voltage-balancing dual-active-bridge (VB-DAB) converter for the bipolar dc distribution system. The proposed converter comprises the same components as those of the conventional DAB converter, and it integrates functions of a VB without additional components. The proposed converter transmits power using the same principle and control as the conventional DAB converter. Furthermore, it regulates both output voltages equally and redistributes the unbalanced load current. Therefore, the proposed converter neither requires additional components nor results in losses by them. Consequently, it can achieve high efficiency and high power density. The effectiveness of the proposed converter is verified by 3-kW prototypes with a 380-V input and ±190-V outputs conditions.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Integrated Asymmetric Half-Bridge Converter With Boost Operation for Wide
           Input Voltage Range

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      Authors: Seung-Hoon Lee;Seok-Woo Jeong;Jae-Kuk Kim;
      Pages: 2472 - 2483
      Abstract: A conventional asymmetric half-bridge (AHB) conve rter with zero dc offset current of the transformer at any operating points was proposed. It has low-voltage stresses on the two diodes that are clamped to the output voltage. However, for a wide input voltage range, it can have a small nominal duty ratio that causes to large conduction loss at the maximum input voltage. Moreover, it has high-voltage stress on one of the secondary diodes that leads to high power loss. In order to improve these problems, in this article, an AHB converter with an integrated boost converter is proposed. The proposed converter has identical operation to the conventional one as well as boost operation for the wide input voltage range. Thus, it has a large nominal duty ratio and low-voltage stress on the secondary diode at the maximum input voltage. Moreover, it has zero dc offset current of transformer and higher efficiency over the entire input voltage range compared with the conventional converter. The proposed converter has been verified for a laboratory prototype with 200–400 V input and 50 V/300 W output.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Modeling and Control Method to Suppress Common-Mode Resonance Circulating
           Current for High-Power Parallel Three-Level Inverters System With Improved
           LCL Filter

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      Authors: Rui Zhang;Chenghui Zhang;Xiangyang Xing;Zhiyuan Chen;Xi Liu;
      Pages: 2484 - 2496
      Abstract: In parallel three-level inverters, to eliminate the undesired internal common-mode (CM) resonance circulating currents (ICMRCCs) and external CM resonance circulating currents (ECMRCCs) introduced by the improved LCL, the inverter-side CM current feedback (ICMCF) control is presented. However, since the switching frequency of the inverters is generally low in high-power applications to reduce power loss, the stability of the ICMCF control will be threatened by the delays of digital controller. In this case, the existing methods are not capable of ICMRCC and ECMRCC suppression any more. To deal with the situation, an improved CM resonance circulating current control method for high-power parallel inverters is proposed. First, the model of ICMCF with control delay is established. Second, the influences of control delay with different sampling modes on the stability of CM current control are investigated. Based on this, the allowable range of control delays and sampling frequency to keep the system stable is analyzed and deduced. Third, the multisampling mode is further extended to CM current control in the parallel inverters. The analysis results show that the stability margin and control bandwidth of the ICMCF control are significantly improved. Finally, the theoretical analysis and proposed control method are verified by simulation and experiment.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Investigation on the Electromagnetic Surface Waves for Single-Wire Power
           Transmission

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      Authors: Xin Jin;Xiyou Chen;Chen Qi;Tao Li;
      Pages: 2497 - 2507
      Abstract: Single-wire power transmission (SWPT) is a power transmission method that uses only one wire to realize long-distance transmission of power. For deep insight, the theory of electromagnetic surface waves in this article is applied to reveal the principle of a long-distance large-scale SWPT system. Maxwell's equations under two different media in this system are established, based on them and the boundary conditions on the interface of the media, the propagation law of electromagnetic field energy in the SWPT system is analyzed. A simulation model is built by high frequency simulator structure (HFSS). The distribution law of the Poynting vector in different situations is studied to verify the correctness of the theoretical analysis. Moreover, long-distance transmission experiments are carried in the campus. It is shown that the transmission power can reach 300 W or 135 W when the transmission distance is 100 m or 200 m, respectively.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Resilience-Oriented Control for Cyber-Physical Hybrid Energy Storage
           Systems Using a Semiconsensus Scheme: Design and Practice

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      Authors: Pengfeng Lin;Chao Deng;Yongheng Yang;Christopher H. T. Lee;Wee Peng Tay;
      Pages: 2508 - 2519
      Abstract: Hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) can simultaneouslyharness the advantages of batteries and supercapacitors (SCs) in various loading situations. Coupled with communication links, cyber-physical HESSs would be threatened by unexpected cyber attacks that may cause damage to electrical devices and even collapse the entire system. To overcome the adverse impacts of attacks, a resilience control scheme is proposed in this article. The proposed scheme provides a unified form integrated with adaptive laws to guarantee multifunctional HESS operations, i.e., dc bus voltage restoration, transient current allocation between batteries and SCs, proportional battery current sharing, and battery state-of-charge balancing, under cyber attacks. The proposed resilience control allows us to establish communication links only among batteries, whereas SCs are free of the data exchange process, which can save system capital costs. The stability of the proposed control is proved by the Lyapunov stability theory. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed approach are validated on a hardware-in-the-loop testing platform.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Current Controller Gain Characterization of Weak Grid Coupled Solar
           Inverter Through Impedance Interaction Modeling

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      Authors: Baibhav Kumar Gupta;K. Ramachandra Sekhar;
      Pages: 2520 - 2530
      Abstract: The interface inverters arbitrate the network impedance based on the source characteristics for efficient solar energy harvesting. The wide impedance arbitration capability of the interface inverter defines the wide operational integrity with the ac network. In the weak grid scenario, the uncompensated grid inductance beyond point of common coupling (PCC) offers the negative damping for power oscillations at the PCC tugs the system toward instability. In this article, the negative damping influence due to interactions between the system impedance (filter inductance and grid power injection resistance) and ac network impedance (grid inductance) on the inverter closed-loop controller is characterized by observing the natural phase deviations in real and imaginary axis. Through distinguished system’s natural response, a novel second-order system impedance model is derived, and proposed current controller gain characterization aiming to achieve positive damping to mitigate the PCC’s oscillations. Further tuning of the controller based on the natural response of the derived impedance model accomplishes the enhanced grid injected power quality. The efficacy of the derived system impedance model along with coherence of current controller gain is demonstrated on hardware for enhanced power quality under the stable operating region.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Hybrid Discontinuous PWM Strategy for Current Ripple and Neutral-Point
           Fluctuation Reduction of Parallel Vienna Rectifier

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      Authors: Lei Song;Shanxu Duan;Ruikang Li;Xiaokui Liu;Binrong Ji;
      Pages: 2531 - 2542
      Abstract: Generally, discontinuous pulsewidth modulation (DPWM) strategy used in single Vienna rectifier will result in large current ripple and neutral-point fluctuation. When applied in interleaved rectifier, the issue of neutral-point voltage still exists. Besides, the input current around zero-crossing point is distorted due to the characteristics of unidirectional topology. Hence, a novel hybrid DPWM (H-DPWM) strategy for parallel Vienna rectifier is proposed in this article to reduce the distortion, current ripple, and neutral-point fluctuation. In this article, the characteristics of current ripple and neutral-point fluctuation with traditional DPWM (T-DPWM) are clarified at first. Then, the quantitative analyses on current ripple and neutral-point fluctuation with T-DPWM, classical space vector modulation, and optimized DPWM (O-DPWM) are presented in detail. To solve the issue of current distortion, the H-DPWM is proposed based on O-DPWM. Furthermore, the switching losses of these modulations are evaluated. At last, the analyses and performance of the proposed H-DPWM are verified by the experiments.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Online Reactive Power Minimization and Soft Switching Algorithm for
           Triple-Phase-Shift Modulated Dual Active Bridge Converter

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      Authors: Lunbo Deng;Guohua Zhou;Qiang Bi;Nengmou Xu;
      Pages: 2543 - 2555
      Abstract: In a dc microgrid, a bidirectional dc–dc converter is an essential link between voltage bus and energy storage system (ESS). When galvanic isolation and high efficiency are required, dual active bridge (DAB) converter is preferred. Due to the instability of renewable energy sources, the DAB converter may transmit high or low power to ESS. To improve the efficiency across wide power range, this article proposes a reactive power minimization and soft switching optimization algorithm that combines the augmented Lagrangian method and triple-phase-shift (TPS) modulation. Unlike an offline algorithm with look-up table, the proposed algorithm can compute phase-shift-angle online, avoiding a large database for various working conditions. A prototype with an 800 W rated power is built, and the efficiency test results validate the efficiency improvement over other TPS-based algorithms. Furthermore, a current regulation experiment demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is suitable for ESS charging, which must deal with varying output voltage and power demand.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Highly Reliable Low-Cost Single-Switch Resonant DC–DC Converter With
           High Gain and Low Component Count

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      Authors: Pouyan Pourhadi Abkenar;Mohammad Hamed Samimi;Alinaghi Marzoughi;Vahid Samavatian;Hossein Iman-Eini;Yousef Naghibzadeh;
      Pages: 2556 - 2565
      Abstract: This article presents a novel low-cost, single-switch, high-step-upresonant dc–dc converter with high reliability. The proposed converter topology comprises a low count of components and a simple structure and achieves the low ripple input current characteristic. The inductors in the resonant network participate in the resonant process rather than creating voltage spikes across the switch and likely reverse recovery problems. The circuit operates in the soft-switching condition (ZVS–ZCS conditions in the turn-off and turn-on transitions), leading to a significant reduction of the switching losses. Moreover, employing film capacitors instead of electrolytic capacitors reduces the size of the circuit and improves reliability. The operational principle and comprehensive steady-state analysis in the continuous conduction mode are discussed in detail, alongside the design considerations of the proposed converter. The validity of the theoretical equations is investigated via experiments, achieving maximum efficiency of 97.69% for a converter designed at the input of 24.5 V, the negative output of 200 V, and the maximum powerof 200 W.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Capacitor Voltage Balancing for Multilevel Dual-Active-Bridge DC–DC
           Converters

