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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted alphabetically
ACS Applied Electronic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 122)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Automatika : Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications     Open Access  
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Open Access  
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235)
e-Prime : Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 125)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 125)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 114)
Electronics Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Elektronika ir Elektortechnika     Open Access  
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Emitor : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 112)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access  
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 90)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
IET Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Advanced Electronics and Communication Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Machine Learning with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
npj Flexible Electronics     Open Access  
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sensors International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Superconductivity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access  
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.536
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1939-1412
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • Editorial

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Domenico Prattichizzo;
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: In this issue, we feature papers of a special issue that is part of a successful joint initiative between IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON HAPTICS and IEEE conferences in the field of haptics. This year interested authors submitted their conference papers to the journal for consideration for publication in the TOH special issue and, if accepted, for presentation at the 2022 Haptics Symposium. Of the 44 articles submitted to the journal, 20 were accepted for publication in the special issue and presentation at the conference. These papers went through the regular review process for the journal. Those papers not accepted for publication on TOH were forwarded to the Editorial Committee of the 2022 Haptics Symposium Conference which decided to accept 9 papers to be presented at the conference and published in the conference proceedings. To manage the review process of the joint initiative, 15 Guest Editors agreed to join the Editorial Board to help with the workload.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Grip Force is Adjusted at a Level That Maintains an Upper Bound on Partial
           Slip Across Friction Conditions During Object Manipulation

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Félicien Schiltz;Benoit P. Delhaye;Jean-Louis Thonnard;Philippe Lefèvre;
      Pages: 2 - 7
      Abstract: Dexterous manipulation of objects heavily relies on the feedback provided by the tactile afferents innervating the fingertips. Previous studies have suggested that humans might take advantage of partial slip, localized loss of grip between the skin and the object, to gauge the stability of a contact and react appropriately when it is compromised, that is, when slippage is about to happen. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants to perform point-to-point movements using a manipulandum. Through optical imaging, the device monitored partial slip at the contact interface, and at the same time, the forces exerted by the fingers. The level of friction of the contact material was changed every five trials. We found that the level of grip force was systematically adjusted to the level of friction, and thus partial slip was limited to an amount similar across friction conditions. We suggest that partial slip is a key signal for dexterous manipulation and that the grip force is regulated to continuously maintain an upper bound on partial slip across friction conditions.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Mechanisms of Friction Reduction in Longitudinal Ultrasonic Surface Haptic
           Devices With Non-Collinear Vibrations and Finger Displacement

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Diana Angelica Torres;Eric Vezzoli;Betty Lemaire-Semail;Michael Adams;Christophe Giraud-Audine;Frederic Giraud;Michel Amberg;
      Pages: 8 - 13
      Abstract: Friction reduction using ultrasonic longitudinal surface vibration can modify the user perception of the touched surface and induce the perception of textured materials. In the current paper, the mechanisms of friction reduction using longitudinal vibration are analyzed at different finger exploration velocities and directions over a plate. The development of a non-Coulombic adhesion theory based on experimental results is evaluated as a possible explanation for friction reduction with vibrations that are non-collinear with the finger displacement. Comparison with experimental data shows that the model adequately describes the reduction in friction, although it is less accurate for low finger velocities and depends on motion direction.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Relationship Between Tactile Intensity Perception and Afferent Spike
           Count is Moderated by a Function of Frequency

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kevin K. W. Ng;Xuan Tee;Richard M. Vickery;Ingvars Birznieks;
      Pages: 14 - 19
      Abstract: It has been suggested that tactile intensity perception can be explained by a linear function of spike rate weighted by afferent type. Other than relying on mathematical models, verifying this experimentally is difficult due to the frequency tuning of different afferent types and changes in population recruitment patterns with vibrotactile frequency. To overcome these complexities, we used pulsatile mechanical stimuli which activate the same afferent population regardless of the repetition rate (frequency), generating one action potential per pulse. We used trains of different frequencies (20–200 Hz) to investigate perceived intensity. Subjects’ magnitude ratings increased with pulse rate up to ∼100 Hz and plateaued beyond this frequency. This was true regardless of pulse amplitude, from small pulses that exclusively activated Pacinian (PC) afferents, to pulses large enough to activate other afferents including slowly adapting. Electrical stimulation, which activates afferents indiscriminately, plateaued at a similar frequency, although not in all subjects. As the plateauing did not depend on indentation magnitude and hence on afferent weights, we propose that the contribution of spike count to intensity perception is weighted by a function of frequency. This may explain why fine textures evoking high frequency vibrations of a small magnitude do not feel disproportionally intense.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Submillimeter Lateral Displacement Enables Friction Sensing and Awareness
           of Surface Slipperiness

