Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
    - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)
    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)
    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals)

ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 97 of 97 Journals sorted by number of followers
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
International Journal of Urban and Regional Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
City & Community     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Urban Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Housing Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
European Urban and Regional Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
European Planning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Urban Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Conflict and Violence     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Urban Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Interiors : Design, Architecture and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Housing, Theory and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Architecture and Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Disasters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Urban Studies Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Housing Policy Debate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Cities and the Environment (CATE)     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
The Urban Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Urban Affairs Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Housing Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Urban Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Urban Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
City, Territory and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Current Urban Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Civil and Environmental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Urban Planning and Design Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Urban Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Landscape Journal : design, planning, and management of the land     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Land Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Community Development     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Housing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Urban Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
URBAN DESIGN International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Accessibility and Design for All     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Housing, Care and Support     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environnement Urbain / Urban Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Land and Rural Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Town Planning and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cityscape     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Urban Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Town and Regional Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
European Spatial Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Critical Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Environment, Space, Place     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Borderlands Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of architecture&ENVIRONMENT     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Town Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arboricultural Journal : The International Journal of Urban Forestry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Future Cities and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cities People Places : An International Journal on Urban Environments     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Urban Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Articulo - Journal of Urban Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Apuntes : Revista de Estudios sobre Patrimonio Cultural - Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ambiances     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Rural Landscapes : Society, Environment, History     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Urban Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of European Real Estate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Research in Urbanism Series     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Geoplanning : Journal of Geomatics and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Land Use Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Strategic Property Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Seoul Journal of Korean Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bhumi : The Planning Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Rural Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Urban Land     Free   (Followers: 3)
Il Capitale Culturale. Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Land     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin KNOB     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Management Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
A&P Continuidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Smart Cities     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Town Planning and Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Insights into Regional Development     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Études rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TeMA Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ángulo Recto. Revista de estudios sobre la ciudad como espacio plural     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Rural Law and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Streetnotes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Belgeo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biourbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Geomatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arquitectura y Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
project baikal : Journal of architecture, design and urbanism     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Rural Sustainability Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Urbanisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Brussels Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archivio di Studi Urbani e Regionali     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Joelho : Journal of Architectural Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Housing and Human Settlement Planning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
In Situ. Revue des patrimoines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ager. Revista de Estudios sobre Despoblacion y Desarrollo Rural     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Online Journal of Rural Research & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Forum Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Storia Urbana     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Degraded and Mining Lands Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Metrópole     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Den Gamle By : Danmarks Købstadmuseum (Årbog)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Landscape Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Space Ontology International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alternativa. Revista de Estudios Rurales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Glocality     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios del Hábitat     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Raumforschung und Raumordnung / Spatial Research and Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architectural / Planning Research and Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Architecture, Design and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Community Well-Being     Hybrid Journal  
Rural & Urbano     Open Access  
Ciudades     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Landscape Studies     Open Access  
Yhdyskuntasuunnittelu     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
Kart og plan     Open Access  
Vitruvian     Open Access  
Sens public     Open Access  
Procesos Urbanos     Open Access  
Psychological Research on Urban Society     Open Access  
Jurnal Arsitektur Lansekap     Open Access  
RUA     Open Access  
tecYt     Open Access  
Pensum     Open Access  
Les Cahiers de la recherche architecturale urbaine et paysagère     Open Access  
Jurnal Pengembangan Kota     Open Access  
ZARCH : Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access  
Mokslas – Lietuvos ateitis / Science – Future of Lithuania     Open Access  
Revista de Arquitectura     Open Access  
Revista Empresa y Humanismo     Open Access  
South Australian Geographical Journal     Open Access  
Produção Acadêmica     Open Access  
Revista Amazônia Moderna     Open Access  
Continuité     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Brasileira de Estudos Urbanos e Regionais     Open Access  
Eikonocity. Storia e Iconografia delle Città e dei Siti Europei - History and Iconography of European Cities and Sites     Open Access  
Urban Science     Open Access  
Scienze del Territorio     Open Access  
Ri-Vista : Ricerche per la progettazione del paesaggio     Open Access  
Risco : Revista de Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Urbanismo     Open Access  
Baru : Revista Brasileira de Assuntos Regionais e Urbanos     Open Access  
Pampa : Revista Interuniversitaria de Estudios Territoriales     Open Access  
Revista Márgenes Espacio Arte y Sociedad     Open Access  
Pós. Revista do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo da FAUUSP     Open Access  
International Planning History Society Proceedings     Open Access  
Territorios en formación     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Investigación Urbanística     Open Access  
Revista Movimentos Sociais e Dinâmicas Espaciais     Open Access  
Vivienda y Ciudad     Open Access  
Cordis : Revista Eletrônica de História Social da Cidade     Open Access  
Paranoá : cadernos de arquitetura e urbanismo     Open Access  
História, Natureza e Espaço - Revista Eletrônica do Grupo de Pesquisa NIESBF     Open Access  
Paisagem e Ambiente     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Territorio     Full-text available via subscription  
Sociologia urbana e rurale     Full-text available via subscription  
Territorio della Ricerca su Insediamenti e Ambiente. Rivista internazionale di cultura urbanistica     Open Access  
Revista Transporte y Territorio     Open Access  
Revista El Topo     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Desenvolvimento Regional     Open Access  
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access  
Revista de Geografia e Ordenamento do Território     Open Access  
Cidades, Comunidades e Territórios     Open Access  
International Journal of E-Planning Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Urbano     Open Access  
Territorios     Open Access  
Quivera     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural     Open Access  
Territoire en Mouvement     Open Access  
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Métropoles     Open Access  