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      Authors: Chaochao Song;Ariya Sangwongwanich;Yongheng Yang;Frede Blaabjerg;
      Pages: 2566 - 2575
      Abstract: Capacitor voltage balancing is a critical issue for neutral-point-clamped-based converters, including the two/three-level dual-active-bridge dc–dc converters. The unbalanced capacitor voltage will increase the voltage stress on power devices and negatively affect the reliability of the converters. Two typical problems during the capacitor voltage balancing process should be solved, i.e., power fluctuation minimization and determination of the transformer current polarity. Accordingly, this article proposes a balancing control scheme based on the complementary switching-state (CSS) method. In the CSS method, the switching states, which are identified to be adverse for balancing, will be replaced by their corresponding CSSs to control the neutral-point current while keeping the voltage and current waveforms unchanged. By doing so, the power fluctuation and current overshoot during the balancing process can be significantly reduced. Moreover, since the dynamic voltage and current waveforms are identical to the steady-state waveforms, the transformer current polarity during the balancing process can be identified based on the steady-state power and current models. Therefore, the determination of the transformer current polarity can be simplified compared to the traditional balancing control scheme. Finally, experimental results are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed balancing control scheme.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Practical State of Health Estimation for LiFePO4 Batteries Based on
           Gaussian Mixture Regression and Incremental Capacity Analysis

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      Authors: Zhongkai Zhou;Bin Duan;Yongzhe Kang;Yunlong Shang;Qi Zhang;Chenghui Zhang;
      Pages: 2576 - 2585
      Abstract: High accuracy, high adaptability and low complexity have always been the goals of on-board state of health (SoH) estimation in a well-designed battery management system for electric vehicles. In this article, we proposed a practical SoH estimation method for LiFePO4 batteries based on Gaussian mixture regression (GMR) and incremental capacity (IC) analysis. According to the close correlation between the SoH and the IC curve of LiFePO4 battery, the peak coordinates of the curve are extracted as capacity feature to train an aging model using GMR. The capacity degradation of batteries is well described by multiple Gaussian distributions, and the estimation accuracy of SoH is improved. Furthermore, the coordinates of three peaks in the curve are separately analyzed as capacity feature to enhance the adaptability of the aging model to different charging regions. Finally, the complexity of the proposed method is compared with that of other methods. The results show that taking the coordinates of any peak as the capacity feature, SoH can be accurately estimated based on GMR even for different tested batteries, and the mean absolute error and root mean square error are both less than 1%.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Novel Method for Magnetic Energy Harvesting Based on Capacitive Energy
           Storage and Core Saturation Modulation

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      Authors: Zhu Liu;Pengbo Zhao;Aijun Yang;Kai Ye;Renjie Zhang;Huan Yuan;Xiaohua Wang;Mingzhe Rong;
      Pages: 2586 - 2595
      Abstract: In this article, the magnetic energy harvester (MEH) based on the current transformer is an innovative method to provide a potential solution for the power supply of sensor networks. Due to the current fluctuation and nonlinearity of the core, the harvester may produce insufficient power at low primary currents, while the core saturates at high primary currents. Aiming at resolving this problem, a novel method is proposed to improve the performance of MEH. In this method, a capacitor and two switches are used to store energy and modulate the core saturation. The performed analyses demonstrate that the proposed method enhances the harvested power under different primary current and load conditions. This is especially more pronounced at low primary currents and loads. It is found that for a low primary current of 2 Arms at 50 Hz, the harvested power increases by 206%. Moreover, applying this method can also reduce the load voltage by controlling the alternating on–off of the switches, thereby protecting the harvester in case of high primary currents. The theoretical calculation, circuit simulation, and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Double-Switch Single-Transformer Integrated Equalizer for the Recycled
           Power Battery String of Automatic Guided Vehicles

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      Authors: Bin Xu;Zhaotian Yan;Liang Xiong;Lu Zhang;Wei Zhou;Ruikun Mai;Zhengyou He;Lizhou Liu;
      Pages: 2596 - 2606
      Abstract: Applying the recycled power battery to automatic guided vehicles can greatly reduce system cost and prolong the life cycle of the battery. However, the consistency of recycled power batteries is poor, and the imbalance of battery voltage will occur during the charging or discharging process. Therefore, a double-switch single-transformer integrated equalizer is proposed to balance automatic guided vehicles in both charging and discharging operations. The equalizer's multiwinding transformer shares the dc–dc converter's inductor, and the secondary side generates current by utilizing the current ripple on the primary windings. The battery string is balanced by the multiwinding transformer, without extra switches, when the circuit works in charging and discharging mode. A prototype for four battery cells is built to verify the proposed equalizer and its dynamic balance conditions, and a comparison with existing equalizers is presented. The results show that the system in both modes can realize the automatic balance without affecting the function of the dc–dc converter. The proposed circuit requires fewer components than the existing bidirectional integrated equalizer.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Common Grounded Wide Voltage-Gain Range DC–DC Converter With Zero Input
           Current Ripple and Reduced Voltage Stresses for Fuel Cell Vehicles

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      Authors: Huakun Bi;Zonglei Mu;Yu Chen;
      Pages: 2607 - 2616
      Abstract: A dc–dc converter used for fuel cell vehicles should be characterized by a wide voltage-gain range and low input current ripple. In order to meet the above requirements, a new nonisolated dc–dc converter consisting of an active switched-inductor cell, a zero current ripple cell, and a switched-capacitor (SC) cell was proposed in this article. The proposed converter integrates with the advantages of a wide voltage-gain range, zero input current ripple, low voltage stresses across power semiconductors, and common ground structure. Thanks to the use of a zero current ripple cell, not only the input current ripple is reduced but also the energy transfer path of the SC cell is changed, thereby reducing the instantaneous peak current of the SC structure. The operating principles, the characteristics analysis, and the parameter design of the proposed converter are given. In addition, to show the merits of the proposed converter, a comparison study is demonstrated. Finally, a prototype of 400 V, 1000 W/50 kHz is developed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed converter.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Distributed Multimode Control Strategy for the Cascaded DC–DC
           Converter Applied to MVAC Grid-Tied PV System

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      Authors: Jiatao Yang;Rui Li;Ke Ma;Jun Xu;
      Pages: 2617 - 2627
      Abstract: The cascaded dc–dc converter is a popular topology for large-scale medium-voltage photovoltaic (PV) system with the advantages of high voltage conversion ratio, high efficiency, great flexibility, and independent control capability. However, the absence of optimal string maximum power point tracking (MPPT) operation under power mismatch is a big issue in common centralized control. Furthermore, the cost and time delay are unacceptable resulting from the distance among PV strings in the large-scale PV station and the cascaded dc–dc converter needs to adopt the distributed control method without real-time communication. To this end, by introducing other necessary constraints including voltage constraints, power constraints, and gain constraints on the basis of the distributed MPPT control strategy, a distributed multimode control scheme is proposed in this article. Each submodule (SM) can be switched flexibly between multiple operation modes to maximize the extracted solar energy. Individual string MPPT and autonomous distribution of output voltage are achieved without communication under the proposed distributed control strategy. In this way, optimal operation range is wider, mode switching is simpler, and applicability and robustness are improved. A downscaled prototype and a 35-kV/6-MW simulation system are constructed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Distributed Control Strategy for Unbalanced Voltage Compensation in
           Islanded AC Microgrids Without Continuous Communication

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      Authors: Jinghang Lu;Bingfu Zhang;Xiaochao Hou;Josep M. Guerrero;
      Pages: 2628 - 2638
      Abstract: Due to the unbalanced load connection in the sensitive load bus (SLB), the ac microgrid may suffer from voltage unbalance in the system. To overcome this issue, this article presents a new distributed control scheme to achieve the unbalanced voltage compensation for islanded ac microgrid with limited noncontinuous communication among the distributed generation (DG) units. In this article, a two-layer control framework, including the cyber layer and the primary control layer, is employed. The proposed control strategy that is applied in the cyber layer implements an event-triggered communication to effectively compensate for the unbalanced voltage in the SLB. In contrast with the centralized control strategy, the proposed control strategy is fully distributed, and the information exchange among the DG units at only the event-triggered times. As a result, the communication burdens can be measurably reduced while the control performance is not affected. The stability is analyzed with the Lyapunov function in this article. Finally, several experimental case studies are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Modeling for Complex Modular Power Electronic Transformers Using Parallel
           Computing

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      Authors: Moke Feng;Chenxiang Gao;Jianzhong Xu;Chengyong Zhao;Gen Li;
      Pages: 2639 - 2651
      Abstract: The modular power electronic transformer (PET) faces difficulty carrying out microsecond-level electromagnetic transient simulations. This article provides a high-speed and high-precision simulation method capable of eliminating the internal nodes and reducing the order of the nodal admittance matrix. Meanwhile, the parallel computing is integrated into the whole solution process, which achieves a significant simulation speedup. A physical prototype is established to prove that the detailed model (DM) is sufficient to reflect the dynamics of physical devices. Moreover, simulations in PSCAD/EMTDC are carried out to compare the proposed method with the DM in terms of accuracy and time efficiency. Simulation results show that the proposed method is accurate to simulate the external and internal dynamics of PET with hundreds of times simulation speed acceleration.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Inserted-Shunt Integrated Planar Transformer With Low Secondary Leakage
           Inductance for LLC Resonant Converters

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      Authors: Sajad A. Ansari;Jonathan N. Davidson;Martin P. Foster;
      Pages: 2652 - 2661
      Abstract: The leakage inductance of an integrated transformer is usually utilized as the series inductor of an LLC topology. However, leakage inductance exists on both primary and secondary sides of an integrated transformer and secondary leakage inductance leads the control and design of the converter to difficulty. In this article, a novel topology forinserted-shunt integrated transformers is proposed that has low secondary leakage inductance. The inserted shunt of the proposed topology is not segmental and can be located conveniently within the transformer. In addition, the inserted shunt does not require low permeability core material, simplifying its manufacture. The design and modeling of the proposed transformer topology are presented and verified by finite-element analysis and experimental implementation. The proposed topology is also compared with a recently published inserted-segmental-shunt integrated transformer. It is shown that the proposed transformer provides higher efficiency and lower ac resistance. Finally, an LLC resonant converter is implemented to examine the performance of the proposed integrated transformer in practice.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Single-Phase Common-Ground Five-Level Transformerless Inverter With Low
           Component Count for PV Applications

