Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
    - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)
    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)
    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals)

ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 97 of 97 Journals sorted by number of followers
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
International Journal of Urban and Regional Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
City & Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Urban Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Housing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
European Urban and Regional Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Planning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Urban Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Urban Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Interiors : Design, Architecture and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Housing, Theory and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Architecture and Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Disasters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Urban Studies Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Housing Policy Debate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Cities and the Environment (CATE)     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Urban Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Urban Affairs Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Housing Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Urban Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
City, Territory and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Current Urban Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Urban Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Urban Planning and Design Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Urban Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Landscape Journal : design, planning, and management of the land     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Land Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Housing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Urban Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
URBAN DESIGN International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Housing, Care and Support     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environnement Urbain / Urban Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Land and Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Town Planning and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cityscape     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Urban Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Town and Regional Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Critical Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environment, Space, Place     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Borderlands Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of architecture&ENVIRONMENT     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Town Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Future Cities and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cities People Places : An International Journal on Urban Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Urban Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ambiances     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Rural Landscapes : Society, Environment, History     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of European Real Estate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Research in Urbanism Series     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Geoplanning : Journal of Geomatics and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Land Use Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Strategic Property Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Seoul Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bhumi : The Planning Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Rural Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Urban Land     Free   (Followers: 3)
Il Capitale Culturale. Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Land     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin KNOB     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
A&P Continuidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Smart Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Town Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Insights into Regional Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TeMA Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ángulo Recto. Revista de estudios sobre la ciudad como espacio plural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Rural Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Belgeo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
project baikal : Journal of architecture, design and urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Urbanisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Brussels Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivio di Studi Urbani e Regionali     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Joelho : Journal of Architectural Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Housing and Human Settlement Planning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ager. Revista de Estudios sobre Despoblacion y Desarrollo Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Storia Urbana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Den Gamle By : Danmarks Købstadmuseum (Årbog)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Landscape Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Space Ontology International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alternativa. Revista de Estudios Rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Glocality     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios del Hábitat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Raumforschung und Raumordnung / Spatial Research and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architectural / Planning Research and Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architecture, Design and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Well-Being     Hybrid Journal  
Rural & Urbano     Open Access  
Ciudades     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Landscape Studies     Open Access  
Yhdyskuntasuunnittelu     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
Kart og plan     Open Access  
Vitruvian     Open Access  
Sens public     Open Access  
Procesos Urbanos     Open Access  
Psychological Research on Urban Society     Open Access  
Jurnal Arsitektur Lansekap     Open Access  
RUA     Open Access  
tecYt     Open Access  
Pensum     Open Access  
Les Cahiers de la recherche architecturale urbaine et paysagère     Open Access  
Jurnal Pengembangan Kota     Open Access  
ZARCH : Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Revista de Arquitectura     Open Access  
Revista Empresa y Humanismo     Open Access  
South Australian Geographical Journal     Open Access  
Produção Acadêmica     Open Access  
Revista Amazônia Moderna     Open Access  
Continuité     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Brasileira de Estudos Urbanos e Regionais     Open Access  
Eikonocity. Storia e Iconografia delle Città e dei Siti Europei - History and Iconography of European Cities and Sites     Open Access  
Urban Science     Open Access  
Scienze del Territorio     Open Access  
Ri-Vista : Ricerche per la progettazione del paesaggio     Open Access  
Risco : Revista de Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Urbanismo     Open Access  
Baru : Revista Brasileira de Assuntos Regionais e Urbanos     Open Access  
Pampa : Revista Interuniversitaria de Estudios Territoriales     Open Access  
Revista Márgenes Espacio Arte y Sociedad     Open Access  
Pós. Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo da FAUUSP     Open Access  
International Planning History Society Proceedings     Open Access  
Territorios en formación     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación Urbanística     Open Access  
Revista Movimentos Sociais e Dinâmicas Espaciais     Open Access  
Vivienda y Ciudad     Open Access  
Cordis : Revista Eletrônica de História Social da Cidade     Open Access  
Paranoá : cadernos de arquitetura e urbanismo     Open Access  
História, Natureza e Espaço - Revista Eletrônica do Grupo de Pesquisa NIESBF     Open Access  
Paisagem e Ambiente     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Territorio     Full-text available via subscription  
Sociologia urbana e rurale     Full-text available via subscription  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access  
Revista El Topo     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Desenvolvimento Regional     Open Access  
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território     Open Access  
Cidades, Comunidades e Territórios     Open Access  
International Journal of E-Planning Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Urbano     Open Access  
Territorios     Open Access  
Quivera     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Territoire en Mouvement     Open Access  
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Métropoles     Open Access  

        1 2     

Similar Journals
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Smart Cities
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2624-6511
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1227-1238: Mechanical, Structural, and
           Environmental Properties of Building Cements from Valorized Sewage Sludges

    • Authors: Rkia Zari, Abderrazzak Graich, Karima Abdelouahdi, Mohamed Monkade, Abdelaziz Laghzizil, Jean-Michel Nunzi
      First page: 1227
      Abstract: Building materials can enable the recycling of sewage sludge from tannery wastewater treatment by infiltration/percolation over coal and clay waste. The process avoids energy-intensive operations and yields a stable and environmentally friendly product. The sludge under study is mainly composed of SiO2, CaO, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, which is convenient to replace the mortar in cement. Different mortars were made by substituting a variable amount of sludge, from 0 to 30%, into the standard cement. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the mortar specimens were characterized after curing for 7 days and 28 days. The best properties were obtained with 15% sludge. Above 15%, the strength decreases at an early stage, as confirmed by SEM and XRD analysis, with more voids and ettringites at larger sludge content. The leaching tests of the mortar confirm that the cumulative values of heavy metals are far below the Deutsch regulatory limits (NEN 7043), justifying retention of the metals in the matrix. Radiological assessment of the sludge mortars also confirms their safety with the values of naturally occurring radioactive materials, surface radon exhalation and annual effective dose far below the required limits. The study suggests that 15% sludge can be used to sustainably replace cement and meet building safety requirement standards.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030059
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1239-1253: Can Bike-Sharing Reduce Car Use in
           Alexandroupolis' An Exploration through the Comparison of Discrete Choice
           and Machine Learning Models

    • Authors: Santhanakrishnan Narayanan, Nikita Makarov, Evripidis Magkos, Josep Maria Salanova Grau, Georgia Aifadopoulou, Constantinos Antoniou
      First page: 1239
      Abstract: The implementation of bike-sharing systems (BSSs) is expected to lead to modifications in the travel habits of transport users, one of which is the choice of travel mode. Therefore, this research focuses on the identification of factors influencing the shift of private car users to BSSs based on stated preference survey data from the city of Alexandroupolis, Greece. A binary logit model is employed for this purpose. The estimation results indicate the impacts of gender, income, travel time, travel cost and safety-related aspects on the mode shift, through which behavioural insights are derived. For example, car users are found to be twice as sensitive to the cost of BSSs than to that of car. Similarly, they are highly sensitive to BSS travel time. Based on the behavioural findings, policy measures are suggested under the following categories: (i) finance, (ii) regulation, (iii) infrastructure, (iv) campaigns and (v) customer targeting. In addition, a secondary objective of this research is to obtain insights from the comparison of the specified logit model with a machine learning approach, as the latter is slowly gaining prominence in the field of transport. For the comparison, a random forest classifier is also developed. This comparison shows a coherence between the two approaches, although a discrepancy in the feature importance for gender and travel time is observed. A deeper exploration of this discrepancy highlights the hurdles that often occur when using mathematically more powerful models, such as the random forest classifier.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030060
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1254-1278: Blockchain-Based Business Process
           Management (BPM) for Finance: The Case of Credit and Claim Requests

    • Authors: Bálint Molnár, Galena Pisoni, Meriem Kherbouche, Yossra Zghal
      First page: 1254
      Abstract: Because of the competitive economy, organizations today seek to rationalize, innovate, and adapt to changing environments and circumstances as part of business process improvement efforts. The strength of blockchain technology lies in its usage as an apt technology to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes; furthermore, it prevents the use of erroneous or obsolete data and allows sharing of confidential data securely. The use of superior technology in the execution and automation of business processes brings opportunities to rethink the specific process itself as well. Business processes modeling and verification are essential to control and assure organizational evolution, therefore, the aim of this paper is three-fold: firstly, to provide business process management patterns in finance, based on blockchain, specifically for the loan-application process in the banking industry and claim process in the insurance industry that could be used and customized by companies; secondly, to critically analyze challenges and opportunities from the introduction of such approach for companies, and thirdly, to outline how companies can implement the loan business process as a web service. Partner companies (a bank and an insurance company) formulated the potential requirements for M2P along with the application of blockchain technology. An experimental design framework was established that gave the necessary services to model the requirements, check the models, and operationalize the models. The applied research methodologies are as follows: design science research paradigm and software case study, model-to-programming (M2P) of business processes, and utilization of patterns of workflow and blockchain.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030061
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1279-1302: Stormwater Sewerage Masterplan for
           Flood Control Applied to a University Campus

    • Authors: Bethy Merchán-Sanmartín, Paúl Carrión-Mero, Sebastián Suárez-Zamora, Maribel Aguilar-Aguilar, Omar Cruz-Cabrera, Katherine Hidalgo-Calva, Fernando Morante-Carballo
      First page: 1279
      Abstract: Floods generated by rain cause significant economic and human losses. The campus of the Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL) has a drainage system that conducts stormwater to two discharge points outside the campus. The system works effectively at the macro-drainage level. However, a very crowded area is deficient at the micro-drainage level, which has registered flooding and the proliferation of vectors that affect people’s health. This work aimed to design a masterplan for stormwater sewerage by analyzing the existing situation and applying technical criteria that allow the establishment of solutions and strategies to control floods at the university campus. The methodology consisted of: (i) data collection and processing for the stormwater drainage system diagnosis; (ii) a design proposal for micro-drainage and (iii) a SWOT analysis to propose improvement strategies in water management. The resulting flows for return periods of 5 years, 10 years, and 25 years are 9.67 m3/s, 11.85 m3/s, and 15.85 m3/s, respectively. In the latter, as the most critical area (presence of flooding), the implementation of a trapezoidal channel 80.20 m long, with a capacity of 1.00 m3/s, for a return period of 25 years was proposed. The stormwater masterplan will contribute to the execution of activities within the campus and prevent accidents and the proliferation of diseases, constituting a water-management model that can be replicated locally, regionally, and internationally.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030062
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1303-1324: Dynamic Pricing for the Open Online
           Ticket System: A Surrogate Modeling Approach

    • Authors: Elizaveta Stavinova, Ilyas Varshavskiy, Petr Chunaev, Ivan Derevitskii, Alexander Boukhanovsky
      First page: 1303
      Abstract: Dynamic pricing is frequently used in online marketplaces, ticket sales, and booking systems. The commercial principles of dynamic pricing systems are often kept secret; however, their application causes complex changes in human behavior. Thus, a scientific tool is needed to evaluate and predict the impact of dynamic pricing strategies. Publications in the field lack a common quality evaluation methodology, public data, and source code, making them difficult to reproduce. In this paper, a data-driven method, DPRank, for evaluating dynamic pricing systems is proposed. DPRank first builds a surrogate price elasticity of demand model using public data generated by a hidden dynamic pricing model, and then applies the surrogate model to build an exposed dynamic pricing model. The hidden and exposed dynamic pricing models were then systematically compared in terms of quality using a Monte Carlo simulation in terms of a company’s revenue. The effectiveness of the proposed method was tested on the dataset collected from the website of a Russian railway passenger carrier company. Depending on the train type, the quality difference between the hidden and exposed models can vary by several dozen percent on average, indicating the potential for improving the existing (hidden) company’s dynamic pricing model.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030063
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1325-1344: Perceptions and Attitudes toward
           Risks of City Administration Employees in the Context of Smart City

    • Authors: Karolina Wielicka-Gańczarczyk, Izabela Jonek-Kowalska
      First page: 1325
      Abstract: Smart cities are required to be effectively and efficiently managed in order to ensure the desired level of sustainability and quality of life for all inhabitants. This is a particularly difficult challenge in crisis situations of considerable scale and intensity (for example, the COVID-19 pandemic, armed conflicts, social tensions). For this reason, the aim of this article is to identify the attitudes and perceptions of risk by city administration employees combined with an assessment of their impact on the consequences of risk (the implementation of internal and external threats). The analyses used the results of a survey conducted on a representative sample of 399 Polish municipal offices, as well as descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling. The obtained results show that: (1) employees of municipal offices negatively perceive risk and are aware of its destructive impact on the organization, but are reluctant to report the risks; (2) individual and collective measures are taken in offices to protect against risks, but employees are not always encouraged to report potential sources of risk (rarely in the form of an informal conversation and even more rarely in a systemic form); (3) for the most part, employees are aware that internal and external risks have a negative impact on the operation of municipal offices; (4) the consequences of risks are more strongly influenced by employees’ perceptions of risk than by individual, team, and systemic attitudes toward risk. The added value of the research presented in this article comes from diagnosing the behavioral aspects of urban risk management and assessing the impact of attitudes toward risks and risk perceptions (internal and external) in a broad, representative range.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030064
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1345-1384: The Metaverse as a Virtual Model of
           Platform Urbanism: Its Converging AIoT, XReality, Neurotech, and
           Nanobiotech and Their Applications, Challenges, and Risks

    • Authors: Simon Elias Bibri
      First page: 1345
      Abstract: With their exponentially rising computational power, digital platforms are heralding a new era of hybrid intelligence. There has recently been much enthusiasm and hype that the Metaverse has the potential to unlock hybrid intelligence. This is premised on the idea that the Metaverse represents an applied convergence of Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT) and Extended Reality (XR) that intersects with urbanism in terms of the distinctive features of platform-mediated everyday life experiences in cities. However, social interaction and its resulting social organization in the Metaverse are mediated and governed by algorithms and thus submitted to—a dream of—complete logical ordering. This raises a plethora of concerns related to the systemic collection and algorithmic processing of users’ personal, brain, and biometric data, i.e., profound societal—and the hardest to predict ethical—implications. Therefore, this study analyzes and synthesizes a large body of scientific literature on the unfolding convergence of AIoT and XR technologies, neurotechnology, and nanobiotechnology in the realm of the Metaverse in order to derive a novel conceptual framework for the Metaverse as an envisioned virtual model of platform urbanism. Further, it examines the key challenges and risks of these converging technologies in relation to the Metaverse and beyond. This study employs thematic analysis and synthesis to cope with multidisciplinary literature. The analysis identifies seven themes: (1) Platformization, (2) platform urbanism, (3) virtual urbanism, (4) XR technologies, (5) AIoT technologies, (6) neurotechnology, and (7) nanobiotechnology. The synthesized evidence reveals that, while neurotechnology and nanobiotechnology have numerous benefits and promising prospects, they raise contentions and controversies stemming from their potential use to inflict harm to human users—if left unchecked—through the black box of the algorithmic mediation underpinning the Metaverse. The findings serve to steer the Metaverse to contribute to human flourishing and wellbeing by adhering to and upholding ethical principles as well as leveraging its underlying disruptive technologies in meaningful ways. They also aid scholars, practitioners, and policymakers in assessing the pros and cons of these technologies, especially their inevitable ramifications.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030065
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1385-1397: The Concept of Learning Cities:
           Supporting Lifelong Learning through the Use of Smart Tools

    • Authors: Ionelia Hirju, Radu-Ionut Georgescu
      First page: 1385
      Abstract: This paper presents an initiative in which QR codes on public transport are used to provide citizens with books that they can read and that will improve their general knowledge. It builds on the concept of the learning city and combines it with smart city tools. This paper aims to use a descriptive–empirical approach, including an experiment in Bucharest. This research aims to contribute to the academic world, urban sociology, public administration, and lifelong learning education.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030066
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1398-1415: From Traffic Congestion to
           Sustainable Mobility: A Case Study of Public Transport in Odesa, Ukraine

    • Authors: Sergii Myronenko, Hennadii Oborskyi, Dmytro Dmytryshyn, Vyacheslav Shobik, Dirk Lauwers, Frank Witlox
      First page: 1398
      Abstract: Consistent and reliable information on passenger traffic is considered crucial for the efficient operation of the public transport (PT) network. The PT network is used to improve public services and thus attract more passengers. This study evaluated the passenger traffic in Odesa, Ukraine, due to the inefficient urban transport system. The main aim of this study was to make PT better by examining passenger distribution on traffic routes and specifying characteristics of PT travel influencing individual satisfaction. The metric-tabular method was used to collect data and examine the number of incoming and outgoing passengers at each bus stop. The results of the passenger and PT analysis provide valuable recommendations for optimizing future routes. It is beneficial for transport companies to implement such recommendations so that inefficient transport on the route can be reduced by either reforming the route network or choosing the optimal number of buses. According to the findings of this study, understanding PT services is the most important determinant of PT adoption. The main implications of the findings are of particular interest to policymakers who develop policies in the field of passenger transport and also to transport scientists and students.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030067
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1416-1434: A Cloud-Based Data Storage and
           Visualization Tool for Smart City IoT: Flood Warning as an Example

