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  Subjects -> ELECTRONICS (Total: 207 journals)
Showing 1 - 200 of 277 Journals sorted by number of followers
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 313)
Control Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201)
Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 197)
Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 138)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 133)
Electronic Design     Partially Free   (Followers: 129)
Electronics For You     Partially Free   (Followers: 128)
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
IEEE Power Electronics Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 91)
IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 81)
IET Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
IEEE Embedded Systems Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Electronics Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Microelectronics and Solid State Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Journal of Aerospace Innovations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Power Electronics & Power Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
IET Wireless Sensor Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Circuits and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Archives of Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Transactions on Signal and Information Processing over Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Microelectronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Machine Learning with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
IEICE - Transactions on Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Advanced Electronics and Communication Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Low Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Solid-State Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Advances in Telecommunications, Electrotechnics, Signals and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Electronics and Communications in Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Nature Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
China Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Superconductivity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Electronic Design Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Universal Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Power Electronic Devices and Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Foundations and Trends® in Signal Processing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Nanotechnology, Science and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
IEEE Magnetics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Progress in Quantum Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Metrology and Measurement Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Biosensors and Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Kinetik : Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
IEICE - Transactions on Information and Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Research & Reviews : Journal of Embedded System & Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Power Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Telecommunications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Electronic Markets     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Energy Storage Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
IEEE Transactions on Services Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Computational Vision and Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Field Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Electronics (China)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries & Supercaps     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
IEEE Pulse     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Networks: an International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EPE Journal : European Power Electronics and Drives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Materials Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Wireless and Mobile Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Synthesis Lectures on Power Electronics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Energy Storage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
IEEE Transactions on Haptics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Electrical Engineering & Electronic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Review in Electronics & Communication Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Electronic Materials Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
IJEIS (Indonesian Journal of Electronics and Instrumentation Systems)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advancing Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Electronics in Physics & Robotics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IETE Journal of Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sensors International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
e-Prime : Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
EPJ Quantum Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Optoelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ACS Applied Electronic Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
IET Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Energy Storage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Information and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Transaction of Electrical and Computer Engineers System     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Intelligent Procedures in Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nuclear Cardiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ECTI Transactions on Electrical Engineering, Electronics, and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Energy Systems Integration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Majalah Ilmiah Teknologi Elektro : Journal of Electrical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Granular Computing, Rough Sets and Intelligent Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Letters on Electromagnetic Compatibility Practice and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Computational Intelligence and Electronic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Електротехніка і Електромеханіка     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Open Electrical & Electronic Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Dielectrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Hybrid Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Ural Radio Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IET Cyber-Physical Systems : Theory & Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edu Elektrika Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Power Electronics and Drives     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Automatika : Journal for Control, Measurement, Electronics, Computing and Communications     Open Access  
npj Flexible Electronics     Open Access  
Elektronika ir Elektortechnika     Open Access  
Emitor : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
IEEE Solid-State Circuits Letters     Hybrid Journal  
IEEE Open Journal of Industry Applications     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society     Open Access  
IEEE Open Journal of Circuits and Systems     Open Access  
Journal of Electronic Science and Technology     Open Access  
Solid State Electronics Letters     Open Access  
Industrial Technology Research Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University     Open Access  
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Elektro     Open Access  
IET Nanodielectrics     Open Access  
Elkha : Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
JAREE (Journal on Advanced Research in Electrical Engineering)     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Elektro     Open Access  
IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology     Open Access  
Acta Electronica Malaysia     Open Access  
Bioelectronics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Electronics     Open Access  
Problemy Peredachi Informatsii     Full-text available via subscription  
Technical Report Electronics and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Jurnal Rekayasa Elektrika     Open Access  
Facta Universitatis, Series : Electronics and Energetics     Open Access  
Visión Electrónica : algo más que un estado sólido     Open Access  
Telematique     Open Access  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.611
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 313  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0018-9251
Published by IEEE Homepage  [228 journals]
  • IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems Publication
           Information

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Abstract: Presents a listing of the editorial board, board of governors, current staff, committee members, and/or society editors for this issue of the publication.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Foreword to the Special Section on Information and Communication
           Technologies (ICT) for a New Space Vision

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Claudio Sacchi;Fabrizio Granelli;Mario Marchese;Kar-ming Cheung;Michael Noble;
      Pages: 3743 - 3745
      Abstract: The main objective of this special is to offer the interested audience an overview of the most recent advancements in information and communication technologies that can enable the “New Space” vision, turning it from a conceptual design philosophy to real system implementation.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • INTERLINK: A Digital Twin-Assisted Storage Strategy for
           Satellite-Terrestrial Networks

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Liang Zhao;Chengcheng Wang;Kanglian Zhao;Daniele Tarchi;Shaohua Wan;Neeraj Kumar;
      Pages: 3746 - 3759
      Abstract: Recently, low-orbit satellite networks have gained lots of attention from the society due to their wide coverage, low transmission latency, and storage and computing capacity. Providing seamless connectivity to users in different areas is envisioned as a promising solution, especially in remote areas and for marine communication. However, when jointly used with terrestrial networks composing satellite-terrestrial networks, the satellite moving speed is much faster than the ground terminal, which can cause inconsistent service from a single satellite, and therefore lead to frequent satellite handover. Moreover, due to the dynamic and time slot visibility of satellites, the topology of an intersatellite changes frequently, which results in loops during satellite handover, thereby reducing the utilization of links. To address these problems, we propose a digital twin-assisted storage strategy for satellite-terrestrial networks (INTERLINK), which leverages the digital twins (DTs) to map the satellite networks to virtual space for better communication. Specifically, we first propose a satellite storage-oriented handover scheme to minimize the handover frequency by considering the limited access time and capacity constraints of satellites. Then, a multiobjective optimization problem is formulated to obtain the optimal satellite by genetic algorithm. Finally, considering the timing visibility of the satellite links, a digital twin-assisted intersatellite routing scheme is introduced to improve the quality of data delivery between satellites. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed INTERLINK can reduce both handover times and average propagation delay compared with its counterparts. Meanwhile, benefitting from integrated DT, both the quality of data delivery and the delay of intersatellite links are considerably improved.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Dynamic MBSFN Beam Area Formation in 6G Multibeam Non-Terrestrial Networks

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      Authors: Federica Rinaldi;Angelo Tropeano;Sara Pizzi;Antonella Molinaro;Giuseppe Araniti;
      Pages: 3760 - 3774
      Abstract: Providing innovative services and ensuring ubiquitous, ultrahigh-density, extreme-data-rate, and very low latency communications are essential for future sixth-generation systems, where the importance of non-terrestrial networks (NTNs) will incredibly rise. However, the management of both the capacity and the radio spectrum remains one of the main challenges, when a huge number of devices require access to dissimilar broadcast services at the same time. To cope with these issues, traditional single-beam satellite systems can be replaced with very high throughput satellite, where multibeam transmissions increase the capacity and improve the spectrum utilization while limiting interbeam interference. In this article, we propose a dynamic multicast/broadcast single-frequency network (MBSFN) beam area formation (D-MBAF) algorithm that dynamically groups beams into dedicated MBSFN beam areas (MBAs) to increase the aggregate data rate (ADR) of the multibeam NTN system and deliver a given video content to all the interested NTN terminals. D-MBAF leverages multicast subgrouping by clustering the NTN terminals into different MBAs that are simultaneously served with different data rates. Furthermore, the D-MBAF algorithm delivers the video content in different flows: the base layer with lower resolution and a set of enhancement layers with higher resolutions. Radio resources are efficiently allocated to avoid interference among the beams belonging to different MBAs. A simulation campaign is carried out under different scenarios to assess the effectiveness of the proposed D-MBAF algorithm in terms of mean throughput, ADR, resource block utilization, and number of sent layers. Obtained results confirm that the D-MBAF algorithm outperforms the single-frequency multibeam transmission and the multilayer video delivery schemes used as benchmarks.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Performance Evaluation of a Satellite Communication-Based MEC Architecture
           for IoT Applications

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      Authors: Michele Luglio;Mario Marchese;Fabio Patrone;Cesare Roseti;Francesco Zampognaro;
      Pages: 3775 - 3785
      Abstract: New scenarios and use cases are raising following the birth of the fifth generation of mobile communications. The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the main use cases which are growing, leading to a massive amount of data that need to be exchanged throughout the Internet. Satellite communication networks are essential in remote and isolated environments and can support fully connected environments by offloading the terrestrial infrastructure concerning delay–tolerant traffic flows. However, satellite network resources are limited and expensive, so they need to be carefully used in order to avoid waste and satisfy the required user performance. The multi-access edge computing (MEC) concept can be exploited in this context to allow data preprocessing at the edge, i.e., close to the users, so reducing the amount of data that has to traverse the backhaul satellite link and, in some cases, reducing data delivery times. This article analyses the performance of a satellite architecture in the IoT framework highlighting the advantages brought by MEC, also including data aggregation and compression techniques.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Sparse Satellite Constellation Design for Global and Regional
           Direct-to-Satellite IoT Services

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      Authors: Gabriel Maiolini Capez;Santiago Henn;Juan A. Fraire;Roberto Garello;
      Pages: 3786 - 3801
      Abstract: In this article, we introduce and design sparse constellations for direct-to-satellite Internet of Things (DtS-IoT). DtS-IoT does not require a ground infrastructure, because the devices are directly connected to low earth orbit satellites acting as orbiting gateways. The key idea of sparse constellations is to significantly reduce the number of in-orbit DtS-IoT satellites by a proper dimensioning of the delivery delay anyway present in resource-constrained IoT services and an optimal positioning of the orbiting gateways. First, we analyze long-range modulation (LoRa)/LoRaWAN and narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) standards and derive realistic constraints on the maximum gap time between two consecutive passing-by satellites. Then, we introduce and optimize an algorithm to design quasi-optimal topologies for sparse IoT constellations. Finally, we apply our design to both global and regional coverage and we analyze the tradeoff between latency, number of orbit planes, and total number of satellites. Results show that sparse constellations can provide world-wide IoT coverage with only 12.5 and 22.5% of the satellites required by traditional dense constellations considering 3 and 2-h gaps. Also, we show that region-specific coverage of Africa and Europe can be achieved with only four and three satellites for LoRa/LoRaWAN and NB-IoT, respectively.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Experimental Model of Rainfall Rate Estimation Through the Opportunistic
           Use of Q-/V-Band Satellite Links

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      Authors: Tommaso Rossi;Mauro De Sanctis;Simone Di Domenico;Marina Ruggieri;Ernestina Cianca;
      Pages: 3802 - 3809
      Abstract: This article addresses the opportunistic use of satellite downlink attenuation measurements for the site-specific estimation of rainfall rate. In particular, this article proposes a regression model characterized by the introduction of correction elements extracted from the frequency-domain analysis of the attenuation time series, and the use of a simple linear regression function with a small modification, which allows to using a negative intercept with the goal of minimizing the maximum error (large underestimation/overestimation). The performance, assessed using attenuation measurements of a satellite downlink in Q/V band shows that the proposed model allows to estimate the rainfall rate with low average error and low maximum error with respect to a more standard ITU model, so as to offer more reliable estimations.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Performance of an Asymmetric on–Off Keying Modulation for Space
           Communications Using Single-Photon Superconducting Nanowire Detectors

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Riccardo Bernardini;Roberto Rinaldo;
      Pages: 3810 - 3823
      Abstract: Communications from deep space need to overcome two major issues: the strong attenuation due to the large distances and the limited power available at the transmitter. A class of sensors which looks promising for deep space communications is provided by the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors that are characterized by very small jitter (few tens of ps), fast rise (hundreds of ps), and comparatively slow decay (few ns). Although it could seem that the bottleneck is represented by the long reset time, in this article, we present a scheme whose effective rate is limited by the jitter and that is able to transmit, with a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with a ratio between decay time and jitter equal to 170 (a typical value), almost six times faster than the rate that the decay time would allow.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A Study of Transmission Overhead of a Hybrid Bundle Retransmission
           Approach for Deep-Space Communications

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Yu Zhou;Ruhai Wang;Lei Yang;Jie Liang;Scott C. Burleigh;Kanglian Zhao;
      Pages: 3824 - 3839
      Abstract: Bundle protocol (BP) was proposed as the core protocol of delay/disruption-tolerant networking for space. A hybrid reliable transmission mechanism based on integrating “proactive” retransmission and “reactive” retransmission of BP bundles has been presented as a means of achieving highly reliable file/data delivery in deep-space communications. Transmission overhead imposed by reliable delivery of data packets/bundles is consistently one of the key factors for efficient data delivery in space communications. It is especially important in deep-space networks, where the available electrical power on spacecraft for data delivery is a scarce resource but substantial energy is needed to propagate data over an extremely long deep-space channel. In this article, a detailed study of the transmission overhead for the hybrid retransmission approach of BP for reliable deep-space communications is presented. An analytical framework is presented for modeling the transmission overhead of BP as influenced by variations in channel quality, file size, bundle size, and retransmission timeout interval length. Its energy resource consumption is also briefly discussed. The analytical framework is validated by realistic file transfer experiments using a PC-based testbed infrastructure; the framework is found to be able to predict the performance with respect to the transmission overhead of BP.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Two-Leg Deep-Space Relay Architectures: Performance, Challenges, and
           Perspectives

