Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
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ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 97 of 97 Journals sorted alphabetically
Territorios     Open Access  
Territorios en formaci√≥n     Open Access  
The Evolving Scholar     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
The Urban Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for Kortl√¶gning og Arealforvaltning     Open Access  
Town and Regional Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Town Planning and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Town Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Urban     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban Affairs Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
URBAN DESIGN International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Urban Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Urban Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Urban Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Urban Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Land     Free   (Followers: 2)
Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Urban Planning and Design Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Urban Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Urban Science     Open Access  
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Urban Studies Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Urban Transformations     Open Access  
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Urbanisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Urbano     Open Access  
Vitruvian     Open Access  
Vivienda y Ciudad     Open Access  
Yhdyskuntasuunnittelu     Open Access  
ZARCH : Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access  

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Urban Science
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2413-8851
Published by MDPI Homepage  [84 journals]
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 26: Pandemic-Resilient Urban Centers: A New
           Way of Thinking for Industrial-Oriented Urbanization in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Daniel Tesfaw Mengistu, Ephrem Gebremariam, Xingping Wang, Shengbo Zhao
      First page: 26
      Abstract: In Ethiopia, the flourishing of industrial parks in the suburbs of major urban centers is a recent phenomenon. The outbreak of COVID-19 has had an adverse impact on the emerging industrial parks and prospects of cluster cities. The aim of this article is to explore the different urban planning measures employed during the pandemic and to propose sound planning methods for the development of sustainable industrial-oriented urban centers. In Ethiopia, industrial-oriented urbanization started in the 1920s with the advent of the railway line. Currently, more than 25 industrial park-based cluster cities have flourished adjacent to cities. A number of initiatives have been undertaken by major stakeholders in these cluster cities to combat COVID-19. Their efforts, however, were made difficult because urban planners were not proactive and did not have foresight in the selection of sites that can mitigate the impact of COVID-19 or other similar pandemics. The researchers believe the problem could have been addressed if the planners used a science-based, human-focused, computer-aided decision-making approach, i.e., space syntax. Therefore, this article recommends that planners become proactive and work in collaboration with different stakeholders for the creation of resilient and livable industrial parks-oriented urban centers.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020026
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 27: Assessment of Air Pollution Mitigation
           Measures on Secondary Pollutants PM10 and Ozone Using Chemical Transport
           Modelling over Megacity Delhi, India

    • Authors: Medhavi Gupta, Manju Mohan, Shweta Bhati
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Sporadic efforts have been introduced to control emissions in Delhi, but the air quality has declined further due to the rapid development of different sectors. In this study, the impact of various mitigation scenarios on air quality for PM10, ozone, and its precursors are studied using a chemical transport model, namely WRF-Chem. The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research emission inventory was modified and introduced into the WRF-Chem model to assess the impact of selected emission control scenarios on different sectors. The simulations were conducted with reduced emissions for these sectors over the study domain: (a) implementation of Bharat Stage—VI norms in the transport sector, (b) conversion of fuel from coal to natural gas in the energy sector, and (c) fuel shift to LPG in the residential sector. The transport sector noted a decrease of 4.9% in PM10, 44.1% in ozone, and 18.9% in NOx concentrations with emission reduction measures. In the energy sector, a marginal reduction of 3.9% in NOx concentrations was noted, and no change was observed in PM10 and ozone concentrations. In the residential sector, a decrease of 8% in PM-10, 47.7% in ozone, and 49.8% in NOx concentrations were noted. The VOC-to-NOx ratios were also studied, revealing the ozone production over the study domain was mostly VOC-limited. As the inclusion of control measures resulted in varying levels of reduction in pollutant concentrations, it was also studied in the context of improving the air quality index. The WRF-Chem model can be successfully implemented to study the effectiveness of any regulated control measures.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-06
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020027
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 28: A Geographical Analysis of Socioeconomic
           and Environmental Drivers of Physical Inactivity in Post Pandemic Cities:
           The Case Study of Chicago, IL, USA

    • Authors: Alexander Hohl, Aynaz Lotfata
      First page: 28
      Abstract: The pandemic’s lockdown has made physical inactivity unavoidable, forcing many people to work from home and increasing the sedentary nature of their lifestyle. The link between spatial and socio-environmental dynamics and people’s levels of physical activity is critical for promoting healthy lifestyles and improving population health. Most studies on physical activity or sedentary behaviors have focused on the built environment, with less attention to social and natural environments. We illustrate the spatial distribution of physical inactivity using the space scan statistic to supplement choropleth maps of physical inactivity prevalence in Chicago, IL, USA. In addition, we employ geographically weighted regression (GWR) to address spatial non-stationarity of physical inactivity prevalence in Chicago per census tract. Lastly, we compare GWR to the traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) model to assess the effect of spatial dependency in the data. The findings indicate that, while access to green space, bike lanes, and living in a diverse environment, as well as poverty, unsafety, and disability, are associated with a lack of interest in physical activities, limited language proficiency is not a predictor of an inactive lifestyle. Our findings suggest that physical activity is related to socioeconomic and environmental factors, which may help guide future physical activity behavior research and intervention decisions, particularly in identifying vulnerable areas and people.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020028
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 29: Constructing Landscape Ecological

    • Authors: Xuhui Wang, Jianwei Li, Tuo Zheng, Shupeng Diao, Xue Zhang, Yunxi Tian
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Urban sprawl in developing countries changes urban land use structure and function, and threatens the sustainable development of regional ecology and security patterns of city landscapes. A new way to control urban sprawl is to develop a comprehensive landscape security plan, analyze factors influencing urban growth, optimize land use and demarcate a growth boundary. Here, we use Xi’an, China, as a case study to analyze scenarios of landscape security pattern and urban spatial control to explore urban spatial zoning. We construct a theoretical framework of a landscape security pattern to manage urban spatial expansion from the perspective of landscape security and urban smart growth. As a first step, the integrated landscape security pattern is constructed based on four factors: hydrology, geological disasters, cultural heritage, and recreation. Second, the urban spatial expansion model is simulated based on a cellular automata model. Finally, nine land-use patterns are developed by overlaying integrated landscape security patterns and urban spatial expansion. Thus, urban space is divided into three types of zoning scenarios: suitable construction, restricted construction, and prohibited construction. The calculations indicate that the zoning area of the three types accounted for 10.4%, 14.7%, and 74.9%, respectively, of the total area in Xi’an. It is of great significance to determine the spatial contradiction between development and protection in the process of urban expansion and to establish a schema of suitable urban land use. We discuss the rapid urbanization process in developing countries at the macro scale, and formulate a land use plan that balances development and protection.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020029
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 30: The Spatiality of COVID-19 in Kermanshah
           Metropolis, Iran