    • Authors: Victor Ariel Leal Sobral, Jacob Nelson, Loza Asmare, Abdullah Mahmood, Glen Mitchell, Kwadwo Tenkorang, Conor Todd, Bradford Campbell, Jonathan L. Goodall
      First page: 1416
      Abstract: Collecting, storing, and providing access to Internet of Things (IoT) data are fundamental tasks to many smart city projects. However, developing and integrating IoT systems is still a significant barrier to entry. In this work, we share insights on the development of cloud data storage and visualization tools for IoT smart city applications using flood warning as an example application. The developed system incorporates scalable, autonomous, and inexpensive features that allow users to monitor real-time environmental conditions, and to create threshold-based alert notifications. Built in Amazon Web Services (AWS), the system leverages serverless technology for sensor data backup, a relational database for data management, and a graphical user interface (GUI) for data visualizations and alerts. A RESTful API allows for easy integration with web-based development environments, such as Jupyter notebooks, for advanced data analysis. The system can ingest data from LoRaWAN sensors deployed using The Things Network (TTN). A cost analysis can support users’ planning and decision-making when deploying the system for different use cases. A proof-of-concept demonstration of the system was built with river and weather sensors deployed in a flood prone suburban watershed in the city of Charlottesville, Virginia.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030068
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1435-1484: State-of-the-Art Review on
           Shipboard Microgrids: Architecture, Control, Management, Protection, and
           Future Perspectives

    • Authors: Asmaa M. Aboelezz, Bishoy E. Sedhom, Magdi M. El-Saadawi, Abdelfattah A. Eladl, Pierluigi Siano
      First page: 1435
      Abstract: Shipboard microgrids (SBMGs) are becoming increasingly popular in the power industry due to their potential for reducing fossil-fuel usage and increasing power production. However, operating SBMGs poses significant challenges due to operational and environmental constraints. To address these challenges, intelligent control, management, and protection strategies are necessary to ensure safe operation under complex and uncertain conditions. This paper provides a comprehensive review of SBMGs, including their classifications, control, management, and protection, as well as the most recent research statistics in these areas. The state-of-the-art SBMG types, propulsion systems, and power system architectures are discussed, along with a comparison of recent research contributions and issues related to control, uncertainties, management, and protection in SBMGs. In addition, a bibliometric analysis is performed to examine recent trends in SBMG research. This paper concludes with a discussion of research gaps and recommendations for further investigation in the field of SBMGs, highlighting the need for more research on the optimization of SBMGs in terms of efficiency, reliability, and cost-effectiveness, as well as the development of advanced control and protection strategies to ensure safe and stable operation.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030069
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1485-1506: Generating Natural Cities Using 3D
           Road Network to Explore Living Structure: A Case Study in Hong Kong

    • Authors: Zhiyang Xiao, Zhenhan Peng, Zidong Yu, Xintao Liu
      First page: 1485
      Abstract: Compared with administrative cities, natural cities can be generally referred to as the areas generated based on the density of different urban facilities (e.g., point of interest, road network, etc.). To some extent, natural cities are outperformed in some related urban studies, such as urban living structure analysis. Nevertheless, traditional ways of generating natural cities are mostly limited to the planar space. Modern cities such as Hong Kong are vertical cities with high buildings, 3D road networks and land uses. Therefore, traditional nature cities could be biased when applied to 3D cities. In this work, a 3D road network in Hong Kong is adopted to extract true road intersections and generate modified natural cities to explore urban living structures. Numerous living structure units are classified into two parts: tiny and serried ones representing natural cities and vast ones representing rural areas. The classification method applies head/tail breaks, and a clustering algorithm was fitted for heavy-tailed distribution. According to the living structure theory, the living structures of the proposed natural cities and traditional natural cities based on the same road network in Hong Kong are compared. The findings show that the distribution of modified natural city regions is more reasonable compared with typical ones. The improved model will more clearly show the inherent living structure of the city and will allow an analysis of the relationship between the part and wholeness of the city.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030070
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1507-1522: IoT-Based Segregation with Location
           Tracking and Air Quality Monitoring for Smart Cities

    • Authors: Abhishek Kadalagere Lingaraju, Mudligiriyappa Niranjanamurthy, Priyanka Bose, Biswaranjan Acharya, Vassilis C. Gerogiannis, Andreas Kanavos, Stella Manika
      First page: 1507
      Abstract: Massive human population, coupled with rapid urbanization, results in a substantial amount of garbage that requires daily collection. In urban areas, garbage often accumulates around dustbins without proper disposal at regular intervals, creating an unsanitary environment for humans, plants, and animals. This situation significantly degrades the environment. To address this problem, a Smart Waste Management System is introduced in this paper, employing machine learning techniques for air quality level classification. Furthermore, this system safeguards garbage collectors from severe health issues caused by inhaling harmful gases emitted from the waste. The proposed system not only proves cost-effective but also enhances waste management productivity by categorizing waste into three types: wet, dry, and metallic. Ultimately, by leveraging machine learning techniques, we can classify air quality levels and garbage weight into distinct categories. This system is beneficial for improving the well-being of individuals residing in close proximity to dustbins, as it enables constant monitoring and reporting of air quality to relevant city authorities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030071
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1523-1544: Exploring the Challenges and Issues
           in Adopting Cybersecurity in Saudi Smart Cities: Conceptualization of the
           Cybersecurity-Based UTAUT Model

    • Authors: Nawaf Alhalafi, Prakash Veeraraghavan
      First page: 1523
      Abstract: This study aims to explore the challenges and issues in adopting cybersecurity practices in smart Saudi cities and to develop and validate a newly developed cybersecurity-based unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 3 (UTAUT3) model. The study has a twofold purpose. First, it identified the key challenges and issues in adopting smart cities in Saudi smart cities. Second, it developed a technology-based model to adopt cybersecurity practices in Saudi smart cities. Two surveys were conducted to achieve these objectives. The first survey identified challenges and gaps in adopting cybersecurity practices in smart cities, revealing concerns about weak cybersecurity platforms, privacy breaches, and the impact of IT infrastructure advancements on Saudi culture (N = 554: common public). The second survey focused on developing and validating a cybersecurity-based UTAUT3 model (N = 108: IT professionals), emphasizing nine factors: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, safety, resiliency, availability, confidentiality, and integrity of cybersecurity. The model’s validity and reliability were assessed, demonstrating its potential for understanding user behavior and adoption patterns in smart cities. The study findings provide valuable insights into the factors influencing the adoption of cybersecurity measures in smart Saudi cities, highlighting the need for targeted strategies, effective awareness programs, and collaboration between stakeholders to promote a secure and resilient digital environment. Future research may focus on refining the model, extending its applicability to other regions or countries, and investigating the impact of emerging technologies and evolving cyber threats on user behavior and cybersecurity practices.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030072
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1545-1559: Innovations in Shared
           Mobility—Review of Scientific Works

    • Authors: Katarzyna Turoń, János Tóth
      First page: 1545
      Abstract: Shared mobility is developing at a very fast pace around the world, becoming an alternative to classic forms of travel and, according to the public, providing innovative services. In recent years, these innovative services have also gained wide interest among scientists from a multicriteria point of view. However, among the topics and reviews in the literature, no review paper considering shared mobility in terms of innovation was identified. This article’s research objective was to indicate the perception of innovation in shared mobility in scientific works. The results indicate that innovations in shared mobility are a niche topic considered in few scientific works. What is more, in most cases, shared mobility services are perceived as innovative in themselves without detailed service analysis. Moreover, the issues of open innovation, which are closely related to the concept of accessible Mobility as a Service system and smart cities, are often overlooked. In addition, there was no work identified that fully referred to all areas of innovative service. The article supports researchers in the determination of further research directions in the field of shared mobility and fills the research gap in the field of knowledge about open innovation, especially in the context of the development of shared mobility services in smart cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6030073
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 676-691: Open Data Insights from a Smart
           Bridge Datathon: A Multi-Stakeholder Observation of Smart City Open Data
           in Practice

    • Authors: Sage Cammers-Goodwin
      First page: 676
      Abstract: “Open Data” efforts are growing, especially in Europe, where open data are seen as a possible ethical driver of innovation. As smart cities continue to develop, it is important to explore how open data will affect the stakeholders of smart public spaces. Making data open and accessible not only has a managerial and technical component but also creates opportunities to shift power dynamics by granting individuals (and entities) access to data they might not otherwise be able to obtain. The scope of those who could access these data is wide, including data-illiterate citizens, burgeoning startups, and foreign militaries. This paper details the process of making data “open” from the MX3D smart bridge in Amsterdam through a “datathon”. The development and outcomes of opening the data and the event itself bring us closer to understanding the complexity of open data access and the extent to which it is useful or empowering for members of the public. While open data research continues to expand, there is still a dearth of studies that qualitatively detail the process and stakeholder concerns for a modern smart city project. This article serves to fill this gap.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-21
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020032
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 692-708: Perceived City Sustainability and
           Tourist Behavioural Intentions

    • Authors: Stefania Conti, Álvaro Dias, Leandro Pereira
      First page: 692
      Abstract: The focus on the sustainability of tourism destinations and firms is a global trend. However, the implications of those investments in tourist behavioural intentions need further investigation. This study proposes a conceptual framework for exploring the influence of sustainability perceptions and travel behaviour on the intention to recommend and revisit. The results from structural equation modelling and importance–performance matrix analysis show a direct relationship between travel behaviour and perceived sustainability. Additionally, it shows a direct relationship between travel behaviour and perceived value, corroborating previous research on green tourists. By increasing perceived sustainability, managers and marketers can enhance their sustainability strategies based on tourists’ feedback and market the destination to more specific targets via tailored communication. Sustainability perceptions were also found to be a key driver of satisfaction and to have indirect consequences on behavioural intentions of loyalty, representing the ultimate goal of a destination.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020033
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 709-727: Smart Contracts for Managing the
           Chain-of-Custody of Digital Evidence: A Practical Case of Study

    • Authors: Pablo Santamaría, Llanos Tobarra, Rafael Pastor-Vargas, Antonio Robles-Gómez
      First page: 709
      Abstract: The digital revolution is renewing many aspects of our lives, which is also a challenge in judicial processes, such as the Chain-of-Custody (CoC) process of any electronic evidence. A CoC management system must be designed to guarantee them to maintain its integrity in court. This issue is essential for digital evidence’s admissibility and probative value. This work has built and validated a real prototype to manage the CoC process of any digital evidence. Our technological solution follows a process model that separates the evidence registry and any evidence itself for scalability purposes. It includes the development of an open-source smart contract under Quorum, a version of Ethereum oriented to private business environments. The significant findings of our analysis have been: (1) Blockchain networks can become a solution, where integrity, privacy and traceability must be guaranteed between untrustworthy parties; and (2) the necessity of promoting the standardization of CoC smart contracts with a secure, simple process logic. Consequently, these contracts should be deployed in consortium environments, where reliable, independent third parties validate the transactions without having to know their content.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020034
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 728-743: Guidelines for Renewal and
           Securitization of a Critical Infrastructure Based on IoT Networks

    • Authors: Cristina Villar Miguelez, Victor Monzon Baeza, Raúl Parada, Carlos Monzo
      First page: 728
      Abstract: Global warming has increased uncertainty regarding managing traditional water supply systems. Unfortunately, there is a need for the smart management of water supply systems. This work aims to design a solution for renewing and securing critical infrastructure that supplies water and provides water purification inside the range of applications of Industry 4.0 for Smart Cities. Therefore, we analyze the renewal requirements and the applicable use cases and propose a solution based on IoT networks for critical infrastructure in the urban environment. We describe the architecture of the IoT network and the specific hardware for securing a water supply and wastewater treatment chain. In addition, the water level control process for the supply chain and the system that ensures the optimal level of chemicals for wastewater treatment are detailed. Finally, we present the guidelines for infrastructure operators to carry out this operation within Industry 4.0, constituting a development framework for future research on the design of Smart Cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020035
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 744-763: Involvement of Local Authorities in
           the Protection of Residents’ Health in the Light of the Smart City
           Concept on the Example of Polish Cities

    • Authors: Karolina Wielicka-Gańczarczyk, Izabela Jonek-Kowalska
      First page: 744
      Abstract: According to the modern guidelines of the Smart City (SC) concept, smart cities are not only cities that are above average in terms of technology, but first and foremost are focused on the needs of their residents. A key need for quality of life is taking care of health, including education, prevention, and access to medical infrastructure. In the context of the given circumstances, this article seeks to answer the following research question: What is the level of involvement of local authorities in protecting the health of residents in Polish cities in the context of the Smart City concept' The involvement of local authorities in healthcare is considered in five aspects: (1) monitoring of residents’ health needs; (2) health education; (3) preventive healthcare; (4) healthcare infrastructure; and (5) environment and recreation. To obtain answers to the above research problem, surveys were conducted at the local government level in 399 Polish cities. The research utilized statistical measures of central tendency, indices of variation, and measures of interdependence. The results allow formulating the following key conclusions: (1) most of the surveyed cities do not monitor the health needs of their residents, contrary to the recommendations of the SC concept; (2) cities take measures to protect the health of their residents, but these are focused on sports and recreation; (3) the most neglected health areas are health education and environmental and climate protection. The level of involvement of the city authorities in protecting the health of residents is therefore quite low and is mainly image-related. The lack of monitoring of the expectations of the local community has a negative impact on the effectiveness of healthcare activities and the real improvement in the quality of urban life. Meanwhile, according to research results, cooperation with residents and care for meeting their needs is an important determinant of the effectiveness of healthcare. Given the above conditions, it is difficult to be effective both in terms of improving the quality of life of residents and developing fully sustainable smart cities. The research also shows that the involvement of the city authorities in holistic pro-health activities increases with the size of the city, which means that larger entities are more aware of cooperation with stakeholders and the importance of health for quality of life. Therefore, they are better prepared to implement the assumptions of the Smart City concept. The originality and scientific value of the conducted analysis will help fill the research gap in identifying the health determinants of Smart City development and assessing the involvement of city authorities in protecting the health of residents in a multifaceted perspective.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020036
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 764-795: A Bibliometric Analysis of Research
           on the Convergence of Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain in Smart

    • Authors: Morteza Alaeddini, Maryam Hajizadeh, Paul Reaidy
      First page: 764
      Abstract: Smart cities aim to enhance the quality of life for citizens by integrating information technology in various aspects of daily life. This paper focuses on recent innovations in the integration of two prominent technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and blockchain, to manage complex interactions between smart connected devices, individuals, government agencies, and the private sector. By conducting a systematic scientometric analysis and visualization of 505 articles published between 2017 and 2023, we uncover the social, conceptual, and intellectual structures of the literature in this field through co-authorship, co-word, and co-citation networks. Our analysis identifies key insights, research hotspots, specialties, and emerging trends by examining important nodes in the bibliometric networks. The findings of this study can be of interest to both academics and practitioners working in the fields of AI, blockchain, and smart cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020037
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 796-808: Car-Sharing Systems in Smart Cities:
           A Review of the Most Important Issues Related to the Functioning of the
           Systems in Light of the Scientific Research

    • Authors: Katarzyna Turoń
      First page: 796
      Abstract: Currently, short-term car rental services (car-sharing) are a solution that is an alternative to individual motorization, which can be used in cities. With the level of sophistication of the relevant systems, there are more and more problems with their proper functioning. However, to understand the essence of some of the problems or properly introduce a new system to the market, it is important to understand how the systems work and the main relationships between the factors affecting car-sharing. This work aims to comprehensively present the most important aspects related to the functioning of car-sharing in light of the current research, as a form of compendium of knowledge about car-sharing. A review of the literature indicates that the leading areas of research in the field of car-sharing are seven topics related to the origin and history of services, the analysis of the functioning of the services market and criteria affecting the development of the relevant systems, the management of vehicle systems and location, issues related to the sustainable development of transport, IT systems, electromobility in car-sharing, and service optimization and modeling. A detailed analysis of the work carried out in this area allowed for the identification of 15 leading factors influencing car-sharing. This article supports the implementation and improvement of car-sharing services. In addition, it supports researchers during literature reviews and the search for a coherent list of the factors influencing car-sharing.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020038
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 809-818: The Role “Chief Digital Officer
           (CDO)” in Public Municipalities—The Conceptual Effect of a
           Functional Profile for Successful Transformation

