Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
    - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)
    - ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)
    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
    - HEATING, PLUMBING AND REFRIGERATION (6 journals)
    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)
    - INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)
    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals)

ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 97 of 97 Journals sorted by number of followers
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 81)
International Journal of Urban and Regional Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
City & Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Urban Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Housing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
European Planning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
European Urban and Regional Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Urban Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Architecture and Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Urban Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Interiors : Design, Architecture and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Housing, Theory and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Urban Affairs Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Urban Studies Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Disasters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Housing Policy Debate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Cities and the Environment (CATE)     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Urban Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Housing Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Current Urban Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Urban Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Urban Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
City, Territory and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Environnement Urbain / Urban Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Urban Planning and Design Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Urban Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
URBAN DESIGN International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Landscape Journal : design, planning, and management of the land     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Land Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Housing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Urban Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Housing, Care and Support     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Land and Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Town Planning and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cityscape     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Urban Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Town and Regional Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Critical Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environment, Space, Place     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cities People Places : An International Journal on Urban Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Borderlands Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of architecture&ENVIRONMENT     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Urban Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Town Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Future Cities and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Ambiances     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Rural Landscapes : Society, Environment, History     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of European Real Estate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Research in Urbanism Series     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Geoplanning : Journal of Geomatics and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Land Use Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Strategic Property Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Seoul Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bhumi : The Planning Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
A&P Continuidad     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Rural Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Urban Land     Free   (Followers: 3)
Il Capitale Culturale. Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Land     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin KNOB     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Smart Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Town Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Insights into Regional Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TeMA Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Rural Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Landscape Online     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
project baikal : Journal of architecture, design and urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Urbanisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Joelho : Journal of Architectural Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Housing and Human Settlement Planning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ángulo Recto. Revista de estudios sobre la ciudad como espacio plural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Belgeo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Storia Urbana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Den Gamle By : Danmarks Købstadmuseum (Årbog)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Space Ontology International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brussels Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Glocality     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archivio di Studi Urbani e Regionali     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Estudios del Hábitat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Raumforschung und Raumordnung / Spatial Research and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architectural / Planning Research and Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architecture, Design and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Well-Being     Hybrid Journal  
Rural & Urbano     Open Access  
Ciudades     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Landscape Studies     Open Access  
Yhdyskuntasuunnittelu     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
Kart og plan     Open Access  
Vitruvian     Open Access  
Sens public     Open Access  
Procesos Urbanos     Open Access  
Psychological Research on Urban Society     Open Access  
Jurnal Arsitektur Lansekap     Open Access  
RUA     Open Access  
tecYt     Open Access  
Pensum     Open Access  
Les Cahiers de la recherche architecturale urbaine et paysagère     Open Access  
Jurnal Pengembangan Kota     Open Access  
ZARCH : Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Revista de Arquitectura     Open Access  
Revista Empresa y Humanismo     Open Access  
South Australian Geographical Journal     Open Access  
Produção Acadêmica     Open Access  
Revista Amazônia Moderna     Open Access  
Continuité     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Brasileira de Estudos Urbanos e Regionais     Open Access  
Eikonocity. Storia e Iconografia delle Città e dei Siti Europei - History and Iconography of European Cities and Sites     Open Access  
Urban Science     Open Access  
Scienze del Territorio     Open Access  
Ri-Vista : Ricerche per la progettazione del paesaggio     Open Access  
Risco : Revista de Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Urbanismo     Open Access  
Baru : Revista Brasileira de Assuntos Regionais e Urbanos     Open Access  
Pampa : Revista Interuniversitaria de Estudios Territoriales     Open Access  
Revista Márgenes Espacio Arte y Sociedad     Open Access  
Pós. Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo da FAUUSP     Open Access  
International Planning History Society Proceedings     Open Access  
Territorios en formación     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación Urbanística     Open Access  
Alternativa. Revista de Estudios Rurales     Open Access  
Revista Movimentos Sociais e Dinâmicas Espaciais     Open Access  
Vivienda y Ciudad     Open Access  
Cordis : Revista Eletrônica de História Social da Cidade     Open Access  
Paranoá : cadernos de arquitetura e urbanismo     Open Access  
História, Natureza e Espaço - Revista Eletrônica do Grupo de Pesquisa NIESBF     Open Access  
Paisagem e Ambiente     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Territorio     Full-text available via subscription  
Sociologia urbana e rurale     Full-text available via subscription  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access  
Revista El Topo     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Desenvolvimento Regional     Open Access  
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território     Open Access  
Cidades, Comunidades e Territórios     Open Access  
International Journal of E-Planning Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Urbano     Open Access  
Territorios     Open Access  
Quivera     Open Access  
Ager. Revista de Estudios sobre Despoblacion y Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Territoire en Mouvement     Open Access  
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Métropoles     Open Access  

        1 2     

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Urban Science
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2413-8851
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 99: A Blockchain Based Framework for
           Efficient Water Management and Leakage Detection in Urban Areas

    • Authors: Muhammad Tayyab Naqash, Toqeer Ali Syed, Saad Said Alqahtani, Muhammad Shoaib Siddiqui, Ali Alzahrani, Muhammad Nauman
      First page: 99
      Abstract: Sustainable urban water management is essential to handle water scarcity, leakage, and inefficient distribution. This paper covers water management in urban areas, including an introduction, an overview of water management practices, the characteristics and functioning of water distribution systems, monitoring and control systems for efficient distribution, smart systems for optimization, strategies for water conservation and waste management, per capita water demand analysis, and desalination plant overviews. The article proposes a blockchain-based water management architecture with IoT sensors for accurate reporting. The framework uses blockchain technology to authenticate and share real-time data between sensors and the water distribution dashboard. It also has a modular API for water leakage detection and flow control to decrease water waste and enhance distribution. The suggested approach might enhance water management; however, its execution is complex. Maintaining the framework’s efficacy is advised. The research provides insights into water management and proposes a technology solution employing blockchain and IoT sensors for trustworthy data reporting and effective water distribution to promote sustainable urban water management.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-22
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040099
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 100: Analysis of Overpass Displacements Due
           to Subway Construction Land Subsidence Using Machine Learning

    • Authors: Roman Shults, Mykola Bilous, Azhar Ormambekova, Toleuzhan Nurpeissova, Andrii Khailak, Andriy Annenkov, Rustem Akhmetov
      First page: 100
      Abstract: Modern cities are full of complex and substantial engineering structures that differ by their geometry, sizes, operating conditions, and technologies used in their construction. During the engineering structures’ life cycle, they experience the effects of construction, environmental, and functional loads. Among those structures are bridges and road overpasses. The primary reason for these structures’ displacements is land subsidence. The paper addresses a particular case of geospatial monitoring of a road overpass that is affected by external loads invoked by the construction of a new subway line. The study examines the methods of machine learning data analysis and prediction for geospatial monitoring data. The monitoring data were gathered in automatic mode using a robotic total station with a frequency of 30 min, and were averaged daily. Regression analysis and neural network regression with machine learning have been tested on geospatial monitoring data. Apart from the determined spatial displacements, additional parameters were used. These parameters were the position of the tunnel boring machines, precipitation level, temperature variation, and subsidence coefficient. The primary output of the study is a set of prediction models for displacements of the overpass, and the developed recommendations for correctly choosing the prediction model and a set of parameters and hyperparameters. The suggested models and recommendations should be considered an indispensable part of geotechnical monitoring for modern cities.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040100
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 101: Assessing the Urban Vacant Land
           Potential for Infill Housing: A Case Study in Oklahoma City, USA

    • Authors: Francesco Cianfarani, Mohamed Abdelkarim, Deborah Richards, Rajith Kumar Kedarisetty
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Vacant land in residual urban areas is a crucial resource to tackle the current climate and housing crises. In this study, we present the development of a geodatabase to determine the occurrence of vacant land in the urban core of Oklahoma City, USA (OKC), and assess its potential for infill housing. As a starting point, we define urban vacant land through a literature review. We present a description of the case study’s social and urbanistic context by highlighting its relevance to this study. We explain the methodology for the development of the geodatabase to quantify residual urban land in OKC’s urban core. We examine the spatial distribution and recurring characteristics of vacant parcels using QGIS, Python scripting for Rhinoceros 3D, and aerial imagery. We find that small parcels have higher vacancy rates than average-sized parcels and there is a correlation between higher vacancy rates and proximity to downtown and brownfields. Finally, we discuss the implications of the findings by assessing the urban vacant land potential for residential development and its contribution to OKC’s housing provision. Under all the proposed scenarios, the considered developable vacant land in the urban core could entirely fulfill the need for new housing units for the entire city.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040101
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 102: Mitigation and Resilience of Local
           Climatic Zones to the Effects of Extreme Heat: Study on the City of
           Barcelona (Spain)

    • Authors: David Hidalgo García, Julián Arco Díaz
      First page: 102
      Abstract: Global warming is precipitating an amplification of severe meteorological occurrences such as prolonged dry spells and episodes of elevated temperatures. These phenomena are instigating substantial elevations in environmental warmth, with metropolitan regions bearing the brunt of these impacts. Currently, extreme heat is already impacting 30% of the global populace, and forecasts suggest that this figure will escalate to 74% in the forthcoming years. One of the objectives outlined in the United Nations 2030 agenda, specifically within Sustainable Development Goal 11 (SDG11), is the attainment of sustainable urban development. To achieve this, it is imperative to scrutinize and delve into urban environmental conditions in order to understand their dynamics comprehensively. This understanding serves as the foundation for implementing mitigation and resilience strategies against climate change, ultimately enhancing the well-being of city residents. In this context, the field of remote sensing and geographic information systems has made substantial advancements. Notably, the UrbClim model, developed by the European Space Agency, facilitates the assessment of environmental conditions within numerous European urban centers. This research, utilizing data from UrbClim, examines the evolution of the heat stress index (Hi) during extreme heat conditions in Barcelona during the summer of 2017. Leveraging Landsat 8 satellite imagery, we derived the following variables: the normalized difference vegetation index and the normalized building difference index. Our findings reveal that during extreme heat conditions, the Hi index experiences an escalation, with areas characterized by a higher population density and industrial zones displaying lower resistance in contrast to regions with a lower population density and rural areas, which exhibit greater resilience to Hi. This disparity can be attributed to higher vegetation coverage and reduced building density in the latter areas. In this way, Hi increases more quickly and intensely and decreases more slowly when using high temperatures compared to average temperatures. This is of utmost importance for the future planning of new urban developments.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040102
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 103: Inclusive and Safe Mobility Needs of
           Senior Citizens: Implications for Age-Friendly Cities and Communities

    • Authors: Anthony Jnr. Bokolo
      First page: 103
      Abstract: Municipalities are concerned with addressing social issues such as mobility inclusion and safety by increasing access to transport facilities and services for all groups in society to create equitable and equal access for all citizens. Moreover, the public transportation systems provided in cities have to be inclusive and safe, driven by emerging technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based services that provide personalized recommendation to improve mobility inclusion and safety for all citizens in society, especially vulnerable road users such as senior citizens or older people. But at the moment, there are few studies that have investigated how municipalities can provide inclusive and safe public transportation in general and for senior citizens, particularly those aged 65 and above. Therefore, this study aimed to examine how to provide inclusive and safe mobility for senior citizens to improve out-of-home mobility services for senior citizens towards age-friendly cities and communities. Accordingly, a systematic literature review grounded on secondary data was adopted to investigate inclusive and safe mobility needs for senior citizens. The data were collected from previous research and existing documents, and a descriptive data analysis was carried out to provide insights on urban transportation policies related to senior citizens. Furthermore, case studies were adopted to present polices and strategies employed in Norway, Canada, the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Northern Ireland to identify measures employed to address the public transportation needs of an aging society, focusing on the provision of inclusive and safe mobility to senior citizens. Further findings from this study included the possible use of emerging technologies such as AI-based machine learning for inclusive and safe mobility.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-06
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040103
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 104: Reducing Outdoor Air Pollutants through
           a Moss-Based Biotechnological Purification Filter in Kazakhstan

    • Authors: Andrii Biloshchytskyi, Oleksandr Kuchanskyi, Yurii Andrashko, Didar Yedilkhan, Alexandr Neftissov, Svitlana Biloshchytska, Beibut Amirgaliyev, Vladimir Vatskel
      First page: 104
      Abstract: This study considers the creation of a network of moss-based biotechnological purification filters under the Smart City concept. The extent of the absorption of heavy metals and gases by Sphagnopsida moss under different conditions was investigated. The efficiency of air purification with biotechnological filters was also investigated in the city of Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, where an excess of the permissible concentration of harmful substances in the air, according to the WHO air quality guidelines, is recorded throughout the year. Data on the level of pollution recorded with sensors located in the largest Kazakhstani cities from 21 June 2020 to 4 June 2023 were selected as the basis for calculating purification efficiency. In total, there are 220 in 73 settlements of the Republic of Kazakhstan, with 80 such sensors located in the city of Almaty. Since creating a single biotechnological filter is expensive, our task was to calculate the air purification effect in the case of increasing the number of filters placed in polluted areas. We show that 10 filters provide an air purification efficiency of 0.77%, with 100 filters providing an air purification efficiency of 5.72% and 500 filters providing an air purification efficiency of 23.11%. A biotechnological filter for air purification based on moss was designed at Astana IT University by taking into consideration the climatic features, distribution, and types of pollution in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The obtained results are essential for ensuring compliance with the standard for environmental comfort in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Additionally, the research findings and the experience of implementing a moss-based biotechnological filter can be applied to designing similar air purification systems in other cities. This is of great importance for the advancement of the field of urban science.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040104
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 105: Analysing the Relationship between
           Proximity to Transit Stations and Local Living Patterns: A Study of Human
           Mobility within a 15 Min Walking Distance through Mobile Location Data

    • Authors: I-Ting Chuang, Lee Beattie, Lei Feng
      First page: 105
      Abstract: Urban planning and transportation policies are vital to creating sustainable and liveable cities. Transit-orientated development (TOD) has emerged as a prominent approach that emphasises the establishment of neighbourhoods with convenient access to public transportation, thereby promoting car-free lifestyles. This research investigates the connection between proximity to transit stations and local living habits in Auckland, New Zealand, which is a car-dependent city aiming to transition to a sustainable TOD model. We use geolocational data from mobile phones to measure the daily mobility patterns of residents living within a 15 min walking distance of various transit stations. Employing ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, we analyse the correlation between residents’ average travel distances and individual mobility, considering different station contexts. We aim to determine whether individuals living near transit stations are more inclined to participate in local activities and make a higher proportion of short-distance trips. The results illustrate that approximately 54% of the residents show dominant localised mobility patterns. Living near a station is significantly associated with shorter annual travel distances, although this trend varies by area. Notably, only about 16 of the 34 stations studied indicate that their local residents predominantly engage in ‘local’ travel patterns. Rural stations show less correlation, likely due to poor infrastructure and limited walkability. This study underscores the vital role of proximity to transit stations in promoting sustainable mobility. It serves as a foundational guide for urban planners and designers to make informed decisions that improve the built environment and optimise land use.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040105
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 106: Urban Flora Structure and Carbon Storage
           Potential of Woody Trees in Different Land Use Units of Cotonou (West
           Africa)

    • Authors: Assouhan Jonas Atchadé, Madjouma Kanda, Fousseni Folega, Abdoul Aziz Diouf, Symphorien Agbahoungba, Marra Dourma, Kperkouma Wala, Koffi Akpagana
      First page: 106
      Abstract: Urbanization is a current concern, particularly in Africa, where it is expected to continue and increasingly threaten the effectiveness of plant biodiversity, natural carbon sinks, and the sustainability of cities. This paper investigates the structural parameters and carbon storage potential of trees in the land use units of the city of Cotonou in southern Benin. A total of 149 plots at 2500 m2 each were randomly generated, and trees with a diameter ≥ 10 cm were inventoried. ANOVA revealed that the means of structural parameters (diameter and height classes) and carbon stock rate varied significantly (p < 0.001) across land use units in the city. Tree basal area is estimated at 4.52 ± 5.24 m2 ha−1, with an average of 12.72 (13) feet ha−1. The average diameter of the trees is estimated at 57.94 ± 29.71 cm. Approximately 1000 kg ha−1 (0.94 × 103 kg ha−1) of carbon is stored in the city of Cotonou. Green spaces (1.21 × 103 kg ha−1) and roads (1.19 × 103 kg ha−1) are the units that recorded the highest carbon stocks. Khaya senegalensis, Mangifera indica, and Terminalia mentally lead the top ten species with high stock potential. This study demonstrates the contribution of urban trees to global atmospheric carbon reduction, which varies by species, land use units, and tree density. Future research could investigate an i-Tree Landscape approach for urban carbon estimation. This could reinforce urban carbon data availability for urban ecological planning.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040106
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 107: The Implications of Human Mobility and
           Accessibility for Transportation and Livable Cities

    • Authors: Thomas W. Sanchez, Xinyue Ye
      First page: 107
      Abstract: Understanding human movement and transportation accessibility has become paramount in shaping the very fabric of our communities [...]
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040107
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 108: Advancing ESG and SDGs Goal 11: Enhanced
           YOLOv7-Based UAV Detection for Sustainable Transportation in Cities and
           Communities