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      Authors: Bin Guo;Xin Zhang;Mei Su;Hao Ma;Yongheng Yang;Yam P. Siwakoti;
      Pages: 2662 - 2674
      Abstract: Multilevel inverters (MLIs) featuring reactive power ability and common ground (CG) have become much popular in transformerless grid-tied photovoltaic applications. A switched-capacitor (SC) based five-level transformerless inverter configuration is thus proposed in this article, which requires only six switches, one diode, three capacitors, and one input dc voltage supply. Notably, only four power switches are operated in high frequency, thus, the switching losses are reduced. Moreover, the presented topology can effectively tackle the leakage current problem using a CG architecture. A multicarrier phase disposition pulsewidth modulation strategy is employed to achieve reactive power regulation and SC voltage self-balancing. To achieve the neutral point voltage balance of the presented five-level inverter, a simple closed-loop voltage-balancing control method is proposed. The operation principles with modulation strategy and voltage self-balancing of SC are discussed in depth. Comparisons between the proposed and the state-of-the-art MLIs are presented in detail. Finally, experimental tests on a single-phase 1.1-kW prototype validate the appropriate performance of the proposed inverter.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Design-Oriented Analysis and Transient Stability Enhancement Control for a
           Virtual Synchronous Generator

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      Authors: Pingjuan Ge;Chunming Tu;Fan Xiao;Qi Guo;Jiayuan Gao;
      Pages: 2675 - 2684
      Abstract: Under fault conditions, virtual synchronous generators (VSGs) are prone to lose transient stability, similar to synchronous generators. However, the existing studies on VSG transient stability are not comprehensive. The transient characteristics of VSGs are highly affected by control parameters, but the transient models of VSGs in existing studies are overly simplified. In addition, the critical clearing angle (CCA) and critical clearing time (CCT) are two indices used to measure the transient stability of a system, but there are few studies that consider both CCA and CCT. In this article, we analyze the CCA and CCT quantitatively to describe the transient stability boundary of a VSG under different control parameters and fault conditions. Then, an equal proportional area criterion is proposed to provide guidance for the control of virtual inertia in the VSG. Based on a theoretical analysis, a transient control method for a VSG is proposed, which can improve the transient stability of the VSG in terms of both CCA and CCT. Finally, simulation and experimental tests are performed to validate the correctness of the theoretical analysis and the proposed method.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • State-of-Health Estimation With Anomalous Aging Indicator Detection of
           Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Regression Generative Adversarial Network

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      Authors: Guangcai Zhao;Chenghui Zhang;Bin Duan;Yunlong Shang;Yongzhe Kang;Rui Zhu;
      Pages: 2685 - 2695
      Abstract: Accurate state-of-health (SOH) estimation for a data-driven method is still a great challenge, as real SOH is difficult to measure during the actual application of a lithium-ion battery, and the noise or sensor failure may be also involved. To face these challenges, we propose a novel regression generative adversarial network to obtain a general model for batteries with the same specifications. First, we develop the generator to automatically generate auxiliary training samples with similar but different distributions with real samples, which acts as data augmentation. Meanwhile, the discriminator is designed to detect anomalous aging indicators by learning the distribution of real samples, which is without the requirement of collecting anomalous samples. To capture shallow general aging knowledge, a shallow layer sharing mechanism between the discriminator and regressor is developed for regularization benefit. Finally, we propose a general model building rule based on the optimal correlation between SOH and features. The experimental results show our general model rule is effective for collected datasets of both LiNCM and LiFePO4 batteries. For datasets with small correlation differences, the effectiveness of the general model is no longer limited by the selection of datasets. Besides, compared to other advanced models, our method could achieve superior prediction performance.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Accurate Reactive Power Sharing Strategy for Droop-Based Islanded AC
           Microgrids

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      Authors: Nabil Mohammed;Abderezak Lashab;Mihai Ciobotaru;Josep M. Guerrero;
      Pages: 2696 - 2707
      Abstract: In islanded ac microgrids, the mismatched impedances of the interfacing feeders between the inverters and the load bus cause poor reactive power sharing when the conventional frequency and voltage droop control technique is employed. Such operation endangers the whole microgrid reliability as it may lead to overloading certain inverters and, consequently, triggering protection relays and causing cascaded failure. Thus, this article proposes an accurate reactive power sharing strategy that considers the mismatched feeder impedances in islanded ac microgrids. It is based on the optimal tuning of the virtual complex impedance for each inverter. The proposed strategy has several advantages. First, it has a physical meaning as it establishes an explicit relationship between the mismatched values of the actual resistive–inductive feeders and the assigned values for the proposed virtual complex impedance to each inverter. Hence, further degradations in the microgrid voltages are prevented. Second, there is no need for prior knowledge about the actual feeder impedances in the design stage as they are estimated online from the available measurements. Finally, the proposed control is reliable and fault-tolerant as it copes with unexpected failures such as failure of (or sudden switching off) some inverters and communication disruptions/delays. It ensures accurate power sharing even under the primary controllers after losing communication links with the secondary controller. The simulation and experimental verification results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed technique.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Asynchronous Information Fusion in Intelligent Driving Systems for Target
           Tracking Using Cameras and Radars

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      Authors: Xiaohui Hao;Yuanqing Xia;Hongjiu Yang;Zhiqiang Zuo;
      Pages: 2708 - 2717
      Abstract: In this article, an asynchronous information fusion issue is investigated for a camera and a radar in an intelligent driving system. Local camera and radar estimators with missed detections are developed independently at synchronized state update time for target tracking. A Kuhn–Munkers algorithm is used to match local tracking results of camera and radar for fusion estimation of a same target. A fusion estimator is obtained by a matrix-weighted fusion algorithm with wide detection range and reliable fused estimates. Effectiveness of the proposed asynchronous fusion estimator is displayed by experimental results on road vehicle tracking.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • EyeGlove for Inspection and Measurement in Confined Environments

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      Authors: Erhui Sun;Dragos Axinte;David Alatorre;Xin Dong;
      Pages: 2718 - 2728
      Abstract: A novel wearable vision system is proposed in this article. The wearable system contains a vision glove (EyeGlove) and a wearable display unit, which assists operators with inspection and measurement in confined environments. Three microcameras and an artificial fiducial marker are integrated on the index and middle fingers of the EyeGlove with disjointed camera configurations. Operators can achieve complex camera configurations and movements by using their dexterous hands while wearing the EyeGlove. The wearable vision system distinguishes itself by having two different functions, of which the inspection function uses one or two cameras to inspect in confined environments. For the measurement function, all three cameras and the artificial marker are used to identify object dimensions. Two of the three cameras form a stereovision system with disjointed camera configurations and variable baselines. The third camera and the artificial marker are used to determine the variable baseline in real-time. Inspection and measurement results are presented by the wearable display unit onto a virtual display. To make the wearable vision system adapt to dark environments, three auxiliary LED lights are integrated adjoining the three cameras. Experiments are conducted in both bright and dark environments to verify the measurement accuracy with an average relative error ≤ 5.0%. Furthermore, experiments are also conducted in the confined turbine engine combustor to verify its potential application in industrial environments.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Hybrid Uncalibrated Visual Servoing Control of Harvesting Robots With
           RGB-D Cameras

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      Authors: Tao Li;Jinpeng Yu;Quan Qiu;Chunjiang Zhao;
      Pages: 2729 - 2738
      Abstract: Visual servoing (VS) control has seen wide adoption in harvesting robots. However, parameter calibration is cumbersome, which makes the use of VS robotic systems inconvenient. Besides, dynamic fruits usually lead to a degeneration of control while tracking. To overcome the drawbacks, we present a new image-based uncalibrated visual servoing (IBUVS) control approach, consisting of a hybrid visual configuration and an adaptive tracking controller, referred to as hybrid-IBUVS. Specifically, our hybrid-IBUVS employs an eye-in-hand camera and a fixed red–green–blue-depth camera to construct a hybrid VS system, basing on multiobject detection and edge-computing technologies. Meanwhile, we also propose adaptive laws to online estimate the uncalibrated parameters of the cameras and robot dynamics. Furthermore, our hybrid-IBUVS uses an adaptive tracking controller to guarantee the harvesting robot to track a predefined trajectory to approach a fruit target. By Lyapunov stability theory, asymptotic convergence of the proposed control scheme is rigorously proven. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. All shown results supported the research claims.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Fixed-Time Constrained Model Predictive Sliding Mode Control of Spacecraft
           Simulator

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      Authors: Maria Khodaverdian;Maryam Malekzadeh;
      Pages: 2739 - 2747
      Abstract: In this article, two dual-loop control methods are proposed for attitude control and reaction wheels momentum management of the spacecraft simulator by assimilating the advantages of sliding mode and model predictive control (MPC). In the first method, by utilizing the high accuracy and constrained features of the MPC, an optimal controller is designed in the inner loop. MPC drives the angular velocity to the desired value while keeping the reaction wheel velocity to a small region near the origin, considering the constraints of the actuators. Furthermore, based on the fixed-time terminal sliding mode (TSM) the proper angular velocity is produced in the outer layer of this composite controller for the MPC part. In the second method, contrary to the first one, in the exterior loop MPC and in the interior loop finite-time TSM have been designed. The incorporated twofold nonlinear controllers’ policy insures a good dynamic and robustness against external disturbances. The high yielding of the control algorithms has been analyzed by simulation and experimental validation utilizing MATLAB software with real-time connection based on LabVIEW.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Stable Flexible-Joint Floating-Base Robot Balancing and Locomotion via
           Variable Impedance Control

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      Authors: Emmanouil Spyrakos-Papastavridis;Jian S. Dai;
      Pages: 2748 - 2758
      Abstract: This article presents a framework for systematic, stable and passive, dynamical balancing and locomotion control of flexible-joint bipedal robots. In order to achieve stability/passivity of the full flexible-joint, floating-base model with contacts, several novel control designs are proposed, whose ability to guarantee regulation and tracking stability is mathematically and practically demonstrated. The proposed designs enable usage of full-state feedback terms, thereby increasing both link tracking and oscillation suppression performance. These constitute the only control schemes reported in the literature, which are capable of asymptotically stabilizing flexible-joint, floating-base systems with contacts, during trajectory-tracking tasks. Moreover, a novel linear quadratic regulator (LQR) tuning approach is proposed, which permits the creation of models characterized by distinct kinetic chain and impedance combinations. Stable switching between these gain sets is guaranteed, as it is demonstrated that the proposed controllers enable unconstrained and stable, variable impedance control (VIC). The proposed control methods are corroborated through practical, balancing and locomotion experiments on the COmpliant huMANoid, as well as via dynamical simulations; these results demonstrate stability maintenance during tracking and VIC tasks. The ability to stably modulate a legged robot's active impedances could enable closer replication of biologically inspired behaviors.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Solving Robotic Manipulation With Sparse Reward Reinforcement Learning Via
           Graph-Based Diversity and Proximity