    • Authors: Christian Schachtner
      First page: 809
      Abstract: The objectives of this study are to demonstrate the effect of a function called ‘Chief Digital Office’ as a responsible positioning of digitization at the C-level. This is intended to show both the importance of digitization measures and the effect of change projects with a methodical approach in cross-sectional tasks for strategic work. The previous work shows different functional layouts and individual responsibilities without conceptual foundations in the implementation of digital strategies. To provide the first contribution to a common framework for the work of CDOs, a basic concept for public administration based on the municipalities is to be launched. The results lead to statements about the optimization potentials of the status of the study survey of the digitization of German municipalities: “Digital Vorangehen [Leading the way digitally] (2020)”. In particular, this includes the development of a holistic digital agenda, the use of future technologies and the mindset for the development of innovative implementation solutions in both internal service provision and outward-looking services. The value lies in contributing to the establishment of the framework of ‘Public Digital Transformation Governance’ to transfer the fundamental standardization of the action strands into a functional profile.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020039
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 819-845: Blockchain in the Construction
           Industry between 2016 and 2022: A Review, Bibliometric, and Network

    • Authors: Milad Baghalzadeh Shishehgarkhaneh, Robert C. Moehler, Sina Fard Moradinia
      First page: 819
      Abstract: In recent years, applications of Blockchain technology (BCT) have been progressing at a galloping rate in miscellaneous fields, such as finance, education, travel, healthcare, and insurance. However, BCT has gained much popularity in the construction industry, especially in developed nations worldwide, as it can solve real-world problems, including poor payments, inadequate cooperation and collaboration, inappropriate data sharing among stakeholders, and poor efficiency. The current research employs a bibliometric and systematic literature review (SLR) on utilizing BCT in the construction industry. Using co-occurrence and co-citation studies, network visualization and other methodologies concerning the Web of Science (WOS) database and the research contacts’ patterns were investigated in 482 academic papers. Notable publications, conferences, significant writers, nations, organizations, and funding organizations have been acknowledged. Our research reveals that the primary study topics are BCT in the construction industry, supply chain management, smart contracts, sustainability, building information modeling (BIM), the Internet of Things (IoT) and energy efficiency. Several possible fields for further research are mentioned, including the use of BCT in: (i) circular economy, (ii) risk management, (iii) smart villages, and (iv) infrastructure construction projects.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-06
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020040
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 846-877: An Extensive Preliminary Blockchain
           Survey from a Maritime Perspective

    • Authors: Rim Abdallah, Jérôme Besancenot, Cyrille Bertelle, Claude Duvallet, Frédéric Gilletta
      First page: 846
      Abstract: The maritime industry is moving towards a digital ecosystem to achieve substantial mutual profits. To achieve this, there have been attempts to combine existing, disjointed systems into more efficient, standardized platforms that can be scaled up. However, this transition has faced challenges. To address these issues, it is suggested that innovative technologies such as blockchain be utilized due to their alignment with the sector’s needs. This study uses a triangulation approach by examining a mix of literature, web-based data, applications, and projects to showcase the contribution of blockchain and its potential use cases. We also explore its potential use cases based on other sectors using projection and parallelism. Additionally, the study delves into limitations and possible solutions. This research acts as a preliminary study for the implementation of blockchain in the maritime industry, and advocates for its use as a revolutionary approach. The findings will be beneficial for scholars, policy makers, and practitioners in the maritime industry.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020041
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 878-896: Smart Governance Toolbox: A
           Systematic Literature Review

    • Authors: Erna Ruijer, Anouk Van Twist, Timber Haaker, Thierry Tartarin, Noel Schuurman, Mark Melenhorst, Albert Meijer
      First page: 878
      Abstract: Smart city projects rely upon dynamic and complex multi-stakeholder collaboration. This collaboration can be challenging. In this study, we use an instrumental lens and argue that tools can help public professionals in dealing with smart governance challenges. Building upon smart governance and collaborative governance models, we conceptualize smart governance as a toolbox. Based on our “smart governance toolbox”, we assess the variety of tools available for professionals to initiate and support multi-stakeholder collaboration by reviewing academic and grey literature. This review results in the identification of a broad range of tools that research and practice have developed. However, we also demonstrate that certain parts of the ‘smart governance toolbox’ remain almost empty: there are few tools for assessing the smart collaborative governance context, facilitating the collaborative structure, tackling technology issues, and measuring outcomes of smart city practices. Future design research should focus on developing instruments needed to make the smart governance toolbox complete.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020042
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 897-912: ChronoEOS 2.0: Device Fingerprinting
           and EOSIO Blockchain Technology for On-Running Forensic Analysis in an IoT

    • Authors: José Álvaro Fernández-Carrasco, Xabier Echeberria-Barrio, Daniel Paredes-García, Francesco Zola, Raul Orduna-Urrutia
      First page: 897
      Abstract: In industrial environments there are critical devices, so their correct operation must be ensured. In particular, having a secure record of the different events related to these devices is essential. Thus, this record can be used in future forensic investigations in case of accidents or production failures. In this sense, blockchain technology can bring reliability to the event log. In this paper, ChronoEOS 2.0, an extension of ChronoEOS, is presented. This new version can record the events that occur in multiple industrial robotic arms by deploying a Smart Contract in the EOSIO blockchain so that all events are immutably recorded in the blockchain. Furthermore, the new version allows using a unique fingerprint of the robot before registering an event in the blockchain. This fingerprint depends only on the characteristics of the operation and configuration of the robot. For this reason, ChronoEOS 2.0 not only increase the ability of ChronoEOS in terms of handling multiple devices but also increases the security and reliability of the operations. Finally, in this study, we verify that the new improvements have little impact on the hosting resources (RAM and Network are not altered, while CPU consumption is slightly higher due to the device fingerprinting module).
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020043
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 913-928: Trustworthy Users: Using IOTA and
           IPFS for Attribute Validation in CP-ABE and dCP-ABE Schemes

    • Authors: Aintzane Mosteiro-Sanchez, Marc Barcelo, Jasone Astorga, Aitor Urbieta
      First page: 913
      Abstract: Attribute spoofing is a major security threat in information exchange solutions based on Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based-Encryption (CP-ABE) and distributed CP-ABE (dCP-ABE), which can compromise privacy and security. This threat occurs when an attacker forces the Attribute Authorities to generate keys for attributes they do not possess. This paper analyzes the threat of attribute spoofing and identifies the primary attack vectors, including direct interference with the Attribute Authority and compromise of the shared attribute storage database. The authors propose a solution based on IOTA, a DAG-type DLT, and Interplanetary File System (IPFS) to prevent attribute spoofing. The solution requires distributed attribute storage, validation, and user authentication to counteract the two attack vectors effectively. The proposed solution mitigates the consequences of attribute spoofing, including privilege escalation and reduction, acquisition of private keys, and cutoff of data access. The authors also evaluate their proposal through a value-chain use case and conclude that it effectively mitigates the consequences of attribute spoofing.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020044
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 929-943: Analyzing Air Pollution and Traffic
           Data in Urban Areas in Luxembourg

    • Authors: Wassila Aggoune-Mtalaa, Mohamed Laib
      First page: 929
      Abstract: Monitoring air quality is gaining popularity in the research community since it can help policymakers make the right decisions for mitigating the negative effects of the ever-increasing pollution in cities. One of the significant sources of air pollution in urban areas is road transport. Assessing and understanding the relationship between urban traffic and local pollutants is crucial to maintaining sustainable urban mobility. This paper presents an exploratory data analysis of air pollution and traffic in some cities in Luxembourg. Furthermore, we studied the link that several pollutants have with other parameters, such as temperature and humidity. The paper also focuses on traffic and offers more insights for sustainable urban mobility.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-12
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020045
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 944-964: Smart Solutions for Municipal Flood
           Management: Overview of Literature, Trends, and Applications in German

    • Authors: Neven Josipovic, Kathrin Viergutz
      First page: 944
      Abstract: The paper outlines the challenges municipalities face when it comes to dealing with flood disasters and identifies general concepts for smart solutions that address the challenges and help cities to improve their flood resilience. It follows a unique and novel transdisciplinary approach in that it condenses the scientific literature to the most salient concepts in the fields of big data, digital twins, and remote sensing and support. As for big data applications, their main improvement to conventional flood management stems from the integration of different data streams to improve situational awareness. Digital twins not only help to improve the speed and quality of management decisions by visualizing complex data in a simple and accessible way during a disaster; they can also simulate the evolution of a disaster while taking into account the unique characteristics and conditions of a city, thereby acting as a critical element of an early warning system. Remote sensing and support with UAV solve the problem of physical and informational access to a disaster zone. In conclusion, the paper shows that smart solutions can be of great benefit for flood management, and that cities should strive to enhance existing infrastructure and processes with digital technologies.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020046
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 965-986: An Application of the DHI Methodology
           for a Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 Epidemic Hazards in Customer Delivery
           Services of Smart Cities

    • Authors: Rafał Burdzik
      First page: 965
      Abstract: Current awareness of epidemic threats and critical experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic require extension of the management model in the smart city, especially in the field of mobility and transport services, with monitoring of epidemic hazards. This paper addresses the issue of epidemic hazards, a new challenge in smart cities, and customer delivery services. The novel DHI methodology for epidemic hazards assessment is presented and applied to compare customer delivery services in aspects of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic hazards. The case studies presented a detailed analysis of epidemic hazards on the basis of process algorithms and dedicated quantitative scales to assess factors influencing the mechanisms of virus transmission. The developed DHI methodology and the results obtained for transport services constitute important cognitive knowledge for the administrative personnel in smart city.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-16
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020047
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 987-1008: Design and Implementation of a
           Real-Time Crowd Monitoring System Based on Public Wi-Fi Infrastructure: A
           Case Study on the Sri Chiang Mai Smart City

    • Authors: Thalerngsak Wiangwiset, Chayada Surawanitkun, Wullapa Wongsinlatam, Tawun Remsungnen, Apirat Siritaratiwat, Chavis Srichan, Prachya Thepparat, Weerasak Bunsuk, Aekkaphan Kaewchan, Ariya Namvong
      First page: 987
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant changes in many aspects of daily life, including learning, working, and communicating. As countries aim to recover their economies, there is an increasing need for smart city solutions, such as crowd monitoring systems, to ensure public safety both during and after the pandemic. This paper presents the design and implementation of a real-time crowd monitoring system using existing public Wi-Fi infrastructure. The proposed system employs a three-tiered architecture, including the sensing domain for data acquisition, the communication domain for data transfer, and the computing domain for data processing, visualization, and analysis. Wi-Fi access points were used as sensors that continuously monitored the crowd and uploaded data to the server. To protect the privacy of the data, encryption algorithms were employed during data transmission. The system was implemented in the Sri Chiang Mai Smart City, where nine Wi-Fi access points were installed in nine different locations along the Mekong River. The system provides real-time crowd density visualizations. Historical data were also collected for the analysis and understanding of urban behaviors. A quantitative evaluation was not feasible due to the uncontrolled environment in public open spaces, but the system was visually evaluated in real-world conditions to assess crowd density, rather than represent the entire population. Overall, the study demonstrates the potential of leveraging existing public Wi-Fi infrastructure for crowd monitoring in uncontrolled, real-world environments. The monitoring system is readily accessible and does not require additional hardware investment or maintenance. The collected dataset is also available for download. In addition to COVID-19 pandemic management, this technology can also assist government policymakers in optimizing the use of public space and urban planning. Real-time crowd density data provided by the system can assist route planners or recommend points of interest, while information on the popularity of tourist destinations enables targeted marketing.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-17
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020048
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1009-1042: European Union Smart
           Mobility–Aspects Connected with Bike Road System’s Extension
           and Dissemination

    • Authors: Radosław Wolniak
      First page: 1009
      Abstract: The analysis of scientific research described in peer-reviewed journals demonstrates the significance of bicycle road networks in relation to smart mobility. This research was conducted for European Union cities that meet the criteria of having a developed bicycle route network and are ranked among the top 100 European bicycle-friendliest cities in 2021. The study also analyzed whether each city was on national or international lists of smart cities or had smart city initiatives. The study indicates that a comprehensive and well-developed network of bicycle paths is a crucial element in the development of smart mobility solutions within a modern smart city. Among EU countries, cities in northern and central Europe, particularly in Germany, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and the Netherlands, have the best-developed bicycle networks. The research on the correlation between the average temperature level in a country and the average values for smart city bike lanes showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the two variables. The lower a country’s average annual temperature, the more that a bicycle infrastructure is present in its smart cities, as measured by the length of bicycle paths and the saturation of the city with bicycle paths per square kilometer and per 1000 residents. After removing outliers (Finland, Ireland, and Luxembourg), a significant relationship was observed between the wealth of a country and the length and density of bicycle paths in smart cities. The linear correlation coefficient between the length of bicycle roads and GDP per capita was found to be −0.73, which is a high coefficient value.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020049
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1043-1058: “15-Minute City” and
           Elderly People: Thinking about Healthy Cities

    • Authors: Felipe Ulloa-Leon, Juan Correa-Parra, Francisco Vergara-Perucich, Francisca Cancino-Contreras, Carlos Aguirre-Nuñez
      First page: 1043
      Abstract: Considering the global scenario of population aging, which countries such as Chile are going through, the social problems that it means in terms of viability and quality of life for the elderly are increasing and are a cause for concern. For this reason, this study summarizes the results of investigating the accessibility of services and recreational spaces under the parameters of a “15-minute city” for the elderly people in the city of Santiago de Chile. The investigation employed a multivariate geostatistical analysis with a quantitative approach and was developed on a census block scale to test some of the principles of the 15-min city along with the principles on active aging of the elderly. The results are surprising, show a good territorial coverage for the study area and open the possibility of Santiago becoming a 15-min city for older adults. However, there are still several challenges in terms of public policies, from mental and physical health to the design of public spaces, which are fundamental to think about for cities of the future.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020050
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1059-1086: Impacts of Product Variety and
           Supply Chain Networks on the Influx of Information Exchange in Industry

    • Authors: Estu Rizky Huddiniah, Hilmil Pradana
      First page: 1059
      Abstract: Managing product variety is a challenging problem given the increasing complexity of supply chain networks. To overcome this complexity, managing integration in the supply chain is essential for companies to coordinate effectively. By managing the influx of information exchange between the various entities involved in the supply chain network, integration can be achieved successfully. In this paper, we are targeting research questions regarding the impact of the influx of information exchange on product variety and supply chain networks and the key factors influencing its exchange from different industries’ perspectives. To investigate our research questions and to conduct a case study across different industries and companies, this study aims to explore the impact of supply chain network complexity, which causes an influx of information exchange due to increasing product variety through qualitative research. In our results, by categorizing the raw interview data, we visualize correspondent opinions to facilitate deep analysis, including factors such as product variety, supply chain networks, and information exchange. The key factors that can influence the influx of information exchange from different industries’ and companies’ perspectives are presented in our results to provide valuable insights into the significant factors affecting the success of the smart business.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020051
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1087-1108: Smart City Transformation: An
           Analysis of Dhaka and Its Challenges and Opportunities

    • Authors: Ashish Kumar Karmaker, S M Rezwanul Islam, Md Kamruzzaman, Md Mamun Ur Rashid, Md Omer Faruque, Md Alamgir Hossain
      First page: 1087
      Abstract: Cities worldwide are experiencing rapid urbanization and an increasing population, creating a pressing need for smart infrastructure to enhance citizen services. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, faces similar technological and socio-economic challenges, making it crucial to transform it into a sustainable smart city. This research analyzes the opportunities and challenges of smart cities and Dhaka through SWOT and PESTEL analyses. The study employs a fuzzy rule-based inference system in a MATLAB simulation to calculate the smart city index based on parameters such as governance, transportation, waste management, utility management, healthcare, and industrial automation. The findings reveal that good governance has the highest impact on the smart city index, followed by transportation. The paper proposes a sustainable smart city transportation framework and management technique, outlining future research directions. The proposed framework is expected to impact socio-economic, technological, and environmental aspects positively.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-07
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020052
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1109-1131: Effects and Externalities of Smart