        1 2     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2073-445X
Published by MDPI Homepage  [258 journals]
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1114: Spatio-Temporal Assessment of Landscape
           Ecological Risk and Associated Drivers: A Case Study of the Yellow River
           Basin in Inner Mongolia

    • Authors: Hengrui Zhang, Jianing Zhang, Zhuozhuo Lv, Linjie Yao, Ning Zhang, Qing Zhang
      First page: 1114
      Abstract: The Yellow River Basin in Inner Mongolia (YRBIM) has witnessed major changes in land use/land cover (LULC), which have had an impact on the basin’s ecosystem, in the context of fast economic development and urbanization. This study set out to investigate the ecological risk and key driving forces in the basin as LULC evolves. In order to evaluate the ecological risk of the basin and use a geographic detector model to understand the causes of its spatial heterogeneity, we built a landscape ecological risk index (ERI) model based on changes in LULC from 1990 to 2020. The findings indicate that between 1990 and 2020, LULC modifications led to the transfer of several land types to a small number of land types, all of which have since changed into other land types. With high risk areas primarily located in the Hobq Desert, the Hetao irrigation area, and some portions of the Mu Us Sandy Land, the ecological risk level in the basin is gradually decreasing. Human activities are the main cause of the regional variation of ecological risk in the basin, with topography and climate coming in second and third. The Yellow River Basin’s ecological danger and environmental quality have only received a limited amount of analysis to date. This study is a crucial resource for the development of civilization and ecological restoration in the region.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061114
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1115: The Use of GIS and Multicriteria Techniques for
           the Socio-Spatial Analysis of Urban Areas in Medium-Sized Spanish Cities

    • Authors: Francisco Cebrián Abellán, Gonzalo Andrés López, Carme Bellet Sanfeliu
      First page: 1115
      Abstract: In recent decades, particularly intense changes have occurred in Spanish urban areas. This is the result of demographic and urbanizing transformations that have led to a change in the city model. The predominance of compact forms has been replaced by the growing prominence of urban sprawl. Structures are now more extensive, characterized, in turn, by fragmentation and the notable consumption of land in the peripheries. In medium-sized cities, the municipalities bordering the central cities have concentrated the processes of suburbanization and periurbanization. This paper addresses the processes of change for 34 cities and their urban areas located in inland Spain. A proposal is made for the delimitation and characterization of urban areas, taking the municipality as the unit of analysis. At the methodological level, six variables are used, analyzed by means of multicriteria statistical techniques combined with the use of GIS tools. An Urban Transformation Index (ITU) has been developed that synthesizes urbanizing, demographic and socioeconomic dynamics (six variables related to population, housing and socio-productive structure are used). In the territorial area, the 20-min isochrone is used as a reference. In the temporal domain, the period of analysis addresses the events of the first two decades of the twenty-first century.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061115
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1116: How Migration Behavior Affects the Contracted
           Land Disposal Methods of Rural Migrants in China: An Analysis Based on the
           Perspective of Geographical Differences