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      Authors: Naqash Afzal;Emma Stubbs;Heba Khamis;Alastair J. Loutit;Stephen J. Redmond;Richard M. Vickery;Michaël Wiertlewski;Ingvars Birznieks;
      Pages: 20 - 25
      Abstract: Human tactile perception and motor control rely on the frictional estimates that stem from the deformation of the skin and slip events. However, it is not clear how exactly these mechanical events relate to the perception of friction. This study aims to quantify how minor lateral displacement and speed enables subjects to feel frictional differences. In a 2-alternative forced-choice protocol, an ultrasonic friction-reduction device was brought in contact perpendicular to the skin surface of an immobilized index finger; after reaching 1N normal force, the plate was moved laterally. A combination of four displacement magnitudes (0.2, 0.5, 1.2 and 2 mm), two levels of friction (high, low) and three displacement speeds (1, 5 and 10 mm/s) were tested. We found that the perception of frictional difference was enabled by submillimeter range lateral displacement. Friction discrimination thresholds were reached with lateral displacements ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mm and surprisingly speed had only a marginal effect. These results demonstrate that partial slips are sufficient to cause awareness of surface slipperiness. These quantitative data are crucial for designing haptic devices that render slipperiness. The results also show the importance of subtle lateral finger movements present during dexterous manipulation tasks.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Using Digital Image Correlation to Quantify Skin Deformation With Von Frey
           Monofilaments

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Anika R. Kao;Chang Xu;Gregory J. Gerling;
      Pages: 26 - 31
      Abstract: Thin von Frey monofilaments are a clinical tool used worldwide to assess touch deficits. One's ability to perceive touch with low-force monofilaments (0.008 – 0.07 g) establishes an absolute threshold and thereby the extent of impairment. While individual monofilaments bend at defined forces, there are no empirical measurements of the skin surface's response. In this work, we measure skin surface deformation at light-touch perceptual limits, by adopting an imaging approach using 3D digital image correlation (DIC). Generating point cloud data from three cameras surveilling the index finger pad, we reassemble and stitch together multiple 3D surfaces. Then, in response to each monofilament's indentation over time, we quantify strain across the skin surface, radial deformation emanating from the contact point, penetration depth into the surface, and area between 2D cross-sections. The results show that the monofilaments create distinct states of skin deformation, which align closely with just noticeable percepts at absolute detection and discrimination thresholds, even amidst variance between individuals and trials. In particular, the resolution of the DIC imaging approach captures sufficient differences in skin deformation at threshold, offering promise in understanding the skin's role in perception.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Surfaces With Finger-Sized Concave Feel Softer

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Koki Inoue;Shogo Okamoto;Yasuhiro Akiyama;Yoji Yamada;
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: The judgment of elastic softness is determined not only by mechanical parameters related to hardness, such as the elastic modulus and stiffness, but also by macroscopic surface features. This study experimentally demonstrates that objects with a finger-sized concave with a depth of 1–3 mm feel softer than flat surfaces made of the same materials when they are pushed by a finger. In Experiment 1, participants judged the surfaces of a rigid material with thumb-sized concaves to be softer than the flat and convex surfaces. Experiment 2 used rubbers of various elastic moduli, and the softness of a concave object with a Young's modulus of 0.55 MPa was subjectively equal to that of a flat object with an average Young's modulus of 0.23 MPa. Furthermore, the softness of a convex object was subjectively equal to that of a 1.68 MPa flat object. The contact phenomena between a finger pad and concave or convex objects are different from those between a finger pad and flat objects, and they influence the softness judgment. Such phenomena include the relationship between the pressing force and contact area. These results provide insights into surface design and improve comprehension of the perceptual principles of softness.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Evaluation of Vibrotactile Output From a Rotating Motor Actuator