    • Authors: Alireza Zanganeh, Komali Yenneti, Raziyeh Teimouri, Shahram Saeidi, Farid Najafi, Ebrahim Shakiba, Shahrzad Moghadam, Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is a severe ongoing health crisisworldwide. Studying the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 can help policymakers develop successful pandemic management plans. This paper focuses on the spatial epidemiology of COVID-19 among different social classes in the Kermanshah metropolis, Iran. This cross-sectional study uses the data of people infected with COVID-19 in the Kermanshah metropolis in 2020, acquired from the official COVID-19 Registry of Kermanshah. The results show that 2013 people were infected with COVID-19 (male = 1164 and female = 849). The mean age of the patients was 45 ± 18.69. The Moran’s I show that COVID-19 in different social classes was clustered across the neighbourhoods in the Kermanshah metropolis. The mean ages of men and women were 44.51 ± 18.62 and 45.69 ± 18.76, respectively. Importantly, COVID-19 was highly prevalent in the middle-class groups. Age group comparisons indicate that older people were the most infected in poorer neighbourhoods. In the middle-classtheage group of 0–14 years and in the rich neighbourhoods the age group of 15–64 years were the most exposed to the disease. The findings of this study suggest that older people and lower socioeconomic classes should be prioritised while developing and implementing preventative programs for COVID-19 and similar pandemics.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020030
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 31: Recognition and Evaluating the Indicators
           of Urban Resilient by Using the Network Analysis Process

    • Authors: Asghar Abedini, Farshid Aram, Amin Khalili, Elham Mirzaei
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Today’s cities are increasing their space zones while becoming more vulnerable to natural disasters and man-made threats. The initial evaluation of the resilience of city systems is of great importance and helps develop policies and measures that would improve resilience. This paper, using a descriptive–analytic method, defines the characteristics of a resilient city, and natural disasters are addressed. At the same time, the process of reaching a resilient city is investigated. Then, the indicators of resilience have been defined in pillars of ecologic, physiological, social, economic, and managerial–institutional dimensions for the evaluation of a resilient city in Iran. As the sample of the study, the indicators of the study were evaluated in the city of Sanandaj and prioritized in the network analysis process (ANP). The results of this analysis showed that zones one and two, respectively, were the weakest parts regarding urban resilience. In order to move toward a resilient city, future investments should go beyond financial investment and technical solutions and consider human and community development, as well as institutional capacity and inter-organizational cooperation.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020031
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 32: Understanding the Urban Middle-Class and
           Its Housing Characteristics—Case Study of Casablanca, Morocco

    • Authors: Hicham Mharzi Alaoui, Hassan Radoine, Jérôme Chenal, Hassan Yakubu, Salwa Bajja
      First page: 32
      Abstract: With the rapid urbanization occurring across African cities, the emergence of a middle class is exerting its influence on the urban form and structure. Matching their social status and drawing on global influences, the housing characteristics of this class are distinctive in spatial organization, material choice, and location, among others. Understanding these emerging typologies is critical for urban housing policy to be responsive to the needs and preferences of this class. The present paper aims first to develop a new approach for defining the middle class in the African context and second, to analyze its housing typology through a multidimensional analysis based on housing attributes and socio-economic characteristics in Casablanca City. A data-driven approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to define multidimensionally the middle class and its housing typology. Through the construction of a multidimensional composite index to measure middle class, the study highlighted that middle-class housing is characterized by an adequate condition, a suitable size (two to three rooms), and affordability between 8000 and 11,000 Moroccan dirhams (MAD) per square meter. In addition, although the Moroccan modern houses (two-floor single-family housing) and apartments (four floors or greater) are the most occupied by the middle class, the study showed that as income and social mobility increase, the apartment building and the villa are increasingly preferred to the Moroccan modern house.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020032
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 33: Impact of Car-Sharing and Ridesourcing on
           Public Transport Use: Attitudes, Preferences, and Future Intentions
           Regarding Sustainable Urban Mobility in the Post-Soviet City

    • Authors: Rozaliia Tarnovetckaia, Hamid Mostofi
      First page: 33
      Abstract: The impacts of ICT-based mobility services vary in different cities, depending on socioeconomic, urban form, and cultural parameters. The impacts of car-sharing and ridesourcing on public transport have not been investigated appropriately in post-Soviet Union cities. This study presents exploratory evidence on how ridesourcing and car-sharing affect public transport usage in Moscow. Additionally, it studies how demographics, spatial parameters, attitudes, and travel preferences influence the frequency of use of ridesourcing and car-sharing in Moscow. An online mobility survey was conducted at the beginning of 2020 among respondents (sample size is 777) in the Moscow agglomeration. Overall, 66% of ridesourcing users shifted from public transport to these mobility services, which shows the substitutional impact of ridesourcing on public transport. Additionally, the logit model indicates that the regular use of ridesourcing negatively correlates with the regular use of buses/trams/trolleybuses in Moscow. The impact of car-sharing on public transport seems less substitutional and more complementary than the impact of ridesourcing. Overall, 40% of car-sharing users would replace their last car-sharing trip with public transport if car-sharing was unavailable. Moreover, the logit model indicates a positive association between the regular use of car-sharing and the use of buses/trams/trolleybuses. Moreover, the modal split analysis shows a bigger share of public transport use and walking than car use among citizens’ urban journeys in Moscow.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020033
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 34: A Measurement Model for
           Stakeholders’ Participation in Urban Housing Development for Lusaka:
           A Neo-Liberal Perspective