    • Authors: Yelena Popova, Sergejs Popovs
      First page: 1109
      Abstract: The concept of a smart city is widely implemented all over the world, and this fact creates both possibilities and new challenges for all participants and stakeholders of the process. This study examines the implementation of smart governance in the context of smart cities. The goal of the research is to distinguish between the effects and externalities of the smart governance domain, both positive and negative ones; the effects and externalities are elicited from the outcomes of smart governance implementation revealed from a review of scientific publications devoted to the results, barriers, and facilitators of smart governance functioning. The publications were selected according to a systematic review methodology, then the selected articles were analyzed and the factors that foster the processes of smart governance implementation (facilitators) or vice versa hamper the acquisition of results (barriers), as well as the outcomes of smart governance, were extracted. The extracted factors were attributed to six areas: Information, Efficiency, Citizen-Centricity, Transparency, Digital Divide, and Regulation. Further, the outcomes of smart governance implementation were distinguished as effects and externalities, which were both positive and negative.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020053
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1132-1151: AHSS—Construction
           Material Used in Smart Cities

    • Authors: Bożena Szczucka-Lasota, Tomasz Węgrzyn, Abílio Pereira Silva, Adam Jurek
      First page: 1132
      Abstract: With the level of development of the smart city, there are more and more research sub-areas in which the latest material and technological solutions are used, enabling the proper management and functioning of these cities. On the one hand, the introduced materials and technologies are designed to facilitate the functioning of residents both in the urban space and at home; on the other hand, the implemented solutions strive to be consistent with the principles of sustainable development. As shown in this article, reports on new technical and technological solutions and their positive and negative effects are strongly emphasized in publications on the development of smart cities. The most highlighted materials research in the smart city area concerns smart materials and their characteristics and applications. A research gap in this area is in the presentation of material solutions, particularly materials intended for the load-bearing structures of vehicles (electric vehicles, flying vehicles) or infrastructure elements (buildings, shelters, etc.) designed to increase the durability of the structure while reducing its weight. This paper aims to comprehensively present the most important research areas related to the functioning of smart cities in light of previous research, with particular emphasis on new material solutions used for thin-walled load-bearing structures in smart cities made of AHSS (advanced high-strength steel). These solutions are very essential for smart cities because their use allows for the installation of additional devices, sensors, transmitters, antennas, etc., without increasing the total weight of the structure; they reduce the number of raw materials used for production (lighter and durable thin structures), ensure lower energy consumption (e.g., lighter vehicles), and also increase the passive safety of systems or increase their lifting capacity (e.g., the possibility of transporting more people using transports at the same time; the possibility of designing and arranging, e.g., green gardens on buildings; etc.). AHSS-welded joints are usually characterized by too-low strength in the base material or a tendency to crack. Thus, the research problem is producing a light and durable AHSS structure using welding processes. The research presented in this article concerns the possibility of producing welded joints using the Metal Active Gas (MAG) process. The test methods include the assessment of the quality of joints, such as through visual examination (VT); according to the requirements of PN-EN ISO 17638; magnetic particle testing (MT); according to PN-EN ISO 17638; and the assessment of the selected mechanical properties, such as tensile strength tests, bending tests, and fatigue strength checks. These methods enable the selection of the correct joints, without welding defects. The results have a practical implication; advanced production technology for obtaining AHSS joints can be used in the construction of the load-bearing elements of mobile vehicles or parts of point infrastructure (shelters, bus stops). The obtained joint is characterized by adequate strength for the production of the assumed structures. The originality of the manuscript is the presentation of a new, cheaper, and uncomplicated solution for obtaining an AHSS joint with good mechanical properties. The application of the presented solution also contributes to sustainable development (lower fuel and material consumption use by mobile vehicles) and may contribute to increasing the load capacity of mobile vehicles (the possibility of transporting more people).
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020054
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1152-1166: Understanding the Links between
           Diversity and Creativity as Assessed in the Boroughs of London

    • Authors: David Pac-Salas, Leandro Sepulveda, Juan Miguel Baez Melian, Jaime Minguijon
      First page: 1152
      Abstract: This paper analyses the links between creativity and diversity in the different boroughs of London. Based on rich data from the UK Census of Population of 2011 and other sources, we specifically analysed the correlations between creativity and diversity within the London boroughs. The main results of this study indicate that there is no direct correlation between creativity and diversity. Some significant correlations have been observed, however, between variables that shape such indices. Namely, the “creative class” tend to live in more diverse, more heterogeneous neighbourhoods (alongside people from many different countries) and they are more prepared to tolerate such diverse environments. The study also shows that diversity of geographical origin (measured by country of origin) is a more relevant factor for boosting creativity than variables such as religious diversity. This article contributes to the theoretical field of research exploring the impact of diversity on creative people and cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020055
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1167-1184: Camera-Based Smart Parking System
           Using Perspective Transformation

    • Authors: Bowie Liu, Hawking Lai, Stanley Kan, Calana Chan
      First page: 1167
      Abstract: The concept of the “smart city” has emerged with the advancement of technology, but some facilities are not sufficiently intelligent, such as parking lots. Hence, this paper proposes an inexpensive and plug-to-play camera-based smart parking system for airports. The system utilizes inverse perspective mapping (IPM) to provide an aerial view image of the parking lot, which is then processed to extract parking space information. The system also includes a guidance system to assist drivers in finding available parking spaces. The system is simulated on a 3D scene based on the parking lot of Macao International Airport. In the experiment, our system achieved an accuracy rate of 97.03% and a mean distance error of 8.59 pixels. This research study shows the potential of enhancing parking lots using only cameras as data collectors, and the results show that the system is capable of providing accurate and useful information. It performs well in parking lots with open space, in particular. Moreover, it is an economical solution for implementing a smart parking lot.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020056
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1185-1201: Factors Affecting Car-Sharing

    • Authors: Katarzyna Turoń
      First page: 1185
      Abstract: Car-sharing systems, i.e., short-term car rental services, are solutions indicated as an alternative to individual motorization; they can be used in an increasing number of cities around the world. These services, along with their intensive development, are becoming more and more complex. Due to their complexity, they involve not only an increasing number of stakeholders or infrastructure elements, but also indicate numerous links with the functioning of cities, especially smart cities. To properly implement or improve the car-sharing system, both in terms of operational issues regarding the system’s functioning or changes in the vehicle fleet, it is important to be familiar with the elements that make up car-sharing, as well as the factors that affect it. This work aims to present the factors affecting car-sharing, as well as the transport model of car-sharing services. This work fills the research gap stemming from the lack of comprehensive studies and knowledge on car-sharing. A detailed analysis of the literature shows that there are six main groups of factors affecting car-sharing: economic and technical, transport, social, environmental, organizational, and other issues; among these factors, more than 150 quantitative and qualitative criteria can be distinguished. Furthermore, the work also showed factors that are a niche in the literature and can be the basis for further research on car-sharing. Detailed familiarity with these factors could translate into increased profitability and, above all, success in the functioning of on-the-market services. This article supports the implementation and improvement of car-sharing services. In addition, it supports scientists in the preparation of scientific papers and mathematical models in the field of car-sharing and the factors that affect it.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020057
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1202-1226: Intelligent and Environmentally
           Friendly Solutions in Smart Cities’ Development—Empirical
           Evidence from Poland

    • Authors: Agnieszka Janik, Adam Ryszko, Marek Szafraniec
      First page: 1202
      Abstract: This study presents a comprehensive analysis aiming to identify the implementation level of intelligent and environmentally friendly solutions (IEFS) in cities in Poland, and barriers impeding their development. Based on a representative sample of 280 cities, it was evident that the implementation level of IEFS in Poland is relatively very low. The most common barriers to IEFS implementation as indicated by representatives of city authorities were high costs, lack of adequate funds, and lack of awareness of benefits resulting from applying IEFS. Nevertheless, regression analyses showed that the IEFS implementation level was mostly affected by cities’ population size and perception of individual IEFS as integral elements of the smart city concept. It was also revealed that the high costs of implementing IEFS, the lack of their inclusion in local development strategies, the lack of appropriate legal regulations, the lack of widespread good practices, and the resistance of inhabitants to change and to new technologies perceived as impediments had significant negative effects on the implementation level of specific IEFS. Furthermore, the analyses demonstrated that perceiving certain issues as barriers did not hinder the implementation of such solutions. Based on a discussion of the results, relevant recommendations and directions for future research are proposed.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6020058
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 179-195: Semantic Reasoning for Geolocalized
           Assessment of Crime Risk in Smart Cities

    • Authors: Rosario Minardi, Maria Luisa Villani, Antonio De Nicola
      First page: 179
      Abstract: The increasing number of crimes affecting urban areas requires the adoption of countermeasures to tackle this problem from different perspectives, including the technological one. Currently, there are many research initiatives with the goal of applying machine or deep learning techniques leveraging historical data to predict the occurrence of crime incidents. Conversely, there is a lack of tools aiming at crime risk assessment, in particular, by supporting the police in conceiving what could be the crime incidents affecting a given city area. To this purpose, we propose the Crime Prevention System, a modular software application for qualitative crime risk assessment. This consists of an ontology of crime risk, a module to retrieve contextual data from OpenStreetMap, semantics reasoning functionalities, and a GIS interface. We discuss how this system can be used through a case study related to the Italian city of Syracuse.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 196-242: Sociotechnical Characteristics of
           Conceptually Related Smart Cities’ Services from an International

    • Authors: Nammi Kim, Seungwoo Yang
      First page: 196
      Abstract: Sustainable smart cities (SSCs) have developed various services and technologies with multi-stakeholderism under multiple names. The characteristics of SSCs are specified by implementing conceptually related smart cities (CRSCs), which are ICT-based transformative cities. Many scholars point out that in-depth empirical studies of CRSCs are necessary to clarify the nature of the sociotechnical transition of SSCs while avoiding the oversimplified narratives of techno-utopia. Utilizing a periodic matrix taxonomy, this study aims to examine empirical characteristics of CRSCs services’ socio-technical transformation from international perspectives. The target cities were sampled using cluster sampling through three screening steps based on four representative documents reflecting the critical aspects of the operational definition of SSCs. The city-level data were collected using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocol and preprocessed with coding and weighting to create a periodic matrix taxonomy. The outcomes are the commonalities and different services’ sociotechnical transitions of sampled European cities from perspectives of multi-stakeholderism. The outcomes have managerial implications demonstrating empirically the sequences of service transformation of European megacities. Theoretical implications for the existing theories also arise through empirical analysis of historical real-city data and specification of stakeholders’ partnerships in conceptually related smart cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 243-262: Exploiting 2D/3D Geomatics Data for

    • Authors: Lucrezia Gorgoglione, Eva Savina Malinverni, Carlos Smaniotto Costa, Roberto Pierdicca, Francesco Di Stefano
      First page: 243
      Abstract: The scarce knowledge and documentation of Underground Built Heritage (UBH) assets frequently limit their full exploitation and valorization. The aim of this work is to reflect on the techniques, functions, and technical features of a specific case study in a very broad context that can, however, be a building block for the understanding, preservation, and reuse of architectural and engineering values that represent a fundamental trace of the history of a society. Therefore, to fill these knowledge gaps, it was constructed a 3D GIS model, multi-scale, and interoperable database, capable of management, promotion, and valorization of UBH. The case study focuses on the old water supply system of the city of Lisbon, as UBH site, with galleries and cisterns that are points of connection with the urban environment above. For the creation of 3D models of the structure under investigation, it was decided to carry out a survey with Mobile Mapping System as a first step, which allowed the construction of a dense point cloud useful to build 3D models of individual objects. Finally, the 3D models were imported into the 3D GIS environment and multi-information could be linked for each previously identified element for greater knowledge sharing. This research has demonstrated how geomatic techniques can be effectively used in conjunction with the information management systems of GIS to explore this “hidden” heritage and has highlighted the limitations and problems of 3D digitization of the UBH. The results obtained offer the possibility of extending and adapting the methodology to different application contexts and the possibility of customizing the data representation.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 263-290: Industrial Data Homogenization and
           Monitoring Scheme with Blockchain Oracles

    • Authors: Denis Stefanescu, Patxi Galán-García, Leticia Montalvillo, Juanjo Unzilla, Aitor Urbieta
      First page: 263
      Abstract: Research efforts on Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLTs) for industrial applications have constantly been increasing over the last years. The use of DLTs in the Industry 4.0 paradigm provides traceability, integrity, and immutability of the generated industrial data. However, Industry 4.0 ecosystems are typically composed of multiple smart factory clusters belonging to several companies, which are immersed in constant interaction with other business partners, clients, or suppliers. In such complex ecosystems, multiple DLTs are necessarily employed to maintain the integrity of the data throughout the whole process, from when the data is generated until it is processed at higher levels. Moreover, industrial data is commonly heterogeneous, which causes compatibility issues, along with security and efficiency issues in the homogenization process. Thus, the data needs to be pre-processed and homogenized in a secure manner before being exploited. Consequently, in this work, we address the issues mentioned above by providing an industrial raw data pre-processing and homogenization process according to a standard data model. We employ decentralized blockchain oracles to guarantee the integrity of the external data during the homogenization process. Hereafter, we design an interoperable plant blockchain for trustworthy storage and processing of the resulting homogenized data across several industrial plants. We also present a prototype implementation of the aforementioned scheme and discuss its effectiveness. Finally, we design a monitoring scheme to overview the usage the performance of the architecture processes and identify possible performance and security issues.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 291-315: On the Implementation of a
           Blockchain-Assisted Academic Council Electronic Vote System

    • Authors: João Alves, António Pinto
      First page: 291
      Abstract: The digitisation of administrative tasks and processes is a reality nowadays, translating into added value such as agility in process management, or simplified access to stored data. The digitisation of processes of decision-making in collegiate bodies, such as Academic Councils, is not yet a common reality. Voting acts are still carried out in person, or at most in online meetings, without having a real confirmation of the vote of each element. This is particularly complex to achieve in remote meeting scenarios, where connection breaks or interruptions of audio or video streams may exist. A new digital platform was already previously proposed. It considered decision-making, by voting in Academic Councils, to be supported by a system that guarantees the integrity of the decisions taken, even when meeting online. Our previous work mainly considered the overall design. In this work, we bettered the design and specification of our previous proposal and describe the implemented prototype, and validate and discuss the obtained results.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 316-318: Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of
           Smart Cities in 2022

    • Authors: Smart Cities Editorial Office Smart Cities Editorial Office
      First page: 316
      Abstract: High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 319-338: Modeling a Digitally Enhanced Real
           World Inspired by Agential Realism—Exploring Opportunities and

    • Authors: Risa Kimura, Tatsuo Nakajima
      First page: 319
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a conceptual-model called the virtualizing/reframing (V/R) twin model to construct a digitally enhanced real world. The V/R twin model simulates the real world, and is an extension of the conventional digital-twin model, which can accurately model the real world and provides a general-purpose method for building digital services that enhance the real world. The major difference between the proposed model and the conventional digital-twin model is its consideration of diverse new information-presentation devices that have been recently developed. The V/R twin model is inspired by agential realism to include the “entanglement of the social and the material”, and the proposed observable-world consists of the social and material that are separate, according to the current context. After explaining the outline of the V/R twin model, where four virtualizing-patterns and reframing-patterns are introduced, the potential opportunities for the V/R twin model are examined, from multiple perspectives.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 339-367: Assessing the Energy and Climate
           Sustainability of European Union Member States: An MCDM-Based Approach

    • Authors: Jarosław Brodny, Magdalena Tutak
      First page: 339
      Abstract: Topics related to sustainable economic development are currently important issues in the modern world. However, the implementation of this concept and related operational strategies raises many controversies. On the one hand, it offers hope for ecological, safe, and independent economic development, while on the other hand, it raises public concerns about the costs of such changes. These problems are widely appreciated in the EU, which is the undoubted leader in implementing the concept of sustainable economic development. With regard to this issue, this paper presents the developed methodology for assessing the sustainable energy and climate development of the EU-27 countries. The basis of this assessment is 17 selected indicators characterizing the most important areas related to this development. Their selection was conditioned by the assumptions of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the goals (7 and 13) of the UN Agenda for Sustainable Development 2030. Five widely used methods for multi-criteria analysis supporting management processes (CODAS, EDAS, TOPSIS, VIKOR, and WASPAS) were used for the study. In order to carry out an unambiguous assessment and determine the final ranking of countries in terms of energy and climate sustainability, a methodology was developed to specify the normalized value of the Final Assessment Score (Asfinal). Based on it, the sustainability of individual EU-27 countries in 2010, 2015, and 2020 was assessed, and this assessment formed the basis for dividing these countries into four classes (levels) in terms of sustainability. The results confirmed the high differentiation of the EU-27 countries in terms of sustainability, indicating leaders as well as countries with low levels of sustainability. The countries with the highest and most stable levels of sustainable development of the economy are Sweden and Denmark. The results provide opportunities for their interpretation, both in terms of analyzing changes in individual indicators and in terms of the global assessment of sustainable development in individual countries. These results should be used when developing an energy and climate strategy for the next few years for the EU as a whole and for individual countries.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 368-391: Analysis of the Bicycle Roads System
           as an Element of a Smart Mobility on the Example of Poland Provinces