    • Authors: Ming-An Chung, Tze-Hsun Wang, Chia-Wei Lin
      First page: 108
      Abstract: Environmental, social, and governance issues have gained significant prominence recently, particularly with a growing emphasis on environmental protection. In the realm of heightened environmental concerns, unmanned aerial vehicles have emerged as pivotal assets in addressing transportation challenges with a sustainable perspective. This study focuses on enhancing unmanned aerial vehicles’ object detection proficiency within the realm of sustainable transportation. The proposed method refines the YOLOv7 E-ELAN model, tailored explicitly for traffic scenarios. Leveraging strides in deep learning and computer vision, the adapted model demonstrates enhancements in mean average precision, outperforming the original on the VisDrone2019 dataset. This approach, encompassing model component enhancements and refined loss functions, establishes an efficacious strategy for precise unmanned aerial vehicles object detection. This endeavor aligns seamlessly with environmental, social, and governance principles. Moreover, it contributes to the 11th Sustainable Development Goal by fostering secure urban spaces. As unmanned aerial vehicles have become integral to public safety and surveillance, enhancing detection algorithms cultivates safer environments for residents. Sustainable transport encompasses curbing traffic congestion and optimizing transportation systems, where unmanned aerial vehicle-based detection plays a pivotal role in managing traffic flow, thereby supporting extended Sustainable Development Goal 11 objectives. The efficient utilization of unmanned aerial vehicles in public transit significantly aids in reducing carbon footprints, corresponding to the “Environmental Sustainability” facet of Environmental, Social, and Governance principles.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040108
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 109: Urban Renewals: Learning from a
           Country’s Recent Experience for Enhancing Socially-Sustainable
           Global Planning Policy

    • Authors: Liora Bigon, Edna Langenthal
      First page: 109
      Abstract: Against the background of urban redevelopment programs through the lens of varied, country-related planning cultures, this article sets the stage for learning from one country’s recent experience. In this article, we focus on two Israeli urban regeneration programs operating since 2000: the ‘Integrated National Planning Scheme’ (TAMA 38) and ‘Evacuate and Build’ (Pinuy Binuy) programs. This article aims to examine the governmental agenda behind these programs in comparison to previous urban regeneration programs and, especially, to critically review the implementation and implication of these programs considering social sustainability issues. Methodologically, the policies and practices of this recent wave of urban renewals in Israel are revisited through a critical reading of a series of studies from the last five years, bringing together multidimensional societal aspects. In terms of ethics and qualitative dimensions, the examined societal aspects are rooted in social sustainability theory and contemporary urban policy design. Our findings regarding this country-related recent experience in urban renewals have identified several gaps concerning certain aspects of social sustainability theory and practice. These gaps call for a better understanding by Israel’s urban policy makers of the comprehensive essence of contemporary social sustainability theory, which should also be mirrored in the respective professional discourse. The gaps are also useful in informing our accumulating transnational knowledge and experience in urban renewal schemes, based on a chain of country-related experiences and planning cultures.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-17
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040109
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 110: Complicating
           ‘Suburbanization’ and Spatial Assimilation: The Complex
           Residential Patterns of Southeast Asian Americans in the Minneapolis-St.
           Paul Metropolitan Area from 1990 to 2010

    • Authors: Yang Sao Xiong, Mark E. Pfeifer
      First page: 110
      Abstract: Although spatial assimilation has often been defined as the process whereby a group attains residential propinquity with majority members of a host society, we argue that for certain immigrant groups, substantial suburbanization does not necessarily lead to racial integration. Our analysis using data from the U.S. Census Bureau reveals that between 1990 and 2010, Southeast Asian former refugees in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Statistical Area experienced substantial suburbanization, which is expected given their improved socioeconomic status. However, Southeast Asians’ suburbanization has not led to residential propinquity with non-Hispanic Whites. Despite a small decline in Southeast Asians’ overall segregation at the metropolitan area level during the previous two decades, their segregation levels, as measured by the dissimilarity index, remained unchanged or increased in the central city and the suburbs. Furthermore, our findings reveal different ethnic concentration and segregation patterns among four Southeast Asian subgroups, complicating the meaning of ‘suburbanization’ as simply a process in which people move from the inner city to its less urban outskirts. The finding that substantial suburbanization coexists with high levels of segregation and ethnic concentration raises questions about the assumptions of both the spatial assimilation and place stratification models of immigrant residential processes and outcomes.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-19
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040110
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 111: User Preference Analysis for an
           Integrated System of Bus Rapid Transit and On-Demand Shared Mobility
           Services in Amman, Jordan

    • Authors: Farah Altarifi, Nawal Louzi, Dana Abudayyeh, Tariq Alkhrissat
      First page: 111
      Abstract: Amman, the capital of Jordan, has experienced significant traffic congestion due to the rise in private vehicle ownership and limited public transportation services. A Stated Preference (SP) survey was conducted to determine public transportation users’ willingness to use the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) service. Another survey assessed the demand for an on-demand transit bus service with flexible and moderate costs, particularly for individuals far from the main BRT stations who need to reach them. Two models, Multinomial Logit (MNL) and Mixed Logit (ML), were utilized to understand user preferences for work-related trips. The study findings indicate that the cost of the trip and the waiting time are the two primary factors influencing public transport users’ choices. Furthermore, sociodemographic factors, such as age, income, household size, and current status, were found to have a significant impact. The results reveal that approximately 71% of participants would utilize an integrated public transportation system comprising BRT and on-demand services. The findings underscore the potential benefits of an integrated public transport system in addressing Amman’s traffic congestion. By combining BRT and on-demand services, the city can offer residents comfortable, affordable, and efficient transportation options, thus effectively mitigating congestion.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-25
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040111
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 112: Sociodemographic Analysis of Disability
           in a Highly Depopulated Rural Region: The Case of Soria, Spain

    • Authors: Juan R. Coca, Julio Fernández-Portela, Susana Gómez-Redondo, Anabel Paramá-Díaz
      First page: 112
      Abstract: European regions with a lower population density have greater structural difficulties in ensuring that the daily life of their inhabitants matches that of more populated regions. This problem persists in groups of people who present some type of disability. Soria (Spain) is one of such regions. It is considered the most depopulated region of Southern Europe. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the reality of people with disabilities in one of the provinces with a lower population density. It also seeks to explore the relationship between the perceptions and the reality of the existing structure to infer the promotions or limitations of agency. To this end, we conducted a systematic review of the existing literature, a sociogeographic study of the study context, and a mixed investigation. The results show that the greatest problem lies in the cities and towns located far away from the capital city, causing budget cutbacks and, therefore, reducing the attention to the needs of people with disabilities. However, social solidarity has increased, which is perceived as greater social inclusion for this group.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040112
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 113: The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on
           the Public Transportation System of Montevideo, Uruguay: A Urban Data
           Analysis Approach

    • Authors: Sergio Nesmachnow, Andrei Tchernykh
      First page: 113
      Abstract: Urban mobility and strategies for public transportation play a vital role in promoting a more sustainable, accessible, and livable urban environment in smart cities. Data-driven decision making, multi-modal integration, and innovative means are key elements in developing effective public transportation. The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on public transportation worldwide, including decreased travel, health and security concerns, and a shift in travel patterns. In particular, the use of public transportation reduced by up to 90% in developed countries. This article studies the mobility demands and patterns related to public transportation in Montevideo, Uruguay, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. The study follows an urban data analysis approach, using open data from various sources, including citizen mobility, the public transportation system, COVID-19 case records, and economic indicators. The urban data methodology allows the deriving of significant findings, encompassing the assessment of trip reductions in Montevideo in March 2020 (71.4%, lower than similar cities in the world), the correlation between trip numbers and COVID-19 cases during the different pandemic waves, the recovery of public transportation usage, and the correlation with socio-economic indicators. These results offer valuable insights for quantifying and comprehending the behavior of citizens concerning public transportation throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, providing valuable understandings for policymakers and researchers to elaborate mobility strategies and policies.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-26
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040113
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 114: Strengthening Resilient Built
           Environments through Human Social Capital: A Path to Post-COVID-19
           Recovery

    • Authors: Oluwagbemiga Paul Agboola, Hourakhsh Ahmad Nia, Yakubu Aminu Dodo
      First page: 114
      Abstract: There are strong indications that the built environment has had a great influence on the course of the COVID-19 pandemic and the post-disaster recovery. The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected both human and global development, while efforts to combat this menace call for an integrated human social capital index. This research seeks to enhance understanding of how the built environment can be enhanced through resilience against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to investigate the impact of a resilient built environment on increasing resilience in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. The quantitative studies test the impact of four built environment resilience indices (built environment capital, disaster management indices, awareness of the COVID-19 pandemic, and built environment adaptive strategies) on human social capital and COVID-19 pandemic indices. This study reveals the role of human social capital in achieving a resilient built environment in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. Built environment capital, disaster management indices, and awareness of COVID-19 also indirectly affect the COVID-19 pandemic indices through human social capital. This study’s implications are useful for post-COVID-19 recovery, which is important for future planning of the built environment in Nigeria.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-27
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040114
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 115: Developing a Qualitative Urban Green
           Spaces Index Applied to a Mediterranean City

    • Authors: Rania Ajmi, Faiza Khebour Allouche, Aude Nuscia Taîbi, Safa Bel Fekih Boussema
      First page: 115
      Abstract: As a primary goal, urban green spaces (UGSs) have been linked to several aspects of inhabitants’ wellbeing. Quality could be a way to intervene in the UGS–human health interaction. For that purpose, we developed an urban green space quality index (UGS QIndex) applied to a Mediterranean region, Sousse City. This index was based on a set of criteria, indicators, and elements chosen after bibliographical research related to UGS quality assessment tools and their contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals. Then, we evaluated the quality of the Sousse Ramparts Gardens using the UGS QIndex. In fact, this index includes 41 elements grouped into 23 indicators covering seven thematic criteria: environmental regulating capacity, functional amenities, aesthetic amenities, landscape features, integration in its surroundings, development policy objectives, and space issues. According to the UGS QIndex, Bab El Gharbi garden exceeds Bab El Finga garden in terms of its scenery, aesthetics, and functionality. This index could be used by city planners to improve their UGS’s capacity to satisfy the inhabitants’ requirements. Otherwise, it needs to be enhanced and tailored to various types of UGSs and then applied to other Mediterranean cities, as well as cities suffering from UGS degradation.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-10-31
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040115
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 116: Mapping Deprived Urban Areas Using Open
           Geospatial Data and Machine Learning in Africa

    • Authors: Maxwell Owusu, Ryan Engstrom, Dana Thomson, Monika Kuffer, Michael L. Mann
      First page: 116
      Abstract: Reliable data on slums or deprived living conditions remain scarce in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Global high-resolution maps of deprived areas are fundamental for both research- and evidence-based policies. Existing mapping methods are generally one-off studies that use proprietary commercial data or other physical or socio-economic data that are limited geographically. Open geospatial data are increasingly available for large areas; however, their unstructured nature has hindered their use in extracting useful insights to inform decision making. In this study, we demonstrate an approach to map deprived areas within and across cities using open-source geospatial data. The study tests this methodology in three African cities—Accra (Ghana), Lagos (Nigeria), and Nairobi (Kenya) using a three arc second spatial resolution. Using three machine learning classifiers, (i) models were trained and tested on individual cities to assess the scalability for large area application, (ii) city-to-city comparisons were made to assess how the models performed in new locations, and (iii) a generalized model to assess our ability to map across cities with training samples from each city was designed. Our best models achieved over 80% accuracy in all cities. The study demonstrates an inexpensive, scalable, and transferable approach to map deprived areas that outperforms existing large area methods.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-11-08
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040116
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 117: Two Decades of Architects’ and
           Urban Planners’ Contribution to Urban Agriculture and Health
           Research in Africa

    • Authors: Akuto Akpedze Konou, Armel Firmin Kemajou Mbianda, Baraka Jean-Claude Munyaka, Jérôme Chenal
      First page: 117
      Abstract: Urban agriculture (UA) is an ancient practice in Africa that meets social- and health-related needs. However, it is unclear whether architects and urban planners have incorporated the topic into their research and practices. This study aimed to assess the scientific contributions of these fields to UA and their relevance compared to other disciplines. The research objectives were to evaluate the trends in the subject, architects’ and planners’ involvement, and the effects of UA on health in Africa. As a method, a review was conducted using Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The research query was (“urban agriculture” OR “urban farming”) AND Africa AND (“health” OR “global health” OR “urban health”), and the time frame considered was January 2000 to December 2020. Zotero, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Excel, and VOSviewer were used to collect and analyze metadata. After excluding duplicates, a total of n = 390 articles were involved. The results displayed the mixed health effects of UA, a growing interest in the topic with prominence on food security, and evidence from public health, not architecture and planning. The study recommends more theoretical research on UA by architects, which should be translated into policies and implementation.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040117
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 118: Employment Trends in Northern
           Italy’s Medium-Sized Cities from 2012 to the Shock of the COVID-19
           Pandemic: A Group of Cities in Distress'

    • Authors: Maria Antonietta Clerici
      First page: 118
      Abstract: In a globalised economy, metropolises seem to have an ‘extra gear’ compared to smaller urban centres: they attract the most skilled businesses, drive innovation in many fields and can count on material and immaterial assets that foster greater resilience to adverse events of various kinds. Against the dynamism of metropolises, which evolutionary paths do medium-sized cities (MSCs) follow' This paper focuses on the case of Northern Italy and explores employment trends between 2012 and 2020 in 189 MSCs with a population of between 20,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. The evolutionary trajectories of these cities and their varying specialisations are investigated over a period marked by a moderate recovery of the Italian economy following the Great Recession and by a further setback caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In general, in terms of employment performance, the 189 cities in question were less dynamic than the metropolises, but it is nevertheless necessary to look at their individual circumstances in detail. Furthermore, this work shows significant differences between the MSCs of the Northwest and Northeast in terms of evolutionary trajectories and specialisation profiles. The most problematic situations also relate to cities with a hub status in the wider context and do not only concentrate where a production structure is present that is linked to industry.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-11-22
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040118
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 119: Community Perceptions of the Importance
           of Heritage Protection Relative to Other Local Government Council
           Operations

    • Authors: Dirk H. R. Spennemann
      First page: 119
      Abstract: Cultural heritage management at the local government level relies on community participation, mainly interested stakeholders, in the identification, nomination and, in some jurisdictions, the co-evaluation of heritage assets. These are then “listed,” i.e., included in planning schemes and other development controls. Such inclusion in planning schemes is predicated on the assumption that the local community values its heritage, appreciates its protection and supports local council investment and actions in the matter. This assumption is treated as axiomatic but only very rarely formally tested. Drawing on a community heritage survey in Albury, a regional service center in southern New South Wales (Australia), this paper discusses the perceptions held by the community on the relative importance of heritage protection when compared with the other services offered by council. The findings show that the community ranked cultural and natural heritage places higher than cultural institutions (museums, libraries and theatres). The findings also showed that the community valued cultural and natural heritage more than traditional engineering services, such as roads/footpaths, rubbish removal and even sporting facilities. The survey highlighted intergenerational differences, with cultural heritage places and cultural institutions ranking high only among Generation X and the generations prior (Builders and Baby Boomers). This has clear implications for the present provisioning of heritage services and community education. The paper concludes with an exploration of the long-term implications of the observed intergenerational differences for local government authorities and community development in general.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-11-23
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040119
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 120: Use of Spatial Data in the Simulation of
           Domestic Water Demand in a Semiarid City: The Case of Campina Grande,
           Brazil

    • Authors: Higor Costa de Brito, Iana Alexandra Alves Rufino, Mauro Normando Macedo Barros Filho, Ronaldo Amâncio Meneses
      First page: 120
      Abstract: In the face of urban expansion, ensuring sustainable water consumption is paramount. This study aims to develop a domestic water demand forecast model that considers population heterogeneity and the urban area distribution in a city in the Brazilian Semiarid Region. The methodology comprises three main steps: (1) spatial data collection to identify explanatory variables for a future Land Use and Cover (LULC) model; (2) simulation of LULC data for 2030, 2040, and 2050 using the MOLUSCE plugin; and (3) estimation of domestic water demand based on projected urban area expansion and a linear regression model incorporating demographic indicators of household income, residents per household, total population, and gender. The results demonstrated a consistent LULC simulation, indicating an urban expansion of 4 km2 between 2030 and 2050, with reductions of 0.6 km2 in natural formations and 3.4 km2 in farming areas. Using LULC data, the study predicted a 14.21% increase in domestic water consumption in Campina Grande for 2050 compared to 2010, equivalent to an increase of 2,348,424.96 m3. Furthermore, the spatial analysis draws a spatial profile of water consumption among residents, highlighting the areas with the highest per capita consumption. Thus, this research offers a consistent approach to estimating water demand in regions with limited consumption data, providing valuable insights for decision-makers to consider in urban planning.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7040120
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 68: Weather Forecasting Using Radial Basis
           Function Neural Network in Warangal, India