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ravali Gourishetti;Katherine J. Kuchenbecker;
      Pages: 39 - 44
      Abstract: Specialized vibrotactile actuators are widely used to output haptic sensations due to their portability and robustness; some models are expensive and capable, while others are economical but weaker and less expressive. To increase the accessibility of high-quality haptics, we designed a cost-effective actuation approach called the rotating motor actuator (RMA): it uses a small DC motor to generate vibrotactile cues on a rigid stylus. We conducted a psychophysical experiment where eighteen volunteers matched the RMA's vibration amplitudes with those from a high-quality reference actuator (Haptuator Mark II) at twelve frequencies from 50 Hz to 450 Hz. The average error in matching acceleration magnitudes was 10.2%. More current was required for the RMA than the reference actuator; a stronger DC motor would require less current. Participants also watched a video of a real tool-mediated interaction with playback of recorded vibrotactile cues from each actuator. 94.4% of the participants agreed that the RMA delivered realistic vibrations and audio cues during this replay. 83.3% reported that the RMA vibrations were pleasant, compared to 66.7% for the reference. A possible cause for this significant difference may be that the reference actuator (which has a mechanical resonance) distorts low-frequency vibrations more than the RMA does.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Optimization-Driven Design of a Kinesthetic Haptic Interface With
           Human-Like Capabilities

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Michael Fennel;Antonio Zea;Uwe D. Hanebeck;
      Pages: 45 - 50
      Abstract: Developing manipulators for kinesthetic haptic interfaces is challenging due to a large number of design parameters. We propose a novel optimization-driven design approach taking into account the properties of the entire workspace of the human arm instead of a specific task. To achieve this, models of both the human arm and the haptic manipulator are derived and deployed in a suitable objective function, which simultaneously considers poses, velocities, accelerations, as well as displayed forces and torques. A detailed analysis and experiments with real-world motion tracking data show that the proposed method is capable of finding meaningful design parameters to enable good haptic transparency.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Passivity of Series Elastic Actuation Under Model Reference Force Control
           During Null Impedance Rendering

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Celal Umut Kenanoglu;Volkan Patoglu;
      Pages: 51 - 56
      Abstract: Series elastic actuation (SEA) is an interaction control paradigm that relies on a compliant force sensing element and utilizes the model of this compliant dynamics in closed-loop force control. We present sufficient conditions for passivity of SEA under model reference force control (MRFC) during null impedance rendering. We prove that overestimation of robot inertia and underestimation of the stiffness of the series elastic element can ensure coupled stability of interaction for SEA under MRFC during null impedance rendering, as long as a lower limit on damping compensation is not violated. We experimentally verify the passivity bounds and demonstrate the null impedance rendering performance of MRFC.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Low-Parameter Rendering Algorithm for Fine Textures

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: David Arthur Burns;Roberta L. Klatzky;Michael A. Peshkin;J. Edward Colgate;
      Pages: 57 - 61
      Abstract: This paper introduces a novel rendering algorithm for virtual textures, specifically those with characteristic length scales below 1 mm. By leveraging the relatively lossy mode of human tactile perception at this length scale, a virtual texture with wide-band spectral characteristics can be reduced to a spatial sequence of single-frequency texels, where each frequency is pulled stochastically from a distribution. A psychophysical study was conducted to demonstrate that, below a limiting physical texel length, virtual textures defined by identical frequency distributions are perceptually indiscriminable. Additionally, an exploratory study mapped the distribution parameters of the texel-based rendering to spectral characteristics of perceptually similar multi-frequency virtual textures.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Data-Driven Haptic Texture Modeling and Rendering Based on Deep
           Spatio-Temporal Networks

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Joolekha Bibi Joolee;Seokhee Jeon;
      Pages: 62 - 67
      Abstract: Data-driven approaches are commonly used to model and render haptic textures for rigid stylus-based interaction. Current state-of-the-art data-driven methodologies synthesize acceleration signals through the interpolation of samples with different input parameters based on neural networks or parametric spectral estimation methods. In this paper, we see the potential of emerging deep learning methods in this area. To this end, we designed a complete end-to-end data-driven framework to synthesize acceleration profiles based on the proposed deep spatio-temporal network. The network is trained using contact acceleration data collected through our manual scanning stylus and interaction parameters, i.e., scanning velocities, directions, and forces. The proposed network is composed of attention-aware 1D CNNs and attention-aware encoder-decoder networks to adequately capture both the local spatial features and the temporal dynamics of the acceleration signals, which are further augmented with attention mechanisms that assign weights to the features according to their contributions. For rendering, the trained network generates synthesized signals in real-time in accordance with the user's input parameters. The whole framework was numerically compared with existing state-of-the-art approaches, showing the effectiveness of the approach. Additionally, a pilot user study is conducted to demonstrate subjective similarity.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Tactile Texture Rendering for Electrostatic Friction Displays:
           Incorporation of Low-Frequency Friction Model and High-Frequency Textural
           Model