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      Authors: Dario Modenini;Alfredo Locarini;Lorenzo Valentini;Alberto Faedi;Paolo Tortora;Davide Rovelli;Nicolò Mazzali;Marco Chiani;Enrico Paolini;
      Pages: 3840 - 3858
      Abstract: In this article, architectures for interplanetary communications that feature the use of a data relay are investigated. In the considered “two-leg” architecture, a spacecraft orbiting the Earth, or in orbit at a Lagrange point, receives data from a deep-space probe (leg-1) and relays them toward ground (leg-2). Different wireless technologies for the interplanetary link, namely, radio frequencies above the Ka band and optical frequencies, are considered. Moreover, the cases of transparent and regenerative relaying as well as different different orbital configurations are addressed, offering a thorough analysis of such systems from different viewpoints. Results show that, under certain constraints in terms of pointing accuracy and onboard antenna size, the adoption of a two-leg architecture can achieve the data rates supported by direct space-to-Earth link configurations with remarkably smaller ground station antennas.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Multicolor Licklider Transmission Protocol: An LTP Version for Future
           Interplanetary Links

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Andrea Bisacchi;Carlo Caini;Tomaso de Cola;
      Pages: 3859 - 3869
      Abstract: The Licklider Transport Protocol (LTP) is the “convergence layer” of choice in Interplanetary networks based on Delay-/Disruption-Tolerant architecture. It was designed for long-delay scheduled-intermittent links, offering either a reliable or an unreliable service, with “red” and “green” parts, respectively. The aim of this article is to present multicolor LTP, an LTP version consisting in a series of enhancements of which the most significant are the use of monochrome sessions, the introduction of an additional orange color offering a “notified” service, and the definition of default link colors. After a thorough examination of basic LTP mechanisms for all color variants, this article discusses two scenarios where orange seems particularly appealing: video streaming and optical interplanetary links. Numerical results offer further insight into the complex LTP mechanisms and also highlight the difference between LTP retransmissions and bundle protocol retransmissions, the latter benefitting from routing reprocessing. Multicolor LTP has already been implemented as an interplanetary overlay network (ION) plug-in and its enhancements have been proposed to Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Space Internetworking Services Delay-/Disruption-Tolerant Networking working group for a possible inclusion in the next version of LTP specifications (LTPv2).
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Wireless Power Transmission on Martian Surface for Zero-Energy Devices

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      Authors: Kürşat Tekbıyık;Dogay Altinel;Mustafa Cansiz;Güneş Karabulut Kurt;
      Pages: 3870 - 3880
      Abstract: Exploration of the Red Planet is essential on the way through both human colonization and establishing a habitat on the planet. Due to the high costs of space missions, the use of distributed sensor networks has been investigated to make in situ explorations affordable. Along with this, the devices with ultralow-power receivers, which are called zero-energy (ZE) devices, can pave the way to further discoveries for the environment of Mars. This article focuses on wireless power transmission to provide the power required by ZE devices on the Martian surface. The main motivation of this study is to investigate whether conventional harvesters and communication units can supply the required power for a long distance. The numerical results show that it is possible to deliver power to ZE devices without utilizing any sophisticated hardware. In addition, the effects of pointing error and dust storms on harvesting performance are investigated. Comprehensive simulation results reveal that harvester selection and design should be done by considering propagation channel and transmitter characteristics.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Stochastic Geometry-Based Low Latency Routing in Massive LEO Satellite
           Networks

    • Free pre-print version: Loading...

      Authors: Ruibo Wang;Mustafa A. Kishk;Mohamed-Slim Alouini;
      Pages: 3881 - 3894
      Abstract: In this article, the routing in massive low earth orbit (LEO) satellite networks is studied. When the satellite-to-satellite communication distance is limited, we choose different relay satellites to minimize the latency in a constellation at a constant altitude. First, the global optimum solution is obtained in the ideal scenario when there are available satellites at all the ideal locations. Next, we propose a nearest neighbor search algorithm for realistic (nonideal) scenarios with a limited number of satellites. The proposed algorithm can approach the global optimum solution under an ideal scenario through a finite number of iterations and a tiny range of searches. Compared with other routing strategies, the proposed algorithm shows significant advantages in terms of latency. Furthermore, we provide two approximation techniques that can give tight lower and upper bounds for the latency of the proposed algorithm, respectively. Finally, the relationships between latency and constellation height, satellites' number, and communication distance are investigated.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Model-Based Cooperative Navigation for a Group of Flying Robots

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      Authors: Ali Faghihinia;M.A. Amiri Atashgah;S.M. Mehdi Dehghan;
      Pages: 3895 - 3905
      Abstract: In this article, a model-based cooperative navigation system for a group of quadrotors, while no absolute position data is accessible, is proposed. The growth of position errors in a GNSS-denied condition is such that the navigation methods are not reliable. In the proposed method, instead of the conventional inertial navigation equations, a different dynamic equation based on drag forces is used. Together with the relative position measurements between agents, the acceleration measurements on the plane of the rotors of at least one of the agents are also used in the observation process. For evaluation of the proposed method, an algorithm-in-loop 6DOF simulation environment is developed. The results illustrate that the growth rate of navigation errors is significantly reduced; 97% in the horizontal plane and 40% in the vertical one. In short, integrating the proposed model-based and cooperative navigation methods is more effective than using each of them separately.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Device-Free Localization of Multiple Targets in Cluttered Environments

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      Authors: Stefania Bartoletti;Zhenyu Liu;Moe Z. Win;Andrea Conti;
      Pages: 3906 - 3923
      Abstract: Device-free localization (DFL) enables several new applications in various sectors including smart cities, intelligent transportation, and public safety. DFL relies on a network of sensor radars that transmit, receive, and process reflected signals propagating in a monitored environment. The accuracy of DFL degrades in cluttered environments, due to the presence of undesired objects that reflect the signal. Indeed, the multiple reflections of the signal overlap at the receiver and make the inference of targets’ positions challenging. This article presents a theoretical foundation of DFL in cluttered environments by deriving the fundamental limits on DFL accuracy. In particular, we propose a system model that takes into account multiple reflections, nonline-of-sight conditions, and the presence of multiple targets. Building on such a model, we derive the Cramér-Rao bound on the inference accuracy of targets’ positions by applying equivalent Fisher information analysis. The proposed bound provides guidelines for the design and analysis of DFL systems operating in cluttered environments. Then, the article presents a case study compliant with the 5G New Radio numerology and channel modeling. Results show how the minimum achievable error is affected by multiple reflections and multiple targets and to which extent the employment of a signal with larger bandwidth and a network with a higher number of receivers can lower the achievable error toward submeter accuracy.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Cooperative Guidance Law With Impact Angle Coordination: A Nash Approach

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      Authors: Sai Chen;Yuan Yang;Dongying Ma;Xiaodong Wang;Kebo Li;Chaoyong Li;
      Pages: 3924 - 3931
      Abstract: In this article, we investigate a cooperative guidance problem against a maneuvering target with impact angle coordination. As is well established, the main challenge is how to design a guidance law for each missile to intercept the target from specified directions with only the local information and information from its connected neighbors. Toward this, we prove that the underlying problem can be treated as a Nash equilibrium (NE) seeking problem, where each missile attempts to minimize its own performance index to achieve interception without unilaterally implicate the team objective, and then we introduce a local observer to facilitate the local implementation of the proposed guidance protocol by ensuring the seeking of NE distributive. Numerical simulations verified the performance of the proposed guidance strategy.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Spurious Beam Suppression in Dual-Beam Phased Array Transmission by
           Impedance Tuning

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      Authors: Pedro Rodriguez-Garcia;Jack Sifri;Caleb Calabrese;Adam Goad;Charles Baylis;Robert J. Marks;
      Pages: 3932 - 3945
      Abstract: A significant challenge for dual-beam, codesigned systems, such as for simultaneous radar and communications transmission, has been identified as the spurious beams produced by spatial intermodulation from nonlinearities in the transmitter power amplifier. We demonstrate that tuning the load impedance of the power amplifiers can reverse the elementwise power amplifier nonlinear distortion, reducing the magnitude of the unwanted beam transmissions and restoring the integrity of the dual-beam antenna pattern for application to an active electronically scanned array. A comparison to a recently documented predistortion approach for correcting spurious transmissions is provided, and it is shown that impedance tuning can address both element output power and linearity, whereas predistortion addresses only the linearity issue and causes the amplifier gain in many of the array elements to suffer. For multiple dual-beam angle scenarios, simulation results show that impedance tuning is effective at maximizing beam power in both beam directions, maximizing current gain in the element power amplifiers, and minimizing the size of the unwanted spurious beams.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Bionic Communication Network and Binary Pigeon-Inspired Optimization for
           Multiagent Cooperative Task Allocation

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      Authors: Yankai Shen;
      Pages: 3946 - 3961
      Abstract: Toimprove the task execution efficiency of a multiagent system, an intelligent task allocation method combined with the bionic communication network and binary pigeon-inspired optimization (BPIO) is presented. This article first builds the bionic communication network model and introduces the visual attention mechanism with the threshold effect. Second, the version of BPIO based on fuzzy theory is put forward after reviewing the classical transfer functions. The comparison tests are conducted on the benchmark between the proposed one and other forms of BPIOs. Finally, the task assignment models of tasks, agents, and targets are established, where the bionic communication method is employed for information transfer, and the proposed BPIO is applied to generate the solutions of task allocation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible and adaptable to deal with the multiple agents’ task allocation dynamically.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • When to Crossover From Earth to Space for Lower Latency Data
           Communications'

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      Authors: Aizaz U. Chaudhry;Halim Yanikomeroglu;
      Pages: 3962 - 3978
      Abstract: For data communications over long distances, optical wireless satellite networks (OWSNs) can offer lower latency than optical fiber terrestrial networks (OFTNs). However, when is it beneficial to switch or crossover from an OFTN to an OWSN for lower latency data communications' In this article, we introduce a crossover function that enables to find the crossover distance, i.e., a distance between two points on the surface of the Earth beyond which switching or crossing over from an OFTN to an OWSN for data communications between these points is useful in terms of latency. Numerical results reveal that a higher refractive index of optical fiber (or $i$) in an OFTN and a lower altitude of satellites (or $h$) in an OWSN result in a shorter crossover distance. To account for the variation in the end-to-end propagation distance that occurs over the OWSN, we examine the crossover function in four different scenarios. Numerical results indicate that the crossover distance varies with the end-to-end propagation distance over an OWSN and is different for different scenarios. We calculate the average crossover distance over all scenarios for different $h$ and $i$ and use it to evaluate the simulation results. Furthermore, for a comparative analysis of OFTNs and OWSNs in terms of latency, we study three different OFTNs having different refractive indexes and three different OWSNs having different satellite altitudes in three different scenarios for long-distance intercontinental data communications, including connections between New York and Dublin, Sao Paulo and London, and Toronto and Sydney. All three OWSNs offer better latency than OFTN2 (with $i_{2}$ = 1.3) and OFTN3 (with $i_{3}$ = 1.4675) in all scenarios. For example, for Toronto–Sydney connection, OWSN1 (with $h_{1}$ = 300 km), OWSN2 (with $h_{2}$ = 550 km), and OWSN3 (with $h_{3}$ = 1100 km) perform better than OFTN2 by 18.11%, 16.08%, and 10.30%, respectively, while they provide an improvement in latency of 2-.46%, 25.67%, and 20.54%, respectively, compared to OFTN3. OWSN1 performs better than OFTN1 (with $i_{1}$ = 1.1) for Sao Paulo–London and Toronto–Sydney connections by 2.23% and 3.22%, respectively, while OWSN2 outperforms OFTN1 for Toronto–Sydney connection by 0.82%. For New York–Dublin connection, all OWSNs while for Sao Paulo–London connection, OWSN2 and OWSN3 exhibit higher latency than OFTN1 as the corresponding average crossover distances are greater than the shortest terrestrial distances between cities in these scenarios. Multiple satellites (or laser intersatellite links) on its shortest paths drive up the propagation distance to the extent that OWSN3 ends up with a higher latency than OFTN1 for the Toronto–Sydney intercontinental connection scenario although the related average crossover distance is less than the shortest terrestrial distance between Toronto and Sydney. The challenges related to OWSNs and OFTNs that may arise from this work in future are also highlighted.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Local Patch Network With Global Attention for Infrared Small Target
           Detection