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      Authors: Zhenshan Bing;Hongkuan Zhou;Rui Li;Xiaojie Su;Fabrice O. Morin;Kai Huang;Alois Knoll;
      Pages: 2759 - 2769
      Abstract: In multigoal reinforcement learning (RL), algorithms usually suffer from inefficiency in the collection of successful experiences in tasks with sparse rewards. By utilizing the ideas of relabeling hindsight experience and curriculum learning, some prior works have greatly improved the sample efficiency in robotic manipulation tasks, such as hindsight experience replay (HER), hindsight goal generation (HGG), graph-based HGG (G-HGG), and curriculum-guided HER (CHER). However, none of these can learn efficiently to solve challenging manipulation tasks with distant goals and obstacles, since they rely either on heuristic or simple distance-guided exploration. In this article, we introduce graph-curriculum-guided HGG (GC-HGG), an extension of CHER and G-HGG, which works by selecting hindsight goals on the basis of graph-based proximity and diversity. We evaluated GC-HGG in four challenging manipulation tasks involving obstacles in both simulations and real-world experiments, in which significant enhancements in both sample efficiency and overall success rates over prior works were demonstrated. Videos and codes can be viewed at this link: https://videoviewsite.wixsite.com/gc-hgg.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Nonautoregressive Dynamic Model Based Welding Parameter Planning Method
           for Varying Geometry Beads in WAAM

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      Authors: Zhihu Li;Zhimin Hou;Zengxi Pan;Dan Wu;Jing Xu;
      Pages: 2770 - 2779
      Abstract: Wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) is a promising method for directly manufacturing parts with complex shapes. However, the accuracy of the existing welding parameter planning methods would dramatically decrease when the bead geometry changes dynamically due to the long-term dependence, strong coupling, and hysteresis properties of the WAAM process. To this end, a nonautoregressive dynamic model is proposed to predict the bead geometry, and an adaptive model predictive control (aMPC) method is proposed to plan welding parameters to achieve high manufacturing accuracy. First, in the proposed dynamic model, the long-term dynamic characteristics of the WAAM process are modeled by a resample long short-term memory network by considering the fluidity of the welding pool, which is the crucial factor of dynamic characteristics of the welding process. Second, in the proposed aMPC method, the strong coupling is addressed by high multiobjective performance, and the hysteresis is considered by a long control horizon. Thus, the aMPC method can reduce the control latency and improve the manufacturing accuracy for varying geometry beads. The proposed methods are validated by experiments, which indicate that the proposed methods are effective.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Development of a Penguin-Inspired Swimming Robot With Air Lubrication
           System

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      Authors: Jie Pan;Ziye Zhou;Jian Wang;Pengfei Zhang;Junzhi Yu;
      Pages: 2780 - 2789
      Abstract: In this article, a novel robotic penguin equipped with air lubrication system is developed. Through mimicking the agile movements of biological penguins, two degrees of freedom (DOF) wings including heaving and pitching motions, and a buoyancy-driven system for ascending and diving are particularly designed. Meanwhile, a complete 3-D dynamic model is established based on the Morrison equation, and the hydrodynamic parameters are determined with experimental results. Then, taking the bioinspired central pattern generators as the main actuation, the 3-D locomotion performance is discussed. More importantly, inspired by the leaping behavior of penguins, a unique air lubrication system is developed, and the obtained results verify the effectiveness of the mechatronic design. This work will offer valuable insight into the future development and control of next-generation versatile underwater vehicles capitalizing on the air lubrication mechanism.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Genetic Algorithm-Based Ensemble Hybrid Sparse ELM for Grasp Stability
           Recognition With Multimodal Tactile Signals

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      Authors: Zhengkun Yi;Tiantian Xu;Wanfeng Shang;Weimin Li;Xinyu Wu;
      Pages: 2790 - 2799
      Abstract: Grasp stability recognition based on tactile perception has attracted increasing attention in the robotics community. In this article, we extract tactile features from multimodal tactile signals and propose a novel ensemble approach named genetic algorithm-based ensemble hybrid sparse extreme learning machine (GA-EHSELM) for the grasp stability recognition task. In contrast to traditional ensemble extreme learning machines (ELMs), the proposed approach takes the sparsity of the random weights assigned to the connection between the input layer and the hidden layer for each base learner into consideration, in order to avoid the problem of overfitting. In addition, The diversity of base learners is increased by constructing two types of sparse ELM (SELM). The random weights of the base SELMs are sampled from two different distributions with a certain probability. Furthermore, we utilize the genetic algorithm (GA) for the optimization of tactile features and the base sparse ELMs. To be specific, GA is employed for feature selection as well as the optimization of the sparsity of the random weights associated with different types of base learners and the number of each type of base learner. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated on a public tactile grasp stability dataset.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Error-Summation Enhanced Newton Algorithm for Model Predictive Control of
           Redundant Manipulators

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      Authors: Fan Zhang;Long Jin;Xin Luo;
      Pages: 2800 - 2811
      Abstract: Redundant manipulators have been investigated and employed in various fields, and its trajectory tracking is of much importance in the field of robotic control. In this article, a model predictive control (MPC) scheme for the trajectory tracking of redundant manipulators is constructed, which minimizes the tracking error, velocity norm, and acceleration norm simultaneously. The commonly used trajectory tracking schemes for redundant manipulators, such as the minimum-velocity-norm scheme and minimum-acceleration-norm scheme, handle joint limits at different levels by introducing additional parameters, which reduces the feasible region of decision variables. In contrast, the proposed scheme directly considers these limits at three different levels, without reducing the feasible region of decision variables. In addition, to compensate for the deficiencies of most existing algorithms in noise environments, an error-summation enhanced Newton (ESEN) algorithm is proposed for solving the MPC scheme. Through theoretical analysis, it is determined that the proposed ESEN algorithm has a small steady-state error under noise conditions. Finally, in contrast with the comparative trajectory tracking schemes, as determined through computer simulations and experiments, the proposed MPC scheme solved by the ESEN algorithm not only enables the redundant manipulator to perform the trajectory tracking task in excellent fashion, but also offers advantages of high efficiency, fast responsiveness, and strong noise tolerance.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Novel Reinforcement Learning-Based Robust Control Strategy for a
           Quadrotor

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      Authors: Hean Hua;Yongchun Fang;
      Pages: 2812 - 2821
      Abstract: In this article, a novel reinforcement learning (RL)-based robust control approach is proposed for quadrotors, which guarantees efficient learning and satisfactory tracking performance by simultaneously evaluating the RL and the baseline method in training. Different from existing works, the key novelty is to design a practice-reliable RL control framework for quadrotors in a two-part cooperative manner. In the first part, based on the hierarchical property, a new robust integral of the signum of the error (RISE) design is proposed to ensure asymptotic convergence, which includes the nonlinear and the disturbance rejection terms. In the second part, a one-actor-dual-critic (OADC) learning framework is proposed, where the designed switching logic in the first part works as a benchmark to guide the learning. Specifically, the two critics independently evaluate the RL policy and the switching logic simultaneously, which are utilized for policy update, only when both are positive, corresponding to the remarkable actor-better exploration actions. The asymptotic RISE controller, together with the two critics in OADC learning framework, guarantees accurate judgment on every exploration. On this basis, the satisfactory performance of the RL policy is guaranteed by the actor-better exploration based learning while the chattering problem arisen from the switching logic is addressed completely. Plenty of comparative experimental tests are presented to illustrate the superior performance of the proposed RL controller in terms of tracking accuracy and robustness.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Distributed Estimation of a Layered Architecture for Collaborative
           Air–Ground Target Geolocation in Outdoor Environments

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      Authors: Lele Zhang;Feng Gao;Fang Deng;Lele Xi;Jie Chen;
      Pages: 2822 - 2832
      Abstract: To solve the problem of collaborative air–ground target search and localization in large outdoor environments, we adopt a distributed layered architecture and propose a corresponding distributed estimation algorithm, which can produce accurate estimates of interested target position. The air–ground system consists of a single unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and several ground platforms. First, for the distributed layered architecture, this article develops unbalanced simple convex combination algorithm using one-shot measurements from the single UAV and all ground platforms to generate global estimates of the stationary target state. The novelty of the proposed algorithm is that it considers the differences in sensor capabilities between the aerial and ground platforms. Then, performance analysis is described to show that the proposed algorithm is obviously superior to the traditional existing convex combination algorithms. Finally, the efficacy of this algorithm is further demonstrated by the simulation experiments and actual geolocation tests.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Improved Model Predictive Current Control for Linear Vernier
           Permanent-Magnet Motor With Efficient Voltage Vectors Selection

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      Authors: Chen Wang;Jinghua Ji;Hongyu Tang;Tao Tao;Wenxiang Zhao;
      Pages: 2833 - 2842
      Abstract: In order to relieve the computational burden and reduce the ripples in thrust force and current of linear vernier permanent-magnet motors, this article proposes three-vector-based model predictive current control (MPCC) with efficient voltage vectors selection. The proposed method avoids the traversal of all the possible voltage vectors. Only three nonadjacent active voltage vectors are predicted and evaluated by the cost function. Two active voltage vectors can be precisely determined according to the relationship of three cost function values. The prediction workload can be reduced with the efficient voltage vectors selection. Also, the two active voltage vectors along with the null voltage vector are used to synthesize the final applied voltage vector based on deadbeat principle. The proposed three-vector-based MPCC method extends the modulation area from discrete points to the whole regular hexagon. Thus, the ripples in thrust force and current can be minimized. Theoretical analyses and experimental results are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed MPCC.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Magnetic Field Prediction for Line-Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous
           Motor via Incorporating Geometry Approximation and Finite Difference
           Method Into Subdomain Model

