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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
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IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.536
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1939-1412
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Electrotactile Perception Properties and Its Applications: A Review

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      Authors: Ziliang Zhou;Yicheng Yang;Jinbiao Liu;Jia Zeng;Xiaoxin Wang;Honghai Liu;
      Pages: 464 - 478
      Abstract: With the increased demands of human-machine interaction, haptic feedback is becoming increasingly critical. However, the high cost, large size and low efficiency of current haptic systems severely hinder further development. As a portable and efficient technology, cutaneous electrotactile stimulation has shown promising potential for these issues. This paper presents a review on and insight into cutaneous electrotactile perception and its applications. Research results on perceptual properties and evaluation methods have been summarized and discussed to understand the effects of electrotactile stimulation on humans. Electrotactile applications are presented in categories to understand the methods and progress in various fields such as prostheses control, sensory substitution, sensory restoration and sensorimotor restoration. State of the art has demonstrated the superiority of electrotactile feedback, its efficiency and its flexibility. However, the complex factors and the limitations of evaluation methods made it challenging for precise electrotactile control. Groundbreaking innovation in electrotactile theory is expected to overcome challenges such as precise perception control, information capacity increasing, comprehension burden reducing and implementation costs.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Electrotactile Feedback Applications for Hand and Arm Interactions: A
           Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Future Directions

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      Authors: Panagiotis Kourtesis;Ferran Argelaguet;Sebastian Vizcay;Maud Marchal;Claudio Pacchierotti;
      Pages: 479 - 496
      Abstract: Haptic feedback is critical in a broad range of human-machine/computer-interaction applications. However, the high cost and low portability/wearability of haptic devices remain unresolved issues, severely limiting the adoption of this otherwise promising technology. Electrotactile interfaces have the advantage of being more portable and wearable due to their reduced actuators’ size, as well as their lower power consumption and manufacturing cost. The applications of electrotactile feedback have been explored in human-computer interaction and human-machine-interaction for facilitating hand-based interactions in applications, such as prosthetics, virtual reality, robotic teleoperation, surface haptics, portable devices, and rehabilitation. This article presents a technological overview of electrotactile feedback, as well a systematic review and meta-analysis of its applications for hand-based interactions. We discuss the different electrotactile systems according to the type of application. We also discuss over a quantitative congregation of the findings, to offer a high-level overview into the state-of-art and suggest future directions. Electrotactile feedback systems showed increased portability/wearability, and they were successful in rendering and/or augmenting most tactile sensations, eliciting perceptual processes, and improving performance in many scenarios. However, knowledge gaps (e.g., embodiment), technical (e.g., recurrent calibration, electrodes’ durability) and methodological (e.g., sample size) drawbacks were detected, which should be addressed in future studies.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Visible Patches for Haptic Rendering of Point Clouds

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      Authors: Lifeng Zhu;Yichen Xiang;Aiguo Song;
      Pages: 497 - 507
      Abstract: Unsorted three dimensional (3D) points are commonly acquired from modern tools and they become popular in many virtual reality applications. In order to produce the haptic feedback to enrich the interaction with the captured models, the point clouds are usually converted to structured meshes or implicit representations. The conversion is either time-consuming or not precise, making the haptic rendering with a low fidelity especially for small haptic proxies. We propose to locally reconstruct the points to balance the performance and quality for the haptic rendering of point clouds. We introduce visible patches on the point clouds by noticing that only the points which are visible to the haptic proxy form the candidate contact region. A computational model for the visible patches is introduced and a virtual coupling model is built to update the visible patches online for haptic rendering. The cases with noises and nonuniform samples are also discussed. We demonstrate our method on a set of synthesized and captured 3D point clouds. Various experimental results are collected and show the efficiency of our method.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Preference-Driven Texture Modeling Through Interactive Generation and
           Search

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      Authors: Shihan Lu;Mianlun Zheng;Matthew C. Fontaine;Stefanos Nikolaidis;Heather Culbertson;
      Pages: 508 - 520
      Abstract: Data-driven texture modeling and rendering has pushed the limit of realism in haptics. However, the lack of haptic texture databases, difficulties of model interpolation and expansion, and the complexity of real textures prevent data-driven methods from capturing a large variety of textures and from customizing models to suit specific output hardware or user needs. This work proposes an interactive texture generation and search framework driven by user input. We design a GAN-based texture model generator, which can create a wide range of texture models using Auto-Regressive processes. Our interactive texture search method, which we call “preference-driven,” follows an evolutionary strategy given guidance from user's preferred feedback within a set of generated texture models. We implemented this framework on a 3D haptic device and conducted a two-phase user study to evaluate the efficiency and accuracy of our method for previously unmodeled textures. The results showed that by comparing the feel of real and generated virtual textures, users can follow an evolutionary process to efficiently find a virtual texture model that matched or exceeded the realism of a data-driven model. Furthermore, for 4 out of 5 real textures, $geq$80% of the preference-driven models from participants were rated comparable to the data-driven models.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Perceptual Space of Algorithms for Three-to-One Dimensional Reduction of
           Realistic Vibrations