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Kazuya Otake;Shogo Okamoto;Yasuhiro Akiyama;Yoji Yamada;
      Pages: 68 - 73
      Abstract: Tactile texture presentation on touch panels enhances their usability and realizes immersive user interfaces. This study develops a tactile texture rendering method for electrostatic friction displays. The method combines two rendering models for material textures compared with previous studies which focused on either of these two models. One of these models is a physical model that simulates low-frequency frictional signals depending on the exploratory finger velocities and contact loads. The other is an autoregression-based data-driven model for high-frequency textural friction. For user studies, we compared combining the two models with using only the physical model for the four types of materials. Although the effectiveness varied across the materials, the subjectively judged realism and identification of the materials were improved for the combined condition. The new method combining high-frequency textural information and low-frequency physical model-based friction is expected to provide realistic tactile textures for electrostatic surface tactile displays.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Comparison of Vibrotactile Feedback and Electrical Muscle Stimulation
           (EMS) for Motor Response During Active Hand Movement

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      Authors: Georgios Korres;Wanjoo Park;Mohamad Eid;
      Pages: 74 - 78
      Abstract: Wearable haptic technologies have garnered recent widespread attention due to increased accessibility, functionality, and affordability. These systems typically provide haptic feedback to augment the human ability to interact with their environment. This study compares two haptic feedback modalities, vibrotactile and EMS, against visual feedback to elicit a motor response during active hand movement. Forty-five participants, divided into three groups, performed a task to touch their face and received one of three possible sensory feedback cues, namely visual, vibrotactile, and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), to interrupt their movement and avoid touching their face. Two quantitative performance measures are used in the comparison, the response time (time elapsed from stimulation to motor response) and the error rate (percentage that the user fails to avoid touching their face). Results showed that vibrotactile and EMS feedback yielded significantly faster response time than visual feedback, while no significant differences between vibrotactile and EMS were observed. Furthermore, the error rate was significantly lower for EMS compared to visual feedback, whereas no significant differences were observed between vibrotactile and visual feedback. In conclusion, it seems that EMS feedback is preferable for applications where errors are not tolerable (critical medical applications), whereas vibrotactile is superior for non-critical applications due to its low cost and higher usability (more pleasant compared to EMS).
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • In-Device Feedback in Immersive Head-Mounted Displays for Distance
           Perception During Teleoperation of Unmanned Ground Vehicles

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      Authors: Yiming Luo;Jialin Wang;Rongkai Shi;Hai-Ning Liang;Shan Luo;
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: In recent years, Virtual Reality (VR) Head-Mounted Displays (HMD) have been used to provide an immersive, first-person view in real-time for the remote-control of Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV). One critical issue is that it is challenging to perceive the distance of obstacles surrounding the vehicle from 2D views in the HMD, which deteriorates the control of UGV. Conventional distance indicators used in HMD take up screen space which leads clutter on the display and can further reduce situation awareness of the physical environment. To address the issue, in this paper we propose off-screen in-device feedback using vibro-tactile and/or light-visual cues to provide real-time distance information for the remote control of UGV. Results from a study show a significantly better performance with either feedback type, reduced workload and improved usability in a driving task that requires continuous perception of the distance between the UGV and its environmental objects or obstacles. Our findings show a solid case for in-device vibro-tactile and/or light-visual feedback to support remote operation of UGVs that highly relies on distance perception of objects.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Lightweight Accessible Wearable Robotic Interface for Bimanual Haptic
           Manipulations

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      Authors: Yiting Mo;Aiguo Song;Huanhuan Qin;
      Pages: 85 - 90
      Abstract: Wearable devices with bimanual force feedback enable natural and cooperative manipulations within an unrestricted space. Weight and cost have a great influence on the potential applications of a haptic device. This paper presents a wearable robotic interface with bimanual force feedback that has considerably reduced weight and cost. To make the reaction force less perceivable than the interaction force, a waist-worn scheme is adopted. The interface mainly consists of a belt, a fastening tape, two serial robotic arms, and two electronics units and batteries. The robotic arms located on both sides of the belt are capable of 3-DoF position tracking and force feedback for each hand. The whole interface is lightweight (only 2.4 kg) and accessible. Furthermore, it is also easy to wear and the operator can wear it only by putting the belt on the waist and fastening the tape, reducing his/her dependency on additional assistance. The interface is optimized to obtain desirable force output and a dexterous workspace without singularity. To evaluate its performance in bimanual cooperative manipulations, an experiment in the virtual environment was conducted. The experimental results showed the subjects had more efficient and stable cooperative manipulations with bimanual force feedback than without force feedback.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Wearable Haptic Device Presenting Sensations of Fingertips to the Forearm