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      Authors: Bo Yan;Xianglin Li;Xiuhe Wang;Yubo Yang;Daolian Chen;
      Pages: 2843 - 2854
      Abstract: A hybrid computing method for predicting the magnetic field of line-start permanent magnet synchronous motor is presented in this article. The vector magnetic potential (VMP) is selected to be the primary objective of the calculation. For the convenience of expressing the VMP in the polar coordinate system, the topology of each motor component is replaced by the assembly of radial sectors. Along with the topology approximation, the VMPs of the stator and air gap are determined analytically, whereas the finite difference method is used to calculate the VMP of the rotor with the eddy current. Combining the numerical technique with the analytical method not only enables solution efficiency higher than using the former one merely but also keeps away from the inefficacy of using the latter one solely to predict magnetic fields with complex geometry. The presented approach is validated by the finite-element analysis and prototyping tests.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Spherical Motor Position Detection Method Based on Accurate Modeling of
           Wireless Power Transmission

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      Authors: Shihao Gao;Qunjing Wang;Guoli Li;Zhe Qian;Qiubo Ye;Sili Zhou;Zheng Li;
      Pages: 2855 - 2865
      Abstract: This article proposes a position detection method for a multi-to-one wireless power transmission (WPT) system for the first time and applies it to the position detection of a spherical motor. The traditional contact detection system has high friction resistance and poor rotor positioning accuracy. Although some noncontact measurement systems are not directly connected to the rotor, the structure or calculation of the measurement system is more complicated. To solve the abovementioned problems, this article proposes two structural topologies, which are evenly arranged on the upper part of the rotor and the receiving coil is placed on the rotor shaft. When the motor rotor rotates along with the three motion states of yaw, spin, and tilt, the receiving and multitransmitting coils will have an angular offset. The rotor position is obtained by a method of accurately estimating the mutual inductance. This method avoids complicated finite element calculations and saves a lot of time. Finally, the experiment verifies the above analysis and compares the data with the microelectromechanical system three-degree-of-freedom attitude detection method. This article provides insights into the position detection of spherical motors. This method simplifies the previous measurement system and obtains higher positioning accuracy.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Topology Optimization Framework for Simultaneously Determining the Optimal
           Structural Design and Current Phase Angle of the IPMSMs for the MTPA
           Control

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      Authors: Changwoo Lee;In Gwun Jang;
      Pages: 2866 - 2875
      Abstract: Although it is crucial to design the magnetic flux path and the maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) current reference under the current limitation, it is challenging to simultaneously consider these features in developing an interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) due to complicated coupling effects. In this article, to overcome the above issue, the motor-design parameters are estimated by conducting electromagnetic finite element (FE) analysis two times at every iteration of topology optimization. Then, the MTPA current phase angle can be analytically expressed in terms of an elementwise relative density (i.e., design variable in topology optimization). In addition, the structural safety is assessed by conducting the structural FE analysis under design-dependent loads to reflect a high-speed rotation. The proposed two-stage topology optimization enables us to simultaneously optimize both a structural design and current phase angle to achieve the maximum electromagnetic performance. Structural safety and manufacturability are also considered to obtain a practically meaningful design. With two different types of permanent magnets, the optimized IPMSMs are obtained and manufactured to validate the proposed method. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the validity and potential of this work.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Disturbance Rejection and Control System Design Based on an Improved
           Equivalent-Input-Disturbance Approach

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      Authors: Qicheng Mei;Jinhua She;Feng Wang;Yosuke Nakanishi;
      Pages: 2876 - 2886
      Abstract: This article presents an improved equivalent-input-disturbance (EID) approach to actively rejecting exogenous disturbances for a plant. A control system based on the approach includes a new EID estimator constructed by embedding integrals to the conventional EID estimator. These integrals enable the estimator to improve the disturbance-estimation precision without amplifying the effect of measurement noise. Stability conditions of the control system are obtained using separation theorem. The system design ensures that the control system satisfies the stability conditions. Experiments of a rotational control system demonstrate the validity of the approach.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Novel Intelligent Nonlinear Controller for Dual Active Bridge Converter
           With Constant Power Loads

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      Authors: Xiangqi Meng;Yanbing Jia;Qianwen Xu;Chunguang Ren;Xiaoqing Han;Peng Wang;
      Pages: 2887 - 2896
      Abstract: The stability of dual active bridge converter (DAB) is threatened when feeding the constant power loads (CPLs). This article proposes a deep reinforcement learning-based backstepping control strategy to solve this problem. First, a nonlinear disturbance observer is adopted to estimate the large-signal nonlinear disturbance. Then, a backstepping controller is used to stabilize the voltage response of the DAB under the large-signal disturbance. Finally, a compensation method based on deep reinforcement learning is developed to intelligently minimize output voltage tracking error and improve the operating efficiency of the system. The proposed controller can guarantee system stability under the large-signal disturbance of the CPL and achieve a fast dynamic response with accurate voltage tracking; it is more adaptive by using the deep reinforcement learning technique through the learning of its neural networks. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified by experiments.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Methods of Solving Passband Ripples and Sidelobes for Wavelet Transform
           Processor Using Surface Acoustic Wave Device

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      Authors: Baoliang Yang;Wenke Lu;Lili Gao;Yang Feng;
      Pages: 2897 - 2906
      Abstract: This article proposes an approach using surface acoustic wave (SAW) device to decrease passband ripples and sidelobes as two key problems of wavelet transform processors (WTPs). The passband ripples are primarily generated through electrode reflections and transducer end-effects. The proposed method uses unbalanced split-electrode interdigital transducers (IDTs) to prevent electrode reflections. The problem of transducer end-effects is alleviated by attaching SAW absorbers to both ends of the substrate edge, which can effectively absorb the spurious SAW arriving at the edges of the piezoelectric substrate. Moreover, because the radiation energy of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) has a sidelobe distribution, the greater sidelobes are predominantly caused by the BAW radiation. This problem is alleviated by engraving bidirectional slots on the substrate at the back of the WTPs of the unbalanced split-electrode IDTs to suppress the BAW radiation. The experimental results demonstrate that the passband ripples and sidelobes of the WTPs decrease to 0.72 and 6.58 dB, respectively.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Protocol-Based Optimal Stealthy Data-Injection Attacks via Compromised
           Sensors in Cyber-Physical Systems

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      Authors: Xiu-Xiu Ren;Guang-Hong Yang;Xiao-Guang Zhang;
      Pages: 2907 - 2915
      Abstract: This article concentrates on designing a strictly stealthy attack strategy from the adversarial perspective against the multisensor cyber-physical systems (CPSs) under the round-robin protocol (RRP). The aim is to maximize the attack performance and remain strictly stealthy at the same time. Different from the existing attacks against the single-sensor application scenario, we propose a stealthy attack strategy for multisensor networked systems. In addition, due to the scheduling effects of the RRP, only incomplete transmitted data can be corrupted at each time step. Thus, a novel protocol-based attack model is developed, and then the corrupted error covariance at the remote side is derived to quantify the attack performance. Next, a convex optimization problem is formulated to solve the optimal attack parameters, which leads to the worst filtering performance. Moreover, the analytical expression of the optimal attack parameters is presented and proved. Finally, the experiments on a permanent magnet synchronous machine monitoring system are conducted to verify our results.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Buffeting Chaotification Model for Enhancing Chaos and Its Hardware
           Implementation

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      Authors: Zhiqiang Zhang;Hong Zhu;Pengxin Ban;Yong Wang;Leo Yu Zhang;
      Pages: 2916 - 2926
      Abstract: Many shortcomings of chaos-based applications stem from the weak dynamic properties of the chaotic maps they use. To alleviate this problem, inspired by the buffeting effect in aeroelasticity, this article proposes the buffeting chaotification model (BCM). Using the especially designed buffeting and modulo operators, the BCM can generate numerous new chaotic maps with strong dynamic properties from existing one-dimensional chaotic maps. The effectiveness of the BCM is mathematically proven according to the Lyapunov exponent, and further numerical experiments confirm the superiority of the chaotic maps generated by the BCM in terms of the dynamic properties. The field-programmable gate array implementation also shows that the BCM owns simplicity in hardware devices. To investigate the practical application, a scheme for constructing the pseudorandom number generator is designed. Performance analyses indicate that our generators have a strong ability to produce high-quality pseudorandom sequences rapidly.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Flexible Formation Tracking Control of Multiple Unmanned Surface Vessels
           for Navigating Through Narrow Channels with Unknown Curvatures

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      Authors: Chuancong Tang;Hai-Tao Zhang;Jun Wang;
      Pages: 2927 - 2938
      Abstract: This article proposes a flexible formation tracking control protocol (FFTC) for multiple unmanned surface vessels (USVs) to pass through narrow water channels with unknown curvatures. An observer is developed to estimate the curvatures of channels. A flexible formation tracking control protocol is, thereby designed to steer USV fleets to pass through narrow channels in a flexible serial formation. Furthermore, the asymptotically stable conditions of the closed-loop multi-USV systems are theoretically derived. Finally, both numerical simulation and experimental results with a fleet of three HUSTER-0.3 USVs are reported to substantiate the effectiveness of the proposed FFTC protocol for navigating through narrow channel in a laboratory context.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Synthesizing All Filtered Proportional–Integral and PID Controllers
           Satisfying Gain, Phase, and Sensitivity Specifications

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      Authors: Oded Yaniv;Stanimir Mollov;
      Pages: 2939 - 2947
      Abstract: This article presents a method for calculating all the proportional–integral/proportional–derivative controllers with a low-pass filter of a given order, which satisfy gain–phase margins and sensitivity (or complementary sensitivity) specifications. The method is explicit and requires solving a set of a polynomial and two linear equations. It is shown how to extend the method to design all the proportional–integral–derivative or cascaded controllers with a low-pass filter assuming that a minimum value of one of the controller components is given.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Dynamic Compensation Optimization and Frequency Characteristic Analysis
           for Contactless Energy Transfer Under Load Variations in Rotary Ultrasonic
           Machining