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      Authors: Hojin Lee;Güney Işık Tombak;Gunhyuk Park;Katherine J. Kuchenbecker;
      Pages: 521 - 534
      Abstract: Haptics researchers often endeavor to deliver realistic vibrotactile feedback through broad-bandwidth actuators; however, these actuators typically generate only single-axis vibrations, not 3D vibrations like those that occur in natural tool-mediated interactions. Several three-to-one (321) dimensional reduction algorithms have thus been developed to combine 3D vibrations into 1D vibrations. Surprisingly, the perceptual quality of 321-converted vibrations has never been comprehensively compared to rendering of the original 3D signals. In this study, we develop a multi-dimensional vibration rendering system using a magnetic levitation haptic interface. We verify the system's ability to generate realistic 3D vibrations recorded in both tapping and dragging interactions with four surfaces. We then conduct a study with 15 participants to measure the perceived dissimilarities between five 321 algorithms (SAZ, SUM, VM, DFT, PCA) and the original recordings. The resulting perceptual space is investigated with multiple regression and Procrustes analysis to unveil the relationship between the physical and perceptual properties of 321-converted vibrations. Surprisingly, we found that participants perceptually discriminated the original 3D vibrations from all tested 1D versions. Overall, our results indicate that spectral, temporal, and directional attributes may all contribute to the perceived similarities of vibration signals.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Implementation of Tension-Based Compact Necklace-Type Haptic Device
           Achieving Widespread Transmission of Low-Frequency Vibrations

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      Authors: Yusuke Yamazaki;Hironori Mitake;Shoichi Hasegawa;
      Pages: 535 - 546
      Abstract: The haptic sensation of low-frequency vibration plays a vital role in the music listening experience, but it can be enjoyed only in certain facilities and environments. Many haptic devices have been proposed to convey music audio-induced vibration for various situations. Such devices require powerful, low-frequency vibration output and transmission over a wide area. Making such devices small and user-friendly is difficult, hindering their popularity. To promote haptic devices for music listening, this paper describes a method for developing a practical device using motors and a thread and evaluates this method's effectiveness. The proposed necklace-type device is small (about 55$mathbf ;{times }$ 58 $mathbf {times }$ 15 mm), lightweight (58.5 g), and easy to wear, making it suitable for use during everyday travel. In addition, it can transmit low-frequency (20 Hz) vibrations, whose amplitude exceeds airborne vibration in a nightclub, to a wide area across the chest and neck, with a total power consumption of approximately 2 W. Our proposed method will contribute to the development of practical and high-performance haptic devices for music listening.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Data-Driven Rendering of Motion Effects for Walking Sensations in
           Different Gaits

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      Authors: Hyoseung Lee;Seungjae Oh;Seungmoon Choi;
      Pages: 547 - 559
      Abstract: Motion effects are a vital component in 4D interactive applications, where special physical effects, such as motion, vibration, and wind, are provided with audiovisual stimuli. In 4D films and VR games, the scenes that show human locomotion appear frequently, and motion effects emphasizing such movements can enhance the viewers’ immersive experiences. This paper proposes a data-driven framework for automatic generation of the motion effects that provide users with walking sensations. Measurements are made using the motion sensors attached to the human body during locomotion in different gaits, e.g., walking, running, and stumping. The captured data are processed and converted to multiple degree-of-freedom commands to a motion platform. We demonstrate that the data-driven motion commands can be represented in a greatly lower-dimensional space by principal component analysis. This finding leads to an algorithm for the synthesis of new motion commands that can elicit the target gait's walking sensations. The perceptual performance of our method is validated by two user studies. This work contributes to investigating the feasibility of mimicking walking sensations using a motion platform based on human locomotion data and developing an automatic generation algorithm of motion effects conveying the impressions of different gaits.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Study on Intention Recognition and Sensory Feedback: Control of Robotic
           Prosthetic Hand Through EMG Classification and Proprioceptive Feedback
           Using Rule-based Haptic Device