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      Authors: Taha Moriyama;Hiroyuki Kajimoto;
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Several existing haptic displays used in virtual reality (VR) environments present haptic sensations generated by the fingertips in the VR to actual fingertips. However, these devices face certain challenges, such as physical interference between the devices, particularly when multi-degree-of-freedom (DOF) force needs to be presented to multiple fingers. To address this issue, we propose a haptic presentation method that transmits haptic sensations generated by the fingertips in the VR, including the direction of the force, to the forearm. We previously proposed a method to present both magnitude and direction of the force applied to the index finger using a five-bar linkage mechanism, which transmits the force sensation with two DOF to the forearm. In this study, the forces in the downward and left-right directions were obtained from the kinematics of a five-bar linkage mechanism for accurate force presentation. Additionally, we conducted a user study evaluating user grasping an object in the VR and performing task. The results verified the haptic sensation of the force transmitted by the proposed prototype to the user's forearm provides a sufficient comfort level. Furthermore, the task execution time and comfort level were comparable to those of a vibrotactile presentation presented directly to the fingertips.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Subtle Contact Nuances in the Delivery of Human-to-Human Touch Distinguish
           Emotional Sentiment

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      Authors: Shan Xu;Chang Xu;Sarah McIntyre;Håkan Olausson;Gregory J. Gerling;
      Pages: 97 - 102
      Abstract: We routinely communicate distinct social and emotional sentiments through nuanced touch. For example, we might gently hold another's arm to offer a sense of calm, yet intensively hold another's arm to express excitement or anxiety. As this example indicates, distinct sentiments may be shaped by the subtlety in one's touch delivery. This work investigates how slight distinctions in skin-to-skin contact influence both the recognition of cued emotional messages (e.g., anger, sympathy) and the rating of emotional content (i.e., arousal, valence). By self-selecting preferred gestures (e.g., holding, stroking), touchers convey distinct messages by touching the receiver's forearm. Skin-to-skin contact attributes (e.g., velocity, depth, area) are optically tracked in high resolution. Contact is then examined within gesture, between messages. The results indicate touchers subtly, but significantly, vary contact attributes of a gesture to communicate distinct messages, which are recognizable by receivers. This tuning also correlates with receivers’ arousal and valence. For instance, arousal increases with velocity for stroking, and depth for holding. Moreover, as shown here with human-to-human touch, valence is tied with velocity, which is the same trend as reported with brushes. The findings indicate that subtle nuance in skin-to-skin contact is important in conveying social messages and inducing emotions.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Visualisation Driven Training for Vibrotactile Skin Reading

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      Authors: Granit Luzhnica;Eduardo Veas;
      Pages: 103 - 108
      Abstract: Vibrotactile skin-reading effectively conveys rich information via vibrotactile patterns, which has gained attention due to recent advancements. However, training to recognize and associate vibrotactile patterns with their meaning is time-consuming and tedious. The conventional training methods use repetitive exposure of the vibrotactile stimuli along with visual and auditory cues of the corresponding symbol. This work proposes a novel visual-based training method to teach users the associations between semantic information and vibrotactile patterns. Our proposed visual explanation training is compared with the conventional training method in a study with 18 participants. Results show that participants achieve a better performance using the new visual explanation training when identifying single English alphabet characters. Moreover, the proposed training also incurred a significantly lower workload (NASA TLX) and was preferred by study participants. The proposed method is thus effective and offers a less stressful form of training users for skin reading.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Handheld Gyroscopic Device for Haptics and Hand Rehabilitation

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      Authors: Namita Anil Kumar;Pilwon Hur;
      Pages: 109 - 114
      Abstract: We propose a novel, gyroscopic device for haptics and hand rehabilitation, named Gymball. It consists of a fully actuated rotor-gimbal assembly encased in an easy-to-grip appealing design. When held, the device generates a gyroscopic torque which causes the user's hand to move about the wrist. Interviews with occupational therapists, simulations, and proof-of-concept models helped determine the design specifications of Gymball. Compared to the existing gyroscopic devices, Gymball has the following advantages. (i) A smaller form-factor with better user appeal while achieving 0.5 Nm torque. (ii) A wire entanglement-free design allowing complete rotations of the rotor-gimbal assembly. (iii) Negligible rotary imbalances owing to a symmetrical design, resulting in haptic signals with minimal vibratory noise. In this paper, we detail the design and analysis of the device. A feasibility study was conducted to validate prospect of using the device for haptic feedback or therapy. Specifically, the study focused on (i) whether the gyroscopic torque generated by the device can passively move the user's hand about the wrist and (ii) whether the produced hand motion can be controlled. The results show that Gymball can successfully generate about $7^{circ }$ of hand oscillations. The amplitude and frequency of the hand oscillations can be controlled using the speed of rotor and gimbal.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Multi-Cue Haptic Guidance Through Wearables for Enhancing Human Ergonomics