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      Authors: Yu Fu;Aimin Wang;
      Pages: 2948 - 2958
      Abstract: In rotary ultrasonic machining, contactless energy transfer (CET) converts power from an ultrasonic power supply to the ultrasonic transducers. Two-side compensation circuits improve the efficiency of this process, but the addition of secondary compensation causes problems such as dynamic imbalance. Load changes affect the performance of CET system (CETS) with compensation, and dynamic compensation is needed for good CETS performance, such as high transfer efficiency and output power. This article investigates the frequency characteristics of CETS without compensation under different loads. The effects of two-side compensation on CETS under load variations is studied for the dynamic compensation characteristic. The comparison of mathematical model and performance of CETS with dynamic compensation are investigated to propose the optimized dynamic compensation. The model of CETS with optimized dynamic compensation under load variations is developed. The CETS frequency characteristics with optimized dynamic compensation are studied. The experimental results basically agree with the calculated results. The CETS with optimized dynamic compensation at the series resonant frequency can produce high transfer efficiency, high output power, low input impedance range under load variations in the cutting process of RUM, and solves the problems caused by the secondary side compensation.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Novel, Software-Defined Control Method Using Sparsely Activated
           Microcontroller for Low-Power, Multiple-Input, Single-Inductor,
           Multiple-Output DC–DC Converters to Increase Efficiency

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      Authors: Arya Hosseini;Amin Siahchehreh Badeli;Masoud Davari;Samad Sheikhaei;Gevork B. Gharehpetian;
      Pages: 2959 - 2970
      Abstract: This article proposes a novel control for the multiple-input, single-inductor, multiple-output dc–dc converters. It is digitally and discretely implemented, which can have an outstanding performance in low-power applications so that at the power of 10 mW, it has an efficiency of 92.5%. Conventionally, in this power range, an attempt is made to take advantage of an analog design that is flexible. Thus, a fully programmable (software designed) converter with digital design using a microcontroller is in great demand. This converter design basis is to deploy the microcontroller's central processing unit (CPU) as little as possible. Also, it only turns on the CPU when necessary to be employed in low-power, portable systems, e.g., energy-harvesting technologies. Therefore, construction costs are significantly reduced. Depending on the energy level of the inputs, they can simultaneously be utilized to charge the outputs. This article uses stability analysis, time-multiplexing control method, and variable-frequency pulsewidth modulation in the proposed control design. Each output can be charged with different frequencies according to its load, and the maximum switching frequency is equal to 10 kHz. Also, the proposed technique for zero-current switching has been digitally implemented; it can be utilized to determine the optimal value of the inductor discharge duty cycle based on the inductor's left-side voltage. Comparative simulations and experimental results reveal the superiority and practicality of the proposed approach.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • High-Precision Finite-Time Positioning Control for an Inertial Reference
           Unit With Asymmetric Loads and Mover Sideslip

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      Authors: Ling Zhao;Lei Liu;Xingfei Li;Xinyue Cao;
      Pages: 2971 - 2981
      Abstract: In this article, a finite-time controller is designed on high-precision positioning for an inertial reference unit (IRU) with asymmetric loads and mover sideslip based on a finite-time extended state observer (ESO). The asymmetric loads caused by centroid deviation from central axis are a negative factor, which results in a negative load torque for IRUs. The mover sideslip is another negative factor that brings about output forces errors between actual output forces and theoretical output forces for voice coil motors. The finite-time ESO is designed to estimate and compensate the asymmetric loads and mover sideslip. The finite-time controller is proposed with high convergence rate for the IRU. Experimental results are presented to show effectiveness of the proposed finite-time control method in high-precision positioning under asymmetric loads and mover sideslip.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Reachability Analysis Plus Satisfiability Modulo Theories: An
           Adversary-Proof Control Method for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

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      Authors: Qing Xu;Yicong Liu;Jian Pan;Jiawei Wang;Jianqiang Wang;Keqiang Li;
      Pages: 2982 - 2992
      Abstract: Connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) are expected to operate with safety guarantee in presence of adversaries from the Internet of Vehicles. This article proposes a control method named reachability analysis plus satisfiability modulo theories (RA-SMT) for CAVs against integrity attacks caused by bounded adversary. This method enables vehicles to possess the reach-avoid specification and strict control safety ensurance even in the worst case scenario. The introduction of state-feedback control decomposes the original complex problem into more manageable reachability analysis and adversary-free control strategy optimization. Precisely, zonotope sets are employed for reachability analysis, and the control strategy is optimally solved and verified simultaneously via SMT. This method is applicable to complex traffic scenarios with the help of SMT, which can describe various constraints flexibly and conveniently. Simulation results reveal the effectiveness and safety of the proposed method in the classical car-following scenario against bounded adversary under various conditions. Particularly, RA-SMT exhibits significantly improved control performance (around 16%) and computation efficiency (around 63%) compared with existing methods. Finally, the RA-SMT is implemented on an autonomous driving platform to validate its practicability.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Fast Finite-Time Tracking Consensus With Applications on Multiple Servo
           Motors

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      Authors: Shiqi Zheng;Peng Shi;Yuanlong Xie;Shuting Wang;
      Pages: 2993 - 3002
      Abstract: This article focuses on the fast finite-time tracking consensus for uncertain nonlinear multiagent systems. By gracefully combining the hierarchical decomposition, adding a barrier power integrator and disturbance compensation techniques, a new adaptive fast finite-time controller is proposed. Compared with the existing works, the proposed method has several distinguishing features: 1) It can achieve fast finite-time convergence with full state constraints; 2) it can deal with some fully unknown nonlinearities and state-dependent disturbance. Moreover, the nonlinearities can be related with the states of all the followers; 3) the input of the leader is not required to be zero, meaning a broad class of references signals can be generated; and 4) the controller is computationally simply and ready to be implemented. No fuzzy logic/neural networks are needed. Applications of the proposed method on multiple servo motors are also studied.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Predictor-Based Extended State Observer for Disturbance Rejection Control
           of Multirate Systems With Measurement Delay

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      Authors: Jiankun Sun;Xiangyang Liu;Jun Yang;Zhigang Zeng;Shihua Li;
      Pages: 3003 - 3012
      Abstract: This article investigates the multirate disturbance rejection control problem for linear control systems with mismatched disturbance and measurement delay using predictor-based extended state observer. A new extended state observer together with output predictor is first designed to obtain the estimation values of system state and mismatched disturbance, where output predictor is used to compensate the influences of measurement delay and sampling of output. To attenuate the undesirable influence of mismatched disturbance, we then design a new sampled-data robust controller with disturbance compensation, and the updating rate of the proposed controller is allowed to be different from that of the sensor. Thanks to prediction and disturbance/uncertainty estimation and attenuation techniques, the disturbance rejection property of the resultant closed-loop control systems is enhanced despite the multirate and measurement delay. Some sufficient conditions are presented to ensure the stability property of the resultant control systems. We finally consider the application of the visual servoing control system for an inertially stabilized platform, and the experiment results verify superiorities of the predictor-based disturbance rejection control method proposed in the article.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Anti-Disturbance Compensation for Quadrotor Close Crossing Flight Based on
           Deep Reinforcement Learning

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      Authors: Fulin Song;Zhan Li;Sichen Yang;Juan J. Rodriguez-Andina;
      Pages: 3013 - 3023
      Abstract: The aim of this article is the design of a feedforward compensator based on deep reinforcement learning (DRL) for cooperative quadrotors in close crossing flight. Quadrotors are described by state-space models that include shearing airflow disturbance from other quadrotors. This disturbance is compensated in a feedforward way using DRL. Both value based compensator and policy based compensator algorithms are proposed for training purposes. Then, Lyapunov stability criteria are used to prove that the reference trajectory can be tracked boundedly even during the training process of the proposed algorithms, and that a smaller bound of tracking error can be achieved when the compensator converges. An indoor experimental system for online training has been developed for validation purposes. Both simulation and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed compensator.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Lyapunov-Based Capacitor Voltage Observation of Modular Multilevel
           Converters

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      Authors: Jagannath Samantaray;Rupak Chakraborty;Anubrata Dey;Sohom Chakrabarty;
      Pages: 3024 - 3034
      Abstract: Modular multilevel converter (MMC) has achieved its popularity in wide range of voltage applications over other multilevel topologies due to its modularity, scalability, and ease of design. A typical MMC is composed of many capacitors and the voltages across them are required to be measured for the control of system variables like the circulating current and for capacitor voltage balancing. The number of capacitors and their associated measurement devices increase with higher voltage levels. Hence, to reduce the economical and design burden, several techniques for the observation of capacitor voltages have been presented till date. In this article, capacitor voltages of the submodules are observed using a simple Lyapunov-based observer (LBO) and the convergence proof of the observation error is established mathematically. The performance of the proposed LBO is studied in simulation using MATLAB/Simulink and also experimentally validated. The proposed observer is also compared in simulation with two other existing observation techniques from literature.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Real-Time Performance Optimization of Electromagnetic Levitation Systems
           and the Experimental Validation

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      Authors: Yunsong Xu;Zhengen Zhao;Shen Yin;Zhiqiang Long;
      Pages: 3035 - 3044
      Abstract: The electromagnetic levitation (EML) system serves as a key subsystem in maglev trains for the purpose of levitation. It is highly dynamic, open-loop unstable, and safety-critical. The expense of establishing an accurate model out of the Maglev train, in addition to the varying operating conditions, results in an imperfectly known model in engineering practice. Thus high-performance levitation control, w.r.t. an imperfectly known model, is of considerable practical interest. Motivated by such an observation, this article investigates real-time levitation performance optimization of the EML system, with an imperfectly known model. The EML system is first modeled and an equivalent demonstration benchmark is developed. Then, the structure for levitation performance optimization is presented on top of the coprime factorization technique. Furthermore, the real-time levitation performance optimization algorithm is developed, utilizing only the input and output data. In the end, the proposed methods are validated on the benchmark.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • In Situ Diagnosis of Multichip IGBT Module Wire Bonding Faults Based on
           Collector Voltage Undershoot