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      Authors: Hyeongdo Cha;Sion An;Seoyoung Choi;Seungun Yang;SangHyun Park;Sukho Park;
      Pages: 560 - 571
      Abstract: In this study, for intention recognition, a convolutional neural network (CNN) classification model using the electromyography (EMG) signals acquired from the subject was developed. For sensory feedback, a rule-based wearable proprioceptive feedback haptic device, a new method for providing feedback on the grip information of a robotic prosthesis was proposed. Then, we constructed a closed-loop integrated system consisting of the CNN-based EMG classification model, the proposed haptic device, and a robotic prosthetic hand. Finally, an experiment was conducted in which the closed-loop integrated system was used to simultaneously evaluate the performance of the intention recognition and sensory feedback for a subject. The trained EMG classification model and the proposed haptic device showed the intention recognition and sensory feedback performance with 97% or higher accuracy in 10 grip states. Although some errors occurred in the intention recognition using the EMG classification model, in general, the grip intention of the subject was grasped relatively accurately, and the grip pattern was also accurately transmitted to the subject by the proposed haptic device. The integrated system which consists of the intention recognition using the CNN-based EMG classification model and the sensory feedback using the proposed haptic device is expected to be utilized for robotic prosthetic hand prosthesis control of limb loss participants.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Chattering-Free Time Domain Passivity Approach

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      Authors: Hyeonseok Choi;Ribin Balachandran;Jee-Hwan Ryu;
      Pages: 572 - 581
      Abstract: The time-domain passivity approach (TDPA) has gained considerable attention (even beyond the fields of haptics and teleoperation) because it can ensure passivity while maintaining high system performance. Despite its simplicity and effectiveness, the practical applications of this method are limited by its high-frequency force modification, so-called chattering. Virtual mass-spring (VMS) filters have been proposed to overcome this limitation. However, such approaches also suffer from certain limitations attributable to the distorted forces. Herein, we propose a method to mitigate the chattering of the TDPA, while also retaining its merits. We introduce a non-zero velocity threshold, within which the adaptive damping of the TDPA is scaled down, to attenuate the chattering while maintaining a stable response significantly. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are evaluated using a time-delayed bilateral teleoperation system. We confirm that the proposed method can significantly outperform the conventional and VMS filter-based TDPAs.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Refreshable Braille Display With Adjustable Cell Size for Learners With
           Different Tactile Sensitivity

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      Authors: Md Mahmud Hasan Saikot;Kazi Ragib Ishraq Sanim;
      Pages: 582 - 591
      Abstract: Braille is one of the most popular mediums of education for the blind. However, learning braille requires trainers and a lot of practice. Additionally, different individuals have different levels of tactile sensitivity at their fingertips. The tactile components get often overlooked in most braille learning devices and related studies. Our solution is a single cell refreshable braille display with six custom-made electromechanical flapper actuators. It incorporates speech functionalities to facilitate self-learning and independent operation. The cell size can be adjusted according to the learner's preference by moving the actuators. The device can provide standard braille cell dimensions and elevation as well. It is designed to help learners with different tactile perceptions improve themselves through practice and adapt to standard size braille. The operational conditions and force analysis of the braille dots were performed. Two tests were also performed with two different cell sizes to evaluate the device with several blind students. The device is very affordable and easy to maintain. It can also be used to teach braille to the sighted.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Intensity-Adjustable Non-Contact Cold Sensation Presentation Based on the
           Vortex Effect

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      Authors: Jiayi Xu;Shunsuke Yoshimoto;Naoto Ienaga;Yoshihiro Kuroda;
      Pages: 592 - 602
      Abstract: Cold sensations of varying intensities are perceived when human skin is subject to diverse environments. The accurate presentation of temperature changes is important to elicit immersive sensations in applications such as virtual reality. In this article, we developed a method to elicit intensity-adjustable non-contact cold sensations based on the vortex effect. We applied this effect to generate cold air at approximately 0 $^circ$C and varied the skin temperature over a wide range. The perception of different temperatures can be elicited by adjusting the volume flow rate of the cold air. Additionally, we introduced a cooling model to relate the changes in skin temperature to various parameters such as the cold air volume flow rate and distance from the cold air outlet to the skin. For validation, we conducted measurement experiments and found that our model can estimate the change in skin temperature with a root mean-square error of 0.16 $^circ$C. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of a prototype in psychophysical cold discrimination experiments based on the discrimination threshold. Thus, cold sensations of varying intensities can be generated by varying the parameters. These cold sensations can be combined with images, sounds, and other stimuli to create an immersive and realistic artificial environment.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Modeling Haptic Interactions in Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD)