    • Authors: Venkataramana Veeramsetty, Prabhu Kiran, Munjampally Sushma, Surender Reddy Salkuti
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Weather forecasting is an essential task in any region of the world for proper planning of various sectors that are affected by climate change. In Warangal, most sectors, such as agriculture and electricity, are mainly influenced by climate conditions. In this study, weather (WX) in the Warangal region was forecast in terms of temperature and humidity. A radial basis function neural network was used in this study to forecast humidity and temperature. Humidity and temperature data were collected for the period of January 2021 to December 2021. Based on the simulation results, it is observed that the radial basis function neural network model performs better than other machine learning models when forecasting temperature and humidity.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030068
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 69: Acquiescence of UNESCO Cultural Heritage
           and Acoustic Environments: Assessment of Hanlar District

    • Authors: Yalcin Yildirim
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Several natural and historical areas around the world are listed as UNESCO Cultural Heritage Sites. Hanlar District, located in Bursa, is the fourth biggest city in Turkey, its history includes the Ottoman, Roman, and Byzantine Empires, and it is an area with unique environmental features that represent various historical periods. Scholars at institutions worldwide have already recognized that such an environment has unique characteristics, and so local authorities should preserve the soundscape of the district as the sounds reflect the urban identity of the city. This study aims to evaluate the sounds of this unique district and recommends ways to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of the site in terms of its sounds. After collecting more than seven hundred pieces of data on sound pressure levels (SPLs) at twenty-one locations, the SPLs were statistically analyzed (an ANOVA was used for different time intervals, and a t-test was used for different days). Noon and weekend measurements varied among the sites, and these variations were statistically significant. Furthermore, the SPLs were above the WHO’s suggested levels. The study findings show the importance of reducing sounds to create better acoustic environments. The local government should include all stakeholders, including residents, employees, and urban designers, in participatory approaches and action plans to preserve the sounds of cultural heritage sites.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030069
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 70: Planning on the Verge of AI, or AI on the
           Verge of Planning

    • Authors: Thomas W. Sanchez
      First page: 70
      Abstract: The urban planning process is complex, involving social, economic, environmental, and political systems. Knowledge of how these systems interact is the domain of professional planners. Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) present planners with a ripe opportunity to critically assess their approaches and explore how new data collection, analysis, and methods can augment the understanding of places as they seek to anticipate futures with improved quality of life. AI can offer access to more and better information about travel patterns, energy consumption, land utilization, and environmental impacts, while also helping to better integrate these systems, which is what planners do. The adoption process will likely be gradual and involve significant time and resources. This article highlights several topics and issues that should be considered during this process. It is argued that planners will be well-served by approaching AI tools in a strategic manner that involves the topics discussed here.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030070
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 71: Groundwater Quality of Some Parts of
           Coastal Bhola District, Bangladesh: Exceptional Evidence

    • Authors: Molla Rahman Shaibur, Ishtiaque Ahmmed, Sabiha Sarwar, Rezaul Karim, Md. Musharraf Hossain, M. Shahidul Islam, Md. Shaheen Shah, Abu Shamim Khan, Farhana Akhtar, Md. Galal Uddin, M. Moklesur Rahman, Mohammed Abdus Salam, Balram Ambade
      First page: 71
      Abstract: The composition of groundwater governs the drinking and irrigation water suitability. A large part of the coastal region of Bangladesh is affected and is responsible for changing the composition of the groundwater. This research attempted to observe the groundwater quality of the Bhola Sadar and Char Fasson upazilas in coastal Bangladesh. Twenty-eight (28) water samples, 27 at depths of 260–430 m (850–1400 ft) and 1 from a crop field, were collected and analyzed. The quality of water samples was determined through the evaluation of odor, color, turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and arsenic (As) ions. An Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used for heavy metal analysis. The outcomes were compared with the drinking water quality of Bangladesh and the World Health Organization. The results showed that the average values of nearly all of the parameters were underneath or within the standard level, representing that the groundwater was appropriate for drinking purposes. The water quality parameters were also compared with the irrigation water quality of Bangladesh and the Food and Agriculture Organization. It was found that the collected samples were also suitable for irrigation. To do this, the soluble sodium percentage, sodium adsorption ratio, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelley’s ratio, and total hardness were calculated. The novelty of this research is that, despite being in a coastal district, the deep aquifer water of Bhola was appropriate for drinking and irrigation purposes.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030071
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 72: Islanding Detection in Grid-Connected
           Urban Community Multi-Microgrid Clusters Using Decision-Tree-Based Fuzzy
           Logic Controller for Improved Transient Response

    • Authors: Yellapragada Venkata Pavan Kumar, Sivakavi Naga Venkata Bramareswara Rao, Ramani Kannan
      First page: 72
      Abstract: The development of renewable-energy-based microgrids is being considered as a potential solution to lessen the unrelenting burden on the centralized utility grid. Furthermore, recent studies reveal that integrated multi-microgrid cluster systems developed in urban communities maximize the effectiveness of microgrids and greatly decrease the utility grid dependence. However, due to the uncertain nature of renewable energy sources and frequent load variations, these systems face issues with unintentional islanding operations. This can create severe damage to the microgrid’s performance in its stable operating condition and lead to undesired transient responses. Hence, islanding must be identified rapidly to take preventive measures to address the issue. This requires the development of a suitable anti-islanding technique that is faster in terms of accuracy and timely detection. With this intention, this paper proposes a decision-tree-based fuzzy logic (DT-FL) controller for the rapid identification of islands in an urban community multi-microgrid cluster. The DT-FL controller’s operation includes two steps. First, the decision tree extracts the electrical parameters at the point of common coupling of the multi-microgrid system. Second, these extracted parameters are utilized for the online tuning of the fuzzy logic controller, for the fast detection of islanding. The multi-microgrid cluster under study, along with the proposed islanding technique, is implemented in the MATLAB-2021a software. The efficacy of the proposed DT-FL controller is validated by comparing its performance with that of the conventional fuzzy logic controller under different test scenarios. From the results, it is observed that the proposed DT-FL controller shows superior performance in terms of the islanding detection time as well as the transient response of the system when compared with the conventional controller.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030072
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 73: Socio-Economic Feasibility for
           Implementation of Environmental Legislation along the Riparian Buffer
           Zones in Urban Rivers of Northern Tanzania

    • Authors: Janeth Mwile Mwasenga, Ibrahimu Chikira Mjemah
      First page: 73
      Abstract: The development of socio-economic activities within the 60 m buffer zone has imposed change on the characteristics of rivers in northern Tanzania, subjecting rivers to collateral and irreversible damage due to their prolonged exposure to anthropic activities. Time series satellite images were classified to analyze land use/cover (LULC) changes and anthropic development along the buffer zone from 2000 to 2020. Structured questionnaires were used to identify the encroachment factors and level of compliance with alleged environmental legislation. Furthermore, focus group discussions were used to acquire information on the concurrent barriers to environmental legislation implementation. The land use/cover change along the buffer zone showed that agriculture and artificial areas had a credible increase of about 43% and 30% from 2000 to 2020, respectively. Furthermore, forest and semi-natural areas decreased by 71% from 2000 to 2020, whereas wetlands decreased by about 2% within the same timeframe. On the other hand, artificial and agricultural areas increased by 24.5% and 19.5%, respectively. Forest and semi-natural areas decreased by about 44%, whereas wetlands and water showed a flimsy increase from 2000 to 2020. This trend shows that high land use/cover changes occurred along the riparian buffer zone. The results suggest that urbanization is the main driving force for riparian buffer zone encroachment, threatening ecological well-being and water resource sustainability in urban rivers. The findings of this study are useful for advancing regional and national policies and practices for sustainable water resource management.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-07-10
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030073
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 74: A Dynamic Model of Profit Maximization
           for Carsharing Services: Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan

    • Authors: Beibut Amirgaliyev, Oleksandr Kuchanskyi, Yurii Andrashko, Didar Yedilkhan
      First page: 74
      Abstract: This study considers building a dynamic model of profit maximization for a carsharing system and its verification based on the case of implementing such a system in Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan. The region, bounded by the administrative boundaries of Astana, was divided into subregions that covered the region with regular hexagons placed side by side. A dataset was built with information on 1168 trips to Astana from January to March 2023. The Kepler visualization service constructed maps of the beginning and end of the trips to the region and a map of trips binding to the hexagonal grid cells. Each cell of the grid corresponds to a specific subregion, for which the quantitative parameters necessary for solving the profit maximization problem in the carsharing system are calculated. Stations with cars are placed in the cells of the grid, which are available to carsharing service customers. Based on the collected data, dynamic (four periods per day) and static profit maximization models in the carsharing system were built. Modeling was carried out based on the built models in the case of Astana. It was established that using a dynamic profit maximization model in the carsharing system increases profit by 3.7%. The obtained results are important for the development of the infrastructure of the capital of Kazakhstan and for finding a solution to the problems of urban science in this region.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030074
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 75: Identification of Critical Locations for
           Improvement of Air Quality Developing a Prioritized Clean Air Assessment
           Tool (PCAT)

    • Authors: Kanishtha Dubey, Shubha Verma, Sauvik Santra, Mukul Kumar
      First page: 75
      Abstract: Fourteen Indian cities, including urban and rural locations, were chosen for the present study across India, with unhealthy air quality based on National Air Quality Index (NAQI > 100). However, it was found that NAQI values over the locations are driven by the undifferentiated mass concentration of particulate matter (PM, both PM10 and PM2.5) than other criteria pollutants. The PM2.5 and PM10 concentration during the winter violated the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of India by two to five times at six urban locations, with the mean daily PM2.5 concentration averaged over the month; the the largest being at Patna (353 µg m−3) during the winter and lowest at Bengaluru (27 µg m−3) during the summer. The analysis of chemical species, in general, indicated NO2 (SO2, CO) as having a 25% to 70% (16% to 50%, 16% to 85%) increase in concentration from the summer to winter, which is adequately reflected in higher fuzzy scores during the winter. Thus, to provide a realistic approach to air quality management, the present study focuses on identifying priority-based locations requiring immediate mitigation measures by developing a Prioritized Clean Air Assessment Tool (PCAT). The tool utilizes a fuzzy-based algorithm to incorporate the cumulative effect of all six criteria pollutants, taking into consideration the severity of their expected health implications. Using PCAT, Delhi and Varanasi cities are identified for prioritized mitigation considering the NAAQS of India, unlike all cities (except Bengaluru) during the winter and nine out of fourteen cities during the summer, considering the NAQI. Using more stringent WHO guideline values in PCAT, six cities out of fourteen were identified requiring immediate mitigation during the winter and summer months; locations such as Solapur and Patna are identified to need season-specific mitigation measures during the summer and winter, respectively. The tool is simplistic, user-friendly, and quickly evaluates multiple locations simultaneously to provide priority sites.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030075
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 76: Urban Land Use Survey Methods: A
           Discussion on Their Evolution

    • Authors: Ioannis A. Pissourios
      First page: 76
      Abstract: Although the tradition of surveying and analyzing urban land uses for town planning purposes dates back to the 19th century, the evolution of survey methods has not been studied in detail. With the intention of filling this gap, the present article reviews the pertinent Anglo-American literature on survey methods, published from the beginning of the 20th century to date, and highlights the key contributions. Additionally, it proposes a periodization of the methodological evolution in three phases and identifies the main discussions developed on survey methodology, so as to provide a basis for more structured research on the subject matter.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030076
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 77: The Courtyard as an Element of the Urban
           Environment as Perceived by Yekaterinburg Residents

    • Authors: Olga Zotova, Lyudmila Tarasova
      First page: 77
      Abstract: Social and cultural changes have brought about a new understanding of the space–time continuum within which modern cities are evolving. A comfortable urban environment contributes to the development of a sustainable urban environment, to the psychological health and social well-being of citizens, as shown by the observation of life in public spaces. In our study, the courtyard is treated as a specific human habitat that satisfies a wide range of people’s needs due to the unity of physical, social, and existential features of the place. It is the environment that is present throughout a person’s life, is biographically tied up with his history and that of his family, and therefore reflects his individuality, expresses identity, and stimulates personal authenticity. To assess Yekaterinburg residents’ perception of the yard space as an element of the urban environment, which is the aim of the study, the authors exploited the method of a questionnaire based on two measures, namely architectural semantic differential and incomplete sentences. It was found that the image My Courtyard was the most uncomfortable and “frozen” of all the urban elements and My City was the most comfortable and dynamic. The respondents perceive the house and the adjacent area as a complete unit. The coincidence of the Ideal Courtyard image in all groups of respondents indicates that this image is universal and does not depend on the place of a person’s actual residence. The study can contribute to formulating recommendation to develop the courtyard space and universal models for improving adjacent areas, taking into account the psychological characteristics and needs of the population.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030077
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 78: Space Syntax with Logic Programming: An
           Application to a Modern Estate

    • Authors: Pedro Afonso Fernandes
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Space syntax is a set of theories and techniques for analysing urban settlements and buildings. Here, we propose a new approach to perform syntactic analyses that requires only the declaration in a computer program of the connections between axial lines or convex spaces using Prolog, a logic programming language concerned with artificial intelligence. With this new tool, we found that the deep tree nature of modern estates can be mitigated with a concentric structure similar to the famous Bororo village. In fact, Portela, a high-rise settlement near Lisbon (Portugal), is structured around a central open space (green park) equipped with noninterchangeable facilities (mall, sports centre and church), which are highly synchronised with the surrounding buildings (towers and blocks). The transpatial relations between housing estates and the central zone are maximised either by a distributive ringy network or by a smart grid of pedestrian paths. The result is a compact and integrated settlement with a strong identity and sense of belonging. Nevertheless, this kind of concentric dual system is potentially unstable, a problem that was minimised by forcing a clear opposition with a popular neighbourhood at Portela’s vicinity. With this case study, we show how logic programming is a useful tool to describe the patterns of discrete systems as social knowables due to its declarative nature. In fact, a Prolog program represents a certain amount of knowledge, namely, concerned with the structure of an urban settlement (or building), which could be used to answer queries about the social and economic consequences of certain spatial designs.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-07-24
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030078
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 79: Urban Planning of Coastal Adaptation
           under Sea-Level Rise: An Agent-Based Model in the VIABLE Framework

    • Authors: Shubhankar Sengupta, Dmitry V. Kovalevsky, Laurens M. Bouwer, Jürgen Scheffran
      First page: 79
      Abstract: Coastal flood risk and sea-level rise require decisions on investment in coastal protection and, in some cases, the relocation of urban areas. Models that formalize the relations between flooding costs, protective investments, and relocation can improve the analysis of the processes and issues involved and help to support decision-making better. In this paper, an agent-based model of a coastal city is represented in NetLogo. This model is based on the VIABLE modeling framework and describes adaptive dynamic agent behavior in a changing system. The hypothetical city faces damage caused by gradually rising sea levels and subsequent extreme sea-level events. To mitigate these risks, an “urban planner” agent has two adaptation measures at their disposal: developing coastal defenses or, as a more extreme measure, relocating vulnerable areas inland. As the simulation progresses and the decisions change with rising sea levels, the agent alters investments in these two measures to increase its value function, resulting in dynamic reactive behavior. Additionally, gradual sea-level rise is implemented in various modes, along with extreme sea-level events that cause severe short-term damage. The results of simulations under these modes and with multiple scenarios of agent action are presented. On average, agent behavior is quite reactive under limited foresight. Individual simulations yield a ‘priming’ effect when comparing different timings of extreme sea-level events, wherein an earlier extreme event primes the agent to adapt and thus be better prepared for subsequent events. Agent success with adaptation is also found to be sensitive to the costs involved, and these varying degrees of adaptation success are quantified using three parameters of adaptation success.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-07-27
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030079
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 80: Biodiesel Production by
           Transesterification of Recycled Oil Catalyzed with Zinc Oxide Prepared
           Starting from Used Batteries

    • Authors: Domenica Seminario-Calle, Melissa Ortega-Maldonado, Verónica Pinos-Vélez, Juan Cisneros, Andrés Montero-Izquierdo, Paulina Echeverría-Paredes, Paola Duque-Sarango, Paúl Álvarez-Lloret
      First page: 80
      Abstract: The consumption of batteries and cooking oil have been increasing. Most used batteries are disposed of incorrectly, leading to health and environmental problems because of their composition. In a similar form, cooking oil, once used, is often released by the discharge reaching the wastewater, polluting soil, and water, which affects its treatment. In Ecuador, these environmental passives are recollected and stored without further treatment, which is a temporary and unsustainable solution. To address this issue, the circular economy concept has gained increasing attention. In this study, zinc oxide was prepared from discarded batteries using the hydrometallurgical method to use as a catalyst; it achieved 98.49% purity and 56.20% yield and 20.92% of particles presented a particle size of 1–10 nm. Furthermore, the catalyst morphology was investigated in an SEM, which showed that particle size ranged from 155.69 up to 490.15 nm and spherical shapes. Due to its characteristics, the obtained catalyst can be used in the industry instead of the zinc oxide obtained by mining processes. These processes are known to produce heavy contamination in the ecosystems and human health. Additionally, a zinc oxide lifecycle in the environment was analyzed through a material flow analysis (MFA), taking into consideration two paths, one assuming the disposal of used batteries and the other assuming the recycling of zinc. Biodiesel was produced with a heterogeneous catalyst. This took place with a transesterification reaction with used cooking oil, ethanol, and zinc oxide (ZnO) as catalysts. The biodiesel obtained had the following characteristics: 37.55 of heating power, 0.892 of density, 4.189 mm2/s of viscosity, 0.001% of water content, and a 70.91% yield. Furthermore, the energy consumption in biodiesel production was quantified, giving a total of 37.15 kWh. This kind of initiative prevents that waste from becoming environmental pollutants and potential health risks by giving them a second use as a resource. Moreover, turning waste into a valuable product makes the processes self-sustaining and attractive to be implemented.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030080
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 81: Stakeholder Engagement around Water
           Governance: 30 Years of Decision-Making in the Bogotá River Basin