    • Authors: Sampa Chisumbe, Clinton Aigbavboa, Erastus Mwanaumo, Wellington Thwala
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Development of urban housing requires participation of various stakeholders, from the state, private sector, and community to the civil society organizations. Cognizant of that fact, this research sought to establish the measurement model for stakeholders’ participation in an urban housing development from the neo-liberal perspective. The study employed a quantitative approach, in which a structured questionnaire containing 25 indicator variables identified from literature was administered to a total of 214 respondents drawn from key institutions involved in housing development and planning in Lusaka, Zambia. Data collected were analyzed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) as well as confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), with goodness-of-fit based on a two-index strategy used in determining model acceptability. Results revealed that stakeholders’ participation is defined by seven variables, namely: private sector participation in the provision of affordable housing finance; private sector participation through construction of rent-to-buy housing; private sector participation through partnering in the provision of basic services; community participation in the develop of housing programs; the state facilitating access to affordable housing finance; the state stimulating private sector involvement in affordable housing provision; non-governmental organizations participation by coordinating the communities. The study outlines roles of various actors in housing development from a developing country’s perspective.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020034
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 35: Nature Positive: Interrogating
           Sustainable Design Frameworks for Their Potential to Deliver Eco-Positive

    • Authors: Janis Birkeland
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Built environment design is implicated in virtually all socio-ecological sustainability problems. Nonetheless, paradoxically, construction will be essential to creating sustainability by increasing social and natural life-support systems. Given the rates of land, resource, water, and biodiversity depletion, urban development must do more than restore nature. It must increase nature and environmental justice in real, not relative, terms. The necessary technologies and design concepts for nature-positive development already exist. However, most sustainable building regulations, design criteria, and performance standards only aim to regenerate landscapes and integrate more nature into cities. This cannot sustain nature or society. This paper canvasses contemporary sustainable design and development thinking and finds that a progression toward ‘nature positive’ is occurring. However, so-called ‘sustainable buildings’ still do not compensate for past inequities or nature degradation, let alone the material flows, pollution, or biodiversity losses they themselves cause. This is partly because current standards and measurements are based on existing conditions, not sustainability standards, and do not distinguish net-positive from regenerative outcomes. Positive Development (PD) theory provides a comprehensive alternative to conventional sustainability frameworks, planning analyses, decision-making structures, design paradigms, and assessment tools. This paper provides criteria for evaluating the potential of conventional and alternative methods for achieving nature-positive outcomes.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020035
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 36: Urban Climate Justice, Human Health, and
           Citizen Science in Nairobi’s Informal Settlements

    • Authors: Jason Corburn, Patrick Njoroge, Jane Weru, Maureen Musya
      First page: 36
      Abstract: Urban informal settlements or slums are among the most vulnerable places to climate-change-related health risks. Yet, little data exist documenting environmental and human health vulnerabilities in slums or how to move research to action. Citizen science, where residents co-define research objectives with professionals, collect and analyze data, and help translate findings into ameliorative actions, can help fill data gaps and contribute to more locally relevant climate justice interventions. This paper highlights a citizen-science, climate justice planning process in the Mukuru informal settlement of Nairobi, Kenya. We describe how residents, non-governmental organizations and academics partnered to co-create data-gathering processes and generated evidence to inform an integrated, climate justice strategy called the Mukuru Special Planning Area, Integrated Development Plan. The citizen science processes revealed that <1% of residents had access to a private in-home toilet, and 37% lacked regular access to safe and affordable drinking water. We found that 42% of households were subject to regular flooding, 39% reported fair or poor health, and 40% reported a child in the household was stunted. These and other data were used in a community planning process where thousands of residents co-designed improvement and climate change adaptation strategies, such as flood mitigation, formalizing roads and pathways with drainage, and a water and sanitation infrastructure plan for all. We describe the participatory processes used by citizen scientists to generate data and move evidence into immediate actions to protect human health and a draft a long-range, climate justice strategy. The processes used to create the Mukuru Special Planning Area redevelopment plan suggest that participatory, citizen-led urban science can inform local efforts for health equity and global goals of climate justice.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020036
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 37: The Morpho-Physio-Biochemical Attributes
           of Urban Trees for Resilience in Regional Ecosystems in Cities: A

    • Authors: Jang, Leung
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Increased urbanization means human beings become the dominant species and reduction in canopy cover. Globally, urban trees grow under challenging and complex circumstances with urbanization trends of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, high temperature and drought stress. This study aims to provide a better understanding of urban trees’ morpho-physio-biochemical attributes that can support sustainable urban greening programs and urban climate change mitigation policies. Globally, urban dwellers’ population is on the rise and spreading to suburban areas over time with an increase in domestic CO2 emissions. Uncertainty and less information on urban tree diversification and resistance to abiotic stress may create deterioration of ecosystem resilience over time. This review uses general parameters for urban tree physiology studies and employs three approaches for evaluating ecosystem resilience based on urban stress resistance in relation to trees’ morphological, physiological and biochemical attributes. Due to the lack of a research model of ecosystem resilience and urban stress resistance of trees, this review demonstrates that the model concept supports future urban tree physiology research needs. In particular, it is necessary to develop integral methodologies and an urban tree research concept to assess how main and combined effects of drought and/or climate changes affect indigenous and exotic trees that are commonly grown in cities.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-02
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020037
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 38: Addressing Negative Externalities of
           Urban Development: Toward a More Sustainable Approach

    • Authors: Christopher R. Correia, Mark Roseland
      First page: 38
      Abstract: The sheer size, growth, and complexity of cities worldwide are creating an ever-increasing burden of negative externalities on society and the environment. This systematic review aims to illuminate the broad range of negative urban development externalities and to analyze them in way that sharpens our ability to perceive, anticipate, and manage them. After finding that negative urban development externalities are more complex and diverse than has been previously articulated in the literature, the paper categorizes a representative sample by type (social, environmental, and economic) and identifies three modes of impact (visibility, emergence, and distribution) that make them extremely challenging to anticipate and mitigate. The most problematic negative externalities are social or environmental, with low visibility, cumulative patterns of emergence, and effects that extend beyond regulating jurisdictions. The analysis then draws on welfare economics to strengthen the case for the proactive management of these negative externalities and analyzes the competencies and capacities of local governments to strategically intervene in order to more effectively achieve sustainable development.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020038
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 39: A Neighborhood-Level Analysis of
           Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Developments in the State of California and
           Los Angeles County