    • Authors: Radosław Wolniak
      First page: 368
      Abstract: Based on cited literature, it can be observed that the bike road system is an important part of Smart Mobility. The amount of bicycle roads can be seen as one of the technical-infrastructure indicators used to measure the potential of the Smart Mobility system. Taking this into account the analysis of the development of bike roads in particular provinces of Poland, which is conducted in this paper is a contribution to the knowledge about Smart Cities in the area of Smart Mobility. This publication uses data on the operation of bicycle roads in Poland from 2012 to 2021 for analysis. It uses data collected by the Polish Central Statistical Office. The analysis covered the last 10 years. The latest data that is currently available in terms of complete statistics are from 2021, and it was decided to end the conducted analysis this year. The data for all Polish 16 provinces were analyzed in the paper. The main important finding of the paper is finding the correlation between the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and the length of bicycle roads in Poland. Also, the very important finding of the paper is connected with the analysis of geographical patterns of bicycle roads in Poland. The analysis of the correlations between the variables allows us to conclude that more is invested in bicycle paths in the provinces located in northwestern Poland than would result from the wealth of the provinces as measured by GDP per capita. In particular, this is the case in Greater Poland, Pomerania, and Kuyavia-Pomerania. By contrast, in central and southwestern Poland, investments in bicycle paths in individual provinces are smaller than their wealth level would suggest. This situation is particularly the case in Opole Province, Lesser Poland, Lower Silesia, Subcarpatia, and Holy Cross. For these provinces in particular, it should be recommended to accelerate the construction of new bicycle roads, which will have a positive impact on the quality of life of residents in smart cities as well as ecology. Analysis of the functioning of bicycle roads as an element of a Smart City on the example of Poland Provinces.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 392-409: Smart Thinking on Co-Creation and
           Engagement: Searchlight on Underground Built Heritage

    • Authors: Carlos Smaniotto Costa, Rolando Volzone, Tatiana Ruchinskaya, Maria del Carmen Solano Báez, Marluci Menezes, Müge Akkar Ercan, Annalisa Rollandi
      First page: 392
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore public participation for activating underground built heritage (UBH). It describes and analyses practices of stakeholders’ engagement in different UBH assets, based on experiences gathered in the scope of the European COST Action ‘Underground4value’. It brings together five inspiring cases from Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, in which digital and mobile technologies were used as tools to improve community experiences in UBH. Thus, the paper discusses ‘smartness’ from the perspective of people and communities around cultural assets, where ‘smartness’ becomes a new connotation and a pathway to advance (local) knowledge and know-how. Therefore, this paper takes on the challenge to define a smart city as an ecosystem for people’s empowerment and participation, and, in particular, to explore social tools for creating new values in heritage placemaking—where sharing knowledge becomes a fundamental principle.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 410-444: The Smart Community: Strategy Layers
           for a New Sustainable Continental Framework

    • Authors: Vlad Stoicescu, Teodora Ioana Bițoiu, Cătălin Vrabie
      First page: 410
      Abstract: The topic investigated in this article is a comparison, contrast, and integration effort of European strategies for sustainable development with the evolving market initiatives that are beginning to fuel the fourth industrial revolution. Several regulatory initiatives from continental bodies come into effect to radically change access to finances for business development, based on sustainability goals, and an analysis of the legislation and trends becomes essential for an effective pivot tactic in the face of adversity, as well as change management policies to pre-emptively adapt and perform. The general research question is “what the strategic tools are best employed to overcome the hurdles laid forth by the drastic changes legally required for a sustainable future'” The research methods include a quantitative analysis of norms, regulations, and legislation, including strategic initiatives circulated in the European Union governmental bodies, integrated with qualitative research of the literature. The study finds and draws synergies between national strategies that have recently been drafted or are currently evolving with sustainability-centric initiatives such as the hydrogen initiative, the nuclear initiative, the natural gas initiative, the renewables initiative, the synthetics, and biomass initiative, the ESG initiative, the digital initiative. The findings are to contribute to the business administration field by providing an appropriate image of the organizational design model in the sustainability era, and a strategy framework to build the optimum long-term vision founded on continental regulatory initiatives that have come into effect.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 445-468: The Pandemic and the Creative
           Performance of Cities: An Empirical Study in Portugal

    • Authors: Margarida Rodrigues, Mário Franco, Cidália Oliveira, Ana Pinto Borges, Rui Silva
      First page: 445
      Abstract: In a pandemic and post-pandemic environment, the consequences for the creative economy have been brutal and nefarious. Thus, this study aims to measure cities’ creativity performance, through a composite index, reported in the year 2021. In this sense, the results show that culture, the creative economy and enabling environment, as subdimensions of creativity, show that cities suffered a significant setback in their creative performance. However, this is currently being reversed so that creativity continues to contribute to the performance and growth of cities, whereby the formation of networks/partnerships as allies of the creative class and industries that characterise this dimension becomes even more important. This means that the creative class was one of the most affected by the pandemic, given that its activities are sustained mainly by the public, which corroborated recent studies. The study’s main contribution lies in the use of the Composite Index, in which it was concluded that creativity generates employment and wealth for a country’s economy. Finally, some limitations and avenues for future research were outlined.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 469-490: The Evaluation in the Urban Projects
           Planning: A Logical-Deductive Model for the Definition of “Warning
           Areas” in the Esquilino District in the City of Rome (Italy)

    • Authors: Pierluigi Morano, Francesco Tajani, Felicia Di Liddo, Ivana La Spina
      First page: 469
      Abstract: With reference to the current focus on urban redevelopment issue, the evaluation of the projects plays a central role for the definition of effective urban development policies. In the present research, a logical-deductive model for the identification of “warning areas” is proposed. Given an urban area to be renovated, the developed methodological approach starts from the detection of the main existing architectural, historical and environmental emergencies in order to investigate the appreciation of the reference market for the higher or lower proximity to each considered urban pole. Thus, an econometric technique is implemented to examine the influence of each locational factor on selling prices, by assuming the property asset price increase as a proxy of the benefits generated by the urban redevelopment intervention for local communities. Furthermore, the proposed methodology is applied to the Esquilino district in the city of Rome (Italy), for which a relevant urge of urban regeneration is found, to orient the selection phases of the areas that need more attention from public entities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 491-509: A Day Ahead Demand Schedule Strategy
           for Optimal Operation of Microgrid with Uncertainty

    • Authors: Amrutha Raju Battula, Sandeep Vuddanti, Surender Reddy Salkuti
      First page: 491
      Abstract: A microgrid energy management system (EMS) with several generation and storage units is crucial in attaining stable and reliable operation. Optimal scheduling of energy resources in EMS becomes arduous due to uncertainty in the forecasting of intermittent renewable sources, electricity pricing, and load demand. However, with the demand response (DR) approaches the operational benefits in the EMS framework can be maximized. In order to improve the cost-effectiveness of the microgrid, a novel day-ahead energy management strategy is proposed for optimal energy allocation of the distributed generators with environmental consideration. An incentive load control-based demand response program is developed to improve the operational results. The forecasting uncertainties are handled using probability-based Hong’s 2 m approximation method. The suggested approach uses a metaheuristic genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the constrained convex problem in determining optimal load shifting. Incentive pricing is developed to adapt to the demand shifting for the benefit of the customers and utility operators. Two case studies with grid-connected and islanded modes are studied to assess the strategy. Results indicate that the proposed technique reduces the overall cost fitness by 12.28% and 18.91% in the two cases, respectively. The consistency in operational parameters with popular methods confirms the effectiveness and robustness of the method for day-ahead energy management.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 510-530: Assessing the Effectiveness of Air
           Quality Improvements in Polish Cities Aspiring to be Sustainably Smart

    • Authors: Izabela Jonek-Kowalska
      First page: 510
      Abstract: Environmental and climate protection is one of the areas of development of modern smart cities intensively exposed in the literature. Nevertheless, it often remains only a scientific postulate or a strategic record of city authorities. With these circumstances in mind, this article addresses conceptual assumptions with actual achievements in improving air quality in 16 Polish cities aspiring to be smart. In this way, an answer is sought to the following research problem: To what extent do Polish cities aspiring to be smart and operating in a developing economy realize the climate quality improvement goals exposed today by the smart city concept and the environmental requirements of the European Union' The research was conducted in a long-term perspective covering the period from 2010 (entry into force of EU air quality standards) to 2022. In addition, with reference to contemporary urban environmental studies, special attention was paid to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on air quality in the surveyed cities. In the course of the study, data on PM10 concentrations were used and statistically analyzed using measures of variability and cluster analysis as an unsupervised classification method. The results allow the formulation of the following key conclusions: (1) PM10 levels were systematically reduced in all 16 cities studied, which allows a positive assessment of the municipal authorities’ efforts to improve urban air quality; (2) the leaders in the effectiveness of PM10 reduction are Warsaw and Wrocław; and (3) after the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the cities studied managed to maintain or improve urban air quality. The originality of the considerations and analysis undertaken is due to the following considerations: (1) to fill the research gap in terms of the long-term assessment of the effectiveness of air quality improvement in cities aspiring to be smart and located in developing or emerging economies; (2) to make a cognitive contribution to the environmental research stream on smart city development (gaining knowledge on the effectiveness of cities’ actions to improve air quality); and (3) to conduct an analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on air quality in Polish cities located in various provinces.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-07
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 531-562: A Framework for Effective Design
           Thinking Based Smart Cities Projects in Qatar

    • Authors: Dana AlAli, Nadarajah Manivannan, Yanmeng Xu
      First page: 531
      Abstract: With the growing implementation of smart city projects and the significance of the research problem related to effective design thinking, the opinion of the ordinary citizens have become very relevant and contemporary. The current paper presents a quantitative empirical study focused on the attitudes towards and the readiness to accept smart cities in the specific context of Qatar. The study employs a survey questionnaire as a data collection tool. The survey is distributed online among a sample of 40 respondents from Qatar, including both residents and non-residents of smart cities in the country. Even though the sample is not representative of the Qatari population, the present study provides preliminary findings and fundamental insights into this novel topic in a specific socio-economic context. The major findings of the study uncovered that the respondents show quite positive attitudes toward diverse aspects related to smart economy, smart people, smart governance, smart mobility, smart environment, and smart living, as well as significant readiness to accept this lifestyle. However, the respondents demonstrate concerns related to the privacy and security of the people living in smart cities. The superiority of fundamental aspects of life like housing and healthcare in smart cities compared to conventional ones are also questioned by the respondents.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 563-585: Renewable Energy Communities in
           Positive Energy Districts: A Governance and Realisation Framework in
           Compliance with the Italian Regulation

    • Authors: Riccardo Trevisan, Emilio Ghiani, Fabrizio Pilo
      First page: 563
      Abstract: Renewable energy communities, first outlined in the European Directives and recently transposed into the Italian regulatory framework, are introduced as innovative entities capable of fostering cooperation between active and passive users involved in the production, sharing, and use of locally produced energy according to innovative management schemes. Renewable energy communities empower the end-customers. Citizens and legal entities are committed to a rational and economical use of energy to achieve the community’s climate neutrality goals and pursue the ecological and energy transition objectives defined in the national recovery and resilience plan. In the future, a significant number of energy communities different actors participating from the residential, industrial, commercial, and tertiary sectors are expected to develop within city districts or in suburban settings. This paper proposes and develops a methodology capable of bridging the complexity that can characterise the prototyping, implementation, and management of an energy community within a positive energy district. The approach presented here can also be extended to other application contexts in urban or rural settings. Requirements and best practices for administrative, technical, and technological management have been identified to achieve this goal. Italy is one of the first states to embed in its regulatory framework the European Directives regarding renewable energy communities. These will have a significant impact on network management models and will provide new ways for creating social inclusion that may help achieve climate sustainability goals. A governance model has been formalised for the empowerment of energy community members, outlining a framework useful for planning the proper implementation of a renewable energy community according to current Italian regulations.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010026
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 586-613: Privacy and Security Concerns in the
           Smart City

    • Authors: Brian F. G. Fabrègue, Andrea Bogoni
      First page: 586
      Abstract: This article will highlight negative personal privacy and informational security outcomes that may arise from development programs currently pursued in smart cities. It aims to illustrate the ways in which the remedies proposed so far appear insufficient from a legal or practical standpoint, and to set forth a number of tactical approaches that could be used to improve them. Cities require spatial efficiency to address rising complexities, which can only be attained through an adequately efficient exchange of information among its citizens and administrators. Unprecedented volumes of private, public, and business data can now be collected, processed, and transmitted thanks to present technology. According to the authors’ analysis of current trends in technology, data collection, legislation, and the related public acceptance in Italy and Switzerland, governments, corporations, employers, and individuals will increasingly experience hazard and damage given the ease at which tracking technologies can be abused. The study clarifies how significant data privacy and information protection are in the making of a successful smart urban community and provides insights on local Italian and Swiss policy makers’ interest about digital innovation tied to the development of data protection.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010027
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 614-625: What Influences Older Urban
           Poor’s Attitude towards Online Job Search' Implications for Smart
           Cities Development

    • Authors: Chonticha Asavanirandorn, Watchara Pechdin, Ritthikiat Ngamsomsak, Ruttiya Bhula-Or
      First page: 614
      Abstract: There is an increasing number of older adults being encouraged to come back to the workforce in search of better financial security in their later years. At the same time, the job market nowadays has increasingly depended on technology to recruit new workers, especially in Smart Cities, a concept that has been recently introduced to developing countries. As a result, the use of the Internet for job searches has become increasingly important for older adults living in urban environments, especially those with limited resources. However, there has not been an in-depth paper exploring the various factors that may affect the older population’s ability to use this new development to their advantage. This study offered a closer look at the social and economic factors that influence acceptance of using the Internet to look for a job among older urban poor in Thailand. By understanding the influences that shape their attitudes and behaviors towards online job searches, it is then possible to guide the development of Smart Cities and offer better assistance to older adults who wish to use the Internet for employment opportunities. We applied a logit regression model on data collected from individuals aged pre-retirement and retirement (n = 1505) in two Thai cities with significantly different economic development levels. The results showed that gender, religion, family arrangement, and income had a significant impact on older adults’ online job search activities, especially when it came to women, people of the Islamic faith, people living with partners, and high-income individuals. Urban planners are recommended to take these aforementioned factors into account while formulating the Smart Cities development plan.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010028
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 626-638: Research on LMS and KPIs for Learning
           Analysis in Education

    • Authors: Milena Krumova
      First page: 626
      Abstract: Learning Analysis (LA) trends show that KPIs used for better understanding and investigation of the learning process are diverse and often depend on the goals of the analyses. One of the most crucial questions for the implementation of LA is the availability of data. Currently, each education organization uses some type of Learning Management System (LMS), thus gathering, storing, and managing different data about the learning process. The initial point of this research is the fact that the time framework of the learning process is predefined, and that learning process analyses must be done according to this limit because each learning activity takes time to be performed. This research conducts an overview of the LMS and proposes KPI clusters for measuring and analyzing learning processes regarding (i) learning engagement, (ii) learning community building and management, and (iii) knowledge no-boundaries. It is structured into three parts. Based on the research methods used (a literature review, desk research, and experiments), (1) a review of LMS is conducted, then (2) the learning analysis is presented, (3) KPI analyses are done, and, finally, a new KPI model for LA is proposed, which includes 22 KPIs grouped into 4 Clusters. In the conclusion, the advantages of the model are explained along with the scientific contribution of the research. The next research steps, regarding the implementation of the model in the real classroom, are presented at the end.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010029
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 639-651: Smart City Achievement through
           Implementation of Digital Health Services in Handling COVID-19 Indonesia