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      Authors: Fang Chen;Chenqiang Gao;Fangcen Liu;Yue Zhao;Yuxi Zhou;Deyu Meng;Wangmeng Zuo;
      Pages: 3979 - 3991
      Abstract: Infrared small target detection plays an important role in the infrared search and tracking applications. In recent years, deep learning techniques have been introduced to this task and achieved noteworthy effects. Following general object segmentation methods, existing deep learning methods usually process the image from the global view. However, the locality of small targets and extreme class-imbalance between the target and background pixels are not well-considered by these deep learning methods, which causes the low-efficiency on training and high-dependence on numerous data. A local patch network (LPNet) with global attention is proposed in this article to detect small targets by jointly considering the global and local properties of infrared small target images. From the global view, a supervised attention module trained by the small target spread map is proposed to suppress most background pixels irrelevant with small target features. From the local view, local patches are split from global features and share the same convolution weights with each other in an LPNet. By leveraging both the global and local properties, the data-driven framework proposed in this article has the ability of fusing multiscale features for small target detection. Extensive experiments on synthetic and real datasets show that the proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance in comparison with both traditional and deep learning methods.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Field-of-View Constrained Three-Dimensional Impact Angle Control Guidance
           for Speed-Varying Missiles

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      Authors: Jianan Wang;Xiangjun Ding;Yadong Chen;Chunyan Wang;Ming Xin;
      Pages: 3992 - 4003
      Abstract: This article develops a three-dimensional (3-D) impact angle control guidance law with the field-of-view (FOV) constraint. The impact error is defined as the difference between the predicted impact angle by proportional navigation guidance and the desired impact angle. The derived guidance command enables the impact angle error trajectory to follow a desired impact angle error dynamic. It can guarantee that the impact error converges to zero before the time of interception. Meanwhile, zero terminal guidance command is achieved, and the FOV constraint is always met during the guidance process. Furthermore, the trajectory of a guided missile is not affected by the variation of missile speed even under the FOV constraint, which reveals that the impact angle control performance is independent of time-varying missile speed. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Bayes-Based Distributed Estimation in Adversarial Multitask Networks

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      Authors: Tiantian Wang;Yuhan Li;Feng Chen;Shukai Duan;
      Pages: 4004 - 4019
      Abstract: Recently, the problem of security distributed estimation in adversarial multitask wireless sensor networks has attracted extensive attention. For example, malicious attackers always affect signal processing and reduce network estimation performance by destroying data information. To address this issue, by using task similarity, this article proposes a diffusion least-mean square algorithm based on Bayes (BDLMS) in multitask adversarial network environment. The BDLMS algorithm can divide the wireless sensor system into two subsystems: Noncooperative LMS (NCLMS) subsystem and distributed diffusion LMS (DLMS) subsystem. Among them, the NCLMS subsystem ensures the state consistency of neighboring nodes by task similarity and calculates the posterior probability of node being attacked by Bayes rule to achieve attack detection. The DLMS subsystem performs parameter estimation by combining safe and reliable information. In addition, the mean and mean-square stability of the BDLMS algorithm are analyzed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by simulation experiments in different network environments.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Differentiator-Based Incremental Three-Dimensional Terminal Angle Guidance
           With Enhanced Robustness

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      Authors: Tuo Han;Hyo-Sang Shin;Qinglei Hu;Antonios Tsourdos;Ming Xin;
      Pages: 4020 - 4032
      Abstract: In this article, an incremental guidancelaw with terminal angle constraint is proposed against maneuvering targets in the 3-D space. First, a sliding surface is constructed such that its first-order dynamics excludes the relative range and line-of-sight angles in the perturbation. This manipulation avoids unboundedperturbations induced by target maneuvers near collision. Then, a benchmark guidance law is derived via the nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI) based sliding mode control (NDI-SMC). To further enhance guidance system robustness, an incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion (INDI) based SMC (INDI-SMC) 3-D guidance law is developed. The INDI-SMC guidance law exploits the first-order derivative of the sliding variable and guidance command output at the latest step, which leads to reduced perturbation and thus requires smaller gains than the NDI-SMC guidance law. A multivariable continuous differentiator is employed to estimate the sliding variable's first-order derivative for guidance law implementation. Moreover, the stability of the differentiator is analyzed and the guidance robustness under uncertainties is compared. Extensive numerical simulations and a Monte Carlo test are conducted to verify effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Asteroid Capture Dynamics and Control Using a Large-Scale Flexible Net

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      Authors: Yu Zhang;Ruoyu Feng;Yang Yu;Jinyu Liu;Hexi Baoyin;
      Pages: 4033 - 4043
      Abstract: Asteroids are scientific windows for understanding the universe while having enormous economic value. Instead of merely bringing back a small sample, capturing an asteroid into earth's orbit is one of the most promising ways to explore and subsequently exploit space. In this article, the authors study the process of capturing an asteroid using a flexible net spacecraft (FNS). The net capture dynamics, comprising the net and nonlinear contact dynamics models, are constructed for the asteroid mission. The sliding mode control is applied for designing the controllers of the FNS. Numerical simulations show that the asteroid 101955 Bennu can be fully enveloped using a spider-shaped FNS around a kilometer diameter. During the capture mission, the opening area of the FNS gradually decreases, which is much smaller than the projected area of the asteroid at the end of the capture; the elongation rate of each net thread in the FNS is far less than its material's endurable value; and the actuators in the FNS have not collided with each other, thus selfdestruction does not happen. All of these results suggest the feasibility of the FNS for the asteroid capture mission.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • An Improved Technique for Single-Channel Video-SAR Based on Fractional
           Fourier Transform

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      Authors: Chul Ki Kim;Mi Young Park;Goo Hwan Shin;Seong Ook Park;
      Pages: 4044 - 4052
      Abstract: In the field of synthetic aperture radar (SAR), a lot of researchers have tried to study an improved application beyond the conventional two-dimensional image. Video-SAR (ViSAR) is one of the hot issue in the SAR application. The main purpose of ViSAR is to monitor various targets in the area of interest in time order. It can offer video images to detect not only the fixed target but also the moving target. For the signal processing of ViSAR, this article introduces the improved performance by the Doppler shifting technique with fractional Fourier transform. And also, it shows that the proposed method can separate the unexpected signal of the moving target within each frame of single-channel ViSAR. Furthermore, the overall algorithm can increase efficiency and reliability in ViSAR processing. To verify the improvement of our method, we carry out the practical experiments by an X-band chirp pulse SAR system, mounted on an airplane.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Optimization-Based Strapdown Attitude Alignment for High-Accuracy Systems:
           Covariance Analysis With Applications

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      Authors: Wei Ouyang;Yuanxin Wu;
      Pages: 4053 - 4069
      Abstract: Strapdown inertial navigation usually relies on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) as the workhorse, which requires a proper initialization of the attitude. The optimization-based alignment (OBA) approach is widely employed to provide the coarse attitude information for the subsequent fine alignment or navigation stage by EKF. However, there still lacks a reliable quality index to assess the attitude accuracy of OBA. To tackle this problem, this article characterizes the OBA attitude error by vector measurement errors. For specific applications, such as the stationary alignment and odometer/GPS-aided in-motion alignment, the errors of vector measurements in OBA are further formulated in terms of raw sensor errors of gyroscopes, accelerometers, and odometer/GPS velocities. The covariance of attitude errors is analytically derived. Simulations and field experiments are performed to verify the covariance analysis.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Propagation Path of Radio Waves in Nonequilibrium Reentry Plasma Around a
           Nanosatellite With an Inflatable Aeroshell

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      Authors: Yusuke Takahashi;
      Pages: 4070 - 4082
      Abstract: A communication blackout is one of the major problems that occurs during the reentry of a satellite into the Earth’s atmosphere, which is caused by the reentry plasma blocking electromagnetic waves near the satellite for telecommunication. Moreover, it prevents tracking and data transmission, resulting in inaccurate prediction of landing sites and data loss. Therefore, there is a necessity to evaluate the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the reentry plasma and to mitigate the communication blackout. An inflatable aeroshell technology with lightweight and large-area features enables aerodynamic drag at high altitudes to reduce aerodynamic heating and to mitigate communication blackouts. Thus, a nanosatellite mission using such an inflatable aeroshell has been proposed. For the purpose of telecommunication possibilities during the reentry in future nanosatellite missions, a detailed investigation of communication blackout mitigation by inflatable aeroshell is required. In the present article, the plasma flow and electromagnetic wave propagation near the nanosatellite during atmospheric reentry were revealed by using a computational science approach. A low-temperature and low-density wake is formed behind the nanosatellite. Moreover, an electromagnetic wave propagation path is formed in the wake, indicating that this path is maintained during the reentry, and no communication blackout occurs when using the deployable nanosatellite.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • An Efficient Track-Before-Detect for Multi-PRF Radars With Range and
           Doppler Ambiguities

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      Authors: Wujun Li;Wei Yi;Lingjiang Kong;Kah Chan Teh;
      Pages: 4083 - 4100
      Abstract: This article considers the detection and tracking of weak targets in multiple pulse repetition frequency (multi-PRF) radars using the track-before-detect (TBD) technique. By exploring the measurement independence among different PRFs, we decompose the joint multi-PRF and multiframe optimization problem into several lower dimensional maximizations, each of which corresponds to an intra-PRF multiframe processing. An efficient two-stage TBD procedure with a parallel structure is proposed for the multi-PRF radars. Specifically, in the first stage, a constraint inequality is derived analytically and used to decouple the measurement ambiguities from the nonlinear conversion relationship between polar and Cartesian coordinates. The intra-PRF multiframe integration can then be carried out concurrently using the ambiguous measurements and the target-like measurement plot sequences with different ambiguities are extracted for different PRFs. In the second stage, a covariance combination fusion-based inter-PRF joint disambiguation and estimation algorithm is proposed to solve the ambiguities of the plot sequences and output high-accuracy target tracks. Simulation experiments show that the proposed algorithm can provide a good detection performance and higher tracking accuracy with much lower complexity.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Passive UAV Tracking in Wireless Networks

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      Authors: Torbjörn Wigren;Sholeh Yasini;
      Pages: 4101 - 4118
      Abstract: Techniques for high accuracy tracking of the 3-D velocity, position, and cellular carrier frequency bias of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that communicate using a cellular network are presented. The tracking algorithm does only rely on asynchronous measurements of Doppler shift in a minimum of four base station sites. This number can be reduced to three, by combination with a round-trip time measurement from one site. The tracking is therefore independent of any capability of the UAV transceiver, like the global positioning system that may be disabled in the UAV by the pilot. Another significant advantage is that high precision time synchronization between base stations is not needed. The algorithm exploits interacting multiple model filtering, with the nonlinear measurement equations handled by extended Kalman filters. The low computational complexity, low sampling rate, and the uplink Doppler shift measurement resources enable joint tracking of several UAVs per cell. This makes the tracking technique relevant for supervision of UAV traffic using cellular connectivity, for example for border surveillance and surveillance of sensitive areas like airports where illegal flying may be extremely dangerous and costly. Theoretically, an observability analysis treats measurement configurations based on different combinations of Doppler shift and round-trip time. Simulations are used to illustrate the performance and to assess the initialization properties.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Integration of A* Search and Classic Optimal Control for Safe Planning of
           Continuum Deformation of a Multiquadcopter System

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      Authors: Hossein Rastgoftar;
      Pages: 4119 - 4134
      Abstract: This article offers an algorithmic approach to plan continuum deformation of a multiquadcopter system (MQS) in an obstacle-laden environment. We treat the MQS as a finite number of particles of a deformable body coordinating under a homogeneous transformation. We define the MQS homogeneous deformation coordination as a decentralized leader–follower problem and integrate the principles of continuum mechanics, A* search method, and optimal control approach to safety and optimally plan MQS continuum deformation coordination. In particular, we apply the principles of continuum mechanics to obtain the safety constraints, use the A* search method to assign the intermediate configurations of the leaders by minimizing the travel distance of the MQS, and determine the leaders’ optimal trajectories by solving a constrained optimal control problem. The optimal planning of the continuum deformation coordination is acquired by the quadcopter team in a decentralized fashion through local communication.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Fixed-Time Filtered Adaptive Parameter Estimation and Attitude Control for
           Quadrotor UAVs