    • Authors: Angie Katherin Salamanca-Cano, Pamela Durán-Díaz
      First page: 81
      Abstract: Effective stakeholder engagement is vital for sustainable water management in the Bogotá River Basin, which faces serious environmental and socio-economic challenges, including water scarcity, pollution, and inequitable distribution. Engaging diverse stakeholders can promote shared decision-making, identify common goals, and enhance the implementation of sustainable water governance strategies. Taking this into account, this research evaluates multi-stakeholder engagement in the Bogotá River Basin in Colombia over the past 30 years to promote sustainable water management in the face of current global challenges. The research methodology includes a desk-based and systematic review, as well as policy analysis using descriptive and quantitative methods. With the use of MAXQDA software, we identified 74 national, regional, and local policies focused on stakeholder engagement for water management in Colombia, which were narrowed down to 22 documents for the Bogotá River Basin. The policy analysis is based on the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) indicator for Principle 10 to self-assess the level of legal framework implementation and stakeholder engagement. The self-assessment pointed out that despite the strong legal background and the enhancement of stakeholder engagement via formal and informal participatory mechanisms in the first stages of policy-making, there is a lack of engagement in the evaluation and follow-up phases, leading to box-ticking mechanisms. The findings suggest that effective stakeholder engagement needs to be comprehensive in policy-making processes, especially in the evaluation and follow-up stages. Moreover, the river basin’s management can improve by making a clear disclosure about the outcomes of participatory processes. This research concludes that promoting shared decision-making, identifying common goals, and enhancing the implementation of sustainable water management strategies can greatly benefit the Bogotá River Basin. These efforts can lead to more effective and efficient use of water resources and ultimately contribute to a healthier and more sustainable environment.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030081
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 82: Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach
           for Siting Sewer Treatment Plants in Muscat, Oman

    • Authors: Noura Al Nasiri, Abdullah Al Fazari, Waad Ali, Boadi Agyekum, Elnazir Ramadan
      First page: 82
      Abstract: Sewer Treatment Plants (STPs) are essential pieces of infrastructure given the growing scarcity of water sources due to the challenges of urbanization. The positioning of STPs is a complex multidimensional process that involves integrative decision-making approaches that consider multiple sustainability criteria to ensure their optimal placement. The Multi-Criteria Decision Method (MCDM) is a suite of approaches available to decision-makers when making systematic and scientifically informed decisions on siting wastewater treatment plants. Although MCDM methods have manifold applications in different geographic contexts, there is a paucity of studies employing MCDM models for the siting of STPs within the context of Oman. In this study, we assessed the locations of existing STPs and identified suitable locations for future STPs within the Muscat Governorate of Oman using a Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Analytic Hierarchy Process (MCDM-AHP) model in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Eight factors were considered in the MCDM-AHP model: slope, elevation, proximity to built-up areas, airports, valleys, road networks, the sea, parks, and golf courses. Each factor was assigned priority weights based on its importance using the AHP method. Thematic maps were generated to categorize the potential sites into different suitability levels. The results showed that the coastal areas of A’Seeb and Bowsher were the most suitable locations for STPs, representing only 1.19% of the total study area. The novelty of this study stems from the perspective of an original application within the context of Oman, which has generated novel results and interpretations. This has significant implications for urban policy and planning with respect to better informing decision-makers with a systematic framework for efficient wastewater treatment.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030082
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 83: An Integrated Ordered Probit Model for
           

    • Authors: Karzan Ismael, Szabolcs Duleba
      First page: 83
      Abstract: Transport policymakers need to have an in-depth understanding of public transport (PT) customers in order to effectively manage transport systems and maintain the attractiveness of these systems to potential users. This research aims to compare the perceptions and satisfaction levels of two groups of PT users (habitual and occasional) among university staff and students regarding the quality of PT through a new integrated approach. A sample of 500 participants from Budapest, Hungary was used. Two stages of analysis were conducted: a descriptive analysis was conducted in the first stage, and Student’s t-tests of two independent samples were applied to identify the varying perceptions and overall satisfaction. Second, a new integrated ordered probit model (OPM) and an importance–performance analysis (IPA) were used to envisage how best to prioritize actions for transport enhancement. The results show that in the circle of commuters, the habitual PT users were more satisfied with the existing PT service than the occasional PT users. According to the findings of the IPA, for habitual users, the attribute “information provided” has a high priority for improvement, whereas the cost for both user types was found to be significant for all models, contributing to overall satisfaction. This factor was included in the possible overkill quadrant, suggesting that there might be more cost resources than needed. The new model, along with the case study results, may help policymakers and transport operators to make better decisions regarding the identification of service priority areas.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-11
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030083
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 84: Contingent Valuation Machine Learning
           (CVML): A Novel Method for Estimating Citizens’ Willingness to Pay
           for a Safer and Cleaner Environment

    • Authors: Van Quy Khuc, Duc Trung Tran
      First page: 84
      Abstract: This paper introduces an advanced method that integrates contingent valuation and machine learning (CVML) to estimate residents’ demand for reducing or mitigating environmental pollution and climate change. To be precise, CVML is an innovative hybrid machine learning model, and it can leverage a limited amount of survey data for prediction and data enrichment purposes. The model comprises two interconnected modules: Module I, an unsupervised learning algorithm, and Module II, a supervised learning algorithm. Module I is responsible for grouping the data into groups based on common characteristics, thereby grouping the corresponding dependent variable, whereas Module II is in charge of demonstrating the ability to predict and the capacity to appropriately assign new samples to their respective categories based on input attributes. Taking a survey on the topic of air pollution in Hanoi in 2019 as an example, we found that CVML can predict households’ willingness to pay for polluted air mitigation at a high degree of accuracy (i.e., 98%). We found that CVML can help users reduce costs or save resources because it makes use of secondary data that are available on many open data sources. These findings suggest that CVML is a sound and practical method that could be widely applied in a wide range of fields, particularly in environmental economics and sustainability science. In practice, CVML could be used to support decision-makers in improving the financial resources to maintain and/or further support many environmental programs in years to come.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-12
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030084
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 85: Additional Health Benefits Observed
           

    • Authors: Yvanna Todorova, Izzy Wellings, Holly Thompson, Asya Barutcu, Lewis James, Nicolette Bishop, Emma O’Donnell, Colin Shaw, Daniel P. Longman
      First page: 85
      Abstract: Chronic stress and obesity are major public health concerns and represent significant risk factors for a plethora of non-communicable diseases. Physical exercise represents a valuable health intervention in both cases, providing benefits for mental and physical health, as well as appetite regulation. While the emerging field of ‘green exercise’ suggests that the presence of nature may amplify the benefits of exercise, the quality of evidence has been questioned. To address this, we recruited 22 healthy females to complete a crossover randomised trial comprising a 75 min walk in both a forest and urban area, separated by 2–7 days. Markers of mood (Profile of Mood States), stress (sympathetic-adreno-medullar [resting heart rate, blood pressure] and hypothalamic–pituitary axis activation [salivary cortisol]) and eating behaviour (energy intake and salivary ghrelin) were measured before and after each walk. While both walking interventions improved mood and reduced physiological stress, the nature intervention (but not the urban intervention) also led to further improvements in total mood disturbance, depression, confusion and esteem-related affect (F(1,21) ≥ 4.98, p ≤ 0.037). Salivary ghrelin (F(20) = 0.229, p = 0.637) and energy intake (t(20) = −0.54, p = 0.60) did not respond differently in the two environments. Overall, while walking improved mood and physiological stress in both environments, walking in a forested environment provided additional benefits for mood not seen following the urban walk.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-15
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030085
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 86: Rural Development Policy in Germany
           Regarding Coworking Spaces and Effects on Vitality and Versatility of
           Rural Towns

    • Authors: Marco Hölzel, Walter Timo de Vries
      First page: 86
      Abstract: Remote rural areas have been declining in population for decades, partly permanently as people move away and partly temporarily, owing to commuting. This increasing paucity of inhabitants is causing these places to lose vitality and versatility; this, in turn, renders them less attractive overall. In terms of spatial development, policies devised for rural areas have long been concerned not only with agriculture, but also with holistic development. For some years now, ICT has work become increasingly location-independent. This is often seen as an opportunity for rural development. In addition to the general facilitation of remote working, i.e., working from home, coworking spaces make it possible to separate out our private and professional lives. The aim of this research is to find out to what extent public authorities position themselves on this topic and express their views on coworking spaces. Policies in this area have been promulgated by various federal ministries (Bundesebene) and federal states (Länderebene). Thus, we have collected relevant policies from the websites of federal ministries and three federal states (Bavaria, Schleswig-Holstein, Saxony-Anhalt), examined them for their keywords, and read and analyzed the documents that were found. Further, we have interviewed the founders and operators of particular coworking spaces. At the federal level, it is noteworthy that the ministry responsible for rural areas has published the greatest number of policies in which coworking spaces are mentioned. At the state level (Landesebene), the picture is more diverse, between the various state governments and the respective states. However, the contribution of coworking spaces to the vitality and versatility of rural towns is mentioned only rarely, and the importance of location is seldom pointed out. Comparing the results of this study with previous research in the literature, it can be concluded that public authorities should pay more attention to the opportunities and risks of coworking spaces in rural areas. Based on this, clearer objectives for coworking spaces in these areas can be formulated. When subsidies are disbursed, they should be accompanied by a mandatory evaluation to check what the subsidies have achieved and whether the subsidies have been used in a targeted manner. In addition, a larger database could be created for further research.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030086
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 87: The Scale of Urbanism

    • Authors: Emily Talen
      First page: 87
      Abstract: While scale is an essential factor in discussions about sustainable cities, there is no common understanding of what scale is or how it should be measured. This paper sheds light on the issue of scale by suggesting how it might be measured and evaluated. My purpose is to offer both a methodological and empirical contribution to the understanding of scale, using Chicago as a case study. Using historical Sanborn maps, I first investigate scale change over time, focusing on a selection of 31 sites that are now “mega-developments” but were originally composed of small-scale buildings and blocks. I quantify that the historical urban fabric had five times as many buildings, and a much higher percentage of buildings with mixed use. I then look at the city as a whole and compare urban scale to pedestrian quality to assess whether there is a quantifiable difference between large- and small-scale urbanism. I find that, at least for Chicago, small scale urbanism is associated with higher pedestrian quality. For the third part of the analysis, I correlate scale and socio-economic characteristics at the census tract level. The results illuminate a mixed set of differences between scale and socio-economic characteristics like income and housing value.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030087
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 88: Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Drought
           Forecasting on Rivers of South India

    • Authors: Shaikh, Sharma, Kumar, Singh
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Extreme weather events such as droughts are catastrophic and can have serious consequences for people and the environment. Drought may be managed if measures are taken in advance. The success of this endeavor depends on a number of factors, not the least of which is accurate descriptions and measurements of drought conditions. Reducing the negative consequences of droughts requires an early forecast of drought conditions. The primary objective of this research is, hence, to establish a process for the assessment and prediction of drought. The drought evaluation was carried out using the standards established by the SPI and the Indian Meteorological Department. Maps of drought severity were generated using severe drought data. Thirty years' worth of SPI readings was analyzed. Fuzzy-based drought forecasting model parameters were determined during a 25-year period, and the model was validated throughout the remaining years. The findings of this study can be used by the community to help combat the drought. Before the drought worsens, the local government can implement lifesaving mitigating measures.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030088
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 89: Current Plastic Waste Status and Its
           Leakage at Tam Giang–Cau Hai Lagoon System in Central Vietnam

    • Authors: Nguyen Bac Giang, Tran Ngoc Tuan, Hoang Cong Tin, Duong Thanh Chung, Tran Ngoc Khanh Ni, Ngo Huu Binh, Duong Thi Nhung, Le Cong Tuan, Te Minh Son, Nguyen Tran Bao Khuyen
      First page: 89
      Abstract: Plastic waste poses a significant threat to the environment, impacting both aquatic ecosystems and human health. This study aimed to quantify the leakage of plastic waste from urban and rural areas into the Tam Giang–Cau Hai lagoon system area in Vietnam. The research involved conducting surveys and sampling plastic waste in wards and communes surrounding the Tam Giang–Cau Hai lagoon system, as well as utilizing a waste flow diagram to calculate the amount of plastic waste leakage into the environment. The findings of the study reveal that the annual plastic leakage in this study area is approximately 479 tons. The majority of this waste enters the water body system, accounting for 74.1% of the total leakage, followed by land areas at 23.4% and land burning at 2.5%. Among the sources contributing to the wastewater flow in the area, households and markets were found to be the two primary contributors. Household waste accounted for 70.4% (2806 tons year−1) of the total, while the market sources accounted for 16.9% (675 tons year−1). This study marks the inaugural effort to assess the extent of plastic waste released from Hue City into the Tam Giang–Cau Hai lagoon system. It plays a pivotal role in examining the makeup, source of plastic waste and path of plastic waste leakage.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-23
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030089
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 90: Environmental Monitoring in Bus
           Transportation Using a Developed Measurement System

    • Authors: Apostol Todorov, Petya Gicheva, Vanya Stoykova, Stanimir Karapetkov, Hristo Uzunov, Silvia Dechkova, Zlatin Zlatev
      First page: 90
      Abstract: Air pollution and travel comfort in public transport is a significant problem as it can cause health problems for passengers. There are no sufficiently developed and researched monitoring systems for measuring the quality of the environment in public transport, which makes it difficult to assess the extent of the problem and implement effective solutions. This study presents the results of measurements made with a developed system for assessing air pollution and environmental quality in urban transport. Two time periods were defined based on air pollution and traffic levels, and informational features were selected for bus stops and buses. Noise was found not to be an informative feature, but vehicle acceleration should be considered in environmental quality monitoring. A quadratic discriminant classifier combined with principal components was shown to accurately classify high and low pollution time periods. Further research is planned to investigate the relationship between air pollution and travel discomfort and to develop effective strategies to improve air quality in urban public transport.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-24
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030090
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 91: The Influence of Transportation
           Accessibility on Traffic Volumes in South Korea: An Extreme Gradient
           Boosting Approach

    • Authors: Sangwan Lee, Jicheol Yang, Kuk Cho, Dooyong Cho
      First page: 91
      Abstract: This study explored how transportation accessibility and traffic volumes for automobiles, buses, and trucks are related. This study employed machine learning techniques, specifically the extreme gradient boosting decision tree model (XGB) and Shapley Values (SHAP), with national data sources in South Korea collected from the Korea Transport Institute, Statistics Korea, and National Spatial Data Infrastructure Portal. Several key findings of feature importance and plots in non-linear relationships are as follows: First, accessibility indicators exhibited around 5 to 10% of feature importance except for Mart (around 50%). Second, better accessibility to public transportation infrastructures, such as bus stops and transit stations, was associated with higher annual average daily traffic (AADT), particularly in metropolitan areas including Seoul and Busan. Third, access to large-scale markets may have unintended effects on traffic volumes for both vehicles and automobiles. Fourth, it was shown that lower rates of AADT were associated with higher accessibility to elementary schools for all three modes of transportation. This study contributes to (1) understanding complex relationships between the variables, (2) emphasizing the role of transportation accessibility in transportation plans and policies, and (3) offering relevant policy implications.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-08-25
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030091
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 92: Identifying Suitable Variables for Visual
           Aesthetic Quality Assessment of Permanent Forest Reserves in the Klang
           Valley Urban Area, Malaysia

    • Authors: Riyadh Mundher, Shamsul Abu Bakar, Suhardi Maulan, Hangyu Gao, Mohd Johari Mohd Yusof, Azlizam Aziz, Ammar Al-Sharaa
      First page: 92
      Abstract: Permanent forest reserves (PFR) in urban areas are an integral aspect of the urban forest concept and the basis of a city’s green infrastructure. The preservation of natural forests in urban areas has become a widely researched topic due to the environmental, social, and economic benefits provided by it. Although several studies have shown that visual aesthetics play a role in preserving natural forests in urban areas, visual aesthetic value is typically not prioritized in preservation plans since it varies based on the physical characteristics of natural forests in urban areas, making it difficult to measure universally. Therefore, this research aims to identify the suitable variables for assessing the visual aesthetic quality of permanent forest reserves within urban areas in Malaysia. This study selected two permanent forest reserves based on four criteria. Data were collected via participant-generated images taken along selected forest trails based on participant visual aesthetic preferences. Researchers and experts analyzed and classified the data according to content to identify suitable visual aesthetic quality variables. This research identified 14 suitable variables for assessing the visual aesthetics of PFRs in urban areas, with a dominant preference for information-processing theory variables. Mystery was the most present variable for the visual aesthetic quality assessment of PFRs. Furthermore, participants’ educational and emotional backgrounds, categorized as design, environmental, social, and technical, impacted their visual aesthetic preferences. Our findings serve as a foundation for assessing the visual aesthetic quality of natural forests within urban areas in Malaysia.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030092
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 93: Disentangling the Relationship between
           Urban Form and Urban Resilience: A Systematic Literature Review