    • Authors: Amandita ‘Ainur Rohmah, Rini Rachmawati, Estuning Tyas Wulan Mei
      First page: 639
      Abstract: The digital transformation of health services is one of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Various overseas studies have shown a positive response to digital health services, especially in handling the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to compare the implementation of digital health services between regions in Indonesia and analyze strategies in the health sector that are appropriate in the era of digital transformation in handling COVID-19 in Indonesia. The focus of this research is on the implementation of digital transformation of health services as one of the derivatives of the Smart City implementation, especially the dimension of Smart Living. The research was conducted using qualitative methods with systematic literature reviews and SWOT analysis techniques. The typology map of the implementation of digital health services in Indonesia shows that digital health services dominate in the Western and Central parts of Indonesia, which varies widely from the Central and Eastern parts of Indonesia, which tend to have limited forms of digital transformation. Various factors certainly influence the difference in implementing digital health services in each region. Therefore, multiple strategies are needed, such as infrastructure improvement, stakeholder collaboration, and increasing the factors that influence the implementation of digital health services.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010030
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 652-675: Blockchain Orchestration and
           Transformation for Construction

    • Authors: Mohammad Darabseh, João Poças Martins
      First page: 652
      Abstract: Blockchain-related studies that focus on solving AECO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operation) digital management environment issues, such as data protection and data ownership, show the projected benefits of Blockchain-based digital construction environments. However, adopting such technology will require a holistic approach to ensure it does not result in data redundancy, leading to digital system inefficiencies. This article studies the Blockchain construction synergies from the infrastructure point of view to understand its future in construction. The article visualises Blockchain infrastructure elements and fits them within the construction project’s digital environment. A novel framework for Blockchain orchestration and implementation and a blueprint for developing Blockchain applications for construction are presented. The proposed blueprint is then used to develop a Blockchain application using Hyperledger Firefly. The article builds on the previous literature and Blockchain applications on the Ethereum public Blockchain. The expected benefit of such a framework is providing a practical perspective on the implementation side of Blockchain in construction.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2023-02-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010031
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2023)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 1-18: Positive Energy Districts: The 10
           Replicated Solutions in Maia, Reykjavik, Kifissia, Kladno and Lviv

    • Authors: Zarrin Fatima, Marielisa Padilla, Michal Kuzmic, Aapo Huovila, Gretel Schaj, Niklas Effenberger
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Cities have an undoubted significant role in climate change mitigation. Several cities across the globe have made commitments to sustainability transitions through green strategies. In the recent past, Europe has witnessed a surge in the development of smart cities and advancement towards creating more sustainable cities. At the moment, the concept of Positive Energy Districts (PEDs) further encourages districts and cities to change their business-as-usual ways to be more carbon neutral. This paper looks at the five cities of Maia, Reykjavik, Kifissia, Kladno, and Lviv that are a part of an ongoing Horizon 2020 project. The purpose of the paper was to understand the steps the cities have taken to select the 10 solutions for replication. The information was collected through discussions, interviews and implementation plans developed by each city. It must be highlighted that each city’s circumstances differ in terms of political support, finances, technical expertise, and stakeholders’ interest, and this applies to all world cities when discussing the implementation of new efficient solutions. Cities across Europe and beyond may find themselves in a similar situation, and therefore, this paper also provides a story of the five Fellow Cities as they transition towards PEDs.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-20
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010001
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 19-39: Exploring Key Aspects of an Integrated
           Sustainable Urban Development Strategy in Greece: The Case of Thessaloniki

    • Authors: Chatzitheodoridis, Melfou, Kontogeorgos, Kalogiannidis
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Even though efforts have been made in recent decades to revive urban areas in the European Union (EU), the contemporary challenges that mostly large cities face require continuous support and adjustments in urban policies. Under the EU Cohesion Policy for the 2014–2020 programming period, the integrated territorial development of various specific areas is pursued by the Integrated Territorial Investments (ITI). In Greece, many of these programs concern Integrated Sustainable Urban Development Strategies (ISUDSs). One of these is the ISUDS of Thessaloniki, which is perhaps the most complex in terms of management and implementation in Greece, mainly due to the chosen managerial approach and the size of Thessaloniki, the second largest city in the country. Thessaloniki’s ISUDS is managed by the Urban Authority (UA), which has already evolved into a separate model of metropolitan governance administration. The aim of this paper is to identify the determinants in its design and implementation, as well as the effects of the strategy on urban development through the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses, as well as the opportunities and prospects of strategy through the Delphi approach.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-21
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010002
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 40-56: ICO as Crypto-Assets Manufacturing
           within a Smart City

    • Authors: Olegs Cernisevs, Yelena Popova
      First page: 40
      Abstract: The digitalization of the economy provokes the rethinking of manufacturing processes. Despite numerous publications related to Industry 4.0 as a manufacturing approach, the production of fully digital and crypto-asset products was poorly researched. Besides having a supplementary role, crypto-assets may form an entire smart city product. The authors assess the manufacturing of smart city products, fully or partially formed by crypto-assets. The initial issuance of the crypto assets was usually addressed as an Initial Coin Offer, or through the process of increasing the issuer’s capital. The authors assess the Initial Coin Offer, and address it, like manufacturing to produce products for sale. The authors classify all milestones related to the crypto-assets’ issuance, distribution, and revaluation, and assign incomes and expenses to each milestone. Additionally, the ICO-based production costs and revenues were classified according to crypto-asset types, as defined by European Economic Area legislative acts.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 57-71: Application of the Smart House System
           for Reconstruction of Residential Buildings from an Obsolete Housing Stock

    • Authors: Solomiya Popova, Ivan Izonin
      First page: 57
      Abstract: The smart home is amongst the most promising areas of development of communication and information technologies. In order to assure safety, comfort, and resource conservation for all users, a smart home should be viewed as a high-tech system that combines the benefits of automation technologies and contemporary construction methods. Installation of the system is possible during the construction of new buildings as well as during the reconstruction of existing buildings. In this study, the smart home system’s overall idea is considered, the necessity of using resource-saving systems and technologies is supported, and the integration of such systems with the reconstruction of low-rise residential buildings is examined. The study generated a representation of the smart home system for a particular reconstruction project as well as an application for controlling the system using a mobile device.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 72-99: Review of Smart City Energy Modeling in
           Southeast Asia

    • Authors: Md Shafiullah, Saidur Rahman, Binash Imteyaz, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua, Md Ismail Hossain, Syed Masiur Rahman
      First page: 72
      Abstract: The Southeast Asian region has been eagerly exploring the concepts of smart city initiatives in recent years due to the enormous opportunities and potential. The initiatives are in line with their plan to promote energy efficiency, phase down/out fossil fuel-based generation, and reduce greenhouse gas emission intensity and electrification of various sectors in addition to renewable energy targets and policies to achieve net zero emissions by 2050 or 2060. However, the major challenges for these countries are related to leadership, governance, citizen support, investment, human capacity, smart device heterogeneity, and efficient modeling and management of resources, especially the energy systems. An intelligent energy system is one of the most significant components for any functional smart city, where artificial intelligence (AI), the internet of things (IoT), and big data are expected to tackle various existing and evolving challenges. This article starts with a brief discussion of smart city concepts and implementation challenges. Then, it identifies different types of smart city initiatives in Southeast Asian countries focusing on energy systems. In addition, the article investigates the status of smart systems in energy generation and storage, infrastructure, and model development. It identifies the unique challenges of these countries in implementing smart energy systems. It critically reviews many available energy modeling approaches and addresses their limitations and strengths, focusing on the region. Moreover, it also provides a preliminary framework for a successful energy system that exploits AI, IoT, and big data. Finally, the roadmap for a successful energy system requires appropriate policy development, innovative technological solutions, human capacity building, and enhancement of the effectiveness of current energy systems.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 100-122: Planning Principles for Integrating
           Community Empowerment into Zero-Net Carbon Transformation

    • Authors: Liwen Li, Klaus W. Lange
      First page: 100
      Abstract: The adoption of the UN 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals is a landmark in international sustainability politics. For example, Europe has set ambitious targets to achieve 100 climate-neutral and smart cities by 2030. However, numerous case studies from different countries have found that accelerating the transition to net-zero carbon emissions is easily hampered by the lack of a coherent systems framework, and that implementation gaps remain at the community level. These barriers are often due to a lack of an adequate end-user (i.e., household) input and early planning participation. This work therefore aims to improve on conventional planning methods that do not reflect innovative technologies with uncertainty and may not be applicable due to the lack of community empowerment, which is a dynamic learning and intervention opportunity for end-users at different planning stages (i.e., outreach, survey, planning, implementation, management, and maintenance). Using the lessons learned from participatory action research, whereby the author was involved as a project director throughout the planning and design process, we identified a six-step cycle principle. The steps are (1) collective action commitments, (2) local values and resource identification, (3) carbon footprint inventory, (4) optimized integration of environment, economy, and energy action plans, (5) Flexible strategic energy system plans, and (6) digital performance monitoring. Ultimately, the outcomes provide application support for policymakers and planners and stimulate community engagement to contribute to the achievement of zero net carbon emissions.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 123-136: Towards Optimal Planning for Green,
           Smart, and Semantically Enriched Cultural Tours

    • Authors: Konstantinos Kotis, Asimina Dimara, Sotirios Angelis, Panagiotis Michailidis, Iakovos Michailidis, Christos-Nikolaos Anagnostopoulos, Stelios Krinidis, Elias Kosmatopoulos
      First page: 123
      Abstract: This concept paper presents our viewpoint regarding the exploitation of cutting-edge technologies for the delivery of smart tourism cultural tours. Specifically, the paper reports preliminary work on the design of a novel smart tourism solution tailored to a multiobjective optimization system based on factors such as the preferences and constraints of the tourist/visitor, the city’s accessibility and traffic, the weather conditions, and others. By optimizing cultural tours and delivering comfortable, easy-to-follow, green, acceptable visiting experiences, the proposed solution, namely, OptiTours, aims to become a leading actor in tourism industry transformation. Moreover, specific actions, applications, and methodologies target increasing touring acceptance while advancing the overall (smart) city impression. OptiTours aims to deliver a novel system to attract visitors and guide them to enjoy a city’s possible points of interest, achieving high visitor acceptance. Advanced technologies in semantic trajectories’ management and optimization in route planning will be exploited towards the discovery of optimal, smart, green, and comfortable routes/tours. A novel multiscale and multifactor optimization system aims to deliver not only optimal personalized routes but also alternative routes, ranked based on visitors’ preferences and constraints. In this concept paper, we contribute a detailed description of the OptiTours approach for ICT-based smart tourism, and a high-level architectural design of the solution that is planned to be implemented in the near future.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 137-155: The Future Possibilities and Security
           Challenges of City Digitalization

    • Authors: Peter Barcik, Aneta Coufalikova, Petr Frantis, Jiri Vavra
      First page: 137
      Abstract: To adapt to current changes, such as globalization, climate change, and demographic growth, modern cities must embrace the digitalization of city management. In this paper, we examine a concept for digitalizing a city based on Rotterdam’s digital twin showcase. Data-processing frameworks for different sources of data are presented. Security risks and the potential of smart cities for military usage are discussed. Lastly, using an example of available datasets for air quality and public lighting consumption, functions of the Rotterdam digital twin are compared with the Brno city digital platform. It was found that every city has its approach to digitalization, and it is probably impossible to unify every city’s digitalization process. This means that the digitalization of the city is very individual. Both systems in their current form make it possible to visualize the collected data about the city. So far, however, these systems do not use advanced functions such as AI-assisted decision-making and prediction of various events in the city. Even so, they are a source of very interesting data that can be used by third parties.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-30
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 6, Pages 156-178: Direction for a Transition toward
           Smart Sustainable Cities Based on the Diagnosis of Smart City Plans

    • Authors: Hee-Sun Choi, Seul-Ki Song
      First page: 156
      Abstract: Achieving urban sustainability through smart cities is necessary to manage urban environmental problems that threaten human survival. Smart city policy emphasizes the environmental aspects of urban areas while embracing the social and economic sectors, allowing for the development of practical plans for urban sustainability. This study suggests smart sustainable city policy directions that can improve the transition to smart cities. It defines concepts such as smart sustainable cities, developing frameworks, and indicators. In this research, a smart sustainable city facilitated sustainable development by incorporating smart technologies into urban activities and services. In this study, indicators for smart sustainable city evaluation and diagnosis were derived. These were applied to selected case areas, such as Incheon Metropolitan City and Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do in the Republic of Korea. These indicators play an important role in assisting policymakers in making decisions, simplifying a wide range of complex information and providing integrated perspectives on existing situations. The results of this study suggest transition directions for a smart sustainable city and application strategies for related plans and policies.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1243-1266: Exploiting User Behavior to Predict
           Parking Availability through Machine Learning

    • Authors: Enrico Bassetti, Andrea Berti, Alba Bisante, Andrea Magnante, Emanuele Panizzi
      First page: 1243
      Abstract: Cruising-for-parking in an urban area is a time-consuming and frustrating activity. We present four machine learning-based models to predict the parking availability of street segments in an urban area on a three-level scale, which navigator and smart-parking apps can exploit to ease and reduce the cruising phase. The models were trained with data generated by a cruising-for-parking simulator that we developed, replicating four parking behavior types (workers, residents, buyers, and visitors). The generated data is comparable to that collectible with smartphones’ sensors. We simulated 40 users moving for 200 weeks in the city area of San Giovanni in Rome. We collected information about users’ parking, unparking, and cruising actions over considered road segments at different time slots. Once a significant amount of trips were collected, we extracted ten features for each road segment at a given time slot. With the obtained dataset, which contained 761 samples, we trained and compared four supervised machine learning models that receive the history of a segment and, in return, classify the Parking Availability Level of the segment as Green, Yellow or Red. The four models were further evaluated in a different city area, San Lorenzo, and obtained very accurate results. We can predict parking availability with an accuracy above 97% for all the street segments where we collected 30 or more user actions, confirming the robustness of the simulator in generating synthetic cruising-for-parking data and the suitability of designing a Parking Availability Classifier (PAC) based on data collectible by smartphones.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040064
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1267-1292: Health Care in Cities Perceived as
           Smart in the Context of Population Aging—A Record from Poland

    • Authors: Jonek-Kowalska
      First page: 1267
      Abstract: Population aging is a global problem affecting many modern economies. Thus, the article attempts to answer the following research questions: What demographic trends characterize cities considered smart, and is the health care offered by these cities adapted to the changes identified in this regard' In other words, can seniors feel safe now and in the near future' In search of an answer to such a question, data as well as demographic and health indicators were used from 16 Polish voivodeship cities mostly considered smart or aspiring to that title. The analysis covered the years 2010–2020. The results indicate a systematic aging of all surveyed urban communities. However, it is progressing at a rather different pace. Unfortunately, not all cities are adjusting the level of health care (medical and nursing staff and hospital infrastructure) to the needs of the growing number of seniors, which—in the future—may exacerbate regional and local medical and social problems. The analysis also shows that the best-performing cities in terms of health care development are Warsaw, Białystok, Kraków and Rzeszów—the units most often identified in international rankings as smart. Their “smartness” in this case lies in forward-looking management that takes into account the aging of the urban community in the process of developing medical care.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040065
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1293-1311: An Intelligent IoT Based Traffic
           Light Management System: Deep Reinforcement Learning

    • Authors: Shima Damadam, Mojtaba Zourbakhsh, Reza Javidan, Azadeh Faroughi
      First page: 1293
      Abstract: Traffic is one of the indispensable problems of modern societies, which leads to undesirable consequences such as time wasting and greater possibility of accidents. Adaptive Traffic Signal Control (ATSC), as a key part of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), plays a key role in reducing traffic congestion by real-time adaptation to dynamic traffic conditions. Moreover, these systems are integrated with Internet of Things (IoT) devices. IoT can lead to easy implementation of traffic management systems. Recently, the combination of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the IoT has attracted the attention of many researchers and can process large amounts of data that are suitable for solving complex real-world problems about traffic control. In this paper, we worked on the real-world scenario of Shiraz City, which currently does not use any intelligent method and works based on fixed-time traffic signal scheduling. We applied IoT approaches and AI techniques to control traffic lights more efficiently, which is an essential part of the ITS. Specifically, sensors such as surveillance cameras were used to capture real-time traffic information for the intelligent traffic signal control system. In fact, an intelligent traffic signal control system is provided by utilizing distributed Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning (MARL) and applying the traffic data of adjacent intersections along with local information. By using MARL, our goal was to improve the overall traffic of six signalized junctions of Shiraz City in Iran. We conducted numerical simulations for two synthetic intersections by simulated data and for a real-world map of Shiraz City with real-world traffic data received from the transportation and municipality traffic organization and compared it with the traditional system running in Shiraz. The simulation results show that our proposed approach performs more efficiently than the fixed-time traffic signal control scheduling implemented in Shiraz in terms of average vehicle queue lengths and waiting times at intersections.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040066
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1312-1335: Integration of SETS
           (Social–Ecological–Technological Systems) Framework and Flood
           Resilience Cycle for Smart Flood Risk Management