    • Authors: Victoria Basolo, Edith Huarita, Jongho Won
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Some housing researchers have criticized the United States housing subsidy scheme referred to as the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program for failing to promote better opportunities for low-income persons. In this study, therefore, we examine the socio-economic and built-environment characteristics of LIHTC developments at the neighborhood level. Specifically, we aim to investigate the characteristics associated with LIHTC developments compared to neighborhoods without this kind of development. We focus on California statewide initially and then narrow our focus to examine LIHTC developments in Los Angeles County (LAC). We then compare the results from the two levels of government. We compiled data from several sources including the U.S. Census Bureau, the State of California, the Southern California Association of Governments, and other secondary sources; used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to aid in creating several location-based indicators; and employed logistic regression for analyses. Our results show that LIHTC developments at the statewide and county levels tend to be in racially/ethnically diverse neighborhoods with higher levels of economic hardship, lower rents, a higher percentage of renters, and spatial clustering of LIHTC developments. With LAC removed from the state-level analysis, economic hardship is not more likely to occur in LIHTC neighborhoods. This finding suggests, except for in LAC, state policies may be having some level of success in locating LIHTC housing outside of hardship areas. Finally, in examining additional built-environment variables in LAC, we find LIHTC developments were more likely to be in a neighborhood with a park than other neighborhoods in the county. We discuss these results further and conclude with a brief recap of results, policy recommendations, and suggestions for future research.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020039
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 40: Spatio-Temporal Responses of
           Precipitation to Urbanization with Google Earth Engine: A Case Study for
           Lagos, Nigeria

    • Authors: Alamin Molla, Liping Di, Liying Guo, Chen Zhang, Fei Chen
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Lagos, Nigeria, is considered a rapidly growing urban hub. This study focuses on an urban development characterization with remote sensing-based variables for Lagos as well as understanding spatio-temporal precipitation responses to the changing intensity of urban development. Initially, a harmonic analysis showed an increase in yearly precipitation of about 3 mm from 1992 to 2018 for the lower bound of the fitted curve and about 2 mm for the upper bound. The yearly total precipitation revealed no significant trend based on the Mann–Kendall trend test. Subsequent analyses first involved characterizing urbanization based on nighttime light and population density data and then combined them together for the final analysis. Each time, the study area was subdivided into four zones: Zone 0, Zone 1, Zone 2, and Zone 3, which refer to non-urbanized, low-urbanized, mid-urbanized, and highly urbanized regions, respectively. The results from the Google Earth Engine-based analysis uncovered that only Zone 1 has a statistical monotonic increasing precipitation trend (Tau 0.29) with a 0.03 significance level when the combined criteria were applied. There is about a 200 mm precipitation increase in Zone 1. Insignificant patterns for the other three zones (Zone 2, Zone 3, and Zone 4) indicate that these trends are not consistent, they might change over time, and fluctuate heavily.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020040
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 41: A New Top-Down Governance Approach to
           Community Gardens: A Case Study of the “We Garden” Community
           Experiment in Shenzhen, China

    • Authors: Xunyu Zhang, Dongxu Pan, Kapo Wong, Yuanzhi Zhang
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Over the past few decades, development in China (including Shenzhen) has been led by the State, meaning that the government has been responsible for major decisions in urban construction and management. However, the current enormous contradiction between people’s demand for livability and Shenzhen’s unequal and inadequate urban development means that leaving all the administrative work to the government alone has become unsustainable. Since 2020, Shenzhen has introduced a new urban management approach called “We Garden”, in which the government supports public participation aimed to transform idle public lands into green spaces in the form of community gardens. Because this ongoing but novel community garden experiment is a recent development in China, literature investigating the phenomenon context, especially the associated motivations and governance structure, remains scarce. This paper aims to clarify the governance structure and operation mechanism of the Shenzhen community garden program through all stages: from planning and design through construction or implementation to management. Fieldwork with active participation, direct observation, and semi-structured, qualitative interviews as participant in a nonprofit organization revealed that the Shenzhen experiment was driven by urban environmental public governance rather than individual needs. The community garden development approach is a new top-down governance structure that expands on existing governance types in the literature, while emphasizing the key role that nonprofit organizations play in the process. Therefore, this new governance approach expands beyond the environmental improvement of urban communities, serving as a new mechanism for sustainable public participation in urban environmental protection.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6020041
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 3: What Happens in Your Brain When You Walk
           Down the Street' Implications of Architectural Proportions, Biophilia,
           and Fractal Geometry for Urban Science

    • Authors: Aenne A. Brielmann, Nir H. Buras, Nikos A. Salingaros, Richard P. Taylor
      First page: 3
      Abstract: This article reviews current research in visual urban perception. The temporal sequence of the first few milliseconds of visual stimulus processing sheds light on the historically ambiguous topic of aesthetic experience. Automatic fractal processing triggers initial attraction/avoidance evaluations of an environment’s salubriousness, and its potentially positive or negative impacts upon an individual. As repeated cycles of visual perception occur, the attractiveness of urban form affects the user experience much more than had been previously suspected. These perceptual mechanisms promote walkability and intuitive navigation, and so they support the urban and civic interactions for which we establish communities and cities in the first place. Therefore, the use of multiple fractals needs to reintegrate with biophilic and traditional architecture in urban design for their proven positive effects on health and well-being. Such benefits include striking reductions in observers’ stress and mental fatigue. Due to their costs to individual well-being, urban performance, environmental quality, and climatic adaptation, this paper recommends that nontraditional styles should be hereafter applied judiciously to the built environment.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 4: Exposure of Malaysian Children to Air
           Pollutants over the School Day

    • Authors: Eliani Ezani, Peter Brimblecombe
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Children are sensitive to air pollution and spend long hours in and around their schools, so the school day has an important impact on their overall exposure. This study of Kuala Lumpur, Selangor and its surroundings assesses exposure to PM2.5 and NO2, from travel, play and study over a typical school day. Most Malaysian children in urban areas are driven to school, so they probably experience peak NO2 concentrations in the drop-off and pick-up zones. Cyclists are likely to receive the greatest school travel exposure during their commute, but typically, the largest cumulative exposure occurs in classrooms through the long school day. Indoor concentrations tend to be high, as classrooms are well ventilated with ambient air. Exposure to PM2.5 is relatively evenly spread across Selangor, but NO2 exposure tends to be higher in areas with a high population density and heavy traffic. Despite this, ambient PM2.5 may be more critical and exceed guidelines as it is a particular problem during periods of widespread biomass burning. A thoughtful adjustment to school approach roads, design of playgrounds and building layout and maintenance may help minimise exposure.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-18
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 5: The Image of the Smart City: New