    • Authors: Ahmed Hazem Eldesoky, Walid Samir Abdeldayem
      First page: 93
      Abstract: The concept of resilience was only recently introduced into urban studies to address the complexity and future uncertainty in cities. In particular, the interest in better understanding how it can be integrated into studying urban form—as the raw material of urban planning/design and key for the sustainability of cities—has been growing. However, resilience is a polysemic concept with different meanings/interpretations, which creates ambiguity and challenges in its operationalization. This paper resolves this issue through a systematic review of 106 peer-reviewed publications guided by recurring questions in the literature (e.g., resilience of/through what' To what' For whom' How' When' Where'). The results showed that the urban form–resilience relationship is complex, where many urban form elements can influence resilience to a great many disturbances (general/specified). In facing these disturbances, urban form exhibits different performances (i.e., persistence, adaptability and transformability) and where it can be either persistent/adaptable/transformable itself or can enhance people’s persistence/adaptation capacities. The review also showed that there are many actors for urban form resilience and potential trade-offs. Finally, an overview of existing definitions of urban form resilience is provided to improve clarity in the field, and examples of general urban planning/design recommendations were formulated to enhance the resilience of different urban form elements.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-04
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030093
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 94: Towards Sustainable Cities: Utilizing
           Computer Vision and AI for Efficient Public Lighting and Energy Management
           

    • Authors: Anderson Silva Vanin, Peterson Belan
      First page: 94
      Abstract: This study showcases the optimization of public lighting systems using computer vision with an emphasis on the YOLO algorithm for pedestrian detection, aiming to reduce energy expenses. In a time when the demand for electricity is escalating due to factors like taxes and urban expansion, it is imperative to explore strategies to cut costs. One pivotal area is public lighting management. Presently, governments are transitioning from sodium vapor lighting to LED lamps, which already contributes to decreasing consumption. In this scenario, computer vision systems, particularly using YOLO, have the potential to further reduce consumption by adjusting the power of LED lamps based on pedestrian traffic. Additionally, this paper employs fuzzy logic to calculate lamp power based on detected pedestrians and ambient lighting, ensuring compliance with the NBR 5101:2018 standard. Tests with public surveillance camera images and simulations validated the proposal. Upon implementing this project in practice, a 45% reduction in public lighting consumption was observed compared to conventional LED lighting.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030094
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 95: Understanding Users’ Perceptions of
           Bicycle-Sharing Systems in Chinese Cities: Evidence from Beijing and
           Guangzhou

    • Authors: Yi Zhu, Wanchen Diao, Hu Zhao
      First page: 95
      Abstract: Decades ago, bicycles used to play an important role in urban transportation in Chinese cities, but they have been gradually replaced by private cars, metro, buses, and some other modes, owning to the fast-growing mobility demand as a result of urban expansion and motorization. However, in recent years, with the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and the initiative of the sharing economy, bike-sharing systems (BSSs) have been implemented extensively in Chinese cities. Their usage patterns can be revealed via system-generated data, yet less is known about users’ attitudes towards and preferences for these systems. In this study, we draw on two surveys conducted in Guangzhou and Beijing on the perceptions of travelers using BSSs to estimate the effect of demographic factors, bicycle ownership, and trip-level factors on the willingness and potential frequency of BSS usage. In addition, a latent class model is built to analyze the different aspects of theses systems concerned with different types of urban travelers. It is found that respondents’ age, occupation, income, mode combination, and the proximity of origin or destination to the docking station, etc., influence the willingness and frequency of using BSSs. In addition, respondents generally value features such as the proximity of docking stations to trip destinations, safety to ride, and appropriate level of fare. However, different latent classes show a different preference for other features of BSSs. According to the model results, proposals are given for the improvement of the existing systems in Chinese cities.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030095
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 96: Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) and
           Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): Technological Advances, Impacts and
           Challenges in the Management of Healthy and Sustainable Environments

    • Authors: Iasmin Lourenço Niza, Ana Maria Bueno, Evandro Eduardo Broday
      First page: 96
      Abstract: The growing concern for sustainability is evident, given the importance of guaranteeing resources for the next generations, especially in the face of increasing energy consumption in buildings. Regardless of the context, people seek comfort, which makes investigating Indoor Environmental Quality crucial. This covers aspects such as indoor air, temperature, noise and lighting, positively impacting quality of life, reducing stress, saving energy and promoting health, well-being and productivity. A literature review was conducted using the Scopus and PubMed databases to analyze technological advances and challenges in managing healthy and sustainable environments, focusing on the relationship between Indoor Environmental Quality and the Sustainable Development Goals. Initially, 855 articles were identified, of which 123 were selected based on established criteria. Three research questions (RQs) were formulated, leading to the following conclusions. (i) The assessment of sustainability in buildings is crucial, encompassing economic, social and environmental aspects. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the importance of adapting energy strategies, thereby contributing to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals through the utilization of advanced technologies that promote healthy and efficient environments. (ii) Evaluations have evolved, ranging from energy savings to human well-being and mental health, including disease prevention strategies. (iii) Challenges in managing the promotion of Indoor Environmental Quality include excessive resource consumption, emissions and economic–environmental balance.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030096
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 97: Urban Vulnerability and Adaptation
           Strategies against Recurrent Climate Risks in Central Africa: Evidence
           from N’Djaména City (Chad)

    • Authors: Ndonaye Allarané, Vidjinnagni Vinasse Ametooyona Azagoun, Assouhan Jonas Atchadé, Follygan Hetcheli, Joanes Atela
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Climate change and its corollaries suggest that urban planning tools and strategies need to integrate adaptation and resilience approaches into urban development. This study aims to inform decision makers and the scientific community of the importance of appropriating data on urban adaptation and resilience strategies in the city of N’Djaména. After sampling 519 city dwellers, oriented questionnaires and focus groups were used to collect socio-demographic parameters, major climate risks, their impacts on urban issues and the urban resilience strategies employed. The various exposure and impact indices were used to identify and prioritize climate risks and urban exposure issues with the populations concerned. The study highlighted three major climatic hazards, namely, flooding, heat waves and strong winds, and their impact on social and community facilities, the living environment and human health. Ten vulnerability factors have been identified, of which the intrinsically geophysical factors are most familiar to the city’s population. The principal component analysis (PCA) illustrates ten (10) strategies for adaptation and resilience to urban climate risks. To meet the climatic challenges in urban areas, this study makes several short-, medium- and long-term recommendations to decision makers.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030097
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 98: Mapping and Assessment of Housing
           Informality Using Object-Based Image Analysis: A Review

    • Authors: Naledzani Mudau, Paidamwoyo Mhangara
      First page: 98
      Abstract: Research on the detection of informal settlements has increased in the past three decades owing to the availability of high- to very-high-spatial-resolution satellite imagery. The achievement of development goals, such as the Sustainable Development Goals, requires access to up-to-date information on informal settlements. This review provides an overview of studies that used object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques to detect informal settlements using remotely sensed data. This paper focuses on three main aspects: image processing steps followed when detecting informal settlements using OBIA; informal settlement indicators and image-based proxies used to detect informal settlements; and a review of studies that extracted and analyzed informal settlement land use objects. The success of OBIA in detecting informal settlements depends on the understanding and selection of informal settlement indicators and image-based proxies used during image classification. To meet the local ontology of informal settlements, the transfer of OBIA mapping techniques requires the fine-tuning of the rulesets. Machine learning OBIA techniques using image proxies derived from multiple sensors increase the opportunities for detecting informal settlements on the city or national level.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7030098
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 33: A Bibliometric and Content Analysis of
           Sustainability and Smart Tourism

    • Authors: Clara Madeira, Paula Rodrigues, Monica Gomez-Suarez
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Sustainability and smart tourism are current hot topics in academic research. While these two concepts are complementary, their relationship has not been clearly outlined in the scientific literature. This bibliometric analysis aims to address this gap by examining the literature on sustainability and smart tourism. Specifically, this review has five objectives: (i) to document the size and growth of the literature on this topic, (ii) to identify the key authors, journals, and documents, (iii) to categorize the countries with the highest productivity rates, (iv) to highlight emerging topics and their relationship to the conceptual structure of each domain, and (v) to analyse the methodology approach. A total of 104 scientific documents were searched and analysed from the Web of Science Core Collection for the period 1900–2022 using R-Program and VOSviewer. The results indicate that there is an emerging knowledge base with main clusters identified in smart tourism, sustainable tourism, innovation, and smart cities. China, Spain, the Republic of Korea, Italy, Iran, and Portugal have demonstrated the highest rate of scientific production. This review provides valuable insights for both academics and practitioners seeking to expand their knowledge of sustainability and smart tourism research. It also offers new perspectives on the future development of these areas within the social sciences’ academic literature.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020033
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 34: Defining the Organization of Municipal
           Solid Waste Management Based on Production Costs

    • Authors: Massimo Beccarello, Giacomo Di Foggia
      First page: 34
      Abstract: A long-lasting dilemma on the efficient provision of services of general economic interest has become increasingly important in the waste management industry: competition or monopoly in municipal solid waste management. Previous literature has primarily examined the economics of scale and scope to provide an adequate response. Here, we contribute by investigating subadditivity in municipal solid waste management service costs. Subadditivity is a critical concept used to justify imperfect competition, which encourages natural monopolies where one producer will function more effectively than more firms. To test the hypothesis that a subadditivity in costs in waste management exists, we design a simulation based on empirical data for Milan, Italy. We compared the total production cost of the incumbent firm with the alternative hypothesis built by dividing the city into four areas and assigning each area to a different hypothetical firm. The results suggest that the existence of subadditivity results in 6% lower production costs, primarily stemming from business synergies, lower transactional costs, and optimization of productive resources and facilities. The evidence justifies, ceteris paribus, that the provision by a single firm is preferable to multiple firms in the analysis case. Implications for policies are straightforward. The one-fit rule approach fails to set the best condition for policymakers to create a level playing field transparently and efficiently for industry operators to perform efficiently.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-03-28
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020034
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 35: Spatial Economic Analysis of
           Manufacturing Firms Located in the Vicinity of Cape Town International
           Airport

    • Authors: Masilonyane Mokhele, Fradreck Garatsa
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Manufacturing activities are at the heart of contemporary capitalist economies, with observable geographical patterns of production. Debates about the interconnections between transportation technology advancements and land use acknowledge that airports can influence the spatial distribution of firms, including those involved in manufacturing. However, the manufacturing-related literature describes the land-use mix of airports and their surroundings without an in-depth spatial economic analysis of the firms positioned near airports. This study aimed to conduct a spatial economic analysis of manufacturing firms positioned in the environs of Cape Town International Airport, South Africa. Primary data were collected through survey interviews conducted with the representatives of 23 manufacturing firms situated in the environs of the airport. The study discovered the potential existence of a spatial cluster of manufacturing firms. This cluster is characterized by dense inter- and intraindustry linkages within the study area. It is recommended that planning authorities and other stakeholders augment the clustering of manufacturing firms in the vicinity of Cape Town International Airport, which comprises firms with direct and indirect linkages with the airport.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020035
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 36: A Typology for Urban Landscape
           Progression: Toward a Sustainable Planning Mechanism in Kano Metropolis,
           Nigeria

    • Authors: Danjuma Abdu Yusuf, Jie Zhu, Sadiq Abdullahi Nashe, Abdullahi Muhammad Usman, Abdullahi Sagir, Adamu Yukubu, Abdulmalik Sule Hamma, Namadi Sharif Alfa, Abubakar Ahmed
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The significance of urban landscapes in the current era of concern for a sustainable built environment can never be overemphasized. The study explores the landscape features and typologies of some urban environments within Kano to understand the management effectiveness of urban landscapes in the Kano metropolitan area. At least two wards were purposively selected each from the eight metropolitan local government areas due to their urban landscape and land use. Focus group discussion (FGD) sessions were carried out through with prominent elders and “Masu Unguwanni” (village/ward heads) of each of the sampled wards as well as direct assessments of their physical characteristics to justify the general landscape progression in support of documentation for the present and future generation. The study unveils the layout typology, the scenic points and the ecological and cultural landscapes in the sampled districts. It further reveals that the historic urban forms in Kano are degrading with time, or rather not following the course of sustainability, as the physical surroundings satisfy the immediate needs of the communities. However, the study suggests increasing the awareness of Kano’s urban landscape preservation and the 2011 UNESCO proposal implementation on Historic Urban Landscapes (HUL). Then, the study discourages unhealthy developments within Kano Metropolis and the entire state. It also recommends landscape architects be part and parcel of planning schemes for controlling and regulating urban development via the formal practice of land allocation, land acquisition, building codes, design, planning and construction.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020036
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 37: Developing Effective Project Management
           Strategy for Urban Flood Disaster Prevention Project in EDO State Capital,
           Nigeria

    • Authors: Chima Ibeanu, Mazyar Ghadiri Nejad, Matina Ghasemi
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Emphasizing the need to provide a coordinated flood management strategy in the country and avoid acting in an isolated way when it occurs, improving the attitude of flood control during floods, and controlling floods with comprehensive analysis are among the main purposes of the current study. In this study, the environment’s physical, technological, social, economic, and political characteristics are considered to assess the urban flood risk. This study entails a discussion of flood hazard control in Benin City, the capital city of Edo State of Nigeria. The research methodology involves employing both interviews and questionnaire distribution. First, three key persons involved in flood control are interviewed at the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA), which coordinates disaster risk reduction in the state, and then, the responses are classified into themes that are used to prepare the questionnaire to be distributed in four main regions. The questionnaires are distributed to the employees in institutions concerned with flood control and to the general population living in the region. Based on the obtained results from the interviews, some methods that could be applicable in controlling flooding in the region are listed. The results showed that the most important ones are flood warning systems, flood prevention through using the building resilient infrastructure and community programs, protection and mitigation through using natural processes, and strategic implementation of a flood emergency plan through sustainability.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020037
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 38: Enumerating and Modelling the Seasonal
           alterations of Surface Urban Heat and Cool Island: A Case Study over
           Indian Cities

    • Authors: Vinayak Bhanage, Sneha Kulkarni, Rajat Sharma, Han Soo Lee, Shirishkumar Gedam
      First page: 38
      Abstract: The present study has been carried out to analyze the seasonal variation of the Urban Heat and Cool Island over the nine developing cities of India. The magnitude of urban heat/cool island and vegetation gradient (∆NDVI) were measured from the daytime satellite datasets. Results of this study show that during the pre-monsoon (March to May) season, the maximum magnitude of the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) was experienced over Kolhapur city, whereas, in the winter, the highest intensity of SUHI was noticed over Pune city. Subsequently, outcomes also depict that the changes in ∆NDVI restrain the pre-monsoon means and the seasonal alterations in SUHI magnitude. However, during the winter (November to February) season, it is controlled by the temperature–vegetation conditions of the rural areas. For pre-monsoon and seasonal changes in SUHI, with the aid of ∆NDVI and the surface temperature of the urban area, regression equations were fitted for pre-monsoon and seasonal changes in SUHI, which explains nearly 90% of SUHI variation. Similarly, the variation of SUHI has been modeled for winter, which elucidates up to 84% of SUHI discrepancy. The study reveals that, on a seasonal scale, a decrement of 0.1 in seasonal ∆NDVI leads to an increase in the seasonal intensity of SUHI by 1.74 °C, which is quite a significant augmentation.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020038
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 39: Investigating the Role of Urban Vehicle
           Access Regulations as a Policy Tool for Promoting Electric Mobility in
           Budapest

    • Authors: Gabriel Ayobami Ogunkunbi, Ferenc Meszaros
      First page: 39
      Abstract: To promote sustainable urban mobility and reduce environmental pollution, transportation policies worldwide aim to decrease reliance on fossil fuels. This requires reducing private car use through policy instruments such as urban vehicle access regulations (UVARs) and promoting alternative sustainable transport technologies such as electromobility. Considering that the deployment of such regulations and the market penetration of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) is still low in Hungary, this study aimed to examine the willingness of urban dwellers in Budapest, Hungary, to adopt battery electric vehicles (BEVs) upon implementation of an UVAR measure. The study analysed the BEV adoption intention of 409 urban residents who participated in an UVAR study in 2022. The results show that age is a significant factor, with individuals aged 35–44 most likely to adopt BEVs. However, other socio-demographic characteristics did not significantly affect willingness to adopt BEVs. Additionally, pro-environmental behaviour or attitude did not significantly predict BEV adoption. Based on these findings, this study highlights the importance of considering multiple interrelated factors and provides policy insights for promoting sustainable transportation technology adoption.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020039
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 40: Enhancing the Definitions of
           Climate-Change Loss and Damage Based on Land Conversion in Florida, U.S.A.
           