    • Authors: Yihu Zhou, Tingting Fang
      First page: 1116
      Abstract: Migration leads to the separation of rural people from their contracted land and, thus, affects the human–land relationship, agricultural production, and food security in China’s rural areas. Using spatial autocorrelation analysis, GeoDetector analysis, and geographical weighted regression, the mechanism by which the migration behavior of the rural population impacts their contracted land disposal methods was analyzed in this study, and the spatial heterogeneity of this mechanism was further revealed from the perspective of geographical differentiation. The results of this study show that: (1) Chinese rural migrants exhibit pronounced geographical differences in the disposition of contracted land. The spatial distribution patterns of family operation, subleasing, and abandonment are different. (2) Migration behavior contributes to the differences in contracted land disposal methods across regions. Educational attainment, the number of cities migrated to, and the house purchase rate significantly contribute to the geographical differences among all three contracted land disposal methods. (3) The mechanisms by which migration behavior influences rural migrants’ land disposal decisions vary. The direction and degree of the influence of each factor on family operation are relatively consistent across regions. However, regarding the subleasing and abandonment of contracted land, the mechanisms by which migration behavior influences land disposal decision-making exhibit significant regional heterogeneity. The results of this study provide a useful reference for many countries to solve the problems of the human–land relationship and rural development.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061116
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1117: Impact of Climate Change on Agroecosystems and
           Potential Adaptation Strategies

    • Authors: Teodoro Semeraro, Aurelia Scarano, Angelo Leggieri, Antonio Calisi, Monica De Caroli
      First page: 1117
      Abstract: Agriculture is currently one of the leading economic sectors most impacted by climate change. Due to its great field of application and its susceptibility to meteorological variability, the effects of climate change on agriculture have significant social and economic consequences for human well-being. Moreover, the increasing need for land spaces for population growth has produced strong competition between food and urbanization, leading to a loss of the agroecosystem that supports food security. This review aims to understand the main risks generated by climate change in agricultural production and the potential strategies that can be applied to increase agriculture’s resilience. Agricultural risk can be linked to the decrease in the productivity of foods, weed overgrowth at the crops expense, increase in parasites, water availability, soil alteration, negative impact on production costs and consequent change in the adopted cultivars, reduction in the pollination process, intense fires, and alteration of product quality. Thus, climate change can impact the provisioning of ecosystem services, reducing food security in terms of quantity and quality for future generations. Finally, in this review, we report the main adaptation strategies to increase agroecosystem resilience in adverse environments generated by climate change. Mainly, we highlight new technologies, such as new breeding technologies and agrivoltaic and smart agricultural applications, which, combined with agroecosystems, can reduce the agricultural risks following climate change (for example, drought events and low availability of water). We suggest that the combination of natural capital and technologies can be defined as an “innovation-based solution” able to support and increase ecosystem service flow in agroecosystems.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061117
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1118: Spatiotemporal Variation in Land Use and
           Ecosystem Services during the Urbanization of Xining City