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      Authors: Meiling Tao;Qiang Chen;Xiongxiong He;Shuzong Xie;
      Pages: 4135 - 4146
      Abstract: In this article, a fixed-time filtered adaptive parameter estimation and control scheme is proposed for attitude tracking of quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles. A nonsingular fixed-time sliding mode surface is constructed to avoid the existence of the singularity issue resulted from the differentiation of the sliding mode variable. Through designing auxiliary filtered matrices, a fixed-time parameter update law is developed to achieve the fixed-time parameter convergence. Then, an adaptive neural controller is designed to ensure the fixed-time convergence of attitude tracking errors in the presence of the model uncertainties. Instead of using any piecewise continuous functions, the possible singularity issue in the conventional fixed-time controller design can be overcome by constructing auxiliary functions, and thus the fixed time stability analysis becomes more concise. The efficiency of the presented scheme is validated through experiments on a practical Quanser quadrotor platform.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Prescribed Performance Attitude Stabilization of a Rigid Body Under
           Physical Limitations

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      Authors: Mehdi Golestani;Saleh Mobayen;Sami ud Din;Fayez F. M. El-Sousy;Mai The Vu;Wudhichai Assawinchaichote;
      Pages: 4147 - 4155
      Abstract: This article investigates the prescribed performance control problem associated with attitude stabilization of a rigid body, considering angular velocity constraint, actuator faults, and input saturation. The desired performance specifications in transient and steady-state phases including convergence speed, overshoot, and steady-state value for attitude variable are also provided. To this end, the prescribed performance control methodology is combined with backstepping-based barrier Lyapunov function so as to develop a controller with simple structure compared to the existing constrained controls. The main idea behind the control design is to remove partial differential and complex function terms to considerably decrease complexity of the proposed controller. Moreover, a hyperbolic tangent function and an auxiliary system are employed to develop the constrained virtual rotation velocity control and to consider input saturation. The simulation results carried out on a rigid spacecraft confirm efficiency and success of the proposed constrained attitude control method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Robust and Efficient Star Identification Algorithm based on 1-D
           Convolutional Neural Network

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      Authors: Shaofei Yang;Longjun Liu;Jiantao Zhou;Yunfu Zhao;Gengxin Hua;Hongbin Sun;Nanning Zheng;
      Pages: 4156 - 4167
      Abstract: As the core of the attitude determination system, the star sensor working in “lost in space” scenarios requires the star identification algorithm to be robust and fast with limited computing and memory resources. Nevertheless, previous algorithms are not satisfactory in robustness and identification speed. Hence, motivated by the fact that the one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) is suitable for sequential data, this article proposes a robust and efficient star identification algorithm, where 1D-CNN is used to process mixed initial features from star points. Moreover, this article proposes a combined star points selection strategy technique and a mixed initial features extraction technique to further improve the performance of 1D-CNN-based algorithm. Experimental results show that, compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm, the proposed algorithm can improve the average identification accuracy by 0.76%, the identification speed by 1.86× with the comparable memory consumption.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • High-Gain Dual-Mode Cylindrical Rectangular Patch Antenna for Airborne
           Applications

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      Authors: Suman Pradhan;Bhaskar Gupta;
      Pages: 4168 - 4179
      Abstract: This article presents a conformal antenna system for providing a dual-band high-gain communication link between an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a ground station where the two bands can be used independently for command-control and data link. A cylindrically conformal rectangular patch antenna operating in the higher order TM21 and TM03 modes is proposed, which produces high gain in both the frequency bands. This is possible by loading the cylindrical–rectangular patch antenna by a centrally located slot, which makes the radiation pattern of the TM21 mode broadside radiating and lowers the sidelobe level of the TM03 mode. Multiport network modeling (MNM) of the structure is done, which leads to the optimum design, and the effect of curvature on antenna performance is also studied. As the antenna has around 60° beamwidth in one of the planes for both the frequency bands, three such antennas are placed on one arm of a quadcopter UAV so that 180° coverage can be obtained by switching the antennas. The antenna system has a simulated gain of 7.94 and 10.21 dBi at 10.288 and 12.412 GHz, respectively. A single slot-loaded cylindrical–rectangular patch antenna is fabricated and the measured results are compared with those obtained by MNM and simulation. The antenna gives a gain of 7.46 and 9.83 dBi at the frequencies of 10.323 and 12.46 GHz, respectively.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • An Integrated Approach for On-Demand Dynamic Capacity Management Service
           in U-Space

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      Authors: Yiwen Tang;Yan Xu;Gokhan Inalhan;
      Pages: 4180 - 4195
      Abstract: This article presents an integrated approach for on-demand dynamic capacity management (DCM) service to be offered in U-space. The approach involves three main threads, including flight planning (demand), airspace configuration (capacity), and demand-capacity balancing (DCB). The flight planning thread produces unmanned aerial systems (UAS) trajectories for each flight that together reflect the estimated traffic demand. The airspace configuration thread defines the fundamental airspace structure and proposes dynamic adjustment schemes that determine the capacity distribution. It also enables the flight planning to reschedule alternative trajectory options to route away from possible congested areas. The last DCB thread takes the previous inputs and then computes for the optimal slot allocation and trajectory selection, as well as the optimal airspace configuration. Simulation case studies have been performed through mimicking an envisioned U-space operating scenario. Results suggest that the integrated approach can achieve the best outcome in almost all the key performance areas than any other cases, where only partial functions are realized.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A High-Resolution Remote Sensing Image Registration Method Combining
           Object and Point Features

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      Authors: Junyan Lu;Qinglei Hu;Ruifei Zhu;Hongguang Jia;
      Pages: 4196 - 4213
      Abstract: Point feature-based (PFB) remote sensing image registration methods have achieved great accomplishments. However, such methods based on the hand-crafted point features (HCPFs) have encountered limitations of robustness, accuracy, efficiency, and automation for high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS) image registration. A two-stage registration framework specialized for HRRS images, which combines object and point features is introduced in this article. Specifically, in the first stage, we propose to abstract and represent the macroscopic semantic objects in HRRS images as the deep convolutional object features (DCOFs), which is used to implement the global coarse registration. In the second stage, specific local areas are selected according to the DCOF matching, and the PFB method is performed in the local areas to achieve refinement. The salient points of this proposal include that, 1) the proposed DCOF is more discriminative and expressive than the HCPF at the macroscopic scale so as to effectively achieve automatic and robust global preregistration. 2) We implement the object feature extraction in an object detection fashion which is more-or-less plug and play. 3) Our designed two-stage strategy plays to the advantages of the DCOF and HCPF in different scenarios, thereby improving accuracy and efficiency. Finally, experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. Compared with the state-of-the-art PFB methods, it improves the accuracy by about 3$%$–6$%$ and the efficiency by about 15$%$–30$%$.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Finite-Time Deterministic Learning Command Filtered Control for Hypersonic
           Flight Vehicle

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      Authors: Yuyan Guo;Bin Xu;
      Pages: 4214 - 4225
      Abstract: In this article, the finite-time (FT) deterministic learning control for the hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) dynamics with model uncertainty is investigated. The design is divided into an offline training phase and an online control phase. First, in the offline training, the radial-basis-function neural networks (RBF NNs) are set along the periodic signals to guarantee the partial PE condition. Meanwhile, the offline FT composite learning laws are constructed driven by the system tracking and learning performance index. Embedding the FT composite learning in the FT command filtered control framework, the FT convergences of the system tracking and learning are guaranteed simultaneously. Moreover, the near-optimal learning knowledge is stored. In the next online process, the stored NNs weights are directly used in the online tracking controller without repeatedly updating the weights. Simulation on HFV dynamics shows that the offline FT learning control can achieve better learning and tracking performance, while recalling the stored knowledge online not only guarantees the control performance but also reduces the computational load.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Automatic Target Recognition Based on RCS and Angular Diversity for
           Multistatic Passive Radar

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      Authors: Xiaomao Cao;Jianxin Yi;Ziping Gong;Xianrong Wan;
      Pages: 4226 - 4240
      Abstract: Asan important means in low-altitude airspace surveillance, passive radar has been widely studied. With the increasing complexity of the low-altitude environment, the urgent need for radar's capability of automatic target recognition (ATR) emerges. In the field of ATR for passive radar, the method based on radar cross section (RCS) is an important direction for the simplicity of feature extraction. In this article, we exploit the compensated quasi-echo-power (CQEP), i.e., quasi-RCS, to realize ATR in passive radar. We propose an ATR method on the basis of the angular diversity. First, we divide the angular space, which consists of four components of the incident angle and scattering angle of electromagnetic wave, into multiple subspaces. Then, we build a subrecognizer in each angular subspace according to the CQEP distribution characteristics. Each receiving station of the multistatic passive radar recognizes targets in an angular subspace corresponding to its observation and outputs a preliminary decision. Based on the preliminary decisions of all receiving stations, a voting strategy is adopted to make the final decision on the unknown target class in the fusion center. Experimental results based on real-life target data show that the proposed method has a significant improvement on the average correct recognition rate with fusion of three receiving stations, which validates the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Generalized Control Coupling Effect of Spinning Guided Projectiles

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      Authors: Shipeng Fan;Jiang Wang;Defu Lin;
      Pages: 4241 - 4250
      Abstract: This article focuses on the analysis of generalized control coupling effect of spinning guided projectiles. A concept of so-called equivalent dynamics is first proposed in this article to avoid nonlinearity and facilitate understanding of control coupling for spinning guided projectiles. First, the coupling induced by an arbitrary-order dynamic is formulated. Two useful theorems showing the property of the concept are presented standby. Second, considering the main elements involved in the control loop, i.e., autopilot, actuator, and inertial measurement unit, a comprehensive model in the spinning frame is established for spinning guided projectiles. With aid of the second theorem, the equivalent dynamics of the multiple elements are introduced into the model, in which the closed-loop characteristic equation is described with the complex summation method. Then, the closed-loop complex steady gain is analyzed and an integrated decoupling is applied to eliminate the coupling effects completely. This can be implemented readily via presetting a leading angle in engineering. Furthermore, it is noted that for this high-order system, numerical method solving the characteristic equation is the only way to obtain dynamic stability conditions. Finally, a case study is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the decoupling approach. In addition, the stability problem is figured out with numerical method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Dynamic Closing Point Determination for Space Debris Capturing via
           Tethered Space Net Robot

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      Authors: Yakun Zhao;Fan Zhang;Panfeng Huang;
      Pages: 4251 - 4260
      Abstract: Tethered space net robot (TSNR) is treated as one of the most promising space debris capturing methods. To perform a successful net capture mission, it is necessary to determine the net closing point for four maneuvering units to make the net fully close around the debris. In the previous studies, a fixed point (FP) is provided as the position for maneuvering units to converge. However, the FP cannot be easily given, especially for the situation that the debris does not contact in the center of the net and the debris in the state of tumbling. In this article, we propose a method to determine the “dynamic closing point” (DCP), which is a dynamic position moving with the motion of the four maneuvering units and suitable for maneuvering units to converge. First, the dynamic model of TSNR is derived. Then, the “DCP” is defined based on the position of the four maneuvering units. Taking a cylindrical target as the example, the DCP and FP are chosen as the different net closing methods to show the net closing performance of TSNR. The simulation results verify that the proposed DCP is more efficient and fuel-saving.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • On the Achievability of Submeter-Accurate UAV Navigation With Cellular
           Signals Exploiting Loose Network Synchronization

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      Authors: Joe Khalife;Zaher M. Kassas;
      Pages: 4261 - 4278
      Abstract: A framework that could achieve submeter-level unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) horizontal navigation in multipath-free environments with cellular carrier phase measurements is developed. This framework exploits the “loose” synchronization between cellular base transceiver station (BTS) clocks. It is shown through extensive experimental data that the beat frequency stability of cellular BTSs approaches that of atomic standards and that the clock deviations can be realized as a stable autoregressive moving average model. This BTS clock model is referred to as loose network synchronization. A rule-of-thumb is established for clustering the clock deviations to minimize the position estimation error, while significantly reducing the computational complexity. The presented models allow the UAV to achieve sustained carrier phase-based meter- to submeter-accurate navigation. To demonstrate the efficacy of the developed framework, this article presents three UAV flight experiments in Southern California, USA, utilizing signals from different cellular providers transmitting at different frequencies. The three experiments took place in open, semiurban environments with nearly multipath-free, line-of-sight (LOS) conditions, in which the UAV traveled 1.72, 3.07, and 0.61 km, achieving a horizontal position root mean squared error of 36.61, 88.58, and 89.33 cm, respectively, with respect to the UAV’s on-board navigation system.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Revisiting Monocular Satellite Pose Estimation With Transformer