    • Authors: Elena A. Mikhailova, Lili Lin, Zhenbang Hao, Hamdi A. Zurqani, Christopher J. Post, Mark A. Schlautman, Gregory C. Post, George B. Shepherd, Sarah J. Kolarik
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Loss and damage (L&D) from climate change result from past and current greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Current definitions of L&D exclude GHG emissions even though they represent L&D to human beings and the environment. This study’s objective was to identify and quantify the L&D from GHG emissions associated with land developments using the state of Florida (FL) in the United States of America (USA) as a case study. All land developments in FL caused various L&D (20,249.6 km2, midpoint 3.0 × 1011 of total soil carbon (TSC) losses with midpoint $50.3B (where B = billion = 109, USD) in social costs of carbon dioxide emissions, SC-CO2), while “new” land developments (1703.7 km2) in the period from 2001 to 2016 caused a complete loss of midpoint 2.8 × 1010 kg of TSC resulting in midpoint $4.5B SC-CO2. These emissions are currently not accounted for in FL’s total carbon footprint (CF). Climate-change-related damages in FL include permanent losses (e.g., land losses), with 47 out of 67 FL’s counties potentially affected by the projected sea-level rise and repairable damages (e.g., destruction from hurricanes). Based on the fixed social cost of carbon (C), there appears to be a disconnect between the value attributed to soil-based emissions and the actual market-driven losses from climate-change-associated costs. The social cost of C could be scaled based on the vulnerability of a particular community and the market-based cost of L&D mitigation. Programs for compensation on the international level should be carefully designed to help people who have suffered climate-related L&D, without creating reverse climate change adaptation (RCCA), where compensation causes people to remain in areas that are vulnerable to climate-related L&D.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020040
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 41: The Practice of Peri-Urban Land
           Acquisition by Expropriation for Housing Purposes and the Implications:
           The Case of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Dereje Tessema Adigeh, Birhanu Girma Abebe
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Urban land acquisition is a fundamental precondition to sustaining the socio-economic livelihood of urban residents. In Ethiopia, with the high rate of peri-urbanization, the demand for urban land for various urban uses, such as housing development, is responded to by expropriating peri-urban landholdings from the farming community through paying compensation to the farmers. The paper highlights Ethiopia’s urbanization pace and the associated urban land acquisition scenarios, mainly for housing purposes. Thus, it aims to analyze the peri-urban land acquisition scenarios through the expropriation of peri-urban land holdings used for agricultural purposes in Bahir Dar and the associated adverse effect on the farming community. To address the intended aim, data were collected by interviewing senior officials, experts, and elder farm households of the study area who were more knowledgeable about the study issue. There were focus group discussions with selected farming communities, and an extended field observation was conducted intending to triangulate the data collected by other techniques. Moreover, the Geographic Information System (GIS) was utilized to analyze satellite images of Bahir Dar City to demonstrate the extent of peri-urban land conversion from 2011 to 2021. The result of this study revealed that there is a 7% urban population growth rate, which resulted in 8% of Bahir Dar being converted from peri-urban between the stated period, and hence a considerable size of land had been expropriated in the peri-urban areas of Bahir Dar with expropriation measures. This study exposed that the compensation for expropriated agricultural landholdings often fails to adequately account for the full range of livelihoods and economic activities that farmers engage in, leaving them struggling to adapt to urban life. The urban development in the study area of Bahir Dar is taking place by jeopardizing the livelihoods of the farming community, and the urban expansion is seen as a threat to them.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020041
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 42: Discourse Studies and Urban Research:
           Methodological Challenges, Achievements, and Future Prospects

    • Authors: M. Reza Shirazi
      First page: 42
      Abstract: This paper offers a critical appraisal of the methodological capacity of Discourse Studies (DS) in conducting urban research. Based on an extensive literature search, 125 publications that explicitly claim to utilise DS were reviewed. The results show that DS has been utilised for its methodological value, critical lens, interdisciplinary approach, ability to reveal the undiscovered, and presentation of new insights to urban questions. This paper identifies and discusses major sources of inspiration and main trends in utilising DS in urban research. Theoretical diversity, the scarcity of analytical framework, and the lack of required expertise and skills are presented as three main methodological challenges for urban researchers. This paper concludes with suggestions for advancing the use of DS in urban research: obtaining an in-depth knowledge about its theoretical foundations, gaining an analytical overview of the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, developing innovative frameworks that better explain urban questions, and gaining required linguistic knowledge for the application of DS.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020042
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 43: Urbanization and Land Use Planning for
           Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): A Case Study of Greece
           

    • Authors: Dimitrios Kalfas, Stavros Kalogiannidis, Fotios Chatzitheodoridis, Ermelinda Toska
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Sustainable development has attracted the attention of social-economic, spatial well-being, and cultural continuity advocates across the world. However, the processes involved in land use as well as urban development have continued to affect the attainment of sustainable development. This study assessed the effects of urbanization and land use planning on achieving sustainable development goals. The data were collected using a survey questionnaire from 384 different government leaders in Greece. The study showed that the indicators of urbanization quality have a positive effect on sustainable development goals. It was revealed that there is a significant relationship between integrated land use strategies and sustainable development goals. The study showed that indicators of urbanization quality are very key to achieving different SDGs. This indicates that sustainable urbanization entails more than just converting agricultural land and forests without making any changes to them into cities, and it is equally one of the answers to the problem of the world’s population growth if it is done with vision and dedication. The study clearly shows that integrated land use strategies are important in achieving the SDGs. In this case, land use planning is mostly a local effort, though some nations employ guiding land use plans created at the regional or inter-municipal level. Furthermore, urbanization opportunities and land-use plans have a great influence on the achievement of sustainable development goals. Notably, the goal of sustainable urban development is to make urban areas “sustainable” as well as to build or reinforce the city’s sustainability-related economic, social, cultural, and environmental aspects. It then goes on to discover how to spread that idea and why it is important to be focused, using various definitions. The fundamental idea of sustainable urban development is then realized by reviewing the ideas and principles of sustainable development. Finally, some general recommendations are made regarding urban planning, sustainable urban development, and the significance of establishing the necessary conditions for its realization. Urban sustainability and proper use of land require structural changes as well as significant, fundamental shifts at all societal levels.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020043
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 44: What Makes a Pedestrian Path Pleasant'
           Analysis of Young Pedestrians’ Perceptions

    • Authors: Carmen Forciniti, Laura Eboli
      First page: 44
      Abstract: In this paper, an analysis of the pedestrian environment based on users’ perceptions is proposed. The specific aim of the study is to discover the aspects mostly influencing the pleasantness of a path in a university campus situated in southern Italy and used by young pedestrians every day to reach various destinations for their university activities. The work is based on data collected by a sample survey and analyzed through a two-step methodology consisting of the application of a Chi-square test and a development of an ordered logit (OL) model. The model results reveal which aspects affect path pleasantness. The specific finding suggests that these aspects relate to the presence of buildings with good facades along the path and to the continuity of the path. As a general and highly relevant finding, we can state that the applied methodology could be very useful in identifying the path characteristics that can be considered as the most important for pedestrians. This identification could support practitioners to plan new strategies and future interventions to improve the pedestrian environment and increase the sense of pleasure perceived by pedestrians.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020044
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 45: Financialisation of Housing in London:
           Empirical Evidence on Housing Prices

    • Authors: José Francisco Vergara-Perucich
      First page: 45
      Abstract: This paper aims to empirically review the process of housing financialisation in London, exploring a time series causal relationship between house prices and financial instruments, using the Granger method and a VAR test. In order to carry out this analysis, we use a vector autoregressive model with a monthly data series that seeks to contribute to exploring this relationship. The results are relevant to the important role that the theory of housing financialisation plays in explaining the crisis of access to secure tenure that can be seen in developed nations. The results also provide an empirical background to pursue this theory more specifically in the context of the vectors that are effectively causal to the financialisation processes that impact everyday life through housing prices. The study is original, given that this type of modelling has not previously been carried out for a major world city such as London, and adds to the findings of similar explorations that have applied other methodologies.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020045
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 46: Preventing the Separation of Urban Humans
           from Nature: The Impact of Pet and Plant Diversity on Biodiversity Loss
           Belief

    • Authors: Minh-Hoang Nguyen, Minh-Hieu Thi Nguyen, Ruining Jin, Quang-Loc Nguyen, Viet-Phuong La, Tam-Tri Le, Quan-Hoang Vuong
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Despite the dependence of human existence on myriad ecosystem services and products, a high proportion of people feel disconnection from nature due to urbanization. This separation appears to have created an increase in the numbers of climate change and biodiversity loss denialists, thereby weakening global efforts to prevent environmental degradation and address environmental issues. The current study employs the reasoning capability of Mindsponge theory and the statistical advantages of Bayesian inference to examine whether access to in-home pet and plant diversity can increase the probability of biodiversity loss belief among urban residents. The findings from 535 Vietnamese respondents indicate that, when respondents feel comfortable at home, a higher diversity of pets is associated with a higher likelihood of believing that biodiversity loss is a real and major problem. However, the effect becomes the opposite when the respondents feel uncomfortable at home. Plant diversity has a positive impact on biodiversity loss belief regardless of comfort. Notably, the impact of plant diversity on biodiversity loss belief is more substantial among respondents who feel uncomfortable than those who feel comfortable. Following these findings, we suggest that increasing in-home biodiversity can be a promising way to raise urban residents’ awareness of the occurrence and significance of biodiversity loss, which will subsequently help them build up an eco-surplus culture.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020046
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 47: Emerging Transformations in Material Use
           and Waste Practices in the Global South: Plastic-Free and Zero Waste in
           India

    • Authors: Katie Conlon
      First page: 47
      Abstract: This study uses a qualitative approach to address limitations and blockages to current plastics reduction via semi-structured interviews with zero waste business practitioners in India. Although they are nascent, India is home to a budding zero waste community that is grappling with how to reduce plastics—via trial and error—and these stakeholders hold insights from lived experience on how plastic reduction can actualize in the Indian subcontinent. This research involved interviewing zero waste businesses and consultants and makers of plastic alternatives in India to understand their experiences with plastic reduction strategies. The key stakeholder interviews reveal key insights for moving forward with plastic reduction initiatives, including challenges faced at government, business, and social levels; considerations regarding plastic waste generation; motivations for starting zero waste businesses and organizations; how it will be possible to operationalize plastic bans in India; appropriate actions for plastic waste reduction; elements that would help India shift into a more circular, regenerative economy; and locally appropriate alternatives to plastics. The discussion further delves into caveats with various alternatives to plastic materials, economic considerations, and characteristics of the zero waste network, and provides next steps for action at the government, business, and civil levels for reducing plastic waste generation in India and minimizing plastic pollution.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020047
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 48: Formulating a Railway Station
           Accessibility (RsAI) Model for Station Hierarchy Classification

    • Authors: Rahul Vardhan Bhatnagar, Sewa Ram
      First page: 48
      Abstract: The accessibility of railway stations plays a crucial role in assessing service quality, predicting travel patterns, and developing infrastructure in the surrounding areas. This paper proposes a railway station accessibility index (RsAI) (external) that incorporates various parameters, including network performance, into a weighted measure. We reviewed different methods for measuring accessibility levels for transit systems to identify the most suitable models for this study. The primary objective of this paper is to classify railway stations into different hierarchies based on their accessibility levels and to develop an external accessibility index to measure their performance. With increasing urbanization and congestion, accessing railway stations has become more challenging, impacting railway efficiency and leading to modal shifts to other transportation systems. This paper not only identifies critical parameters but also emphasizes the need to measure and improve last-mile network performance to enhance station accessibility, thereby benefiting both passengers and the railway industry.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020048
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 49: Not All Social Capital Is Equal:
           Conceptualizing Social Capital Differences in Cities

    • Authors: Maren Wesselow
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Social capital is the basis of community-based action and constitutes an important resource for the poor in urban areas. However, social class, age, ethnicity and gender play an important role in shaping social capital outcomes. This article provides a literature-based framework for the qualitative analysis of the differences in social capital between social groups. This study defines and distinguishes social capital functions and resources and highlights the importance of taking negative effects of social capital and social capital needs into account. To test the framework, the social capital portfolios of two exemplary social groups, namely young people and ethnic minorities in urban areas, are presented. The analysis shows that the social capital resources and functions of the different groups as well as the specific needs vary in quality. The study provides a conceptual enhancement to the concept of social capital and recommends that strategies aiming at improving social capital must acknowledge the differences in social capital according to specific groups and environments.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020049
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 50: Testing the Informal Development Stages
           Framework Globally: Exploring Self-Build Densification and Growth in
           Informal Settlements

    • Authors: Jota Samper, Weichun Liao
      First page: 50
      Abstract: This article challenges the narrow definition of informal settlements as solely lacking a formal framework, which overlooks the dynamic city-making and urban design processes within these areas. Communities’ self-building processes and areas’ constant growth are indeed informal settlements’ most salient morphological features. The study builds upon the informal development stages (IDS) framework and explores how it applies globally. The research follows a sample of fifty informal settlements with a high change coefficient from the Atlas of Informality (AoI) across five world regions to explore how change and urban densification across IDS can be mapped in such areas using human visual interpretation of Earth observation (EO). The research finds evidence of IDS framework fitment across regions, with critical morphological differences. Additionally, the study finds that settlements can pass through all IDS phases faster than anticipated. The study identifies IDS as a guiding principle for urban design, presenting opportunities for policy and action. The study suggests that integrating IDS with predictive morphological tools can create valuable data to refine identification models further. Finally, the article concludes that an IDS approach can anticipate development and integrate into an urban design evolutionary process that adapts to the deprived areas’ current and future needs.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020050
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 51: Particulate Matter Accumulation and
           Elemental Composition of Eight Roadside Plant Species

    • Authors: Huong-Thi Bui, Jihye Park, Eunyoung Lee, Moonsun Jeong, Bong-Ju Park
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Particulate matter (PM) is the most dangerous air pollutant that adversely affects health. Increasing PM in urban areas is a big problem that must be solved. This study analyzed the amount of PM that accumulated on plant leaves, as well as the leaf traits that contribute to PM accumulation, to determine the plant’s ability to accumulate PM and the impact of PM on the plants. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis were used to quantitatively assess metal concentrations in the particles that had accumulated on the leaf samples. Eight common plant species that grow on the roadside were used to analyze leaf traits using leaf samples. Specific leaf areas (SLA), leaf extract pH (pH), relative leaf water content (RWC), chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoids were analyzed. PM accumulation and leaf traits varied among plant species, and Parthenocissus tricuspidata showed the highest PM accumulation on its leaf surface. The leaf’s elemental composition included C, O, Ca, K, Mg, S, P, Al, Si, Na, Cl, and Fe. Among these elements, Ca, K, and Cl made up a relatively large percentage. Fe was only detected in the leaves of Pachysandra terminalis and P. tricuspidata, while C and O were excluded as they are not relevant in determining PM metal content. Plants not only accumulate PM but also heavy metals from the atmosphere. This study found that plants with highly effective PM accumulation, such as P. tricuspidate, should be considered for optimizing the benefits of plants in improving air quality.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020051
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 52: Identifying Urban Heritage Facility
           Management Support Services Considering World Heritage Sites

    • Authors: Bintang Noor Prabowo, Alenka Temeljotov Salaj, Jardar Lohne
      First page: 52
      Abstract: Whether public sectors or private institutions, in-house or outsourced, building-level or urban-scale, the critical role of facility management (FM) is to support the core business activities of an organization in accomplishing its objectives. Through the services it manages and provides, FM impacts people’s health, well-being, and quality of life. While there is no difficulty in defining a corporation, organization, or institution’s core business, defining the core business of a city as an institution is not widely discussed in the urban-scale facility management literature. By using a narrative research approach from the available literature, this study seeks to shed light on potential justifications for a city’s “core business” and its possible support services. The context of the World Heritage site is used to provide a sharper perspective on the possible urban-scale support services customized for urban heritage areas. This study suggests that a city’s primary objective is to maintain and possibly attract new “desirable” citizens through the provision of excellent services, a quality-built environment, a sense of well-being, health, safety and security, and economic growth. Consequently, the integration of urban-scale support services must be aligned with the purpose of the city, or the World Heritage site, to be specific.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020052
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 53: Evaluation of Phragmites australis for
           Environmental Sustainability in Bahrain: Photosynthesis Pigments, Cd, Pb,
           Cu, and Zn Content Grown in Urban Wastes