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      Authors: Melih Turkseven;Suvranu De;Cullen D. Jackson;Mandeep S. Sawhney;
      Pages: 603 - 612
      Abstract: The ability to provide realistic haptic feedback is indispensable for virtual-reality (VR) based endoscopic colorectal surgery simulators. Despite its importance, force feedback is commonly simulated by simplified approximations with parameters manually tuned in preliminary evaluations due to the complexity of the dynamics of haptic interaction in colonoscopy interventions. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a particularly challenging intervention that requires advanced manual skills for endoscopic control. This work proposes a mechanical impedance model for haptic interactions in ESD formulated via an experimental methodology applied to endoscopic colorectal interventions in general. The developed model is shown to capture the variations in the interaction force during two operations performed at distinct locations on a porcine sample. Salient cues in the recorded haptic interaction data are presented, and changes in the impedance characteristics of the tool-tissue interaction between the steps of the operation are analyzed.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Configuration-Based Optimization for Virtual Hand Haptic Simulation

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      Authors: Qianqian Tong;Qiong Wang;Yingkui Zhang;Xiangyun Liao;Wenxuan Wei;Yuru Zhang;Jing Xiao;Dangxiao Wang;
      Pages: 613 - 625
      Abstract: Interacting with virtual objects via haptic feedback using the user's hand directly (virtual hand haptic interaction) provides a natural and immersive way to explore the virtual world. It remains a challenging topic to achieve 1 kHz stable virtual hand haptic simulation with no penetration amid hundreds of hand-object contacts. In this paper, we advocate decoupling the high-dimensional optimization problem of computing the graphic-hand configuration, and progressively optimizing the configuration of the graphic palm and fingers, yielding a decoupled-and-progressive optimization framework. We also introduce a method for accurate and efficient hand-object contact simulation, which constructs a virtual hand consisting of a sphere-tree model and five articulated cone frustums, and adopts a configuration-based optimization algorithm to compute the graphic-hand configuration under nonpenetration contact constraints. Experimental results show both high update rate and stability for a variety of manipulation behaviors. Nonpenetration between the graphic hand and complex-shaped objects can be maintained under diverse contact distributions, and even for frequent contact switches. The update rate of the haptic simulation loop exceeds 1 kHz for the whole-hand interaction with about 250 contacts.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Motion Effects: Perceptual Space and Synthesis for Specific Perceptual
           Properties

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      Authors: Sangyoon Han;Jiwan Lee;Gyeore Yun;Sung H. Han;Seungmoon Choi;
      Pages: 626 - 637
      Abstract: A motion effect, the vestibular stimulus generated by a moving chair, is crucial in improving user experiences in many virtual reality (VR) and entertainment applications. However, the perceptual characteristics of motion effects remain unexplored to a great extent. This paper constructs a perceptual space that accounts for many motion effects based on their perceptual distances and then demonstrates smooth–rough and irregular–regular as its two primary perceptual dimensions. An authoring space is constructed with these two pairs as the axes. We also present methods for synthesizing new motion effects with a specific property in the authoring space. The contributions of this work are with new insights into the perceptual characteristics of motion effects and the first design methods of motion effects achieving desired perceptual properties.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • The Effect of Temperature on Tactile Softness Perception

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      Authors: Zheng Yee Tan;Cameron Mavericks Choo;Youneng Lin;Hsin-Ni Ho;Ryo Kitada;
      Pages: 638 - 645
      Abstract: We are adept at discriminating object properties such as softness and temperature using touch. Previous studies have investigated the nature of each object property, but the interactions between these properties are not fully understood. Tactile softness perception relies on multiple sensory cues such as the size of the contact area, indentation depth, and force exerted. In addition to these cues, the temperature of the stimulus may contribute to tactile softness perception by changing the sensitivity to changes in stimulus compliance. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two psychophysical experiments in which the subjects estimated the magnitude of perceived softness after touching deformable objects. We varied the compliance and temperature of the stimuli. The linear functions of compliance fit to the magnitude estimates under cold conditions (9–15°C) were steeper than the functions fit to the magnitude estimates under room temperature (21–25°C). These results indicate that temperature can sharpen our tactile softness perception of deformable surfaces by increasing the sensitivity to differences in compliance.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Multiple Spatial Spectral Components of Static Skin Deformation for
           Predicting Macroscopic Roughness Perception

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      Authors: Qingyu Sun;Shogo Okamoto;Yasuhiro Akiyama;Yoji Yamada;
      Pages: 646 - 654
      Abstract: A previous study suggested a relationship between the spatial spectrum of finger pad skin deformation and perception of macroscopic roughness features. This study tested a new hypothesis that macroscopic roughness perception is the result of a weighted linear combination of multiple spatial spectral components of skin deformation. Experiments were conducted by capturing close-up images of finger pad deformation while the pads were pushed onto specimens with macroscopic features. Additionally, the roughness perceptions of these specimens were collected using a magnitude estimation method. The combination of spectral components predicted the roughness perception more accurately than any single spectral component. This suggests that roughness perception is mediated by multiple Gabor filter-like neural systems with different spatial periods, such as visual perception.
      PubDate: July-Sept. 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 3 (2022)
       
 
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