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      Authors: Zi Wang;Zhuo Zhang;Xiaoliang Sun;Zhang Li;Qifeng Yu;
      Pages: 4279 - 4294
      Abstract: Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been adopted in monocular satellite pose estimation and achieve superior performance over traditional methods. However, existing CNN-based methods suffer from bias toward texture, indirect description of absolute distance, and lack of long-range dependence modeling. Such factors limit the generalizability of CNN-based methods. Motivated by the striking achievements of transformer models, this article adopts transformer blocks for satellite pose estimation from a single RGB image, proposing an efficient monocular satellite pose estimation method. First, we design an effective satellite representation model based on a set of keypoints. Then, considering monocular satellite pose estimation characteristics, we construct an end-to-end keypoint-set prediction network and build the bipartite loss function. Further, we improve the backbone structure for high-quality feature extraction. Experimental results on a public benchmark dataset indicate that the proposed method achieves second and third place on the synthetic and real test sets, respectively, using only synthetic training data. We also demonstrate that our keypoint predictor takes half as much time as the first-placed method in our comparison, and therefore achieves a better tradeoff between speed and accuracy than existing approaches.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Navigation Using Doppler Shift From LEO Constellations and INS Data

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      Authors: Brian McLemore;Mark L. Psiaki;
      Pages: 4295 - 4314
      Abstract: Absolute navigation using the downlink communication signals of massive low Earth orbit (LEO) constellations augmented by data from an inertial navigation system (INS) is considered. Lack of atomic clocks on-board LEO satellites requires the use of Doppler shift as a navigation observable. Furthermore, footprint limits of downlink signals’ beams necessitate the use of a tightly coupled INS/radio-navigation filter in order to compensate for the fact that it is not possible to measure carrier Doppler shift simultaneously from eight or more satellites. The navigation solution error is shown for a simulation, which demonstrates the feasibility of combining measurements from LEO constellations and INS data to enable global navigation satellite systems-like navigation capabilities. Additional simulations study how navigation solution error is affected by IMU quality, signal availability, downlink spot beam steering protocol, and constellation characteristics.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Waveform Codesign for Radar–Communication Spectral Coexistence via
           Dynamic Programming

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      Authors: Shammi A. Doly;Alex R. Chiriyath;Hans D. Mittelmann;Daniel W. Bliss;Shankarachary Ragi;
      Pages: 4315 - 4326
      Abstract: In this article, we develop a new waveform codesign approach for radar–communications spectral coexistence using a decision-theoretic framework called partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). The POMDP framework’s natural look-ahead feature allows us to trade off short-term for long-term performance, which is necessary in waveform codesign problems with competing objectives and dynamic user needs. As POMDPs are computationally intractable, we extend two approximation methods called nominal belief-state optimization and random-sampling multipath hypothesis propagation to make the codesign approaches tractable.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Optimal Encirclement Guidance

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      Authors: Hongyan Li;Shaoming He;Jiang Wang;Chang-Hun Lee;
      Pages: 4327 - 4341
      Abstract: This article investigates the cooperative guidance problem for multiple missiles to intercept a maneuvering target. We propose an optimal encirclement guidance, which is known to be suitable for improving the observability and limiting the evasive probability of the target. By formulating the optimization problem in a reference frame, the optimal guidance solution can be obtained without any linearization and explicit cooperation can be ensured in regulating the relative line-of-sight angles to achieve encirclement. The main advantage of the proposed approach lies in its nonlinear nature and hence it is more tolerable to disadvantageous initial homing conditions than the linear laws. The working principles and characteristics of the encirclement guidance law are analyzed to support its application. Extensive numerical simulations are performed to validate the proposed approach and demonstrate its advantages.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A Stochastic Switched Optimal Control Approach to Formation Mission Design
           for Commercial Aircraft

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      Authors: María Cerezo-Magaña;Alberto Olivares;Ernesto Staffetti;
      Pages: 4342 - 4360
      Abstract: This article studies the formation mission design problem for commercial aircraft in the presence of uncertainties. Specifically, it considers uncertainties in the departure times of the aircraft and in the fuel burn savings for the trailing aircraft. Given several commercial flights, the problem consists in arranging them in formation or solo flights and finding the trajectories that minimize the expected value of the DOC of the flights. The formation mission design problem is formulated as an optimal control problem of a stochastic switched dynamical system and solved using nonintrusive gPC-based stochastic collocation. The stochastic collocation method converts the SSOCP into an augmented deterministic switched optimal control problem. With this approach, a small number of sample points of the random parameters are used to jointly solve particular instances of the switched optimal control problem. The obtained solutions are then expressed as orthogonal polynomial expansions in terms of the random parameters using these sample points. This technique allows statistical and global sensitivity analysis of the stochastic solutions to be conducted at a low computational cost. The aim of this article is to establish if, in the presence of uncertainties, a formation mission is beneficial with respect to solo flight in terms of the expected value of the direct operating costs. Several numerical experiments have been conducted in which uncertainties on the departure times and on the fuel saving during formation flight have been considered. The obtained results demonstrate that benefits can be achieved even in the presence of these uncertainties.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Joint Target and Ionosphere Parameter Estimation in Over-the-Horizon Radar

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      Authors: Ammar Ahmed;Yimin D. Zhang;Braham Himed;
      Pages: 4361 - 4376
      Abstract: Target localization, especially the estimation of target altitude, is a challenging task in over-the-horizon radar (OTHR) because of the narrow signal bandwidth as well as the complexity and uncertainty involved in the ionosphere conditions. This task becomes further complicated when the height of the ionosphere layer varies over time. Therefore, it is important to jointly estimate the instantaneous height of the ionosphere and the target altitude as well as other motion parameters. In this article, we achieve these objectives by analyzing the Doppler frequencies of the target local-multipath signals and the clutter. We reveal that the change of the ionosphere height can either enhance or deteriorate the performance of target parameter estimation depending on its direction of motion relative to the target’s motion profile. In addition, it is found that the received target and clutter Doppler signatures follow the chirp signal profile at the OTHR receiver. Based on these observations, we develop a general framework that achieves joint target and ionosphere parameter estimation and accounts for the velocity and accelerations of both target and ionosphere layer. Unlike existing time-frequency-based strategies for target localization and tracking in OTHR, where the Doppler signatures only directly determine target vertical velocity and the target altitude is estimated indirectly, the proposed model enables direct estimation of target altitude and ionosphere parameters. The parameter estimation problem in the proposed strategy is analytically derived and the effectiveness is verified using extensive simulation results.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Residual Attention-Aided U-Net GAN and Multi-Instance Multilabel
           Classifier for Automatic Waveform Recognition of Overlapping LPI Radar
           Signals

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      Authors: Zesi Pan;Shafei Wang;Yunjie Li;
      Pages: 4377 - 4395
      Abstract: Automatic waveform recognition of overlapping low probability of intercept (LPI) radar signals is an important and challenging task in electronic reconnaissance of the increasingly complicated spectrum environment. In this article, an overlapping LPI waveform recognition processing framework incorporating residual attention-aided U-net generative adversarial network (GAN) and multiinstance multilabel (MIML) classifier is proposed. This framework includes five cascade modules and can achieve satisfactory recognition performance by training with single type of signals only. First, the training signals are transformed into time–frequency images. Then, a residual attention U-net GAN (RAUGAN) with residual learning is employed to reconstruct signal images from noise-contaminated images and with the supervision of the high-quality ones. After that, an instance generation module with asymmetric convolutions generates instance representations, which are then fed into the subsequent residual attention MIML classifier (RAMIML). Finally, an adaptive threshold calibration module is implemented to obtain appropriate thresholds for the final decision. Besides, two loss functions are elaborately designed for the RAUGAN and RAMIML, respectively. Extensive experimental results validate the recognition performance of the proposed framework with a recognition accuracy of 80$%$ at signal-to-noise ratio $>-18$ dB and show higher robustness on the power ratios and generative performance compared with other state-of-the-art methods.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Ensemble of Metaheuristic and Exact Algorithm Based on the
           Divide-and-Conquer Framework for Multisatellite Observation Scheduling

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      Authors: Guohua Wu;Qizhang Luo;Xiao Du;Yingguo Chen;Ponnuthurai Nagaratnam Suganthan;Xinwei Wang;
      Pages: 4396 - 4408
      Abstract: Satellite observation scheduling plays a significant role in improving the efficiency of Earth observation systems. To solve the large-scale multisatellite observation scheduling problem, this article proposes an ensemble of metaheuristic and exact algorithms based on a divide-and-conquer framework (EHE-DCF), including a task allocation phase and a task scheduling phase. In the task allocation phase, each task is allocated to a proper orbit based on a metaheuristic incorporated with a probabilistic selection and a tabu mechanism derived from ant colony optimization and tabu search, respectively. In the task scheduling phase, we construct a task scheduling model for every single orbit and solve the model by using an exact method (i.e., branch and bound, B&B). The task allocation and task scheduling phases are performed iteratively to obtain a promising solution. To validate the performance of the EHE-DCF, we compare it with B&B, three divide-and-conquer-based metaheuristics, and a state-of-the-art metaheuristic. Experimental results show that the EHE-DCF can obtain higher scheduling profits and complete more tasks compared with existing algorithms. The EHE-DCF is especially efficient for large-scale satellite observation scheduling problems.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Space-Based Sub-THz ISAR for Space Situational Awareness - Laboratory
           Validation

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      Authors: Emidio Marchetti;Andrew G. Stove;Edward G. Hoare;Mikhail Cherniakov;David Blacknell;Marina Gashinova;
      Pages: 4409 - 4422
      Abstract: The advantages of sub-terahertz technology (sub-THz, 200–700 GHz) have already been advanced for imaging and recognition of a space object's state from a space-based sensor using inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR). The technology benefits from wide absolute signal bandwidths, giving high range resolution and from enhanced sensitivity to surface texture. An experimental validation of such a system in controlled laboratory conditions is presented. Possible image formation methods are proposed and evaluated experimentally. Images of real parts of satellites have been produced at sub-THz frequencies and compared to lower frequency images. Other results include sub-THz bistatic ISAR, and sub-THz cross-polarized images which highlight the scattering from rough surfaces while attenuating the very bright scatterers seen from conventional monostatic images.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Wald Test for Adaptive Array Detection With General Configuration

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      Authors: Jun Liu;Weijian Liu;Xun Chen;Danilo Orlando;Alfonso Farina;
      Pages: 4423 - 4433
      Abstract: Assume that a modern radar system has a general antenna array configuration consisting of primary channels with high-gain beams and reference channels with low-gain beams. We consider the target detection problem for such array radar systems in Gaussian disturbance with unknown covariance matrix. An adaptive detector is proposed according to the criterion of Wald test. The statistical properties of the proposed detector are provided in the mismatched case, where the nominal target steering vector may not be aligned with the true target steering vector. An analytical expression for the probability of false alarm is derived, which reveals that the proposed detector has a constant false alarm rate property with respect to the disturbance covariance matrix. Moreover, a closed-form expression for the detection probability is obtained in the mismatched case. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed detector exhibits strong robustness against the target steering vector mismatch.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Concurrent Bidirectional TDoA Positioning in UWB Network With Free-Running
           Clocks

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      Authors: Václav Navrátil;Josef Krška;František Vejražka;
      Pages: 4434 - 4450
      Abstract: This article proposes an approach of time-difference-of-arrival (TDoA) positioning in ultrawideband networks, where user tags localize themselves by means of the exploitation of the broadcasted synchronization messages of the anchor network. Such an approach promises an unlimited number of localized devices; moreover, the position is available directly at the user terminal. The key challenge of this method is to eliminate the errors caused by tag clock drifts, which render the TDoA measurements useless when left uncorrected. Our method employs extended Kalman filtering for the estimation of position and the elimination of the drift-induced errors. It is shown that the system performance is similar to that of the more common TDoA method, where the tags transmit blinks received by the anchors. However, the anchors are still able to receive the blink messages and estimate the position of those tags, since the synchronization messages are exploited. Therefore, it is possible to use both the directions of TDoA positioning concurrently; a limited number of tags is tracked by the infrastructure and all tags may compute their positions. The TDoA solutions have achieved a root-mean-square horizontal accuracy of 25.9 and 33.6 cm, respectively.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Analytical Evaluation of Power-Amplifier-Based Charging Methodology and
           Energy Efficiency Optimization Framework for Aerial Base Stations