    • Authors: Giuseppe Borruso, Ginevra Balletto
      First page: 5
      Abstract: The image of the Smart City recalls Lynch’s “Image of the City” (1960) and the ways in which urban spaces are perceived by the community and users. The categories presented there hold a physical, tangible component, related to the spatial and material aspects of the city. Talking about Smart Cities, a little formulated and tackled question refers to what the image of the Smart City is, and how it is possible to represent it. The debate on the Smart City regards mainly the digital component and technological aspects, often not visible or perceivable, neglecting the more humanistic aspects and implications. We carry on a reflection on the “image of the smart city”. We propose some possible evolutions of the concept and research directions, in light of the new challenges posed by COVID-19 and the pandemic, as well as the need for a more human-centric approach to planning and managing urban areas and human settlements.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-01-29
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 6: The Art and Science of Urban Gun Violence
           Reduction: Evidence from the Advance Peace Program in Sacramento,

    • Authors: Jason Corburn, Yael Nidam, Amanda Fukutome-Lopez
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Urban gun violence is a critical human health and social justice issue. Strategies to reduce urban gun violence are increasingly being taken out of the domain of police and into community-based programs. One such community-driven gun violence reduction program analyzed here is called Advance Peace. Advance Peace (AP) uses street outreach workers as violence interrupters and adult mentors to support the decision making and life chances of those at the center of urban gun violence. We reported on the impact Advance Peace had on gun violence and program participants in the City of Sacramento, California, from 2018–2019. Using an interrupted time series model, we attributed a gun violence reduction of 18% city wide and up to 29% in one of the AP target neighborhoods from the intervention. We also found that of the 50 participants in the Advance Peace Sacramento program 98% were alive, 90% did not have a new gun charge or arrest, 84% reported an improved outlook on life, all received cognitive behavioral therapy, and 98% reported that their AP outreach worker was one of the most important adults in their life. Advance Peace is a viable community-driven, urban gun violence, and healing-focused program.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 7: Smart City Thailand: Visioning and Design
           to Enhance Sustainability, Resiliency, and Community Wellbeing

    • Authors: K. N. Irvine, Asan Suwanarit, Fa Likitswat, Hansa Srilertchaipanij, Massimo Ingegno, Peeradorn Kaewlai, Pranisa Boonkam, Nij Tontisirin, Alisa Sahavacharin, Jitiporn Wongwatcharapaiboon, Shusak Janpathompong
      First page: 7
      Abstract: A “Smart City” framework was used to investigate and develop visions of alternative futures for a peri-urban superblock north of Bangkok, Thailand. The Smart City framework considers seven smart pillars: environment, economy, energy, mobility, people, living, and governance, with a focus on community wellbeing that is supported by information and communication technology (ICT). A mixed-method approach that included: community and industry surveys, both online and face-to-face (total n = 770); in depth, semi-structured, stakeholder interviews; passive participant observation; and photo-documentation was used to inform and organize the project visions and designs. Several themes emerged from the community surveys and key stakeholder interviews: (i) connected green space is highly valued and effectively links multiple smart pillars, enhancing community wellbeing and resiliency to flooding; (ii) superblock mobility, connectivity, and sustainable development could be achieved through a seamless, integrated public-transit system following the principles of transit-oriented development (TOD); (iii) the superblock should prepare for the implementation of Thailand 4.0 through the improved programmatic and physical integration of local industry, community, and universities, including plans for a Digital Village and co-work space. Example designs that address these considerations and vision alternative futures for the superblock are presented in this Smart City case study.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-03
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 8: Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Urban
           Science in 2021

    • Authors: Urban Science Editorial Office Urban Science Editorial Office
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 9: Microclimatic Landscape Architecture: From
           Theory to Application

    • Authors: Jiawei Lin, Dongying Li, Robert D. Brown
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Global climate change and urban heat island intensification are making many cities dangerously hot during heat waves. There is a need for a clear process for applying microclimate information in urban design to create cooler cities. A recent paper points out the gaps in research methodology and suggests the need for implementation-oriented research. It suggests action steps to take research from theory to practice. The framework has five steps, and in our paper, we have addressed four of those steps: (1) understanding the needs of designers; (2) integrated research on urban microclimate factors; (3) development of guidance methods for better design; and (4) developing user-friendly tools. To address the first step, a group of Chinese landscape architects was given a questionnaire and it was found that they perceived principles and guidelines as being the most useful microclimatic design methods. The second step was addressed through a case study with on-site measurements and modeling. In step 3, microclimate information was used to redesign the site. The process that followed addressed the fourth step by illustrating user-friendly tools.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 10: The New Urban Profession: Entering the
           Age of Uncertainty

    • Authors: Rob Roggema, Robert Chamski
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The context of urbanism is changing rapidly. The context for working in the field of urban design and planning is influenced by the pace of change; uncertainty; and massive transitions. The urban professional, however, is still used to planning for small changes and repeating traditional approaches. In this paper, we have investigated major future tasks and problems that require rethinking the skills required from people working in the urban arena. By conducting in-depth conversation with leading thinkers in the field, the tension between idealism and the urgency to act versus realism and the trust in current systems dominated by economic laws is present. This results in the conclusion that a different skillset is required in order to face future complexities and to be able to connect design creativity with process sensitivity in short- and long-term periods and at small and large scales.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 11: A Geometric Classification of World Urban
           Road Networks

    • Authors: Mohamed Badhrudeen, Sybil Derrible, Trivik Verma, Amirhassan Kermanshah, Angelo Furno
      First page: 11
      Abstract: This article presents a method to uncover universal patterns and similarities in the urban road networks of the 80 most populated cities in the world. To that end, we used degree distribution, link length distribution, and intersection angle distribution as topological and geometric properties of road networks. Moreover, we used ISOMAP, a nonlinear dimension reduction technique, to better express variations across cities, and we used K-means to cluster cities. Overall, we uncovered one universal pattern between the number of nodes and links across all cities and identified five classes of cities. Gridiron Cities tend to have many 90° angles. Long Link Cities have a disproportionately high number of long links and include mostly Chinese cities that developed towards the end of the 20th century. Organic Cities tend to have short links and more non-90 and 180° angles; they also include relatively more historical cities. Hybrid Cities tend to have both short and long links; they include cities that evolved both historically and recently. Finally, Mixed Cities exhibit features from all other classes. These findings can help transport planners and policymakers identify peer cities that share similar characteristics and use their characteristics to craft tailored transport policies.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-11
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 12: Detect Megaregional Communities Using
           Network Science Analytics