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      Authors: Simone Fani;Simone Ciotti;Matteo Bianchi;
      Pages: 115 - 120
      Abstract: Wearable haptic systems can be easily integrated with the human body and represent an effective solution for a natural and unobtrusive stimulus delivery. These characteristics can open interesting perspectives for different applications, such as haptic guidance for human ergonomics enhancement, e.g. during human-robot collaborative tasks in industrial scenarios, where the usage of the visual communication channel can be problematic. In this work, we propose a wearable multi-cue system that can be worn at the arm level on both the two upper limbs, which conveys both squeezing stimuli (provided by an armband haptic device) and vibration, to provide corrective feedback for posture balancing along the user's frontal and sagittal plane, respectively. We evaluated the effectiveness of our system in delivering directional information to control the user's center of pressure position on a balancing board. We compared the here proposed haptic guidance with visual guidance cues. Results show no statistically significant differences in terms of success rate and time for task completion for the two conditions. Furthermore, participants underwent through a Subjective Quantitative Evaluation and a NASA-TLX test, evaluating the wearable haptic system as intuitive and effective.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • HapWheel: In-Car Infotainment System Feedback Using Haptic and Hovering
           Techniques

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      Authors: Filipe Quintal;Marco Lima;
      Pages: 121 - 130
      Abstract: In-car devices are growing both in complexity and capacity, integrating functionalities that used to be divided among other controls in the vehicles. These systems appear increasingly in the form of touchscreens as a cost-saving measure. Screens lack the physicality of traditional buttons or switches, requiring drivers to look away from the road to operate them. This paper presents the design, implementation, and two studies that evaluated HapWheel, a system that provides the driver with haptic feedback in the steering wheel while interacting with an Infotainment System. Results show that the proposed system reduced both the duration of and the number of times a driver looked away from the road. HapWheel was also successful at reducing the number of mistakes during the interaction.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Haptigami: A Fingertip Haptic Interface With Vibrotactile and 3-DoF
           Cutaneous Force Feedback

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      Authors: Frederic H. Giraud;Sagar Joshi;Jamie Paik;
      Pages: 131 - 141
      Abstract: Wearable fingertip haptic devices aim todeliver somatosensory feedback for applications such as virtual reality, rehabilitation, and enhancing hardware/physical control interfaces. However, providing various kinds of feedback requires several Degrees of Freedom (DoF) and high mechanical complexity which are mechanically difficult to achieve at the mesoscale. Using compliant low-profile transmissions embedded in an origami structure and PCBmotors as actuators, we designed and fabricated a novel 3-DoF fingertip haptic device, called Haptigami. This under-actuated system, measuring 36 x 25 x 26 mm and weighing 13 g, can render vibrotactile and cutaneous force feedback. We tested our device by creating a novel experimental protocol and robotic platform allowing quantitative characterization of mechanical performance. The current prototype of Haptigami produces 678 mN in compression, and 400 mN and 150 mN in shear for the Y and X directions, respectively. By virtue of its unique origami-inspired design, Haptigami brings a new direction for future designs of lightweight and compact wearable robots.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Getting Insights From Twitter: What People Want to Touch in Daily Life

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      Authors: Yusuke Ujitoko;Yuki Ban;Takumi Yokosaka;
      Pages: 142 - 153
      Abstract: Understanding what people want to touch in daily life has been one of the central topics in the fields of haptic science, engineering, and marketing. Several studies have addressed the topic, however, their findings were highly dependent on the experimental stimuli in the laboratory environment. In this study, we tried to gain insights into targets that people want to touch in daily life by conducting a Twitter survey. We collected a considerable amount of Japanese Twitter posts containing references to the desire for touch. To capture the motivation underlying these desires in relation to haptic properties, we used several queries that comprehensively covered exploratory procedures. The results showed that targets that people wanted to touch depended on the exploratory procedures in the queries used (e.g., “want to stroke” tended to target people and animals). We also found that these targets were desirable to touch not only for their haptic properties but also as a means of communicating with other people or living animals. Our findings would be important for understanding human haptic function in the real world and for developing consumer haptic displays and applications.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • The Role of Spatial and Modality Cues on Visual and Haptic Memory