    • Authors: Ariyaningsih, Shaw
      First page: 1312
      Abstract: The concept of “water smart city” is increasingly being recognized as a new approach to managing urban environments (including urban floods), especially in the context of developing countries, such as Indonesia. While Indonesia’s national capital relocation plan is expected to attract significant human migration to two nearby cities, Samarinda City and the port city of Balikpapan, these cities have continuously faced with severe risk of flooding. Therefore, this research proposes a flood management approach by reviewing the local city government’s flood risk management strategies and the smart city plan to enhance flood resilience. The integration of the SETS (Social–Ecological–Technological systems) framework and the Flood Resilience Cycle is undertaken to determine the state of flood management, which is followed by a review of smart city plans and programs in two selected cities (Samarinda and Balikpapan). The research mainly identifies how it can be implemented in the two selected cities based on SETS–FRC distribution. In accordance with the SETS–FRC (Flood Resilience Cycle) framework, it is revealed that both these cities have a higher emphasis on the flood prevention phase, as compared to other resilience phases. Based on the overall results, this study emphasizes the implementation of a water smart city concept for effective and smart flood risk management.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-09-30
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040067
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1336-1355: User Preferences towards Hyperloop
           Systems: Initial Insights from Germany

    • Authors: Mohamed Abouelela, Christelle Al Haddad, Md Ashraful Islam, Constantinos Antoniou
      First page: 1336
      Abstract: The rapidly evolving urbanization is generating unprecedented travel demand, notably in intercity travel. With increasing challenges in motorized traffic, innovative and sustainable transport modes are more than ever necessary. The Hyperloop system is an emerging transportation mode with the potential to change long–distance commutes, especially between cities. There is a need for, but also gap in, understanding this potentially emerging transport mode. This study aims at filling this gap by deploying a stated preference study in Germany, in which data was collected for 786 respondents with 5640 scenarios, to investigate the factors impacting users’ preferences towards Hyperloop systems. Models were developed to examine factors impacting the immediate Hyperloop adoption (in the first year of its implementation), but also the choice between Hyperloop and other long–distance travel modes, such as airplanes and high-speed trains. Results indicate that mode-related characteristics (travel time, travel cost, safety), individual characteristics (gender, income level, availability of a driving license, access to a car, familiarity with the Hyperloop system), the current satisfaction level with high-speed trains and airplanes, and personality traits (confidence, affinity to technology) are the most significant factors in the choice and early adoption of Hyperloop systems.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040068
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1356-1375: Urban Planning in the 15-Minute
           City: Revisited under Sustainable and Smart City Developments until 2030

    • Authors: Georgia Pozoukidou, Margarita Angelidou
      First page: 1356
      Abstract: The 15-minute-city concept represents an increasingly popular urban policymaking and planning paradigm that seeks to shift attention to the neighborhood as a “place” rather merely a spatial and functional planning unit. The core premise of the concept is that critical urban services and amenities should be reachable within 15 min of walking or cycling from a residence. The urban-planning principles that enable the realization of the 15-minute city variably embody planning in mixed-use neighborhood units, proximity-based planning, planning for active transport, citizen participation in planning, and innovation and intelligence-driven planning. We revisit these urban-planning premises in the light of emerging social, physical, and structural developments through 2030, with a focus on European cases. The findings provide important additions and recommendations to the urban-planning principles of 15-minute cities along the themes of proximity-based planning, the use of land and urban form, urban governance and citizen participation, and inclusive digitalization. The paper moves the discussion on the 15-minute city forward and will be helpful for urban planners, policymakers, and scholars seeking to envision and create a more sustainable, inclusive, and vibrant future in cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-10-13
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040069
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1376-1388: Living Lab Participants’
           Knowledge Change about Inclusive Smart Cities: An Urban Living Lab in
           Seongdaegol, Seoul, South Korea

    • Authors: Jooho Park, Fujii
      First page: 1376
      Abstract: The emergence of smart cities has illuminated positive expectations, such as the solving of urban problems through information and communications technology (ICT). Behind the spotlight of the smart city, not everybody is enjoying the smart infrastructure owing to knowledge gaps such as the digital divide. Living labs provide a new platform for smart cities that can prevent the failure of urban development. They give citizens a better understanding of how to adapt to life in a smart city, enabling the development of smart cities that are more likely to succeed through a participatory approach. In this way, the competencies of participants may affect the success of a living lab. Nevertheless, there is a lack of research on improving participants’ knowledge through living labs. This study aims to examine how participation in an urban living lab influences the knowledge level of photovoltaic power generation and to identify the influencing factors. Our empirical study shows that the knowledge level of solar power technology improved through participation in a living lab. Additionally, the results indicate that the types of activity programs in the living lab were not associated with knowledge acquisition.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-10-14
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040070
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1389-1408: Energy and Sustainable Development
           in Smart Cities: An Overview

    • Authors: Mohamed G. Moh Almihat, M. T. E. Khan, Khaled Aboalez, Ali M. Almaktoof
      First page: 1389
      Abstract: Smart cities are an innovative concept for managing metropolitan areas to increase their residents’ sustainability and quality of life. This article examines the management and evolution of energy generation, various storage systems and the applications they serve, and infrastructure technology’s current condition and future prospects. Additionally, the study also examines energy-related construction and transportation systems and technologies. The Smart Cities Energy Prediction Task Force predicts electrical usage using STLF, SVM, and e-learning machines. To keep a system working well throughout the year, fossil fuels must be utilised as a backup energy source. Technologies can only benefit if integrated into the city’s infrastructure. By 2050, it is anticipated that the global population will surpass 10 billion, with most people settling in metropolitan regions. Between 2020 and 2027, the global market for smart energy is anticipated to expand by 27.1% annually, from USD 122.2 billion in 2020 to USD 652 billion in 2026. In 2020, Europe will account for 31.8 per cent of total smart energy product sales. China’s GDP is projected to grow by 33.0 per cent annually, reaching USD 176.1 billion by the conclusion of the analysis period. Consequently, smart cities are expanding and blooming worldwide, yet there are no permanent standards.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040071
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1409-1420: Prosumers—A New Mindset for
           Citizens in Smart Cities

    • Authors: Ana-Maria Iulia Şanta
      First page: 1409
      Abstract: Developing smart cities as a practical component of sustainability is an initiative being promoted worldwide at the international level. The European Union has a strong focus on creating awareness regarding the necessity of new consumption models in energy, considering the current energy crisis and increasing inflation. The aim of the present paper is to assess the paradigm shift from consumers to prosumers in smart cities of the European Union in the international context of promoting sustainability and finding solutions to the current energy crisis. New solutions have to be found and implemented in order to ensure citizens in the European Union have better living conditions under these given circumstances. Developing smart cities in the countries of the European Union is a response to this international context and a solution for better life quality for citizens. Smart cities are not just high-tech cities, but are sustainable cities putting the consumer first. Consumer living in smart cities has new functions in this sustainable environment: they will develop from consumer to prosumer. This paradigm shift brings new consumption models to be implemented in smart cities, centered on the prosumer. The proactive role of the prosumer will change their mindset. This is the research hypothesis of the present paper: smart cities will help consumers to become prosumers and a new mindset will be created for citizens living in smart cities. This development will have a social impact beyond academia and will shape society in a new way. Qualitative comparative analysis is used as a research method in the present article. A case study is presented to support the research hypothesis. The novelty and originality of the present research is the citizen-oriented approach of developing smart cities, considering the perception and the new roles or functions of the citizen living in a smart city regarding these new sustainable cities. Smart cities are analyzed as social hubs offering improved life quality and a sustainable life perspective, beyond the technical or technological components which are usually debated related to smart cities. The resumption theory explains the paradigm shift from consumer to prosumer and the related development of a new mindset for citizens of smart cities in the European Union. Economic, environmental and social incentives trigger a change of mindset from consumers to prosumers in EU smart cities, which is validated in the present paper.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040072
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1421-1440: Design and Implementation of an
           Interoperable Architecture for Integrating Building Legacy Systems into
           Scalable Energy Management Systems

    • Authors: Aristotelis Ntafalias, Sotiris Tsakanikas, Spyros Skarvelis-Kazakos, Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Antonio F. Skarmeta-Gómez, Aurora González-Vidal, Valentina Tomat, Alfonso P. Ramallo-González, Rafael Marin-Perez, Maria C. Vlachou
      First page: 1421
      Abstract: The building sector is responsible for a significant amount of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, the monitoring, control and optimization of energy consumption in buildings will play a critical role in the coming years in improving energy efficiency in the building sector and in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, while there are a significant number of studies on how to make buildings smarter and manage energy through smart devices, there is a need for more research on integrating buildings with legacy equipment and systems. It is therefore vital to define mechanisms to improve the use of energy efficiency in existing buildings. This study proposes a new architecture (PHOENIX architecture) for integrating legacy building systems into scalable energy management systems with focus also on user comfort in the concept of interoperability layers. This interoperable and intelligent architecture relies on Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning (AI/ML) and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies to increase building efficiency, grid flexibility and occupant well-being. To validate the architecture and demonstrate the impact and replication potential of the proposed solution, five demonstration pilots have been utilized across Europe. As a result, by implementing the proposed architecture in the pilot sites, 30 apartments and four commercial buildings with more than 400 devices have been integrated into the architecture and have been communicating successfully. In addition, six Trials were performed in a commercial building and five key performance indicators (KPIs) were measured in order to evaluate the robust operation of the architecture. Work is still ongoing for the trials and the KPIs’ analysis after the implementation of PHOENIX architecture at the rest of the pilot sites.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040073
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1441-1464: Application of Classic and Novel

    • Authors: Milad Baghalzadeh Shishehgarkhaneh, Sina Fard Moradinia, Afram Keivani, Mahdi Azizi
      First page: 1441
      Abstract: In recent years, dam construction has become more complex, requiring an effective project management method. Building Information Modeling (BIM) affects how construction projects are planned, designed, executed, and operated. Therefore, reducing execution time, cost, and risk and increasing quality are the primary goals of organizations. In this paper, first, the time and cost of the project were obtained via the BIM process. Subsequently, optimization between the components of the survival pyramid (time, cost, quality, and risk) in construction projects was completed in a case study of the Ghocham storage dam in five different modes, including contractor’s offers, BIM, actual, and two other modes based on the expert’s opinions. For this aim, five different meta-heuristic optimization algorithms were utilized, including two classical algorithms (Genetic and Simulated Annealing) and three novel algorithms (Black Widow Optimization, Battle Royale Optimization, and Black Hole Mechanics Optimization). In four cases, once each element of the survival pyramid was optimized separately, all four cases were traded off simultaneously. Moreover, the results were obtained from all the mentioned algorithms in five scenarios based on the number of function evaluation (Nfe), Standard Deviation (SD), Computation Time (CT), and Best Cost (BC). MATLAB software completed the coding related to the objective functions and optimization algorithms. The results indicated the appropriate performance of GA and BHMO algorithms in some scenarios. However, only the GAs should be considered effective algorithms in a dam construction projects’ time–cost–quality–risk (TCQR) tradeoff.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040074
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1465-1487: A Review on Significant Factors
           Causing Delays in Saudi Arabia Construction Projects

    • Authors: Abdulali Mohammed Alajmi, Zubair Ahmed Memon
      First page: 1465
      Abstract: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is suffering major delays in construction projects. Because the construction business in Saudi Arabia has changed dramatically over the last three decades, it is crucial to conduct a thorough study into the reasons for delays and to get industry experts on the same page. In this paper, an overview of the construction sector generally and the Saudi Arabian construction industry has been presented. Based on the literature review the major causes, as well as effects of the delays caused in the construction industry, have been identified. Some of the common causes identified are incorrect planning, administration problems, difficulties in financing, lack of experienced staff, and poor communication. It is advised that the major actors in the construction sector employ the proper tactics to implement preventative measures to lessen the consequences when carrying out construction projects.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040075
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1488-1507: Disentangling Housing Supply to
           Shift towards Smart Cities: Analysing Theoretical and Empirical Studies

    • Authors: Pedro Garcês, Cesaltina Pacheco Pires, Joana Costa, Sílvia Ferreira Jorge, Margarida Catalão-Lopes, Adriana Alventosa
      First page: 1488
      Abstract: The search for a pleasant home has concerned people ever since. Paradoxically, people are facing strong difficulties in finding a decent place to settle their lives in cities. As such, the housing market regained momentum in connection with the development of Smart Cities, where life quality of residents is strongly emphasized. Well-being in the metropolis is affected by a wide variety of factors with housing supply being among the most important, hence stirred by financing costs, construction costs, vacancy rate, sales delay, inflation rate, housing stock, price of agricultural land, and regulation. The present article reviews empirical studies on housing supply for a better understanding of the dynamics in this market, shedding some light on the expectable outcomes of policy actions in the promotion of sustainable housing towards the smart city transition. Our review shows that the long-run price elasticity of housing supply is larger than the short-run, as well as the existence of substantial differences in the price elasticity across countries and regions. As such, overall, the hypothesis of a perfectly elastic supply is rejected. In addition, our review highlights that housing supply is negatively related to financial costs, inflation, sales delay, and the existence of regulatory or physical constraints. Also, the elasticity is lower when there are regulatory constraints. Newfangled strategic interaction models, though overlooked in the literature, reinforce that housing does not fit the perfect competition frame. The review proves that we are in face of a non-competitive market in which policy intervention is required to maximize social welfare; policy packages to grant people access to the housing market may be required. However, policy interventions should be carefully designed and clear, to mitigate their potentially negative impact on the housing supply as adverse results may be harmful to the transition towards a smart city.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040076
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1508-1535: Factors Affecting Stakeholder
           Acceptance of a Malaysian Smart City

    • Authors: Qasim Hamakhurshid Hamamurad, Normal Mat Jusoh, Uznir Ujang
      First page: 1508
      Abstract: Smart city technology is only considered in some cities depending on the resident requirements, whereas smart initiatives are adopted easily in others. One of the first critical steps toward understanding these aspects of Malaysian smart cities is to empirically study the citizens’ and government agencies’ aspirations to use smart city services. A Malaysia Smart Cities Stakeholders Adoption Model (MSCSA) as a case study based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) is being developed and evaluated in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. An in-depth interview with expert staff from the Plan Malaysia smart city department and Telekom Malaysia Berhad (TM one) was conducted using a mixed-methods approach. To determine the influence of seven parameters on behavioural intentions, specifically the choice to build a smart city, quantitative data were collected as questionnaires. These parameters were self-efficacy, expected effort, perceived security, perceived privacy, price value, trust in government, and trust in technology. Citizens’ intentions to use smart city services were significantly influenced by each of these characteristics. There is a definite association between perceived privacy and perceived security as a core aspect of trust in technology, as well as price value, a core aspect of trust in government. When the trust in both these is strong, stakeholders are more willing to adopt and pursue smart city services. These studies provide city officials with a technique for measuring citizen desire for smart city services, as well as outlining the components necessary for establishing a good smart city strategy that is successful.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040077
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1536-1553: Efficient Communication Model for a
           Smart Parking System with Multiple Data Consumers

    • Authors: T. Anusha, M. Pushpalatha
      First page: 1536
      Abstract: A smart parking system (SPS) is an integral part of smart cities where Internet of Things (IoT) technology provides many innovative urban digital solutions. It offers hassle-free parking convenience to the city dwellers, metering facilities, and a revenue source for businesses, and it also protects the environment by cutting down drive-around emissions. The real-time availability information of parking slots and the duration of occupancy are valuable data utilized by multiple sectors such as parking management, charging electric vehicles (EV), car servicing, urban infrastructure planning, traffic regulation, etc. IPv6 wireless mesh networks are a good choice to implement a fail-safe, low-power and Internet protocol (IP)-based secure communication infrastructure for connecting heterogeneous IoT devices. In a smart parking lot, there could be a variety of local IoT devices that consume the occupancy data generated from the parking sensors. For instance, there could be a central parking management system, ticketing booths, display boards showing a count of free slots and color-coded lights indicating visual clues for vacancy. Apart from this, there are remote user applications that access occupancy data from browsers and mobile phones over the Internet. Both the types of data consumers need not collect their inputs from the cloud, as it is beneficial to offer local data within the network. Hence, an SPS with multiple data consumers needs an efficient communication model that provides reliable data transfers among producers and consumers while minimizing the overall energy consumption and data transit time. This paper explores different SPS communication models by varying the number of occupancy data collators, their positions, hybrid power cycles and data aggregation strategies. In addition, it proposes a concise data format for effective data dissemination. Based on the simulation studies, a multi-collator model along with a data superimposition technique is found to be the best for realizing an efficient smart parking system.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-11-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040078
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1554-1573: Hybrid Approach for Developing
           Strategic ICT Framework for Smart Cities—A Case Study of
           Dubai’s Toll Gates (Salik)