    • Authors: Ming Zhang, Bolin Lan
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Urban science research and the research on megaregions share a common interest in the system of cities and its implications for world urbanization and sustainability. The two lines of inquiry currently remain largely separate efforts. This study aims to bridge urban science and megaregion research by applying network science’s community detection algorithm to explore the spatial pattern of megaregions in the contiguous United States. A network file was constructed consisting of county centroids as nodes, the direct links between each pair of counties as edges, and inter-county commuting flows as the weight to capture spatial interactions. Analyses were carried out at two levels, one at the national level using Gephi and the other for the State of Texas involving NetworkX, an open-source Python programming package to implement a weighted community detection algorithm. Results show the detected communities largely conforming to the qualitative knowledge on megaregions. Despite a number of limitations, the study indicates the great potential of applying network science analytics to improve understanding of the spatial process of megaregions.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 13: Tiebout Sorting, Zoning, and Property Tax

    • Authors: Steven C. Bourassa, Wen-Chieh Wu
      First page: 13
      Abstract: This paper examines certain implications from the literature on Tiebout’s model of local government service provision, particularly Hamilton’s extension of the model to include local control of land use and property taxation. Our empirical analysis focused on the use of fiscal zoning to lower property tax rates, a topic that has not been addressed in the extensive literature on Tiebout’s model. Using data for over 100 municipalities in the Miami, Florida, metropolitan area, we specified property tax rates as a function of fiscal zoning measures, other municipal characteristics, and tax mimicking. We conclude that single-family zoning is by far the most important variable explaining municipal property tax rates.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-17
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 14: Social Resilience Promotion Factors
           during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Insights from Urmia, Iran

    • Authors: Hadi Alizadeh, Ayyoob Sharifi
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Social resilience is an essential need for societies faced with adverse events such as pandemics. The recent COVID-19 outbreak has affected many communities around the globe. In fact, in addition to unprecedented mortality and infection rates, it has also caused major anxieties and social problems. Iran has been one of the hardest-hit countries and is among those that have experienced multiple waves of the outbreak. In this study, we try to identify major factors that can contribute to urban social resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic in Urmia, a major city located in Northwestern Iran. Data for the study were collected via a field visit and a semi-structured interview survey involving 194 participants. Findings show that several factors related to the following three themes play a significant role in promoting social resilience: (1) participative and supportive governance, (2) resource accessibility, and (3) citizen participation and lawfulness. Results can inform local authorities in Urmia and other contexts to deal with COVID-19 and similar pandemics.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 15: Street Verge in Transition: A Study of
           Community Drivers and Local Policy Setting for Urban Greening in Perth,
           Western Australia

    • Authors: Shania Hunt, Jeremy Maher, Mohammad Shahidul Hasan Swapan, Atiq Zaman
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are regarded as the key policy agenda for national, regional, and local government to combat climate change impacts and promote sustainable development. For example, in Perth and Peel metropolitan area, the capital city of Western Australia, there has been a shift of policy setting from that of a sprawling city to a denser city, while maintaining and promoting its ecosystem services and achieving sustainable city goals. Residential verge gardens have been widely adopted in recent years by communities and local governments in the Perth metropolitan area. This study reviews the motivations and drivers for the uptake of verge gardens in metropolitan suburbs and identifies potential policy responses. The City of Bayswater local government area was surveyed for this research. The study considers a mixed-methods approach, including site auditing and a questionnaire survey for local residents who have transformed their verges. A total of 534 verge gardens were audited on residential lots, and 166 valid questionnaire responses were received from residents. The site-audit of the verge gardens in Bayswater found that native vegetation is the dominant verge garden of choice, followed by the ornamental garden, with food production (plants/vegetables) seeming to be the least popular option. Regarding the motivations and drivers, the study has found that social (e.g., aesthetics, flowers, social interactions, and social mimicry), environmental (e.g., attracting wildlife and birds and environmental practice waterwise garden), and personal (easy maintenance) drivers are the primary motivators for residents to adopt verge gardens. Whilst the on-ground surveys were prior to COVID-19, the article includes how this topic could relate to pandemic-resilient urban spaces. As local governments look towards supporting the sustainable outcome goals, the observations of this study will be helpful for developing local government policy and community programs in the promotion and uptake of verge gardens in Australian cities.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 16: City-Wide Firearm Violence Spikes in
           Minneapolis following the Murder of George Floyd: A Comparative
           Time-Series Analysis of Three Cities

    • Authors: Hunter M. Boehme, Robert J. Kaminski, Melissa S. Nolan
      First page: 16
      Abstract: This study investigates the aftermath of a high-profile violent police incident as it relates to city-wide firearm violence. Utilizing two Midwest cities (Kansas City, Missouri and Omaha, Nebraska) as comparison cities, we assess whether violent firearm incidents increased in Minneapolis after the murder of George Floyd. Multiple interrupted time-series analyses showed statistically significant increases in weekly firearm incidents in Minneapolis (AME = 10.63, p < 0.05) and Omaha (AME = 1.47, p < 0.5) following the murder of George Floyd. No significant results were found in Kansas City. Similar relationships were found when examining monthly firearm incidents. The firearm spike in Minneapolis thus represents an approximate 10-fold increase in weekly firearm incidents relative to that observed in Omaha. We conclude, therefore, that the murder of George Floyd was associated with a substantially greater increase in firearm violence in Minneapolis than in the two comparison cities. Police training to reduce police violence and public health approaches to reduce urban firearm violence will alleviate the social and economic impacts of violence on federal and state governments.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 17: A Case Study Evaluating Water Quality and
           Reach-, Buffer-, and Watershed-Scale Explanatory Variables of an Urban
           Coastal Watershed