    • Authors: Simone Perna, Zainab Ali AL-Qallaf, Qaisar Mahmood
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Modern urban societies generate tremendous amounts of hazardous wastes, including toxic organics and metals. Toxic metals harm plants and pose a risk to human health; examples of them are copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), palladium (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Wetland plants are excellent for the ecological restoration of toxic metal-affected environments. Phragmites australis (common reed) belongs to the family Poaceae and is a broadly distributed wetland grass that is native to Bahrain, Europe, and America. P. australis shows a high content of chlorophyll. This study aimed to assess percentages of water, chlorophyll, and toxic metal content using acetone extraction; the calculation of the concentrations was performed according to the equations proposed by Lichtenthaler and the percentage of water content was calculated. After the metal exposure, the reed plants were digested, and their total mineral analysis was accomplished by atomic absorption spectroscopy; statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. The results revealed that the immature stage showed the highest chlorophyll a (mean 1641.5 (µg/g)) carotenoids (mean 359.75 (µg/g)) and total chlorophyll (mean 2183.93 (µg/g)), and the mature flowering stem had the highest chlorophyll b (mean 676.45 (µg/g)). The mature flowering stem stage showed the highest Pb (mg/L) and Cd (mg/L) values; on the other hand, Cu was the highest in the fully elongated non-flowering stage (0.108 mg/L), and the highest Zn content was found in the immature stage (mean 2.083). Owing to its growth in contaminated environments, P. australis can be considered a potential source of phytonutrients; higher concentrations were mostly available in the immature and mature flowering stages, with a favorable immature stage. The use of such marginal wetland plants may be very useful in reducing the pollution burden of urban built environments. These plants offer a green and sustainable solution for the disposal of waste from urban areas. Hence, further planning and execution of such a green solution are pivotal for creating environmental sustainability.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020053
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 54: Promoting Urban Farming for Creating
           Sustainable Cities in Nepal

    • Authors: Keshav Bhattarai, Ambika P. Adhikari
      First page: 54
      Abstract: This paper responds to the research question, “can urban farming in Nepal help create sustainable cities'” Especially after the COVID-19 pandemic, urban residents have begun to realize that food transported from long distances is not always reliable. Urban farming can help produce fresh food locally and help urban residents become self-reliant by engaging in healthy eating habits and practicing sustainable agricultural techniques in food-desert areas, while creating a positive impact on the environment through regenerative agricultural methods. In doing so, urban farms can help the growers save on food expenditures and even earn some additional income, while also improving air quality and minimizing the effects of urban heat islands. This practice also helps reduce greenhouse gases through plant carbon use efficiency (CUE), as vegetation carbon dynamics (VCD) can be adjusted while supporting the circular economy. As urban lands command higher prices than agricultural land, urban farming usually happens on residential yards, roofs, balconies, community gardens, and dedicated areas in public parks. Rainwater harvesting and redirecting can help irrigate urban farms, which can be part of rain gardens. The national census of 2021 identified that 66% of Nepal’s population lives in urban areas. However, the World Bank (2018) showed that only 21 of Nepal’s population was projected to live in urban areas in 2021. It is not debatable that the urbanization process in Nepal is on the rise. Thus, urban agriculture can play an important role in supplementing residents’ food needs. Many cities in Nepal have already successfully adapted to urban farming wherein residents grow food on their building sites, balconies, and rooftop, often growing plants in pots, vases, and other types of containers. The UN-Habitat, with the support of the European Union and local agencies, published a rooftop farming training manual (2014), showing the feasibility of urban farming in Nepal. This paper discusses how public-private partnership (PPP) can promote urban agriculture and make the process more effective and attractive to urban-farming households. It also analyzes how a PPP approach also facilitates the use of better technology, advisory support, and use of research extension activities. This paper draws on a literature review, uses remote-sensing imagery data and data from National Census Nepal 2021, and the authors’ professional experiences related to best practices in the areas to analyze the benefits and challenges related to urban farming both in Nepal and Arizona, USA. The paper provides recommendations for Nepali cities to maximize the benefit provided by urban farming. It is expected to be useful to Nepali policymakers, government agencies, and nonprofit organizations which promote sustainability, and organic farming with a sustainable supply chain.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020054
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 55: Customer Loyalty during Disasters: The
           Case of Internet Service Providers Amidst Typhoon Odette in Central
           Philippine Urban Districts

    • Authors: Roberto Suson, Donna Marie Rivero, Alma Arnejo, Nadine May Atibing, Joerabell Lourdes Aro, Angelo Burdeos, Kafferine Yamagishi, Lanndon Ocampo
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The impact of service disruptions to critical utility services due to natural disasters is evident during delays in emergency responses and humanitarian relief, especially for urban populations with highly interdependent infrastructures. Aside from health and social impacts, failing to address these disruptions would inevitably lead to customer dissatisfaction and switching loyalty, adversely affecting service providers’ profitability. Thus, providers must effectively respond to this service failure resulting from disruptions to retain the loyalty of their existing customers. To this end, a theoretical model to explain customer loyalty to internet service providers amidst a disaster-induced disruption through integrating customer loyalty, customer satisfaction, service quality, service innovation, service recovery, perceived value, and brand image is proposed in this work. This study uses the case of a massive disruption caused by Typhoon Odette (Rai) in central Philippine urban districts to empirically test the efficacy of the proposed structural model. A total of 584 responses were utilized in the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to derive significant relationships between the constructs. The findings suggest that customer satisfaction strongly predicts customer loyalty during a disaster. Furthermore, efforts towards service recovery do not translate to customer loyalty, but negatively influence customer satisfaction. Moreover, service innovation significantly affects customer satisfaction but negatively influences customer loyalty. Additionally, perceived value does not support customer loyalty but positively affects customer satisfaction. Lastly, brand image and service quality influence both customer satisfaction and loyalty. These findings offer managerial insights for informing the design of a reliable service recovery system, efficient project management planning, practical service innovation, and comprehensive service design. The future research directions are discussed.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020055
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 56: Urban Quality of Life: A Systematic
           Literature Review

    • Authors: Josana Gabriele Bolzan Wesz, Luciana Inês Gomes Miron, Ioanni Delsante, Patricia Tzortzopoulos
      First page: 56
      Abstract: The built environment has great influence over the sustainability of societies as well as over people’s quality of life. Quality of life (QoL) is a broad concept that has different definitions across diverse bodies of knowledge. The social–cultural environment and the characteristics of the built environment influence people’s perception of QoL. This study aims to identify and analyse the factors that impact QoL and sustainable development in the urban context. A systematic literature review was developed to understand QoL concepts and to identify urban indicators that contribute to the multidimensional evaluation of urban QoL. The results include (1) a holistic overview of QoL concepts and indicators; (2) the proposal of a holistic urban QoL concept; (3) the identification of urban QoL dimensions and indicators that contribute to urban QoL evaluation. The main contribution of this study is its discussion of the multidimensional nature of QoL, including objective and subjective dimensions.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020056
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 57: An Evaluation of Passenger Satisfaction
           among Users of Huambo Airport in Angola

    • Authors: André Tchoia Relógio, Fernando Oliveira Tavares
      First page: 57
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the level of client satisfaction among airline passengers and other users of Huambo’s airport in Angola. A quantitative method was used, based on a questionnaire addressed to airline passengers on their trips to Huambo and their use of Huambo’s airport. This sample comprises 619 questionnaire answers. As a result of the study, it is possible to relate client satisfaction with the size of the aircraft in question and with the ease of booking a trip. On the contrary, clients become more dissatisfied when the cost of the trip is higher. An analysis of the degree of client satisfaction among airline passengers shows three categories: the waiting time and service at the airline office, the comfort during the trip, and the empathy of the cabin staff. This study is expected to be useful to show the preferences of the clients of this African airport.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020057
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 58: Planning Tools to Revitalise Urban Vacant
           Land from Ecological Perspectives: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Izyan Ayuni Mohamad Selamat, Sreetheran Maruthaveeran, Mohd Johari Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fairuz Shahidan
      First page: 58
      Abstract: Urban vacant land availability offers revitalisation opportunities in the form of improving ecological functions. However, less is known about the available planning tools with which to mobilise this effort. Hence, this systematic review adopts ecological perspectives to explore planning tools to revitalise urban vacant land. The search strategy employs Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to track original research on vacant urban land from selected electronic databases. The search revealed thirty-six studies focusing on substance-oriented planning tools (indicator systems, Geographic Information System (GIS), models/simulations, field surveys, and experiments) and process-oriented tools (questionnaire surveys, the Delphi method, focus groups, and interviews). This review suggests that future studies adopt hybrid planning tools that combine the essence of substance- and process-oriented tools. Furthermore, as a framework, it recommends taking a stepwise approach at various planning stages to revive vacant land. Additional studies from the perspective of growing cities are necessary to provide insights into urban vacant land revitalisation planning, considering the competing objectives of economic prosperity and green space preservation.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020058
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 59: Investigation into the Rationale of
           Migration Intention Due to Air Pollution Integrating the Homo Oeconomicus
           Traits

    • Authors: Quan-Hoang Vuong, Tam-Tri Le, Viet-Phuong La, Thu-Trang Vuong, Minh-Hoang Nguyen
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Air pollution is a considerable environmental stressor for urban residents in developing countries. Perceived health risks of air pollution might induce migration intention among inhabitants. The current study employed the Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) to investigate the rationale behind the domestic and international migration intentions among 475 inhabitants in Hanoi, Vietnam—one of the most polluted capital cities worldwide. We found that people perceiving more negative impacts of air pollution in their daily life are more likely to have migration intentions. The effect of perceived air pollution impact on international migration intention is stronger than that of domestic migration. Acknowledging a family member’s air pollution-induced sickness moderated the association between perceived air pollution impact and domestic migration intention, while the personal experience of air pollution-induced sickness did not. In contrast, the moderation effect of personal experience of sickness became significant in the international migration circumstance, but the effect of information about a family member’s sickness was negligible. The findings suggest that urban inhabitants’ consideration of air pollution-averting strategies reflects some characteristics of Homo Oeconomicus. Although an individual’s socioeconomic decision may seem insignificant on a collective scale, through environmental stressors as catalysts, such decisions might result in considerable social tendencies (e.g., internal migration and emigration).
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020059
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 60: Investigation of Spatial and Cultural
           Features in Contemporary Qatari Housing

    • Authors: Asmaa Al-Mohannadi, Mark David Major, Raffaello Furlan, Rashid Saad Al-Matwi, Rima J. Isaifan
      First page: 60
      Abstract: Housing is a basic human need and a fundamental component of settlement status. The architectural form and spatial provisions of housing evolve in line with—and transform to meet—a specific era’s needs. Globalization has been responsible for changing the nature of housing in Qatar over the last thirty years. It has led to a standardization of construction methods and built form, representing a dramatic departure from past models of vernacular residential architecture. In light of these challenges, the ultimate purpose of this study is to explore the spatial and cultural features in a small sample of contemporary housing in Qatar. It explores the spatial layout of four Qatari residential villas to assess the social and cultural roles in contemporary housing models against the background of previous research. In the study, the authors utilized space syntax as an analytical tool to demonstrate patterns of visibility and room relations in the samples to understand occupants’ system of activities in the contemporary domestic setting, deploying visibility graph analysis (VGA) and relational graphs. Key findings include the interpretation of the probable relation to socio-cultural factors such as gender roles, hospitality, and privacy. Hence, this study fills gaps in knowledge about Qatari and Middle Eastern housing today.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020060
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 61: Mapping Public-Planner Conflicts in SUDS
           Implementation Using Cultural Dimensions—A Case Study

    • Authors: Bridget Thodesen, Erlend Andenæs, Rolf André Bohne, Tore Kvande
      First page: 61
      Abstract: The timely implementation of climate adaptation measures for the urban environment is essential to the creation of robust cities. Within Norway, these adaptation measures are undertaken at the municipal level. Unfortunately, the implementation of adaptation measures has lagged behind expectations, partially due to public resistance to local projects. City planners seek tools to provide insight into the priorities of residents to build consensus and public support. This study follows up on two previous case studies of Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS) implementation in Trondheim, Norway, where the prioritization of urban space is often a source of conflict. The Hofstede Cultural Compass is a tool that maps six cultural dimensions used in research and practice to inform users about cultural norms and cross-cultural divergences. This study seeks to test and verify this tool for use in building public consensus and support. Municipal managers responsible for project implementation took the Cultural Compass survey, and the results were collectively mapped and compared to the public at large. The Cultural Compass found notable divergences between the municipality and the Norwegian public within the areas of “Long-term Orientation”, “Uncertainty Avoidance”, and “Masculinity vs. Femininity”. These findings were cross-referenced with thematically analyzed interviews of residents regarding their perceptions of a municipal SUDS project. Together, these case studies give greater insight into the issues of diverging priorities and perspectives experienced in the implementation of SUDS. Recommendations are presented to aid the understanding of intercultural divergences between planning offices and public priorities in an effort to better engage the public and build consensus.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-06
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020061
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 62: Spatiotemporal Analysis of Emergency
           Calls during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Case of the City of Vaughan

    • Authors: Ali Asgary, Adriano O. Solis, Nawar Khan, Janithra Wimaladasa, Maryam Shafiei Sabet
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Cities have experienced different realities during the COVID-19 pandemic due to its impacts and public health measures undertaken to respond to and manage the pandemic. These measures revealed significant implications for municipal functions, particularly emergency services. The aim of this study is to examine the spatiotemporal distribution of emergency calls during different stages/periods of the pandemic in the City of Vaughan, Canada, using spatial density and the emerging hotspot analysis. The Vaughan Fire and Rescue Service (VFRS) provided the dataset of all emergency calls responded to within the City of Vaughan for the period of 1 January 2017 to 15 July 2021. The dataset was divided according to 11 periods during the pandemic, each period associated with certain levels of public health restrictions. A spatial analysis was carried out by converting the data into shapefiles using geographic coordinates of each call. Study findings show significant spatiotemporal changes in patterns of emergency calls during the pandemic, particularly during more stringent public health measures such as lockdowns and closures of nonessential businesses. The results could provide useful information for both resource management in emergency services as well as understanding the underlying causes of such patterns.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020062
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 63: Comparative Investigation of On-Grid and
           Off-Grid Hybrid Energy System for a Remote Area in District Jamshoro of
           Sindh, Pakistan

    • Authors: Mansoor Urf Manoo, Faheemullah Shaikh, Laveet Kumar, Siti Indati Mustapa
      First page: 63
      Abstract: To meet electricity requirements and provide a long-term, sustainable existence, remote areas need to promote renewable projects. Most of the time, wind and solar power sources are selected as renewable energy technologies to help satisfy some of the power requirements. Alternative approaches should be employed, considering the inconsistent characteristics among those resources, to offer efficient and long-lasting responses. Electricity production needs to be conducted with the help of a wide range of energy sources to be productive and efficient. As a result, the current research concentrates on feasible analyses of interconnected hybrid energy systems for such remote residential electricity supply. To help a remote area’s establishment decide whether to adopt renewable electricity technology, this paper evaluates the techno-economic effectiveness of grid-connected and standalone integrated hybrid energy systems. The electricity requirements for the entire selected remote area were determined first. Furthermore, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, a national renewable energy laboratory, was used to evaluate the possibilities of green energy supplies. A thorough survey was performed to determine which parts were needed to simulate the interconnected hybrid energy systems. Employing the HOMER program, we conducted a simulation, optimizations, and economic research. Considering the net present cost, cost of energy, and compensation time, an economic comparison was made between the evaluated integrated hybrid systems. The assessment reveals that perhaps the grid-connected hybrid energy system is the best option for reliably satisfying remote areas’ energy needs.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020063
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 64: Predicting Gentrification in England: A
           Data Primitive Approach

    • Authors: Jennie Gray, Lisa Buckner, Alexis Comber
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Geodemographic classifications are useful tools for segmenting populations and have many applications but are not suitable for measuring neighbourhood change over time. There is a need for an approach that uses data of a higher spatiotemporal resolution to capture the fundamental dimensions of processes driving local changes. Data primitives are measures that capture the fundamental drivers of neighbourhood processes and therefore offer a suitable route. In this article, three types of gentrification are conceptualised, and four key data primitives are applied to capture them in a case study region in Yorkshire, England. These areas are visually validated according to their temporal properties to confirm the presence of gentrification and are then assigned to a high-level gentrification type. Ensemble modelling is then used to predict the presence, type, and temporal properties of gentrification across the rest of England. The results show an alignment of the spatial extent of gentrification types with previous gentrification studies throughout the country but may have made an overprediction in London. The periodicities of (1) residential, (2) rural, and (3) transport-led gentrification also vary throughout the country, but regardless of type, gentrification in areas within close proximity to one another have differing velocities such that they peak and complete within similar times. These temporal findings offer new, more timely tools for authorities in devising schedules of interventions and for understanding the intricacies of neighbourhood change.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020064
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 65: Pedestrian Flows Characterization and
           Estimation with Computer Vision Techniques

    • Authors: Federico Karagulian, Carlo Liberto, Matteo Corazza, Gaetano Valenti, Andreea Dumitru, Marialisa Nigro
      First page: 65
      Abstract: This work describes a straightforward implementation of detecting and tracking pedestrian walking across a public square using computer vision. The methodology consists of the use of the well-known YOLOv3 algorithm over videos recorded during different days of the week. The chosen location was the Piazza Duca d’Aosta in the city of Milan, Italy, in front of the main Centrale railway station, an access point for the subway. Several analyses have been carried out to investigate macroscopic parameters of pedestrian dynamics such as densities, speeds, and main directions followed by pedestrians, as well as testing strengths and weaknesses of computer-vision algorithms for pedestrian detection. The developed system was able to represent spatial densities and speeds of pedestrians along temporal profiles. Considering the whole observation period, the mean value of the Voronoi density was about 0.035 person/m2 with a standard deviation of about 0.014 person/m2. On the other hand, two main speed clusters were identified during morning/evening hours. The largest number of pedestrians with an average speed of about 0.77 m/s was observed along the exit direction of the subway entrances during both morning and evening hours. The second relevant group of pedestrians was observed walking in the opposite direction with an average speed of about 0.65 m/s. The analyses generated initial insights into the future development of a decision-support system to help with the management and control of pedestrian dynamics.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020065
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 66: Energy and Economic Analysis of Renewable
           Energy-Based Isolated Microgrids with AGM and Lithium Battery Energy
           Storage: Case Study Bigene, Guinea-Bissau