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      Authors: Mehdi Hojatmadani;Kyle B. Reed;
      Pages: 154 - 163
      Abstract: This study investigates the ability to remember a sequence of stimuli in two basic conditions: haptic and visual. Participants rely on a combination of modal and/or spatial information to perform a memory task. For this purpose, an experimental setup was developed based on the “Simon Says” memory game. Individuals receive a series of sensory stimuli and need to remember the sequence and repeat it. The stimuli in visual conditions are colored or white lights, and the stimuli in haptic conditions are vibration, hot, cold, and skin stretch. Results demonstrate that participants retained longer sequences in spatial conditions compared to the modal conditions. It is also demonstrated that participants performed better in visual conditions compared to haptic conditions. Participants were able to retain more complex spatial patterns and remember them faster in visual conditions compared to haptic conditions. A spatial difficulty ranking system was developed, indicating how easily each spatial pattern can be retained visually and haptically.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Characterizing Detection Thresholds for Six Orthogonal Modes of
           Vibrotactile Display Via Stylus With Precision Grasp

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      Authors: Ruisi Zhang;Jake J. Abbott;
      Pages: 164 - 177
      Abstract: In this paper, we characterize the detection thresholds in six orthogonal modes of vibrotactile haptic display via stylus, including three orthogonal force directions and three orthogonal torque directions at the haptic interaction point. A psychophysical study is performed to determine detection thresholds over the frequency range 20–250 Hz, for six distinct styluses. Analysis of variance is used to test the hypothesis that force signals, as well as torque signals, applied in different directions have different detection thresholds. We find that people are less sensitive to force signals parallel to the stylus than to those orthogonal to the stylus at low frequencies, and far more sensitive to torque signals about the stylus than to those orthogonal to the stylus. Optimization techniques are used to determine four independent two-parameter models to describe the frequency-dependent thresholds for each of the orthogonal force and torque modes for a stylus that is approximately radially symmetric; six independent models are required if the stylus is not well approximated as radially symmetric. Finally, we provide a means to estimate the model parameters given stylus parameters, for a range of styluses, and to estimate the coupling between orthogonal modes.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Workspace Volume of Human Bimanual Precision Manipulation Influenced by
           the Wrist Configuration and Finger Combination

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      Authors: Yuan Liu;Qian Cheng;Wenjie Wang;Dong Ming;
      Pages: 178 - 187
      Abstract: Bimanual precision manipulation is an essential ability in daily human lives. However, the kinematic ability of bimanual precision manipulation due to its complexity and randomness was rarely discussed. This study firstly presents an objective quantitative evaluation of bimanual precision manipulation based on workspace volume. It focuses on studying the effects of the wrist and finger factors on the bimanual manipulation abilities by measuring the workspaces through which ten participants manipulated an object under the 12 situations (3 wrist configurations × 4 finger combinations). The results show that the wrists participation significantly increases the workspace for bimanual precision manipulation, while different finger combinations also substantially affect workspace volume. Therefore, we found an optimal hand situation (two indexes cooperating with the wrists participation), allowing the workspace to reach a volume of 1600cm3, which is ten times higher than the worst situation. Furthermore, the involvement of the right thumb can significantly increase the contribution ratio of finger movement in bimanual precision manipulation, making the movement more accurate and stable. The study has the potential to contribute to the researches in many domains, ranging from developing surgical devices, training doctors in microsurgical techniques, providing normative data for rehabilitation.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • “I Can Feel It Coming in the Hairs Tonight”: Characterising Mid-Air
           Haptics on the Hairy Parts of the Skin

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      Authors: Dario Pittera;Orestis Georgiou;Abdenaceur Abdouni;William Frier;
      Pages: 188 - 199
      Abstract: Ultrasound mid-air haptics has received much attention from both academic and industrial groups, however, such investigations have almost exclusively focused on the tactile stimulation of glabrous (hairless) skin of our hands. Meanwhile, the non-glabrous (hairy) part of the skin covers the largest area of our body, yet remains largely untouched and unexplored by this haptic technology. 1) We study acoustic streaming and the 2) acoustic radiation force associated with a mid-air haptic stimulus. 3) We characterise the perceived strength, temperature, and definition of the stimulus through a user study. 4) Finally, in a second user study we explore the possibility of conveying affective (pleasant) touch. These objective and subjective experiments provide the first deep understanding of how mid-air haptics can affect tactile perception through stimulating the hairy skin. To that end, we discuss how researchers and haptic designers can leverage mid-air haptic technology to vary the perceived touch intensity, temperature, and deliver affective touch.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • A Directional Vibrotactile Feedback Interface for Ergonomic Postural
           Adjustment