    • Authors: Laurissa C. Heidkamp, Alan D. Christian
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Land use land cover within a watershed influences stream water quality, habitat quality, and biological community structure. As development and associated impervious surface increases in a watershed, changes in storm water and nutrient inputs generally cause declines in habitat conditions and biodiversity. The first goal of our study was to evaluate the water quality in the Charles River watershed, in which our objective (G1O1) was to establish ten 100-meter reach-scale sampling stations and conduct physical, chemical, and biological assessments. The second goal of this study was to better understand the direct and indirect effects of hierarchical variables on water quality in the Charles River watershed. Our first objective of our second goal (G2O1) was to calculate land use land cover percentages at the pour-point subwatershed and local 100-meter buffer scale for each of our ten 100-meter reach sampling stations. Our second objective of our second goal (G2O2) was to use path analysis to determine the direct and indirect effects of land use land cover and impervious surface on water quality in the Charles River watershed. The results of G1O1 were that habitat quality assessments ranged from “marginal” to “optimal” and biological quality assessments ranged from “fair” to “good“, indicating overall “fair” or better water quality conditions in the watershed. The results of G2O2 were that our path analysis resulted in differences in effects of development between the buffer and sub-watershed scale. At the buffer scale, water quality was influenced more negatively by the percentage of developed land area versus the percentage of impervious cover. While both buffer development and habitat quality had a direct effect on Streamside Biosurvey Macroinvertebrates, buffer development also directly hindered habitat quality, thus having an indirect effect on Streamside Biosurvey Macroinvertebrates through habitat. Streamside Biosurvey Macroinvertebrate scores were shown to be more sensitive to development within the buffer versus at the sub-watershed scale, where impervious cover was a more important indicator of stream water quality. Through this small case study of 10 stations within the Charles River watershed, we illustrated how citizen-science level water quality assessments can be combined with water chemistry and hierarchical LULC data to provide insights into potential direct and indirect effects on water quality. As the fields of landscape ecology and conservation continue to grow, so does our ability to determine changes in land development and devise management strategies aimed at improving water quality.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 18: Assembling Transit Urban Design in the
           Global South: Urban Morphology in Relation to Forms of Urbanity and
           Informality in the Public Space Surrounding Transit Stations

    • Authors: Nastaran Peimani, Hesam Kamalipour
      First page: 18
      Abstract: The imperative to address the challenge of transforming car-dependent cities and promoting sustainable mobilities requires that we engage with the relationships between urban morphology and forms of urbanity in public spaces surrounding transit nodes. While there has been a surge of interest in investigating the agency of urban planning and design in mitigating urban sprawl and its environmental impacts by creating mixed-use, dense, and walkable places, the extent to which the public space can enable streetlife intensity in proximity to transit remains underexplored. Through extensive urban mapping and comparison of two transit nodes in Tehran, this paper articulates the key morphological elements of building density, functional mix, and access networks, how they work in relation to forms of urbanity and informality in public space around stations, and what inferences can be made on how public space within station areas work in the context of rapidly urbanising cities compared to those in Western contexts. The nexus between functional mix, retail edges, and forms of urbanity has been found critical to the spatial configuration, performance, and transformation of transit station areas. Forms of informality have also been found integral to how public space works in the context of transit urban design. This paper contributes to the newfound accent on urban design dimensions concerning TODs in the context of less formal and more congested cities of the global South.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 19: Integrating Ecosystem Vulnerability in
           the Environmental Regulation Plan of Izmir (Turkey)—What Are the
           Limits and Potentialities'

    • Authors: Stefano Salata, Sıla Özkavaf-Şenalp, Koray Velibeyoğlu
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The land-use regulatory framework in Turkey is composed of several hierarchical plans. The Environmental Regulation Plan pursues comprehensive planning management, which ranges between 1/100,000 and 1/25,000 and defines the framework for local master plans. Unfortunately, there is scarce knowledge of how these plans effectively protect the environment. Besides, these plans have poor consideration of socio-economic dynamics and the ecosystem vulnerability, while evaluating the actual conflicts or synergies within the localization of ecological conservation and settlement expansion areas. In this work, an ecosystem-based geodatabase was created for the western Izmir area (Turkey). The dataset has been created by employing a supervised classification sampling of Sentinel-2 images acquired on 28 March 2021, while accessing ONDA-DIAS services to L2C products. Then, the InVEST software was used to map the Habitat Quality and the Habitat Decay, while the ArcMap raster analysis tool was employed to generate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The results were used to classify the ecosystem vulnerability of the western metropolitan area of Izmir and then superimposed to the Environmental Regulation Plan of the city of Izmir (2021), thus evaluating synergies and conflicts. Although integration of the ecosystem services approach into spatial planning is lacking in the planning practice of Turkey, the paper provides an operative methodology to integrate ecosystem evaluation in environmental planning as a basic strategy to support sustainable development.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-08
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 20: Investigating the Association between
           Environmental Quality Characteristics and Mental Well-Being in Public Open

    • Authors: Negin Karimi, Hassan Sajadzadeh, Farshid Aram
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The issues related to the urban environment and mental well-being have become increasingly important in recent decades. Although this association has been mainly investigated in developed countries, there is limited knowledge on whether similar results can be acquired in the urban environments of developing countries like Iran. This study intends to present a new dynamic and active approach to determine the environmental quality characteristics that influence the mental well-being of urban residents and to engage people to healthy urban public environments. In this respect, the research is directed by both qualitative and quantitative surveys in the public open spaces of Kermanshah, Iran. Firstly, the data are collected by Grounded Theory (GT) to identify significant environmental quality characteristics related to mental well-being by applying 24 semi-structured interviews. Secondly, the questionnaire survey based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is applied to examine the association between each characteristic of the developed conceptual framework. The results reveal that the environmental quality characteristics of public open spaces, directly and indirectly, relate to users’ mental well-being. It should be noted that the public open spaces with unique functional and intrinsic features seem to have different impacts on mental well-being.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 21: Assessing the Impacts of Dike Systems on
           Water Quality in Natural Reserves of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