    • Authors: Jesús Armando Aguilar-Jiménez, Luis Hernández-Callejo, José Alejandro Suástegui-Macías, Victor Alonso Gómez, Alfonso García-Álvaro, Raúl Maján-Navalón, Lilian Johanna Obregón
      First page: 66
      Abstract: By the year 2020, 90% of the population with access to electricity worldwide was surpassed. However, the reality is very different for many countries, especially for those on the African continent that had more than 572 million people without electricity service at the end of 2019. This work studies the implementation of an isolated microgrid activated with photovoltaic energy and energy storage in batteries under the case study of the community of Bigene, located in the African country of Guinea-Bissau. This type of project is a potential solution to the problem of access to energy, but as the cost of the energy storage system is typically very high, this work technically and economically addresses the effect of using absorbed glass material (AGM) and lithium batteries. A simulator was developed using TRNSYS software to analyze the operation of the microgrid under a defined annual demand profile for different types of users, and economic analysis was conducted considering a project lifetime of 25 years. The results showed no significant differences in the solar fraction of both types of batteries when the photovoltaic power was less than 600 kW, regardless of the capacity of the storage bank. The analysis of auxiliary power requirements showed that lithium technology leads to a lower consumption from 800 kW of PV capacity, and utilizing less than this capacity did not have a significant difference with AGM batteries. In this microgrid with a photovoltaic capacity of less than 700 kW and an energy storage of less than 2580 kWh, the type of storage technology, AGM or lithium, did not represent a considerable difference in the levelized cost of energy, indicating that AGM technology could be selected considering its low initial investment cost compared to lithium batteries.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020066
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 67: Exploring the Link between Street Layout
           Centrality and Walkability for Sustainable Tourism in Historical Urban
           Areas

    • Authors: Mustafa Aziz Amen, Ahmad Afara, Hourakhsh Ahmad Nia
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Walkability is considered a vital component of the urban configuration; urban spaces should promote pedestrian walking, which is healthier and increases social sustainability by connecting people in urban spaces. This article aims to find the link between the street layout centrality values and the people’s walkability for sustainable tourism in historic areas. Moreover, it attempts to explore the linkage between the urban layout and visiting historical spaces in the urban layout. The approach to the research has two phases; the first is to find people density (the tourist density) in the historical areas, and the second is to measure the centrality values of the urban layout utilizing the spatial design network analysis tool (sDNA). The research found that the street network considerably impacts the final tourist distribution, mainly because of the betweenness centrality; consequently, spaces with low betweenness centrality values are less reachable by the tourists in the historical area, although it has a high closeness centrality. The research concluded that considering the street network is necessary concerning the tourists’ walkability since it affects their density in the urban layout.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7020067
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 21: An Application of the Node–Place
           Model to Explore the Land Use–Transport Development Dynamics of the
           I-287 Corridor

    • Authors: Amirhossein Baghestani, Shirin Najafabadi, Azarakhsh Salem, Ziqi Jiang, Mohammad Tayarani, Oliver Gao
      First page: 21
      Abstract: A sustainable development plan should identify future urban development sites to maintain a balanced condition between transportation systems and land use. Most commonly used for Transit Oriented Development (TOD), the node–place model checks the balance between transportation systems and land use. While previous node–place research focused mostly on rail transportation, this research focuses on highway accessibility to assess future growth and urban development. To gain insight into the development dynamics, the node–place model is utilized with a focus on the I-287 Corridor located in New York, U.S. The node function describes the transport activity and connectedness of the area to other places of interest, which measures the accessibility of the locations, the type of connections, and the number of directions connected. In addition, population, number of workers in the labor force, and degree of a functional mix are also considered for place values. According to the results, four exits are in balanced areas with stable traffic and customer flow support and strong support from local government departments. This case study contributes to a deeper understanding and evaluation of highway accessibility and provides an exciting assessment tool for sustainable development planning. While node–place models cannot predict development, they can be used to understand development dynamics better.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7010021
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 22: Interaction between Development
           Intensity: An Evaluation of Alternative Spatial Weight Matrices

    • Authors: Manman Li, Mengying Cui, David Levinson
      First page: 22
      Abstract: This paper investigates the spatial dependency of job and worker densities for the Minneapolis–St. Paul (Twin Cities) metropolitan area using census block level data from 2002 to 2017. A spatial weight matrix is proposed, considering the statistical expression of data, referred to as the correlation matrix, which detects the variations of dependencies among spatial units in both direction and level. The superior performance of the correlation matrix is demonstrated through a series of spatial regression models to predict land use patterns, in comparison with the conventionally used adjacency matrix as well as the accessibility matrix.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7010022
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 23: Density and Urban Resilience,
           Cross-Section Analysis in an Iranian Metropolis Context

    • Authors: Alireza Dehghani, Mehdi Alidadi, Ali Soltani
      First page: 23
      Abstract: While there is a large body of research on sustainable development and urban resilience, the interaction between urban densification and urban resilience remains understudied. This study aims to investigate several facets of urban resilience and densification before analyzing their mutual relationship. Focusing on ecological, social, economic, and physical elements of urban resilience on the one hand and population density, residential density, built-up area ratio (BAR), and parcel density on the other, a combination of spatial and quantitative methodologies is applied. Our empirical investigation revealed that the spatial distribution of all resilience indicators is varied. In other words, the cumulative form of urban resilience indicators has a different significance than the individual version. Similarly, different types of density have varying orientations and degrees of connection with measures of resilience that should be evaluated in empirical investigations. In addition, our research revealed that density has a stronger relationship with social and physical resilience than with ecological and economic resilience. The findings drawn from this research have the potential to inform the design of secure, resilient cities across a range of spatial dimensions.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-02-13
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7010023
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 24: Possible Scenarios for a Micro-Watershed
           Based on Level of Urbanization: Using Flood Design to Advance
           Ecohydrological Principles

    • Authors: David Campos-Delgado, Carlos Renato Ramos-Palacios, Alicia Anahí Cisneros-Vidales, Marcos Algara-Siller
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Traditional urban schemes that incorporate extended impervious areas can increase surface run-off. Therefore, urban growth that considers eco-hydrological principles can foster sustainability in cities. This work projected three possible urban development patterns for San Luis Potosi’s micro-watershed, characterized by flood design estimations and different urban densities considerations. The selected micro-watershed is located in the western periphery of the city, which is in the process of being urbanized. As the study site is in a semi-arid region where data are scarce, this research used the rational method and the software Rhinoceros for modeling urban scenarios. Models included criteria that allow for comparing a traditional urbanization perspective of what is expected (without green areas) with alternatives that consider green areas as well as different urban densities and that favor eco-hydrological principles. The high urban-density (green area) scenario shows a sustainable alternative for the micro-watershed by which eco-hydrological principles are fostered, as well as an alternative to high urban density without undermining real-estate profitability. Although calculations could be strengthened by using more local data, the results provide insights for urban planners and developers on the sustainable transformation of the micro-watershed.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7010024
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 25: Smartphone App Usage Patterns for Trip
           Planning Purposes and Stated Impacts in the City of Bhopal, India

    • Authors: Kushagra Sinha, Sanjay Gupta
      First page: 25
      Abstract: With the considerable growth in the information and communication technology (ICT), several smartphone-based mobility platforms have already sprung up and they have the potential of transforming the mobility ecosystem completely. However, there is close to no knowledge available about how ICT-based smartphone apps meant for day-to-day trip planning tasks are being used across various user groups and how they influence travel outcomes, especially in Indian cities. Therefore, this study is an effort to close this gap by gathering data from the city of Bhopal and carrying out an exploratory statistical analysis on the usage of smartphone apps for different types of trip planning purposes, as well as their influence on travel outcomes. The study provides empirical evidence of relationships between smartphone app usage for trip planning (such as departure time, destination selection, mode selection, route selection, communicating and coordinating trips, and performing tasks online rather than visiting) and the resulting travel outcomes, such as kilometres travelled by vehicle (for purposes, such as work/education, shopping, and recreation), social gatherings, new destinations, and group trips. The chi-square test has been used to test and interpret several socioeconomic variables that could influence this relationship, such as gender, age, income, etc. The study’s findings provide important behavioural insights that may be useful in policy discussions.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7010025
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 26: Urban Ageing Welfare Leaking and Remedy
           Strategies in Macau

    • Authors: Xin Wang, Kang-Lin Peng, Ting Meng
      First page: 26
      Abstract: The world is experiencing population ageing, which will extend to the future across the world. The ageing population is sure to impact a country’s welfare policy and economy. Macau is a special administrative region (SAR) of China with a long-life expectancy and a decreasing reproduction rate, making the population ageing particularly obvious. This study adopts a mixed methods approach to analyze the relationship between the ageing population, pension recipients, and pension payments to suggest the pension system and welfare leaking strategies of Macau SAR. The Granger causality test and focus group were conducted to test and discuss the ageing population, pension recipients, and pension payments. Results show that the ageing population positively affects pension payments. The ageing recipients are not corresponding to the ageing population and payments show welfare leakage. Suggestions are offered accordingly for a welfare policy to offer remedy strategies and reform the pension system.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7010026
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 27: Waste Removal Efficiencies of Floating
           Macrophytes for Restoration of Polluted Stream: An Experimental Analysis

    • Authors: Bharati Mahajan, Sameer Shastri, Shreenivas Londhe
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Freshwater sources are affected by a diverse range of pollutants, which increases the demand for effective remediation. Aquatic phytoremediation is a nature-based solution. It has the potential to provide efficient, adaptable, and multi-targeted treatment of polluted waters. The aim of this research is to evaluate non-mechanized, low-cost onsite treatment of waste water intrusions. It includes an experimental set up with three replicates. Each consists of a modified flow pattern under outdoor conditions. Experimental set up A and B were provided with macrophytes, water lettuce and duckweed, respectively, with plant coverage at 50% and 90%. Experimental set up C was a controlled set up without macrophytes. The highest removal of BOD, COD and Total solids by using water lettuce were observed to be 89%, 77% and 38.5%, respectively. By using duckweed, the highest removal of BOD, COD and Total solids were observed at 88%, 66% and 27.59%, respectively. Removal was also observed in Set up C for BOD, COD and Total solids; its efficiency was 48%, 47% and 25%, respectively. Set up A can be recommended for treating wastewater intrusion, so that wastewater will purify to a to satisfactory to disposal standard level before mixing in river water. The area available in the stream itself can be used as a treatment zone.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7010027
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 28: Smart City and Well-Being: Opinions by
           the Guest Editors

    • Authors: Antonella Arghittu, Ginevra Balletto, Marco Dettori
      First page: 28
      Abstract: As with technology, the concept of the Smart City has evolved over time in line with digitisation processes and the changing needs of cities and their inhabitants [...]
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7010028
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 29: Sustainable Development in
           Algeria’s Urban Areas: Population Growth and Land Consumption

    • Authors: Lahouari Bounoua, Nora Bachir, Hanane Souidi, Hicham Bahi, Souad Lagmiri, Mohamed Yacoubi Khebiza, Joseph Nigro, Kurt Thome
      First page: 29
      Abstract: We analyzed the urban development sustainability in five major urban areas of Algeria by the standard of the UN Sustainability Development Goal indicator SDG 11.3.1, which focuses on the ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate. We utilized the annual global artificial impervious area (GAIA) dataset to characterize land-use and population data from the two censuses carried out by the National Office of Statistics (ONS) for 2008 and 2018. We discuss the prevailing relationship between urban land consumption rate and population growth rate at the smallest territorial and population census unit scale. We confirm that the indicator SDG 11.3.1 is nonlinear and that while, for example, the wilaya of Tlemcen as a whole appears to be on a sustainable path, twenty-one of its communes are not. We found that overall, and for most of its communes, the wilaya of Oran seems to have an urban land use commensurable to its population growth, but in the wilaya of Algiers, out of fifty-seven communes, only fourteen have a tendency towards sustainable development. However, the latter wilaya hosts the country’s capital and includes government buildings that are uninhabited but are accounted for as land consumed, and as such, the relationship between urban land consumption and population growth is biased. The wilaya of Annaba showed large discrepancies in terms of land use and population growth rates, and the evolution of these quantities is not homogenous across communes and not sustainable. In the Saharan wilaya of Ghardaia, the development is not homogeneous in all communes, with smaller communes undergoing buildup increases of more than 150% over the decade. Finally, in all communes where population growth exceeded urban land growth, there will be overcrowding, an aspect neither the SDG 11.3.1 nor the impervious surface per capita indicator captures. This result, in addition to other limitations, makes SDG 11.3.1 incomplete for the determination of the sustainable development in urban areas.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7010029
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 30: Towards a New Urban Health Science

    • Authors: Franz W Gatzweiler, Saroj Jayasinghe, José G Siri, Jason Corburn
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The intensity and range of health challenges that people in cities are facing has increased in recent years. This is due in part to a failure to adequately adapt and respond to emergent and expanding global systemic risks, but also to a still-limited understanding of the profound impacts of complexity on urban health. While complexity science is increasingly embraced by the health and urban sciences, it has yet to be functionally incorporated into urban health research, policy, and practice. Accelerating urbanization in a context of escalating environmental constraints will require deeper engagement with complexity, yet also, paradoxically, much swifter, more effective, and more risk-averse decision-making. Meeting these demands will require adopting a science, policy and practice style which is integrative, inclusive, collaborative, systemic, fast, and frugal. We propose transformational shifts in scientific methodology, epistemological and ontological stances, types of rationality, and governance to shift researchers, policymakers, practitioners, and citizens towards a new, complexity-informed science of urban health.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7010030
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 31: Ecomindsponge: A Novel Perspective on
           Human Psychology and Behavior in the Ecosystem

    • Authors: Minh-Hoang Nguyen, Tam-Tri Le, Quan-Hoang Vuong
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Modern society faces major environmental problems, but there are many difficulties in studying the nature–human relationship from an integral psychosocial perspective. We propose the ecomindsponge conceptual framework, based on the mindsponge theory of information processing. We present a systematic method to examine the nature–human relationship with conceptual frameworks of system boundaries, selective exchange, and adaptive optimization. The theoretical mechanisms were constructed based on principles and new evidence in natural sciences. The core mechanism of ecomindsponge is the subjective sphere of influence, which is the limited mental representation of information received from and processed based on the objective sphere of influence–actual interactions in reality. The subjective sphere is the sum of two sub-spheres: influencing (proactive) and being influenced (reactive). Maladaptation in thinking and behavior of the mind as an information collection-cum-processor results from the deviation of the subjective sphere from reality, which includes two main types: “stupidity” and “delusion”. Using Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) analytics on a dataset of 535 urban residents, we provide consistent statistical evidence on the proposed properties of subjective spheres. The dynamic framework of ecomindsponge can be used flexibly and practically for environmental research as well as other psychosocial fields.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7010031
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
  • Urban Science, Vol. 7, Pages 32: Impact of Tourist Areas on the Electrical
           Grid: A Case Study of the Southern Dominican Republic

    • Authors: Miguel Aybar-Mejía, Randy Andrés, Alam Cabral-Soto, Carlos Montás, Wilmer-Johann Núñez-García, Elvin Arnaldo Jiménez Matos, Giuseppe Sbriz-Zeitun, Deyslen Mariano-Hernández
      First page: 32
      Abstract: The growing integration of tourist areas and complexes increases the demand for electrical power systems. This increased demand may represent a vulnerability to voltage and frequency stability in electrical grids, where these parameters are essential for an optimal and continuous supply of electrical energy. The Dominican Republic has begun a tourist expansion process in areas that were previously not commercially exploited. Based on the factors mentioned above, this article’s objective was to analyze the impact caused by the increase in electricity demand due to the tourism sector, using the Enriquillo Region of the Dominican Republic as a case study. The impacts of this expansion on the voltage profiles and the system’s frequency were determined. The methodology consisted of obtaining information on the mathematical model of the system to evaluate the expansion plan for the study period and the projection of the demand of the grid. The complete system was modeled with this information, including expansion and possible renewable generators. Finally, the flow of charges was measured, and dynamic analysis was carried out. The quasi-dynamic and RMS/EMT simulations were carried out in the DIgSILENT software for this investigation. The results showed that the electrical system benefits stability and national standards. This is because the transmission lines reduced their loading by approximately 2.99% in 2032. As the years of study passed and the system load increased, the voltage in the bars of the 138 kV systems and generators did not exceed the range of ±5% established in the technical regulations of the Dominican electricity market.
      Citation: Urban Science
      PubDate: 2023-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/urbansci7010032
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2023)
       
 
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