    • Authors: Mahmoud El Hendy, Shadi Atalla, Sami Miniaoui, Mohammad Daradkeh, Wathiq Mansoor, Kamarul Faizal Bin Hashim
      First page: 1554
      Abstract: Information and communication technologies (ICT), systems, and people are driving innovative approaches and actions to address issues such as urbanization, demographic change, and carbon footprints of cities. Current research on smart city technologies is typically focused on the areas of technology and applications. As a result, a holistic strategic framework is lacking, as partner organizations often fail to adopt and comply with the necessary interoperability standards, which can undermine the effective and rapid roll-out and transformation of smart city project strategies. This study aims to develop an ICT framework on the determinants of smart city adoption that is developed to help society and policymakers achieve the goals pursued under the smart city initiative, such as maximizing synergies between different ICT infrastructure activities and avoiding large-scale investments without increasing their potential or focusing on short-term solutions without considering long-term needs. Based on data from the literature review and expert interviews, combined with a case study of the United Arab Emirates, this paper identifies the relevant determinants, which are conceptually grouped into seven basic dimensions. For each of these dimensions, relevant sub-dimensions are specified. The framework was developed and validated through three methods: interviews with experts, a desktop study of 62 smart cities, and finally a case study of the Salik system in Dubai based on the concept of the framework. By identifying key adoption determinants, the framework provides a useful analytical perspective for policymakers and researchers involved in the strategic feasibility roll-out and transformation of smart cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-11-07
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040079
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1574-1589: A Fuzzy Rule-Based System to Infer
           Subjective Noise Annoyance Using an Experimental Wireless Acoustic Sensor

    • Authors: Jose-Angel Fernandez-Prieto, Joaquin Canada-Bago, Ulrich Birkel
      First page: 1574
      Abstract: Over the last few years, several works have been conducted on the design and development of wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs) to monitor acoustic noise levels and create noise maps. The information provided by these WASNs is based on the equivalent noise pressure level over time T (Leq,T), which is used to assess the objective noise level. According to some authors, noise annoyance is an inherently vague and uncertain concept, and Leq,T does not provide any information about subjective annoyance to humans. Some fuzzy models have been proposed to model subjective annoyance. However, the use of fuzzy rule-based systems (FRBS) that have been adapted to acoustic sensor node resource limitations in real WASN to provide the degree of subjective noise annoyance in real-time remains a largely unexplored region. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of an FRBS that enables the sensor nodes of a real WASN deployed in the city of Linares (Jaen), Spain to infer the degree of subjective noise annoyance in real-time. The hardware used for the sensor nodes is a commercial model, Arduino Due. The results demonstrate that the sensor nodes have sufficient processing capacity and memory to infer the subjective annoyance in real-time, and the system can correctly detect situations that can be considered more annoying by humans.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040080
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1590-1610: Power Quality Analysis by H-Bridge
           DSTATCOM Control by Icosθ and ESRF SOGI-FLL Methods for Different
           Industrial Loads

    • Authors: Srikanth Islavatu, Pradeep Kumar, Amit Kumar, Surender Reddy Salkuti
      First page: 1590
      Abstract: This work develops the analysis of power quality by the H-bridge Static Distribution Compensator (DSTATCOM) as well as its control techniques in different industry-based loading conditions. The function of DSTATCOM is to diminish power quality problems arising due to commercial as well as industrial loads. For reference current extraction, the novel Icosθ and proposed enhanced SRF SOGI-FLL (synchronous reference frame second-order generalized integrator frequency-locked loop) controller have been adopted in the H-bridge DSTATCOM. The Icosθ controller’s performance is dependent on the in-phase and quadrature-phase angle, which changes accordingly as load changes, whereas the proposed enhanced SRF SOGI-FLL controller works in synchronization with the grid with an inverter. The two control techniques were compared in terms of balancing, power factor improvement, DC-link voltage control, and harmonic minimization. The harmonics minimization of the proposed controller has been validated by IEEE 519 standards. The extracted reference currents are fed to the hysteresis current controller for the generation of pulses toward the inverter switches of DSTATCOM. The DSTATCOM system along with control algorithms have been tested on various loading conditions, i.e., voltage source- and current source-based non-linear loads, induction heating-based loads, and electric arc furnace. The complete DSTATCOM systems were implemented and executed in the MATLAB/Simulink platform and then power quality improvement features were investigated.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-11-17
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040081
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1611-1634: Increasing Energy Conservation
           Behavior of Individuals towards Sustainable and Energy-Efficient

    • Authors: Rumeysa Ceylan, Aysegül Özbakır
      First page: 1611
      Abstract: The energy crisis is the foremost concern for the developing world, predominantly in European countries. The global energy demand will increase significantly by 2050, while natural resources dramatically decrease every day. However, net-zero emissions targets, climate emergency calls (1.5 °C global warming limit), smart environmental transformations, and energy transition efforts bring hope for fundamental changes in climate action globally. One of the best and most cost-effective strategies to achieve reduced energy consumption is encouraging energy conservation actions, which should begin at the household level and further spread to the community level. Therefore, this study aims to point out the critical role and growing importance of the ‘human’ dimension of smart cities via a behavior-based approach. The main purpose of the study is to measure the effect of feedback and intervention mechanisms on the energy conservation behavior of 100 volunteers who live in Kadikoy, Istanbul, over eight months through a behavioral questionnaire. The findings indicate that the feedback and intervention mechanisms affect volunteers’ energy conservation behaviors in the following behavioral groups: intention (t(99) = −2.75, p = 0.00), attitude (behavioral beliefs and outcome evaluations) (t(99) = 2.29, p = 0.02), subjective norms (t(99) = −4.07, p = 0.00), and perceived behavioral control (control beliefs and influence behavior) (t(99) = 3.60, p = 0.00). Moreover, among the four variable groups, participants’ intention, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control scores are relatively high in favor of actual energy conservation behavior. Hence, the findings of the study will provide valuable insights for the local government in terms of empowering citizen participation and data-driven feedback loops, from the bottom-up energy transition perspective, via smart technologies in smart cities.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-11-18
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040082
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1635-1654: Municipal Waste Management in
           Polish Cities—Is It Really Smart'

    • Authors: Izabela Jonek-Kowalska
      First page: 1635
      Abstract: Efficient municipal waste management is one of the key aspects of smart cities. In the literature, modern technological solutions are mainly analyzed in this context on the example of specific case studies. However, the author of this article attempts a more fundamental, holistic and comparative assessment of waste management in cities, recognized as smart and aspiring to this title. The objective of this attempt is to answer the following question: What results do the designated cities achieve in terms of waste volume reduction, waste segregation and collection costs' The research was carried out on 16 Polish provincial cities used as examples, including two (Warsaw and Wrocław) classified as smart cities in ranking of the Cities in Motion Index 2020. The analysis period covers 2019–2021, and during the research, in addition to the parameters listed above, a multi-criteria analysis was used to allow a collective assessment of the effectiveness of municipal management in the surveyed cities. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the volume of waste per capita in most of the analyzed cities is steadily increasing. The cost of waste management is also growing significantly. These unfavorable phenomena are particularly acute for smart cities, which in the holistic assessment were ranked among the three least effective units in terms of waste management (Lublin, Warsaw, Wrocław).
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040083
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1655-1669: Non-Linearity Flux of Fractional
           Transport Density Equation in Traffic Flow with Solutions

    • Authors: Rfaat Moner Soliby, Siti Suhana Jamaian
      First page: 1655
      Abstract: In the present paper, we derive and solve the space-fractional traffic flow model which is considered as a generalization of the transport density equation. Based on the fundamental physical principles on finite-length highway where the number of vehicles is conserved, without entrances or exits, we construct a fractional continuity equation. As a limitation of the classical calculus, the continuity equation is constructed based on truncating after the first order of Taylor expansion, which means that the change in the number of vehicles is linear over the finite-length highway. However, in fractional calculus, we prove that nonlinear flow is a result of truncating the fractional Taylor polynomial after the second term with zero error. Therefore, the new fractional traffic flow model is free from being linear, and the space now is described by the fractional powers of coordinates, provided with a single variable measure. Further, some exact solutions of the fractional model are generated by the method of characteristics. Remarkably, these solutions have significant physical implications to help to make the proper decisions for constructing traffic signals in a smart city.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-11-28
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040084
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1670-1720: Smart and Sentient Retail High

    • Authors: Paul M. Torrens
      First page: 1670
      Abstract: Here, we examine the extension of smart retailing from the indoor confines of stores, outward to high streets. We explore how several technologies at the union of retail intelligence and smart city monitoring could coalesce into retail high streets that are both smart and sentient. We examine the new vantages that smart and sentient retail high streets provide on the customer journey, and how they could transform retailers’ sway over customer experience with new reach to the public spaces around shops. In doing so, we pursue a three-way consideration of these issues, examining the technology that underpins smart retailing, new advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning that beget a level of street-side sentience, and opportunities for retailers to map the knowledge that those technologies provide to individual customer journeys in outdoor settings. Our exploration of these issues takes form as a review of the literature and the introduction of our own research to prototype smart and sentient retail systems for high streets. The topic of enhancing retailers’ acuity on high streets has significant currency, as many high street stores have recently been struggling to sustain custom. However, the production and application of smart and sentient technologies at hyper-local resolution of the streetscape conjures some sobering considerations about shoppers’ and pedestrians’ rights to privacy in public.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-11-29
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040085
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1721-1741: Thermal Comfort and Energy
           Efficiency: Challenges, Barriers, and Step towards Sustainability

    • Authors: Iasmin Lourenço Niza, Inaiele Mendes da Luz, Ana Maria Bueno, Evandro Eduardo Broday
      First page: 1721
      Abstract: With the increasing number of people living in cities, the demand for energy in office buildings and homes is constantly increasing; thus, smart buildings were created to provide users with better comfort conditions. However, using artificial systems becomes an unsustainable alternative for these environments. This research conducted a literature review of studies published in Scopus and Web of Science between 1970 and 2022 to identify studies that contained strategies to promote thermal comfort and energy efficiency in buildings, as well as the main challenges and barriers to sustainability. A total of 9195 articles related to the topic were identified, and after applying the defined criteria, 105 were included in this review. Three research questions were investigated, and the main findings of this research are: (i) it is more difficult to assess thermal comfort and thermal sensation than energy efficiency; (ii) to promote a thermally comfortable environment, it is necessary to consider numerous aspects to reduce environmental impacts and energy consumption and to increase sustainability; (iii) actual thermal conditions are influenced by factors such as energy levels, climate, setpoint types, building type, size and orientation, and economic factors, among others; (iv) new technologies found in smart buildings showed distinct performances according to the climates of each region, and their evaluations can cover thermal comfort, energy savings, and payback time.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040086
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1742-1751: Key Factors for Assessing Small and
           Rural Municipalities’ Readiness for Smart City Implementation

    • Authors: Nkhangweni Lawrence Mashau, Jan Hendrik Kroeze, Grant Royd Howard
      First page: 1742
      Abstract: The concept of a ‘smart city’ is now commonly used to describe the use of various digital and other technologies, to collect data to provide information that can be used to manage resources efficiently and provide a better standard of living for the citizens. Small and rural municipalities in developing countries face growing challenges in managing their resources, to provide basic services such as housing, education, transport, health, water and electricity to the citizens. This research is aimed at identifying key factors that could assist small and rural municipalities to assess their readiness for smart city implementation. A systematic literature review methodology was employed to provide an exhaustive summary of substantiated research relevant to the research aim and to synthesize key factors that are crucial to assess small and rural municipalities’ readiness. This study was conducted between January and July 2022. As a contribution, this study identified and synthesized key factors to be addressed when determining a municipality’s readiness to become a smart city. Through the use of ATLAS.ti to analyze the data, the study identifies the following key factors: infrastructure, the environment, skills, innovation, technology, the economy, citizens, culture, finance, the public sector, private organizations, data, management, policies, internet connectivity, education and energy. Advancing these key elements should also help small and rural municipalities, who are not yet ready to actuate a smart city, to prepare for such an endeavor, in order to address service delivery issues, the economy and the quality of life of their citizens.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-02
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040087
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1752-1775: Exploring the Market Requirements
           for Smart and Traditional Ageing Housing Units: A Mixed Methods Approach

    • Authors: Rita Yi Man Li, Miao Shi, Derek Asante Abankwa, Yishuang Xu, Amy Richter, Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng, Lingxi Song
      First page: 1752
      Abstract: The world’s population is getting older these days. Frailty, a gerontologic health condition associated with ageing, has serious consequences. One crucial remedy for the elderly population is the development of ageing-in-place infrastructures. To better understand the market requirements for ageing housing units, the causes of downsizing and the governmental measures to ameliorate the situation, face-to-face in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted in this study. Elderly residents of two significant ageing-in-place institutions in Hong Kong, along with their caregivers, were interviewed. The method of methodological triangulation was used to combine interviews, records, and communication tools to increase the reliability and trustworthiness of the findings. The provision of facilities for the elderly has successfully established a pathway for creating and making housing spaces available to families who need larger homes, while the elderly typically downsize from larger homes and relieve their financial needs. It is also found that a digital divide exists; some respondents suggested that they do not know about computers and do not use smart facilities in their homes.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-05
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040088
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1776-1810: The State-of-the-Art of Smart
           Cities in the European Union

    • Authors: Diogo Correia, João Lourenço Marques, Leonor Teixeira
      First page: 1776
      Abstract: Today, policymakers struggle to obtain information from specific smart city case studies. The literature lacks a unified view of current initiatives. This paper performs an empirical study with the aim of collecting evidence from the literature about existing smart city initiatives in the European Union (EU). The contribution of each paper and its geography are analyzed using content analysis to identify the number and type of initiatives in each country. A cluster analysis is performed to find relationships between countries and their development phase as well as the categories (areas) they are focused on. The results suggest that there are different levels of smart city development between the member states despite the initial year of their first result in the literature. Furthermore, 22 smart city categories clustered in four different groups were found. When compared to countries’ socio-economic characteristics, the results suggest the development of smart cities is significantly related to the public budget balance, gross domestic product and EU structural funds. In summary, this paper portrays the state-of-the-art of smart city initiatives in the member states of the European Union. Moreover, it represents a valuable contribution to decision makers to discuss ways to standardize smart city approaches in the European scope. Furthermore, the method used in this paper can inspire the development of collaborative dashboards for the exchange of best practices and data accessibility about case studies’ details.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-08
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040089
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
  • Smart Cities, Vol. 5, Pages 1811-1828: Getting Smarter: Blockchain and IOT
           Mixture in China Smart Public Services

    • Authors: Nada Mallah Boustani, Qing Xu, Yan Xu
      First page: 1811
      Abstract: Due to tremendous technological breakthroughs, an increasing number of cities are transforming into “smart cities” utilizing the Internet of Things (IOT), artificial intelligence, or other information technologies. The Chinese government announced that the development of “digital cities smart cities” was a national priority. The goal of this study is to examine the success variables that can influence IOT service adoption aspirations while also serving as a mediator for enhanced security via blockchain technologies. A conceptual model is created with a strong theoretical underpinning and body of literature. The final sample consisted of 1008 participants. This study uses the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM model) to test and analyze the impact of identified variables on the continuous usage intention (CUI) of IOT-based public services. Our findings show that blockchain adoption in smart cities fully mediates the effect of the IOT on CUI and shed the light on the importance of the trust, empowerment, and social influence since the continuous usage intention of the IOT in smart cities is mainly influenced by these factors and enhanced by the application of blockchain.
      Citation: Smart Cities
      PubDate: 2022-12-19
      DOI: 10.3390/smartcities5040090
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2022)
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