    • Authors: Bui Thi Bich Lien, Nguyen Thi Thanh Ngan, Pankaj Kumar, Trinh Trung Tri Dang, Tran Thi Kim Hong, Tran Van Ty, Ram Avtar, Huynh Vuong Thu Minh
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Protected places such as nature reserves (NRs) are used to maintain ecological balance, biodiversity, and support surrounding ecosystems. However, the development and operation of infrastructure such as dikes and sluice gates in NRs, as seen in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD), often adversely affects the hydrological regime and water quality at both local and regional scales. This study analyzes the consequences of a constructed dike system on the hydrological regime and water quality in the NRs through an integrated approach including hydrochemical analysis (using descriptive statistics and weighted arithmetic water quality index (WAWQI) analysis), traditional interviews (face to face), using semi-structured questionnaires, field surveys, and secondary data. Results show that constructed infrastructure has helped maintain water supplies for both livelihoods and forest fire prevention. However, considerable impacts on the hydrological regime and water quality have occurred. From water quality assessments in three NRs, 29% of sampling sites in the My Phuoc melaleuca forest (MPMF) had WAWQI values over 100, while all sites in Lung Ngoc Hoang NR (LNHNR) and Mua Xuan Agriculture Center (MXAC) had WAWQI values over 100. This was to a large extent due to elevated concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), and phosphate (PO43−). Meanwhile, during the wet season, pollution was marginally reduced by dilution, with 42.86% of sites at Lung Ngoc Hoang NR, 28.57% of sites at MXAC, and 78.57% of sites at MPMF having WAWQI values of less than 100. These results show the issue of water pollution at spatio-temporal scales, and call for better holistic management options for improving the hydrological regime and water quality.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 22: Soundscape Assessment of Green and Blue

    • Authors: Yalcin Yildirim, Merve Dilman, Volkan Muftuoglu, Sara Demir
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Green and blue infrastructures provide economic, environmental, and social benefits to urban life. Various areas that are passing through such infrastructures have implications for those benefits. For instance, urban, rural, agricultural, and industrial zones extend the services and disservices of green and blue infrastructures. Such extensions also have various implications on the environment and public health. Sound is one of those under-examined aspects of aggregated effects of green and blue infrastructures. This study aims to contribute to whether soundscape is affected by three pillars of urban, industrial, and rural areas among green and blue infrastructures. The study result shows no significant difference among those zones; however, urbanized areas include the highest sound levels. Industrial and rural zones show similar patterns. The study also identified that green infrastructure has more effects on the soundscape paradigm. The results also imply that green and blue infrastructures should be designated in harmony to produce a more sound-friendly environment considering the current major uses of the areas.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 23: Ecosystem Services Analysis and Design

    • Authors: Teodoro Semeraro, Aurelia Scarano, Rajiv Pandey
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The new frontiers of sustainable cities should focus on urban planning tools and strategies that are able to integrate ecosystem services in urban development. An important step could include the design of nature-based solutions (NbSs) for introducing important ecological functions aiding human well-being and mitigating the loss of soil. In this study, we propose a methodology to analyse, in a spatial way, the effect of land use scenarios generated by urban planning in the provision of ecosystem services. The methodology analyses the variation of ecosystem services, considering the ecosystem services of the study area and their potential roles in changing the functions of planned urban actions as the starting point. One scenario of analysis includes the integration of NbSs into urban planning. The case study is that of a peri-urban area, characterized by an agroecosystem, which is intended for urban development in the municipality of Gallipoli, Southern Italy. The analysis highlights a low provision of ecosystem services by the agroecosystem, which has had the effect of important olive trees being destroyed by Xylella fastidiosa bacteria. Thus, the integration of NbSs and reducing the construction of buildings in the urban neighbourhood plan could improve the quantity of ecosystem services in the area. Moreover, the ecological design of ecosystem services could improve the typology of ecosystem services provision in the area in consideration of the starting points. Therefore, the analysis of the capacity to integrate ecosystem services in urban planning at the neighbourhood scale could be a tool of ecological urban design, useful to support the decision-making processes.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 24: Toward Achieving Local Sustainable
           Development: Market-Based Instruments (MBIs) for Localizing UN Sustainable
           Development Goals

    • Authors: Ying Zhou, Amelia Clarke, Stephanie Cairns
      First page: 24
      Abstract: In recent years, sustainable community development has gained traction for addressing local environmental, social, and economic issues. Cities worldwide are committed to implementing sustainable community plans (SCPs) in their efforts to achieve sustainable development, and more recently, to localize the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Although there are over 1000 plans in Canada, a gap exists between creating these plans and implementing them. Integrating market-based instruments (MBIs) with traditional policy tools would help to diversify revenue generation and thus mitigate these constraints. This paper presents a new and comprehensive categorization of MBIs that aligns the locally applicable ones with the environmental aims of both SCPs and SDGs. The categorization framework has been tested through focus groups with key municipal staff from two Canadian communities. The new categorization framework aligned over 50 locally applicable MBIs with 8 different environmental topics and 12 SDGs. The paper presents a useful tool for implementing SCPs and SDGs and contributes to the understanding of MBIs for enabling local progress in sustainable development.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
  • Urban Science, Vol. 6, Pages 25: Transformative Effects of Overtourism and
           COVID-19-Caused Reduction of Tourism on Residents—An Investigation
           of the Anti-Overtourism Movement on the Island of Mallorca

    • Authors: Sebastian Amrhein, Gert-Jan Hospers, Dirk Reiser
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The coronavirus outbreak in late 2019 and the subsequent restrictions on mobility and physical contacts caused an extreme collapse of international tourism. Shortly before the pandemic turned the world upside down, one of the most pressing issues in global tourism was a phenomenon that became known as overtourism. It describes massively the negative impacts of tourism on destinations and the frustrated residents protesting against it, with discontent reaching a dimension that could hardly be estimated at the time when Doxey’s Irritation Index was created. Especially in southern European destinations, thousands of people have taken to the streets over their dissatisfaction with the unlimited growth of tourism and its negative effects on their daily lives. Within a few years, small neighbourhood actions morphed into coordinated social movements demanding that politicians make fundamental changes to the socio-economic system. Those events demonstrate a politicizing effect of tourism that has not sufficiently been addressed hitherto in tourism research, which is mainly focused on the attitude of the visited towards tourism itself. This article offers a broader socio-political approach that focuses on tourism as one of the largest industries within a capitalist system that has massive impacts on people’s lives, rather than simply on changing attitudes towards tourism. Twelve problem-centred interviews with actors of the anti-overtourism movements in the Balearic Island of Mallorca were conducted to examine the effects of overtourism and COVID-19-caused tourism breakdown on residents’ socio-political perspectives. Building on the transformative learning theory developed by the American sociologist Jack Mezirow, the analysis of the data revealed far-reaching influences on residents’ personal development, fundamental perspectives and professional decisions.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2022-03-15
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci6010025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2022)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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