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      Authors: Wuyu Zhang;Kun Tan;Bing Ji;Lei Qi;Xiang Cui;Xiangyu Zhang;Luchun Du;
      Pages: 3045 - 3054
      Abstract: Condition monitoring of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules is an effective way to improve the transient performance and reliability of modular multilevel converters (MMC). This article proposes a novel bond wire failure monitoring method for the multichip IGBT modules in the MMC half-bridge submodule (SM) structure. The collector voltage undershoot VCA(np) of the complementary IGBT switch is measured during the turn-off switching transition of the controlled IGBT switch. VCA(np) is sensitive to the induced voltage over the stray inductance of the IGBT bond wires and provides high sensitivity as a health indicator. The non-intrusive measurement technique is demonstrated using a half-bridge circuit during the turn-off transition of the controlled IGBT, while its complementary switch (i.e., the device under test) is in the off state. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the parametric drift due to wire bonding failures can be effectively monitored with high specific relative sensitivity and granularity. To ensure its effectiveness in practical applications, the influence of load current, SM capacitor voltage, and junction temperature is discussed. In addition, a readout circuit is designed featuring the integrated desaturation detection and voltage peak detection, which offers both the short-term overcurrent fault protection and long-term bond wire aging monitoring functions.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Detection and Evaluation of the Interturn Short Circuit Fault in a
           BLDC-Based Hub Motor

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      Authors: Hui Wang;Jiliang Wang;Xiaoxian Wang;Siliang Lu;Cungang Hu;Wenping Cao;
      Pages: 3055 - 3068
      Abstract: A brushless dc (BLDC) motor with an outer rotor has great potential for emerging electric vehicle (EV) applications as an in-wheel hub motor. Interturn short circuit faults (ISCFs) are common electrical faults in these applications, and their fault diagnosis is of critical importance. This article proposes a signal analysis-based method to detect and quantitatively analyze the ISCF in a BLDC motor under a six-step commutation control strategy. The zero-sequence voltage component (ZSVC) and three-phase currents are simultaneously determined while the fundamental frequency amplitude of the ZSVC is developed as a fault indicator for diagnostic purposes. Thereafter, the faulty phase is identified, and the fault severity is estimated by jointly analyzing the ZSVC and faulted phase current. The proposed technique entails creating an analytical model, a simulation model, and experimental tests. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique has excellent accuracy, quick response, and real-time fault diagnosis for BLDC motors. This technique will accelerate the use of BLDC-based hub motors in EVs and the widespread application of EVs to reduce the carbon emissions.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Dynamic State Estimation Based Protection for Flexible DC Grid

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      Authors: Jinghan He;Ming Nie;Meng Li;Yin Xu;Yiping Luo;Huiyuan Zhang;A. P. Sakis Meliopoulos;
      Pages: 3069 - 3079
      Abstract: Fast and reliable dc line protection is one of the key techniques for flexible dc grid with the development of flexible dc transmission technology. However, the serious overcurrent caused by dc faults has a prominent contradiction with the weak overcurrent capability of power electronics. In this article, the high-fidelity dynamic model of the transmission line is first established based on the frequency-dependent characteristic of line parameters. Then, a new dynamic state estimation based protection (DSEBP) scheme is proposed, which uses the redundancy feature of state estimation to improve the dependability of protection. Finally, the actual measurements and the estimated states are compared with the similarity to identify the fault by the chi-square distribution. The proposed method's effectiveness is verified through simulations power systems computer aided design (PSCAD)/electromagnetic transients including DC (EMTDC) and experiments, and the factors affecting the performance of DSEBP are analyzed. Compared with the existing protection methods, the proposed method is more dependable, more sensitive, and available for actual projects.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Online Interturn Short-Circuit Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motors
           Operating Under Unbalanced Supply Voltage and Load Variations, Using the
           STLSP Technique

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      Authors: Abdeldjalil Alloui;Khaled Laadjal;Mohamed Sahraoui;Antonio J. Marques Cardoso;
      Pages: 3080 - 3089
      Abstract: It is well known that the most common reason for electrical machines breakdown is the stator windings’ fault occurrence. Indeed, this type of fault represents almost 40% of faults occurring in induction machines. One of the major causes of stator defects is the occurrence of interturn short-circuit (ITSC) faults that have critical and dangerous effects on the motor itself, as well as on the related electrical equipment. Therefore, early detection and a precise severity estimation of the occurrence of ITSC faults for all working conditions can prevent failure breakdowns and increase reliability and safety of industrial facilities. In this context, this article proposes an efficient online diagnostics method based on calculating and monitoring a pertinent severity factor defined as the ratio between the zero and positive voltage symmetrical components. The online implementation of this method is performed on a LabVIEW environment, using the short-time least square Prony's (STLSP) method. It does not need any estimation of motor parameters and it requires only voltage sensors. Several tests under healthy and faulty conditions are carried out on a three-phase 3-kW induction motor. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for diagnosing the occurrence of ITSC faults with high reliability, fastness, and high precision, even under load variations or unbalanced supply voltage.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Isolation Forest Based Submodule Open-Circuit Fault Localization Method
           for Modular Multilevel Converters

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      Authors: Fujin Deng;Yufei Chen;Jingming Dou;Chengkai Liu;Zhe Chen;Frede Blaabjerg;
      Pages: 3090 - 3102
      Abstract: Fault localization is one of the most important issues for modular multilevel converters (MMCs) consisting of numerous switches. This article proposes an isolation forest (IF) based submodule (SM) switch open-circuit fault localization method for MMCs. Based on the continuous sampling SM capacitor voltages, a number of isolation trees (ITs) are produced to construct the IFs for MMCs. Through the comparison of continuous IFs’ outputs, the faulty SM can be effectively localized. The proposed IF-based fault localization method only requires SM capacitor voltages in the MMC to construct concise low-data-volume tree models, and uses sparsity and difference properties of outlier data to localize fault, and accordingly it simplifies calculation complexity. In addition, it does not require the MMC's mathematical models and manual setting of empirical thresholds. Simulation and experiment are conducted, and the results confirm the effectiveness of proposed method.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Short-Time Adaline Based Fault Feature Extraction for Inter-Turn Short
           Circuit Diagnosis of PMSM via Residual Insulation Monitoring

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      Authors: Dong Wei;Kan Liu;Wei Hu;Xiaoyan Peng;Yongdan Chen;Rongjun Ding;
      Pages: 3103 - 3114
      Abstract: Inter-turn short circuit (ITSC) is a common fault in electrical machines, which may result in further devastation to the whole winding and magnets. In this article, a method for real-time residual insulation capacity monitoring of ITSC fault in permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) is proposed, which is robust to speed/torque variation and independent of machine parameters and extra sensors. It is based on the theory that the ITSC fault initiates as an insulation deterioration among adjacent turns and the fault severity can be described by the residual insulation capacity being relevant to the 2nd harmonic component in the dq-axis currents. Thus, a short-time Adaline-based harmonic extraction method is proposed for the separation of the needed 2nd harmonic component from time-varying current signals, being used as the fault indicator afterward. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated on a PMSM and shows quite good performance in fast-tracking and detection of faults in various stages.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • An Inductive Sensor Based Multi-Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Weighting
           Filtering for Debris Feature Extraction

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      Authors: Jiufei Luo;Jing Li;Xinyu Wang;Song Feng;
      Pages: 3115 - 3125
      Abstract: Monitoring the wear debris in lubricant systems is an effective method of reflecting the health of mechanical equipment. With the advantages of being simply structured, noninvasive, and insensitive to oil quality, inductive sensors are often deployed for debris detection. However, induced voltages generated by wear debris are usually contaminated by noise and other undesired components, thereby limiting the reliability and availability of the sensors. In this article, a new debris-detection framework is proposed based on an inductive sensor with parallel dual coils. With the aid of a reference signal, a multi-least-mean-square adaptive weighting filtering method was developed, and good noise suppression was achieved with little violation of the debris signatures. The algorithm is illustrated through numerical simulations, and the effectiveness of the proposed framework was verified by an oil experiment. Two traditional denoising algorithms were also analyzed for comparison. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed strategy had an excellent capability for extracting and identifying debris features.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • An All-Parameter Calibration for 6-Axis Skewed IMU

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      Authors: Jiazhen Lu;Lili Ye;Zhaoxiang Niu;Jing Dong;Ang Su;
      Pages: 3126 - 3135
      Abstract: The inertial navigation system (INS) is widely used in spacecraft, missiles, and airplanes for its full autonomy and complete information. Skewed inertial measurement unit (IMU) is a typical device for INS. This IMU is of great significance for key projects such as manned spacecraft or heavy-lift rockets. Calibration of the IMU parameters has always been the key technology for INS. However, the calibration for skewed IMU is difficult to conduct for the skewed placement of the sensors and the complicated model. An all-parameter calibration for six-axis skewed IMU is proposed in this article. The error model is established. The measurement equations for Kalman filter are deduced. The calculation can be accomplished in two steps: The calibration for three gyros+ three accelerometers and the parameter compensation and iteration calculation. Simulations and experiments results indicate that: The complexity of calibration data and procedure is the same level as that of traditional IMU; all the parameters can be precisely estimated with the designed 12 positions sequence.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • A Novel Bluetooth-Odometer-Aided Smartphone-Based Vehicular Navigation in
           Satellite-Denied Environments

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      Authors: Zeyang Wen;Gongliu Yang;Qingzhong Cai;Tianyu Chen;
      Pages: 3136 - 3146
      Abstract: This article investigates a novel Bluetooth odometer (BOD)-aided smartphone-based vehicular navigation system for satellite-denied environments. First, a wheel-mounted BOD is designed to measure rotational speed and send data to smartphones by Bluetooth transmission. Second, a nonlinear smartphone-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement unit (IMU)/BOD error model is derived to solve the problem of azimuth divergence. Then, a position delay time model is proposed to compensate for the delay time of Bluetooth transmission. An Android app is developed to receive the BOD data from Bluetooth transmission, and the proposed BOD smartphone-based vehicular navigation algorithm provides positioning information in real time. In field tests, positioning accuracy reaches 0.38%D by using the proposed MEMS-IMU/BOD model. The designed scheme can be used as a low-cost and convenient solution for smartphone-based civilian vehicular autonomous navigation systems without changing the habits of drivers.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Learning a Novel LiDAR Submap-Based Observation Model for Global
           Positioning in Long-Term Changing Environments