    • Authors: Jinpeng Wei, Ming Tian, Xia Wang
      First page: 1118
      Abstract: Based on the five phases of land use data from Xining corresponding to 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020, we used the equivalent factor method to analyze the values of spatial-temporal variation characteristics of land use and ecosystem services in Xining. The results showed that (1) farmland and developed areas were the most active types of land, and the continuous occupation of farmland and developed areas led to the formation of a kind of “cross shape” in the spatial pattern of conversion of land use types along the Huangshui River, Beichuan River, and Nanchuan River from south to north and from northwest to southeast, respectively, with the central urban area serving as a core of the pattern; (2) the transformation between different land use types mainly occurred in the land-slope range between 0–15° and altitudes between 2000–2750 m; and (3) the ESV of Xining increased by RMB 2165.26 × 106 in the past 40 years. The period from 2000 to 2020 was the main growth period of the ecosystem service value of Xining. Urbanization had a great impact on the variation in land use types and the evolution of ecosystem service values. In the middle and late stages of urbanization, different types of land use changed significantly within each county and district. The ecosystem service values of the central districts were low, with those of the marginal districts and counties being higher, forming a “core-periphery” trend and a phenomenon of hollowing ESV. (4) The spatial agglomeration effect of the ESV per unit area was continuously enhanced in Xining. The high-high (slope-altitude) type of area was distributed in the north and west of Xining, whereas the low-low type of area was distributed in the urban area at the intersection of major rivers in the southeast of Xining.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061118
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1119: The Effect of Ornamental Groundcover Habit and
           Irrigation Delivery on Dynamic Soil Conditions

    • Authors: Thomas M. McKeown, Jeb S. Fields, Damon E. Abdi
      First page: 1119
      Abstract: Sustainable landscapes provide environmental, social, and financial benefits, with interest and adoption increasing due to environmental awareness. Ornamental ground-cover systems have garnered interest in the landscape due to the reduced need for water, fertilizers, pesticides, and maintenance compared to typical landscapes; however, limited research on groundcover ability to modulate soil conditions or suppress weeds exists. This study explored how ornamental groundcover systems impact the sustainability of landscapes. The effects of ground-cover growth habit (matting; bunching) and irrigation delivery method (micro spray; overhead) on soil temperature, volumetric water content (VWC), and electric conductivity (EC), along with impacts on weed growth, soil microbial communities, and plant coverage, were measured. Soil temperatures were generally lower under groundcover species with a matting growth habit, and to a lesser extent, bunching growth habits, in comparison to the warmer fallow systems. Groundcovers with a matting form led to lower VWC values compared to taxa with other growth habits, particularly when micro-irrigated. Plant form did not significantly influence EC values; however, micro spray irrigated plots had significantly higher EC values, likely attributed to irrigation spray patterns. Micro spray irrigation in tandem with matting growth habit taxa decreased weed density more effectively than taxa with bunching growth habits or groundcovers maintained under overhead irrigation. Selection of groundcover species with greater foliar coverage along with implementing more efficient irrigation practices can decrease soil temperatures, soil moisture, and weed density. Incorporating groundcovers in the landscape can decrease maintenance requirements and water/chemical use, thus increasing sustainability and decreasing environmental consequences.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061119
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1120: Analysis of Flow and Land Use on the Hydraulic
           Structure of Southeast Mexico City: Implications on Flood and Runoff

    • Authors: Rosanna Bonasia, Lorenzo Borselli, Paolo Madonia
      First page: 1120
      Abstract: The southeast of Mexico City is one of the last areas of environmental importance for the region. However, rapid urban expansion has led to a runoff increase in the presence of intense rainfall. This situation is common to many peri-urban centers close to large cities, where the urbanization of previously green areas has had a direct negative influence on the hydraulic structure. This work proposes a study that combines hydrological analysis for the definition of precipitation scenarios with hydrodynamic simulations based on the current land use. Reconstructed flood scenarios show that the runoffs descending from mountainous areas flow into cemented channels with hydraulic sections and characteristics not adequate to drain specific discharges that can reach 0.90 m2/s and water depths of the order of 2 m, caused by extreme weather phenomena, determining flooding in nearby areas. Runoffs are also intensified by the presence of non-urbanized open spaces in a state of abandonment, whose soil does not favor infiltration and promotes the flooding of residential centers with water levels higher than 1 m. The results indicate an urgent need to adopt actions to reduce flooding and favor infiltration in an area of the city that is also important for aquifer recharge.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061120
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1121: “What’s Past Is Prologue”:
           Vegetation Model Calibration with and without Future Climate