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      Authors: Archiman Lahiry;Khoa N. Le;Vo Nguyen Quoc Bao;Vivian W.Y. Tam;
      Pages: 4451 - 4472
      Abstract: In this article, a radio-frequency (RF) power-amplifier (PA) system configuration for the on-board energy conversion is proposed for unmanned aerial vehicle base station’s (UAV-BS’s) battery charging. First, the PA system utilizes the internal RF source for energy conversion so that perpetual battery charging is possible without external power sources. Therefore, a continuous battery charging of the UAV-BS is possible while providing wireless network coverage by hovering over the target location. In addition, the proposed PA system offers a higher RF power control resolution than the existing PA works, which is desirable for precise power control of the UAV-BS. The objective of simultaneous RF power control and battery charging by the PA system is achieved by activating one Wilkinson power divider (WPD) with a specific power splitting ratio in the power divider bank. The simulations show that the dynamic activation of ten distinct unequal split WPDs of the proposed PA system improves the RF power control resolution by $157$ and $396{,}%$ compared to the existing PAs. Additionally, the simulations show that the PA’s power added efficiency fluctuation is reduced by $54$ and $82{,}%$ compared to the existing PAs. In addition, it will be shown that the proposed on-board battery charging increases the hovering time by $7.4{,}%$. Furthermore, an energy-efficiency optimization framework for UAV-BS’s is proposed considering real-world communication system’s hardware imperfections, and the proposed result suggests that UAV-BS’s flight time may decrease by $50{,}%$ depending upon the type of UAV-BS RF components.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • ArduPilot-Based Adaptive Autopilot: Architecture and Software-in-the-Loop
           Experiments

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      Authors: Simone Baldi;Danping Sun;Xin Xia;Guopeng Zhou;Di Liu;
      Pages: 4473 - 4485
      Abstract: This article presents an adaptive method for ArduPilot-based autopilots of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). ArduPilot is a popular open-source unmanned vehicle software suite. We explore how to augment the PID loops embedded inside ArduPilot with a model-free adaptive control method. The adaptive augmentation, adopted for both attitude and total energy control, uses input/output data without requiring an explicit model of the UAV. The augmented architecture is tested in a software-in-the-loop UAV platform in the presence of several uncertainties (unmodeled low-level dynamics, different payloads, time-varying wind, and changing mass). The performance is measured in terms of tracking errors and control efforts of the attitude and total energy control loops. Extensive experiments with the original ArduPilot, the proposed augmentation, and alternative autopilot strategies show that the augmentation can significantly improve the performance for all payloads and wind conditions: the UAV is less affected by wind and exhibits more than 70% improved tracking, with more than 7% reduced control effort.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Implementation and Testing of a Retrodirective Cross-Eye Jammer

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      Authors: Frans-Paul Pieterse;Warren P. du Plessis;
      Pages: 4486 - 4494
      Abstract: One of the few electronic attack techniques that can deceive radars in angle is cross-eye jamming, which mimics the naturally-occurring phenomenon glint. The extreme tolerance requirements of cross-eye jamming mean that a retrodirective implementation is required, but published measurements of cross-eye jamming either ignore the retrodirective implementation or only simulate it. The implementation of a retrodirective cross-eye jammer and its testing against a monopulse radar are described. A procedure for calibrating the jammer is outlined and is shown to be effective by achieving large angular errors. The measured results agree well with the extended analysis of cross-eye jamming and confirm that the implemented jammer is retrodirective. Specifically, the ability of a cross-eye jammer to generate an indicated angle that never becomes zero, thereby potentially breaking a tracking lock, is confirmed.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • In-Flight Performance Assessment of the Single-Frequency GPS/BDS Receiver
           for Yaogan-30 Series Satellites Real-Time Navigation

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      Authors: Xuewen Gong;Wanwei Zhang;Jizhang Sang;Fuhong Wang;Wenwu Ding;
      Pages: 4495 - 4505
      Abstract: Within the Yaogan-30 series satellites, the low-cost single-frequency Global Positioning System/BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (GPS/BDS) receiver was employed for onboard real-time navigation. This article presents the in-flight performance of the single-frequency GPS/BDS receiver, including the tracking of GPS/BDS satellites, the noise of measurements, and the orbit accuracy of onboard real-time navigation results. First, in terms of satellites tracking, no BDS-2 satellites are tracked in 30–40% of all the time, four to seven BDS-2 satellites can be observed for less than 15% of the time, and only one to three BDS-2 satellites are available for the rest time, whereas 7–12 GPS satellites are tracked for the vast majority of the time. Obviously, the GPS observations play a more important role than BDS-2 data in real-time navigation and precise orbit determination (POD). Although the receivers only provide the single-frequency C/A-code pseudorange measurements without carrier-phases output, the accuracies of postprocessed POD could arrive at the level of 10–25 cm in terms of 3-D position. Hence, the post precise orbits are used as the reference for the assessment of real-time navigation accuracy. The assessment results demonstrate that the onboard real-time navigation accuracies of 2.0–3.5 m for 3-D position and 10.0–13.0 mm/s for 3-D velocity are achievable. At the same time, the statistics on the C/A-code pseudorange residuals after POD processing reflects that the noises of measurements from GPS and BDS-2 satellites are at the same level of 0.5–1.6 m. It should be noted that there is a notable velocity deviation of up to about 7.6 mm/s. Nevertheless, even with this obvious systematic error, the current velocity accuracy could still meet the real-time requirements of the small Yaogan-30 series satellites. In addition, some offline simulative solutions with tuned strategy settings are tested to validate the potential real-time-navigation accuracy improvement. The simulation experiment tests results illustrate that a higher real-time orbit accuracy of roughly 1.0 m for 3-D position and 1.0 mm/s for 3-D velocity could be obtainable, if an optimized power spectral density of estimated empirical accelerations and a slightly higher order and degree of gravity model (50×50) are adopted. All the above analyses show that the single-frequency pseudorange Global Navigation Satellite System receiver is a high cost-effective sensor and has a wide horizon of application in the aerospace market.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • GNSS Signal Processing Based Attitude Determination of Spinning
           Projectiles

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      Authors: Suresh Dahiya;Vaibhav Saini;Arun Kumar Singh;
      Pages: 4506 - 4516
      Abstract: This article presents a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) based attitude (pitch, roll, and heading) determination method for spinning objects by estimating the unit vector along the projectile nose and the antenna pointing vector that lies radially in the plane of rotation. A theoretical framework of a spinning platform is developed by exploiting the periodic variations of the received signal. The presented method provides a drift-free attitude determination of spinning projectiles directly in earth-centered earth-fixed reference. The scheme may find a good combination with low-cost small projectiles where the provision of advanced inertial sensors is constrained by cost and installation space. The proposed solution can be adopted for different degrees of accuracy and computational complexity. The performance guarantee for the proposed algorithm is established using simulated data and real GNSS data. For real satellite signals, the performance results are validated using an experimental setup having a roll rate of around 750 r/min.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Nonlinear Predictive Optimization for Deploying Space Tethered Satellite
           via Discrete-Time Fractional-Order Sliding Mode

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      Authors: Xiaolei Li;Guanghui Sun;Zhian Kuang;Shuo Han;
      Pages: 4517 - 4526
      Abstract: This article develops a discrete-time fractional-order sliding mode control scheme to deploy space tethered satellite, with the nonlinear predictive optimization of underactuated dynamics. Firstly, by the discrete-time Euler–Lagrangian mechanics, the discrete-time dynamical equations are derived for the tether deployment, and some preliminaries of discrete-time fractional-order calculus are prepared. Secondly, a model predictive control (MPC)-based hybrid sliding manifold is designed based on the discrete-time fractional-order sliding mode and nonsingular terminal sliding mode. These two sliding modes correspond to the actuated and underactuated states of tethered system, whose nonlinear coupling is explicitly regulated by MPC optimization. Then, an MPC-based discrete-time fractional-order sliding mode control is raised to drive system states onto the hybrid sliding manifold, by solving the online optimization problem of the contractive MPC scheme. Furthermore, a compensation analysis of input saturation is presented to deal with the adverse impact of saturated tension, and realize a more stable early deployment. Finally, numerical simulations and comparisons of tether deployment are performed, to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed scheme.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Space-Time Varying Plasma Sheath Effect on Hypersonic Vehicle-Borne SAR
           Imaging

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      Authors: Lihao Song;Bowen Bai;Xiaoping Li;Gezhao Niu;Yanming Liu;Liang Zhao;
      Pages: 4527 - 4539
      Abstract: Hypersonic vehicle-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging has enormous potential in civilian and military application due to high speed and strong survivability of the hypersonic vehicle. However, owing to high temperature and high pressure, a plasma flow, called plasma sheath, covers the hypersonic vehicle. The electron density of the plasma sheath varies with space and time, and space-time varying plasma sheath will affect hypersonic vehicle-borne SAR imaging severely. In this article, the effect of space-time varying plasma sheath on hypersonic vehicle-borne SAR imaging is investigated. First, the SAR signal model coupling space-time varying plasma sheath effect is established using the transmission line method. The variation law of electron density is based on flow field theory and experiment. The double propagation for SAR signal in plasma sheath and the time sequence of electron density for transmitting and receiving period are investigated and included in the SAR signal model. Moreover, the modulation effect of SAR signal under space-time varying plasma sheath is studied, and the range compressed signal under plasma sheath is derived. Based on the SAR signal model, hypersonic vehicle-borne SAR imaging defocus phenomenon with the presence of space-time varying plasma sheath is systematically analyzed. The simulation shows that the point target imaging result under plasma sheath is composed of several azimuth defocus strips, and in each strip the range dimension defocuses. The results of point target imaging and a SAR image of an area under plasma sheath verifies theory and analysis in this article. Finally, the SAR imaging degradation under different SAR and plasma sheath parameters are studied and the condition that serious defocus occurs is analyzed. The work in this article will benefit the study of hypersonic vehicle-borne SAR imaging method under plasma sheath in the future.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Ballistic Object Trajectory and Impact Point Estimation in the Reentry
           Phase From a Moving Passive Sensor

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      Authors: Zijiao Tian;Kaipei Yang;Meir Danino;Yaakov Bar-Shalom;Benny Milgrom;
      Pages: 4540 - 4550
      Abstract: This article considers the problem of estimating the trajectory of a ballistic target in the reentry phase using 2-D measurements (azimuth and elevation angles) from a moving passive sensor. Previous works investigated the estimation problem of an object in the thrusting and initial ballistic phase from a single fixed passive sensor. This article shows that the 3-D trajectory in the reentry phase can be obtained by estimating the target’s state at the end of the observation interval. The 7-d motion parameter vector (velocity azimuth angle, velocity elevation angle, drag coefficient, target speed, and 3-D position) is estimated by the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator with numerical search. Then we can predict the future position at an arbitrary time and the impact point of the target. The observability of the system for a sensor on a fast aircraft moving with constant velocity or maneuvering is verified via the invertibility of the Fisher information matrix. This is a major extension of the applicability of the recent observability proof for a stationary passive sensor observing a target in a gravitational field. The Cramer–Rao lower bound for the estimated parameters is evaluated and it shows that the estimates are statistically efficient. The angle estimation performance for the ML estimator is also compared with that of the polynomial fitting method. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Deep Learning-Enabled File Popularity-Aware Caching Replacement for
           Satellite-Integrated Content-Centric Networks

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      Authors: Luyao Liu;Yue Li;Yunlai Xu;Qinyu Zhang;Zhihua Yang;
      Pages: 4551 - 4565
      Abstract: In recent years, satellite-integrated content centric networking (SCCN) has become an important solution for the future network with excellent bandwidth savings and file distribution capability in a wide range by the intrinsic caching function. At present, however, the high-speed changes of satellite network topology and coverage make it difficult to predict the file popularity of SCCN network, resulting in a low timeliness. This will lead to low node cache efficiency and bad data distribution performance. To address this issue, in this article, we have proposed a deep learning-enabled file popularity-aware caching replacement mechanism to achieve efficient file distribution in SCCN. In the proposed mechanism, we have developed a virtual location division scheme to keep the return path of content data invariable by remapping the time-varying topology of network into a static topology with virtual nodes. Furthermore, we have put forward a minimum delay file-caching set algorithm to predict the popularity of files in the proposed SCCN via a well-designed deep learning framework, which can find those high-popularity files most worthy of caching. The simulation results verified the proposed method can obviously degrade the access delay of all users and the cache hit ratio of satellite nodes, compared with current strategies, i.e., cache everything everywhere with least recently used, probCache, content-aware placement and discovery, and replacement (APDR), respectively.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Adaptive Estimation of K-Distribution Shape Parameter Based on Fuzzy
           Statistical Normalization Processing

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      Authors: Xinbiao He;Yanwei Xu;Minggang Liu;Chengpeng Hao;Chaohuan Hou;
      Pages: 4566 - 4577
      Abstract: It is difficult to estimate the parameters of K-distribution in inhomogeneous reverberation or clutter, which usually consists of interferences such as strong scattering objects in sonar data or sea-spikes in radar data. In this article, a shape parameter adaptive estimation scheme based on fuzzy statistical normalization processing is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy by adaptively suppress the interferences. Influences imposed by the interferences were studied and analyzed. Performance analysis based on simulated data and real sonar data showed that the proposed adaptive estimation method can suppress the interferences adaptively and, thus, improve the performance of K-distribution shape parameter estimation remarkably.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Adaptive Control on SE(3) for Spacecraft Pose Tracking With Harmonic
           Disturbance and Input Saturation