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      Authors: Wansoo Kim;Virginia Ruiz Garate;Juan M. Gandarias;Marta Lorenzini;Arash Ajoudani;
      Pages: 200 - 211
      Abstract: The objective of this paper is to develop and evaluate a directional vibrotactile feedback interface as a guidance tool for postural adjustments during work. In contrast to the existing active and wearable systems such as exoskeletons, we aim to create a lightweight and intuitive interface, capable of guiding its wearers towards more ergonomic and healthy working conditions. To achieve this, a vibrotactile device called ErgoTac is employed to develop three different feedback modalities that are able to provide a directional guidance at the body segments towards a desired pose. In addition, an evaluation is made to find the most suitable, comfortable, and intuitive feedback modality for the user. Therefore, these modalities are first compared experimentally on fifteen subjects wearing eight ErgoTac devices to achieve targeted arm and torso configurations. The most effective directional feedback modality is then evaluated on five subjects in a set of experiments in which an ergonomic optimisation module provides the optimised body posture while performing heavy lifting or forceful exertion tasks. The results yield strong evidence on the usefulness and the intuitiveness of one of the developed modalities in providing guidance towards ergonomic working conditions, by minimising the effect of an external load on body joints. We believe that the integration of such low-cost devices in workplaces can help address the well-known and complex problem of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Effect of Tactile Masking on Multi-Sensory Haptic Perception

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      Authors: Zane A. Zook;Joshua J. Fleck;Marcia K. O'Malley;
      Pages: 212 - 221
      Abstract: Multi-sensory wearable haptic devices are able to encode a variety of information using multiple haptic cues. However, simultaneous cues can be misperceived due to tactile masking effects. In this paper, we investigate the effect of masking on the perception of skin stretch and squeeze. We performed three experiments measuring the just-noticeable difference (JND) and the absolute threshold of skin stretch and squeeze alone and in the presence of simultaneous haptic cues. Additionally, we investigate the relative perceptual amplitudes of these haptic cues. Results indicate that the JND for a skin stretch cue increases with a masking squeeze cue, while the JND for a squeeze cue does not change with a masking stretch cue. Also, masking has a significant effect on the absolute threshold of both skin stretch and squeeze. These results suggest that the effect of masking diminishes as haptic cues become larger in amplitude. The results from the subjective equality experiment suggest a potential nonlinear relationship between perceptual magnitudes. Further testing should be carried out to investigate this relationship. Future multi-sensory devices can use these perceptual experiment findings to ensure the delivery of salient cues to users.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
  • Electrotactile and Vibrotactile Feedback Enable Similar Performance in
           Psychometric Tests and Closed-Loop Control

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      Authors: Jakob Dideriksen;Marko Markovic;Sabrina Lemling;Dario Farina;Strahinja Dosen;
      Pages: 222 - 231
      Abstract: Electro- and vibro-tactile stimulation are commonly employed for feedback in closed-loop human-machine interfacing. Although these feedback systems have been extensively investigated individually, they are rarely objectively compared. In this study, two state-of-the-art stimulation units (concentric electrode and C2-tactor) similar in shape and size were compared in psychometric and online control tests. The just noticeable difference and number of discriminable levels for intensity and frequency modulation were determined across values of carrier frequency and intensity, respectively. Next, subjects performed a compensatory tracking task, in which the feedback encoded the momentary tracking error. In the psychometric tests, intensity modulation outperformed frequency modulation and electrotactile stimulation enabled significantly higher resolution than vibrotactile stimulation, for the same carrier frequency. However, for the best-case settings (eletro-tactile: 100 Hz; vibro-tactile: 200 Hz), the two stimulation modalities were equivalent in the psychometric tests and in the online control tests, where the two stimulation methods resulted in similar correlation and deviation between the target and the generated trajectory. Time delay was slightly but significantly lower for the vibrotactile modality. Overall, the present assessment shows that despite psychometric differences between the two stimulation methods, they enable similar online control performance when parameters are optimally selected for each modality.
      PubDate: Jan.-March 1 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2022)
       
 
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