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      Authors: Dong Kong;Xu Li;Yue Hu;Qimin Xu;Aimin Wang;Weiming Hu;
      Pages: 3147 - 3157
      Abstract: In complex environments with long-term changes such as light, seasonal, and viewpoint changes, robust, accurate, and high-frequency global positioning based on light detection and ranging (LiDAR) map is still a challenge, which is crucial for autonomous vehicles or robots. To this end, a novel observation model that relies on the siamese multitask convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with multimodule cascaded is creatively presented in this article. In particular, a new pseudoimage representing LiDAR submap is designed to enrich scene texture and enhance rotation invariance. Besides, novel siamese CNNs that are coupled by NeXtVLAD and long short-term memory is designed for the first time, which can reliably predict similarity and quaternion at the same time. Finally, the predicted quaternion observation is integrated into the extended Kalman filter framework for multisensor fusion to achieve robust high-frequency global pose estimation. Extensive evaluations on KITTI, NCLT, and real-world datasets suggest that the proposed method not only obtains the remarkable precision-recall performance, but also effectively enhances and improves the robustness and accuracy of long-term positioning.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • An Efficient Method for Three-Dimensional Precise Measurement Using Laser
           Spot Traversal and Target Point Interpolation

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      Authors: Jiehu Kang;Bin Wu;Zhen Zhang;Zefeng Sun;Jiang Wang;Luyuan Feng;
      Pages: 3158 - 3166
      Abstract: Discrete point interpolation has emerged as a prime candidate technology for dual-station accurate intersection in 3-D precise measurement. However, the operation is low-efficiency for capturing multiple reference points to measure a single target point. The quantitative model of linear small angle in the interpolation is proposed by analyzing the movement trajectories of laser beam and laser spot. An efficient method for 3-D precise measurement using laser spot traversal and target point interpolation is proposed to achieve accurate intersection without multiple approximations. The laser spot traverses the field of view of the camera to establish an interpolation grid. The target point inserts the traversal grid and can be aimed by laser beam in arbitrary position. The traversal step size is determined by the determining equation of linear small angle. The approach is time-efficient for capturing all measured points in the field of view. The experimental results show that the proposed method is suitable for multiple points and surface measurement.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Development of Small-Rabbit-Scale Three-Dimensional Magnetic Particle
           Imaging System With Amplitude-Modulation-Based Reconstruction

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      Authors: Tuan-Anh Le;Minh Phu Bui;Jungwon Yoon;
      Pages: 3167 - 3177
      Abstract: Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging noninvasive molecular imaging method that can image the concentration and position of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Its applications in the biomedical field are increasing rapidly. However, the scalability of MPI is the major barrier to its clinical use at the moment. For a large bore size of MPI, it is important to achieve a high magnetic gradient for high image resolution with a large field-of-view (FOV) while allowing fast scanning and high sensitivity. In this article, we present a small-rabbit-scale three-dimensional (3-D) amplitude modulation (AM) MPI system with a bore size of 90 mm and a high magnetic gradient of up to 4 T/m/μ0. The AM MPI with a soft core can allow a large FOV and good resolution while minimizing the peripheral nerve stimulation constraint and hardware requirements. This new design guideline and optimum design parameters of 3-D AM MPI for scalability were suggested and verified by simulation and experimental studies to allow fast scanning with high resolution and high sensitivity while avoiding vibration and heating issues.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Bias Accuracy Maintenance Under Unknown Disturbances by Multiple
           Homogeneous MEMS Gyroscopes Fusion

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      Authors: Qiang Shen;Dengfeng Yang;Jiayu Li;Honglong Chang;
      Pages: 3178 - 3187
      Abstract: Bias accuracy of micromachined gyroscope is deteriorated severely when suffering from unknown environmental disturbances (UD), such as temperature, vibration, and shock. In this article, gyros array using a two-stages UD-decoupled fusion strategy is for the first time proposed to maintain high-accuracy bias under unknown disturbances. In detail, the evolvement model of the individual gyroscope among four-gyros array is first deduced to decouple UD. Then, local estimator is devised to simultaneously derive the estimates of the state, the bias, and the UD of each gyro among the array in the first stage, respectively. Further, due to the nonoptimal local state estimates caused by the inherent response difference between each gyro, the global state fusion estimator weighted by dynamic coefficients is devised to achieve the uniformly optimal state estimate of gyros array in the second stage. The experimental test shows that RMSE of the estimate based on the proposed method is evaluated as 0.13°/s, which is reduced by 92.4%, 87%, 82.4%, and 51.9% compared with kalman filter (KF), internal model approach (IMA), distributed optimal linear fusion estimator (DOLFE), and minimal learning parameter-neural network (MLP-NN), respectively. The tested scale factor of the array is calibrated as 5.9 mv/°/s and the corresponding bias stability is calculated as 0.019°/s, which is improved by 68.8%, 54.8%, 34.5%, and 17.4% compared with KF, IMA, DOLFE, and MLP-NN, respectively. Not only is bias accuracy under UD not deteriorated, on the contrary, the accuracy is improved significantly by 3.7 times compared with that without UD. The proposed array-based UD-decoupled method paves an effective path to apply m-crogyro in actual environment engineering.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Macroporous Perovskite-Structured LaFeO3 Microspheres and Their Highly
           Sensitive and Selective Sensing Properties to Alcohols Gas

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      Authors: Wenbo Qin;Zhenyu Yuan;Yanbai Shen;Fanli Meng;
      Pages: 3188 - 3198
      Abstract: Alcohols detection is essential for the health of chemical and food production personnel. Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are widely used, however, sensitive and selectivity of traditional MOS gas sensor is still a bottleneck issue. Recently, ABO3 perovskite-type MOS has attracted much attention due to its abundant and controllable physicochemical properties. In this article, macroporous perovskite-type LaFeO3 (LFO) microspheres were prepared by simple one step hydrothermal process. The gas sensing test results show that the LFO gas sensor is highly sensitive and selective to alcohols, especially methanol. For 100 ppm methanol, the response value can reach 120 at 215 °C. The excellent gas sensing properties are attributed to the macroporous characteristics (>100 nm), which facilitates the diffusion of methanol molecules inside the nanospheres, enhancing the contact between the gas molecules and the material and improving the gas sensing performance. In addition, the adsorption characteristics and electron exchange processes of eight gases on the material surface were investigated based on first principles analysis. The results show that the hydroxyl group is the main contributor to the stable adsorption of alcohols gas on the material surface. The perovskite-type LFO is a very promising sensitive material for alcohols detection.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • SCA-LFD: Side-Channel Analysis-Based Load Forecasting Disturbance in the
           Energy Internet

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      Authors: Li Ding;Jun Wu;Changlian Li;Alireza Jolfaei;Xi Zheng;
      Pages: 3199 - 3208
      Abstract: The energy Internet (EI) equipment may face threats that attackers poison federated learning (FL) models to disturb electricity load forecasting. To mitigate this vulnerability, it is important to study load forecasting disturbance approaches. This article proposes a side-channel analysis (SCA)-based disturbance approach. First, we design an FL SCA scheme to extract power information from the FL chip running forecasting model. Second, we propose an FL data speculation method using an optimized convolutional neural network trained with SCA information. Third, we design a label-flipping-based poisoning scheme with speculated data characteristics for load forecasting disturbance. Experimental results show attackers can successfully poison and disturb FL-based load forecasting. The average accuracy of EI load data speculation is 99.8%. This work is the first to study EI load forecasting disturbance from an SCA perspective.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Shoot-Through Protection for an IGCT-Based ZVS Resonant DC Transformer

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      Authors: Jakub Kucka;Drazen Dujic;
      Pages: 3209 - 3212
      Abstract: Integrated gate-commutated thyristors (IGCTs) have successfully demonstrated to be well-suited devices for an application in medium-voltage dc transformers based on LLC resonant converter topology. This appli- cation enables unusually high switching frequencies in kilohertz range thanks to the zero-voltage switching while maintaining the high conversion efficiency. Moreover, the clamp circuit that is an inseparable part of every hard-switched IGCT-based converter can be completely omitted—further lowering the converter complexity and cost. Nevertheless, without the clamp circuit, the effect of shoot through becomes fatal, considering that the IGCTs have a defined mode of failure in short circuit and the desaturation effect is practically nonexistent. To prevent the shoot through, this letter proposes a simple, yet effective, protection method based on anode-voltage measurement that can be implemented locally on the IGCT gate unit. The validity of the solution is demonstrated using a custom IGCT gate unit in a medium-voltage resonant test setup.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Analysis and Compensation of Position Estimation Error for Sensorless
           Reduced DC-Link Capacitance IPMSM Drives

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      Authors: Junya Huo;Nannan Zhao;Runfeng Gao;Guoqiang Zhang;Gaolin Wang;Dianguo Xu;
      Pages: 3213 - 3221
      Abstract: To extend the lifetime, improve the power density and reduce the system cost, the film capacitor is applied to replace the large-volume electrolytic capacitor in motor drives. As the dc-link voltage fluctuates periodically, the rotor position estimation error and operation stability are necessary to be concerned in the position sensorless control methods. A cross-decoupling complex filtering-based position estimation method is investigated for the reduced capacitance interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drive system. Harmonic components of the extended back electromotive force (EEMF) caused by the dc-link voltage fluctuation are analyzed to evaluate the additional rotor position error. A cross-decoupling complex filter realized by the multiple first-order complex filters with different center frequencies is designed to improve the position estimation precision. Harmonics of the EEMF are suppressed and the position error can be eliminated. The estimation precision and operation ability are improved. Experimental results are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Truncation Number Selection of Harmonic State-Space Model Based on the
           Floquet Characteristic Exponent

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      Authors: Jianhang Zhu;Zeren Guo;Jiabing Hu;Shicong Ma;Jianbo Guo;
      Pages: 3222 - 3228
      Abstract: Harmonic state-space (HSS) theory has been an effective method for studying system stability with time-periodic characteristics, such as modular multilevel converters (MMCs) and renewable power generation under unbalanced grid conditions. However, the original state-space formulation of the HSS model comprises infinite-dimensional matrices. Truncation is necessary before practical computing application. Therefore, this letter proposes a truncation number selection method for the HSS model. The theoretical basis of the proposed method is based on the Floquet characteristic exponent of the linear time-periodic model, which has a straightforward physical meaning. Finally, a case study of an MMC grid-tied system with tests in RT-LAB illustrates the validity of the proposed method.
      PubDate: March 2023
      Issue No: Vol. 70, No. 3 (2023)
       
 
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