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      Authors: Hongzhu Zhang;Dong Ye;Yan Xiao;Zhaowei Sun;
      Pages: 4578 - 4594
      Abstract: This article investigates the coupled attitude and orbit tracking maneuver control problem of a spacecraft system in close space missions with model uncertainty, unknown disturbance, and input saturation. An adaptive compact control scheme with featuring of disturbance rejection and antiwindup is reported. First, the exponential coordinates on Lie group SE(3) are employed to describe the relative pose, which includes the relative position and attitude, and the tracking error system is established by introducing an instrumental error variable, which contains exponential coordinates and velocity tracking error. Then, a dynamic disturbance compensator is constructed based on the idea of internal model design to finely compensate for a class of unknown harmonic disturbances. Furthermore, a nonsingular auxiliary system is proposed to overcome input saturation, in which a time-varying parameter is introduced to improve the performance of the antiwindup auxiliary system. This parameter makes the closed-loop system possess two properties: the timeliness of saturation compensation and the asymptotic convergence of tracking errors. With the developed control law, the stability of the obtained feedback system is strictly proved by means of Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the numerical simulation is carried out for an on-orbit servicing mission, which validates the effectiveness of the proposed integrated controller in solving the pose tracking control problem.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Adaptive Sliding Mode Control of a Perturbed Satellite in a Formation
           Antenna Array

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      Authors: Mason E. Nixon;Yuri B. Shtessel;
      Pages: 4595 - 4614
      Abstract: Control of a perturbed satellite formation antenna array, with dual quaternion dynamics, is considered. The perturbations and their derivatives are assumed bounded with unknown bounds. The objective of this article is to employ continuous control algorithms which feature adaptive gain nonoverestimation. In this work, three novel dual quaternion-based adaptive continuous sliding mode control algorithms to control a perturbed satellite antenna array are assessed. These methods of adaptive sliding mode control are caspable of handling coupled perturbed systems, such as dual quaternion models. The efficacy of the proposed algorithms is verified via simulations and comparison to the available traditional PD Plus controller and classical sliding mode control methods.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A Framework for Collaborative All-Source Navigation With Fault Detection
           and Exclusion

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      Authors: Jonathon S. Gipson;Robert C. Leishman;
      Pages: 4615 - 4625
      Abstract: The ARMAS-SOM framework fuses collaborative all-source sensor information in a resilient manner with fault detection, exclusion, and integrity solutions recognizable to a GNSS user. This framework uses a multifilter residual monitoring approach for fault detection and exclusion, which is augmented with an additional “observability” extended Kalman filter sublayer for resilience. We monitor the a posteriori state covariances in this sublayer to provide intrinsic awareness when navigation state observability assumptions required for integrity are in danger. The framework leverages this to selectively augment with offboard information and preserve resilience. By maintaining split parallel collaborative and proprioceptive instances and employing the “stingy collaboration” technique, we are able to maximize efficient use of network resources, limit the propagation of unknown corruption to a single donor, and maintain consistent collaborative navigation without fear of double-counting in a scalable processing footprint. Last, we preserve the ability to return to autonomy and are able to use the same intrinsic awareness to notify the user when it is safe to do so.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Dynamic Estimation of Spin Satellite From the Single-Station ISAR Image
           Sequence With the Hidden Markov Model

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      Authors: Yejian Zhou;Shaopeng Wei;Lei Zhang;Wenan Zhang;Yan Ma;
      Pages: 4626 - 4638
      Abstract: With the increasing of on-orbit satellites, target dynamic monitoring becomes more and more important in space situation awareness applications. Currently, there are some exploratory methods monitoring attitude-stabilized targets using various high-resolution remote sensing technologies. However, it is still a big challenge to achieve dynamic estimation of spin satellite with single sensor. Inspired by the existing matching based works, this article presents a dynamic estimation method of spin satellite using single-station inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images. When the angle accumulation is set to be a constant in each ISAR imaging period, the projection change of target structures in the long-term observation sequence is described with the hidden Markov model to build the mathematic expression of target on-orbit state. In this condition, target sequential attitude can be solved with Viterbi decoding algorithm even the azimuth scaling of each image is difficulty due to target spin motion. Then, combined with the radar observation geometry, target sequential attitude parameters are substituted into a spin parameter optimization, which is solved by particle swarm optimization algorithm. In the end, target instantaneous attitude vectors and spin speed are used to express its dynamic during the observation period. Simulation experiments of a typical spin spacecraft, Tiangong-I, confirm the feasibility of the proposed algorithm, and its superiority is also investigated by comparison with the existing work.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Integrated Tracking and ISAR Imaging Using an Integrated Kalman Filter
           With Wideband Radar

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      Authors: Shaopeng Wei;Lei Zhang;Hongwei Liu;
      Pages: 4639 - 4655
      Abstract: Traditionally, inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging and target tracking are two separate and independent processes. ISAR imaging is usually achieved after data collecting and tracking for a long time, resulting in the problems of low imaging efficiency, information loss, and probing resource allocation difficulty. In this article, we proposed an integration method of tracking and imaging with wideband radar by constructing the relation among signal, data, and image domains, which can realize accurate tracking and high data-rate imaging at the same time. In this integrated imaging and tracking method, a complex-valued reference high-resolution range profile (HRRP) is generated and predicted by exploiting the relation among range-Doppler image, echo in time domain, and target’s motion state. Then, a Bayes estimation model is built to extract range phase error between the predicted HRRP and the real-measured HRRP, and the Kalman filter can update the motion state. In addition, in order to increase the efficiency, the decentralized Kalman filter is also introduced to realize the subaperture parallel processing and data fusion in this article. Finally, the sequential motion compensation is carried out to realize accurate motion compensation and sequential imaging. The simulated and real-measured data confirm the proposed algorithm’s robust imaging and tracking performance. Experimental results show that the proposed method has excellent efficiency and can simultaneously realize sequential imaging and accurate tracking.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Battery Current and Temperature Mission Profiles for CubeSats at Low Earth
           Orbit

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      Authors: Vaclav Knap;Szymon Beczkowski;Lars Kjeldgaard Vestergaard;Daniel-Ioan Stroe;
      Pages: 4656 - 4668
      Abstract: CubeSats, a branch of the space industry, has lately received great interest for being an affordable satellite platform. For proper functioning, they are nowadays practically dependent on lithium-ion batteries as a power supply at moments, when there is not enough power generated by solar panels. Thus, batteries have to be thoroughly tested to ensure that they provide sufficient performance, lifetime, and that they are safe. In other industry areas, such as electric vehicles, it is common to use mission profiles (often referred to as driving profiles) for battery testing to closely emulate conditions that are experienced in practice. However, mission profiles reflecting closely CubeSat conditions are not publicly available. Thus, this article proposes a methodology to derive mission profiles, and resulting representative mission profiles, dedicated especially to battery testing. The proposed methodology is based on analyzed telemetry data from three GOMX CubeSats. At first, electrical current characteristics are obtained from the telemetry and are generalized across the satellites, to be subsequently used for the mission profile synthesis. The battery temperature is an important factor for the battery performance and lifetime, and it was identified to be very dynamic in CubeSats. Thus, a model describing battery temperature during their mission is proposed to generate realistic temperature mission profiles. Finally, the current and temperature profiles are synchronized to capture their mutual impact on the batteries, and they are formulated to be suitable for on-ground (laboratory) testing.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Mathematical Analysis of the Peak Sidelobe Level of the Ambiguity Function
           for Random Phase Codes

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      Authors: Uri Pe’er;Ning Yang;
      Pages: 4669 - 4680
      Abstract: By using uniformly distributed phases for each bit, one can generate a waveform with an almost ideal aperiodic ambiguity function (thumbtack). Moreover,a set of such codes will potentially exhibit low cross-correlation, making them a family of codes suitable for multiple and diverse applications, ranging from 1) MIMO radars, 2) addressing the joint radar-communication problems, 3) mitigating the interference issues of coexistence of multiple radar systems operating in the same region, and 4) increasing the robustness of the system to jamming. This article presents the full analysis of the probability density function of the peak sidelobe level of such codes, as well as a full treatment of the ambiguity function to show mathematically what could be obtained by generating random phase codes. A simple and effective greedy algorithm for generating multiple codes with improved performance is devised increasing the practicality of this waveform family, and numerical results are provided to support the theoretical ones.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Conjugate Augmented Decoupled 3-D Parameters Estimation Method for
           Near-Field Sources

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      Authors: Hua Chen;Zhiwei Jiang;Wei Liu;Ye Tian;Gang Wang;
      Pages: 4681 - 4689
      Abstract: A near-field source localization method is proposed for 2-D direction-of-arrival (DOA) and range estimation based on a symmetrical cross array. It first employs the conjugate symmetry property of signal autocorrelation for different time delays to construct a conjugate augmented spatial–temporal cross-correlation matrix, then the extended steering vector is decoupled to avoid the usual multidimensional search based on the properties of the Khatri–Rao product, and finally three 1-D MUSIC-type searches are employed to obtain the results. The proposed method can realize automatic pairing of multiple parameters associated with each source and it also works in the underdetermined case. Furthermore, the stochastic Cramer–Rao lower bound with different time delays is derived. Compared with two existing methods, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method provides satisfactory estimation performance for both the DOA and range parameters at low signal-to-noise ratio and with a small number of snapshots.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • GNSS-Imaging Data Fusion for Integrity Enhancement in Autonomous Vehicles

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      Authors: Sara Baldoni;Federica Battisti;Michele Brizzi;Alessandro Neri;
      Pages: 4690 - 4704
      Abstract: The transport sector is experiencing a fast and revolutionary development, moving toward the deployment of autonomous vehicles. Thus, the accuracy of the position information and the integrity of the navigation system have become key factors. In this article, we address the problem of the enhancement of the integrity of the position provided by a global navigation satellite system receiver by exploiting sensor fusion. To this aim, we estimate the lateral offset and heading of the vehicle with respect to a georeferenced roadway centerline from the images supplied by an on-board camera. Moreover, we perform integrity monitoring based on the implementation of the solution separation in the parity space. The numerical results indicate that the use of sensor fusion and digital map allows us to attain a longitudinal protection level reduction with respect to the case in which sensor fusion is not exploited. More specifically, a decrease of about 70% is achieved when a single constellation is used, while reduction is less relevant, about 15%, when two constellations are employed.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Closed-Form Time-to-Go Estimation for Proportional Navigation Guidance
           Considering Drag

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      Authors: Bolun Zhang;Di Zhou;Chuntao Shao;
      Pages: 4705 - 4717
      Abstract: A closed-form analytical method for estimating the time-to-go of a proportional guidance law guided missile is proposed. This method is effective for both stationary and maneuvering targets. It divides the missile flight process into a constant drag-lift ratio flight phase and a constant drag coefficient flight phase, so that the influence of drag can be fully considered when calculating the time-to-go. In this article, the time-to-go estimation for a stationary target is given first. Then, the maneuvering target is transformed into a stationary target by reasonably setting a fictitious target related to the target motion state and a preliminary estimation of the time-to-go for the maneuvering target is obtained. To further improve the accuracy of the time-to-go estimation for the maneuvering target, a compensation item is designed on the basis of the preliminary estimation. The simulation results show that the method proposed in this article can accurately estimate the time-to-go for various targets, and cooperative attacks can be realized by applying the time-to-go estimation to a specific cooperative guidance law.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Nonlinear State Observer and Control Design for Triangular Tethered
           Satellite Formation

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      Authors: Bowen Su;Fan Zhang;Panfeng Huang;
      Pages: 4718 - 4728
      Abstract: This article researches the control of triangular tethered satellite formation (TTSF) system and nonlinear state observer (NSO) design when velocity vector is unmeasured. First, the stability around the equilibrium of open-loop system is discussed, which is stable around certain equilibrium pairs. To improve the system performance, linear feedback control is designed using Jacobian matrix of original nonlinear system, which is locally stable around linearized point. Besides, nonlinear control is designed subsequently which owns global stability domain. Then in case of the unmeasured velocity states, NSO is designed which contains a nonlinear function of estimation error to regulate the observation bias. With the designed nonlinear control and NSO, the simulation of the deployment of TTSF is made thereafter. Compared with linear feedback control and general observer with linear regulation, the proposed nonlinear control together with NSO has global stability domain and less chattering, which is promising in practical application.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Spectrally Compatible Waveform Design for Large-Scale MIMO Radar
           Beampattern Synthesis With One-Bit DACs

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      Authors: Minglong Deng;Ziyang Cheng;Zishu He;
      Pages: 4729 - 4744
      Abstract: Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar with massive antennas is promising for high resolution applications. However, a big challenge of this system is that the hardware cost and power consumption will increase significantly, if high-resolution quantizers are adopted. In this article, we consider MIMO radar deployed with one-bit digital-to-analog converters, and investigate the problem of designing one-bit transmit sequence with good spatial and spectral properties. Specifically, the one-bit waveform design problem is formulated by minimizing the mean-square error between the desired and designed transmit beampatterns, subject to spectral constraints. The resulting problem, including a nonconvex quartic objective and a nonconvex discrete constraint, is NP-hard, and an alternating optimization (AltOpt) framework with the aid of “almost equivalent” criterion is thereby developed to handle it. Particularly, in the AltOpt framework, a low-complexity algorithm is developed based on the alternating direction method of multipliers approach. Numerical simulations are provided to show the advantages of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art techniques in terms of the spatial and spectral properties as well as computational complexity.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • GNSS Interference Type Recognition With Fingerprint Spectrum DNN Method

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      Authors: Xin Chen;Di He;Xinyu Yan;Wenxian Yu;Trieu-Kien Truong;
      Pages: 4745 - 4760
      Abstract: It is known that a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver is vulnerable to interference signals, and the interference type recognition, i.e., classification, is helpful for the receiver to sense the spectrum, select an efficient mitigation solution, or identify an interferer. However, conventional interference recognition methods are subject to feature-based expert classification methodologies that are very sensitive to the choice of features and often lack flexibility to different tasks. Recently, some researchers rely on convolutional networks and transform the interference recognition to image classification. Although straightforward, this type of method suffers problems when classifying more complex interference patterns. In this article, a new GNSS interference classifier is proposed, which is composed of a devised interference fingerprint spectrum (FPS) and an especially designed deep convolutional neural network, named as FPS deep convolutional neural network (DNN). The design of the FPS makes different interference signals more discernible. The proposed deep convolutional neural network greatly improves recognition accuracies, especially at low interference powers. The tests show that the average accuracy of the proposed FPS-DNN can reach more than 95% for nine types of interferences at −110 dBm power. This result is significantly superior to the feature-based expert classifier and the conventional convolutional network classifier. It is also demonstrated that the proposed FPS-DNN has a better generalization performance even if the interference is out of the parameter space of the training dataset.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • $H_{2}$ -OFIR+Filtering:+Improving+Tracking+of+Disturbed+Systems+Under+Initial+and+Data+Errors&rft.title=IEEE+Transactions+on+Aerospace+and+Electronic+Systems&rft.issn=0018-9251&rft.date=2022&rft.volume=58&rft.spage=4761&rft.epage=4770&rft.aulast=Ibarra-Manzano;&rft.aufirst=Jorge&rft.au=Jorge+A.+Ortega-Contreras;Yuriy+S.+Shmaliy;José+A.+Andrade-Lucio;Oscar+G.+Ibarra-Manzano;">Robust $H_{2}$ -OFIR Filtering: Improving Tracking of Disturbed Systems
           Under Initial and Data Errors

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      Authors: Jorge A. Ortega-Contreras;Yuriy S. Shmaliy;José A. Andrade-Lucio;Oscar G. Ibarra-Manzano;
      Pages: 4761 - 4770
      Abstract: In harsh environments, tracking is organized assuming disturbances, initial errors, and data errors that requires robust algorithms. In this article, we develop, in discrete-time state space, a robust a posteriori $H_{2}$ optimal finite impulse response ($H_{2}$-OFIR) filter of disturbed systems under initial and measurement errors. The derivation is provided using a novel $H_{2}$ finite impulse response ($H_{2}$-FIR) state estimation approach by minimizing the squared Frobenius norm of the weighted transfer function. The robust $H_{2}$-OFIR filter is designed for full block error matrices, and its recursive forms are shown for diagonal error matrices. Also presented is the suboptimal $H_{2}$-FIR filtering algorithm using the linear matrix inequality. It is shown that, in global-positioning-system-based tracking of moving vehicles, the $H_{2}$-OFIR filter outperforms the Kalman and unbiased FIR filters in terms of accuracy and robustness. Moreover, the ability to operate on short horizons makes the $H_{2}$-OFIR filter computationally efficient.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • $t$ +Distribution-Based+Kalman+Filter&rft.title=IEEE+Transactions+on+Aerospace+and+Electronic+Systems&rft.issn=0018-9251&rft.date=2022&rft.volume=58&rft.spage=4771&rft.epage=4781&rft.aulast=Zhang;&rft.aufirst=Mingming&rft.au=Mingming+Bai;Chengjiao+Sun;Yonggang+Zhang;">A Robust Generalized $t$ Distribution-Based Kalman Filter

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      Authors: Mingming Bai;Chengjiao Sun;Yonggang Zhang;
      Pages: 4771 - 4781
      Abstract: Since the Gaussian-inverse Wishart hierarchical form has similar properties to Student’s $t$ distribution, we name it generalized $t$ distribution in this article. Based on this, a robust generalized $t$ distribution-based Kalman filter (GTKF) is proposed for state-space models that are eroded by state and measurement outliers. Different from the existing algorithms, the state transition and measurement likelihood densities are directly modeled as generalized $t$ distributions by employing the one-step smoothing strategy.An analytical closed-form solution can be obtained through the variational inference approach. Moreover, two variants of the proposed GTKF are also presented to apply to different engineering scenarios. Simulation and experimental examples demonstrate that the proposed GTKFs yield improved robustness over the existing algorithms.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Unified Control Parameterization Approach for Finite-Horizon Feedback
           Control With Trajectory Shaping

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      Authors: Namhoon Cho;Jongho Park;Youdan Kim;Hyo-Sang Shin;
      Pages: 4782 - 4795
      Abstract: This article presents control parameterization as a unifying framework for designing a linear feedback control law that achieves the finite-time transfer of output as well as trajectory shaping. Representing control input as a linear combination of independent basis functions allows wide variability in the resultant feedback control laws through the selection of the number and types of basis functions. Given an array of basis functions that meets the trajectory shaping necessities, the unified design approach proceeds with the determination of the coefficients so that the predicted trajectory attains the desired output at the final time. The input evaluated with the coefficients found at each instance essentially turns out to be a linear state feedback policy with an additional feedforward term and time-dependent gains, which is appropriate for practical use. The unified control parameterization approach lends itself well to missile guidance applications with the expandability and direct trajectory shaping capability that it provides. To emphasize the expandability of the framework, this study revisits the trajectory shaping guidance laws from the control parameterization viewpoint and shows how the notion of specifying input basis functions not only generalizes various existing methods but also enables further extensions. Furthermore, an application to integrated guidance and control illustrates the strength of the design process in handling the shaping requirements more directly through the construction of appropriate basis.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A Note on Particle Flow Methods for Solving Bayesian Updates

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      Authors: Shozo Mori;David F. Crouse;
      Pages: 4796 - 4802
      Abstract: This note revisits the theoretical foundation of the Daum–Huang particle filter concepts for solving Bayesian updating problems. We reexamine the defining necessary and sufficient condition, in the form of an operator equation, for a flow to generate a particular homotopy between the a priori and the a posteriori probability density functions. We show that two well-known flows indeed satisfy this sufficient condition in the linear-Gaussian case, restating some of the significant results in a recent series of papers coauthored by Fred Daum with our alternative proof, which we hope will provide a useful perspective for future flow-based filter developments.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Constrained Transceiver Design With Expanded Mainlobe for Range Sidelobe
           Reduction

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      Authors: Xianxiang Yu;Tao Fan;Hui Qiu;Ruijia Wang;Guolong Cui;Lingjiang Kong;
      Pages: 4803 - 4813
      Abstract: This correspondence deals with the joint design of transmit waveform and receive filter to achieve low range sidelobe level. The $mathscr{l}_{p}$ norm of the matching error of correlation function template with mainlobe broadening is considered as a figure of merit to minimize. To ensure hardware compatibility and low loss-in-processing gain, peak-average-power ratio and signal-noise ratio loss restrictions on the transceiver are incorporated in our design. Invoking coordinate descent and majorization–minimization frameworks, a fast iterative technique with guaranteed convergence is proposed to tackle the resulting nonconvex and NP-hard optimization problem. Each iteration of the devised approach involves FFT-based operation to sequentially update transmit waveform and receive filter. Numerical simulations highlight that our proposal can outperform some counterparts providing the low sidelobe level and achieve the reliable detection in the presence of multiple targets. Meanwhile, the semiphysical simulation result is also shown to verify the engineering realizability of the proposed design.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Composite Adaptive Attitude Control of Asteroid-Orbiting Spacecraft With
           Regressor Integral Excitation

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      Authors: Keum W. Lee;Sahjendra N. Singh;
      Pages: 4814 - 4823
      Abstract: This article (correspondence) develops a composite adaptive control system for the attitude trajectory tracking of a spacecraft in elliptic orbit around a uniformly rotating asteroid. It is assumed that the spacecraft’s moment of inertia and the asteroid’s gravitational parameters are unknown. The adaptation law designed here includes a positive semidefinite regressor-dependent matrix integral. For its synthesis, the tracking error as well as two model prediction errors are used. This enhances parameter excitation and causes faster decay of the parameter error. By the Lyapunov analysis, local convergence of the tracking error is established. In addition, it is shown that the trajectories of the system converge to two manifolds. Simulation results for a spacecraft on prograde elliptic orbit around asteroid 433 Eros are presented. These results show nadir-pointing attitude regulation. Interestingly, six out of nine unknown parameters are estimated accurately for certain proportional perturbations in the model parameters.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Multipath Mitigation Methods of BOC-Family Signals Based on Dual BPSK
           Tracking Techniques

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      Authors: Chuhan Wang;Xiaowei Cui;Yonghui Zhu;Mingquan Lu;
      Pages: 4824 - 4834
      Abstract: It is well known that for binary offset carrier (BOC) signals the notorious ambiguity problem due to the multipeaked autocorrelation function must be tackled first in order to obtain the potential of improving ranging performance promised by its broader Gabor bandwidth. The existence of multipath makes it more difficult to solve. Dual binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) tracking (DBT) is a kind of low complexity, unambiguous tracking method for BOC-family signals, which makes full use of the coherence between the upper and lower sidebands and employs subcarrier phase locked loop (SLL) and delay locked loop (DLL) to track subcarrier and code components, respectively. Considering that the thermal noise performance of DBT has been fully studied, this article focuses on the analysis of multipath performance and the design of antimultipath methods under DBT framework. The influence of multipath on SLL and DLL of DBT is analyzed first and the corresponding subcarrier and code multipath error envelopes are obtained. Then according to different requirements of subcarrier and code multipath errors, a multipath mitigation scheme specially designed for DBT is proposed, in which SLL and DLL adopt offset correlator and narrow correlation, respectively. Theoretical analysis and simulation are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • A Sliding Window Variational Outlier-Robust Kalman Filter Based on
           Student’s t-Noise Modeling

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      Authors: Fengchi Zhu;Yulong Huang;Chao Xue;Lyudmila Mihaylova;Jonathon Chambers;
      Pages: 4835 - 4849
      Abstract: Existing robust state estimation methods are generally unable to distinguish model uncertainties (state outliers) from measurement outliers as they only exploit the current measurement. In this article, the measurements in a sliding window are, therefore, utilized to better distinguish them, and an adaptive method is embedded, leading to a sliding window variational outlier-robust Kalman filter based on Student’s t-noise modeling. Target tracking simulations and experiments show that the tracking accuracy and consistency of the proposed filter are superior to those of the existing state-of-the-art outlier-robust methods thanks to the improved ability to identify the outliers but at a cost of greater computational burden.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
  • Threshold Regions in Frequency Estimation

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      Authors: Ahmet Serbes;Khalid A. Qaraqe;
      Pages: 4850 - 4856
      Abstract: This article addresses the problem of threshold region characterization of the maximum likelihood (ML) sinusoid frequency estimation. We first study on the exact analytical expression of the probability of detection for the ML mean square error for all the signal-to-noise ranges. Then, we propose a simple asymptotic expression to this ML detection probability and propose a model for the characterization of the variance of the frequency estimation. We also provide asymptotic closed-form expressions to the threshold and the no-information signal-to-noise ratio breakdowns for the ML frequency estimation, respectively. Outcomes of extensive numerical simulations verify our proposed theoretical derivations.
      PubDate: Oct. 2022
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 5 (2022)
       
 
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