    • Authors: Ellynne Kutschera, John B. Kim, G. Stephen Pitts, Ray Drapek
      First page: 1121
      Abstract: Many models are designed to generate future predictions under climate-change scenarios. Such models are typically calibrated for a study area with climate data that represent historical conditions. However, future projections of the model may include outputs for which the model has not been calibrated. Ideally, a climate-change-impacts model would be calibrated for recent conditions and also for possible future climate conditions. We demonstrate an approach, where a vegetation model is subjected to two calibrations: conventionally to the study area and separately to the study area plus additional areas representing analogues of potential future climate. We apply the dynamic vegetation model MC2 to a mountainous ecosystem in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We compare the conventional model calibration with the extra-study-area calibration and future projections. The two calibrations produce different outputs in key ecosystem variables, where some differences vary with time. Some model output trends for net primary productivity and plant functional type are more influenced by climatic input, while for others, the calibration area has greater consequence. Excluding areas representing potential future climate may be an important omission in model calibration, making the inclusion of such areas a decisive consideration in climate-change-impact simulations.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061121
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1122: Spatial Morphology Evolution of Rural
           Settlements in the Lower Yellow River Plain: The Case of Menggang Town in
           Changyuan City, China

    • Authors: Jingyu Liu, Qiong Song, Xiaomin Wang
      First page: 1122
      Abstract: This study investigated the spatial pattern evolution of the rural settlement system in the town of Menggang, China, based on settlement patches extracted from remote sensing data for four time points between 1990 and 2018. Five typical villages were selected to study their spatial textures from point to surface. The reasons for the evolution of the rural settlements were examined as well. The results indicated that the number of settlement patches in Menggang decreased, the area of a single patch expanded, and the scale of the rural settlements continued to expand. Settlements were distributed randomly, but an agglomeration trend began to appear. The plain terrain had little restriction on settlement site selection. Cofferdams and embankments were the limiting factors for settlement expansion, which led to the compact development of the settlements. Economic development, population growth, and family miniaturization were positive factors for the expansion of the rural settlements. In the typical villages, cluster settlements and cluster settlements with a banded tendency had higher spatial utilization efficiency. Several high-density building centers were formed in the settlements, and the trend of residential buildings was mainly northeast–southwest. The plain terrain had little effect on the orientation of buildings, single-building areas, or the public spaces of the settlements. Traditional culture and traffic routes affected the orientation of the main buildings of folk houses. This study has theoretical and reference value for the structure optimization and sustainable development of rural settlements in the lower Yellow River plain.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061122
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1123: Mapping Ecosystem Services Bundles for Spatial
           Planning with the AHP Technique: A Case Study in Tuscany (Italy)

    • Authors: Massimo Rovai, Tommaso Trinchetti, Francesco Monacci, Maria Andreoli
      First page: 1123
      Abstract: Agricultural and forest ecosystems provide multiple ecosystem services (ESs) fundamental to the well-being and quality of life of citizens. However, in the European context, these ecosystems are often threatened by processes of urban development, around cities, or abandonment, in mountainous or remote areas. Faced with the need for solutions oriented towards greater sustainability and resilience of socio-ecological systems, planning should contribute to rebuilding more integrated and mutually beneficial relationships between urban and rural areas, ensuring the effective production of multiple ESs. The regulation and management of ESs are complex and require scientifically sound and widely understandable policies and governance models, based on detailed assessment methods. This paper proposes a method for mapping and bundling the supply of five ESs produced in agricultural and forest areas, based on the processing of open source territorial data through the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and tailored for the Tuscany region (Italy). The method integrates the land use and land cover map with other data to obtain a comprehensive ESs assessment, and then uses cluster analysis to identify bundles of ESs. Based on a first trial, the method seems to show high potentialities as a Decision Support System to promote innovative governance models for ES management.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061123
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1124: Cumulative Spatial and Temporal Analysis of
           Anthropogenic Impacts in the Protected Area of the Gran Paradiso National
           Park in the NW Alps, Italy

    • Authors: Chiara Richiardi, Maria Rita Minciardi, Consolata Siniscalco, Maria Adamo
      First page: 1124
      Abstract: Anthropogenic threats are responsible for habitat degradation and biodiversity decline. The mapping of the distribution and intensity of threats to biodiversity can be useful for informing efficient planning in protected areas. In this study, we propose a cumulative spatial and temporal analysis of anthropogenic impacts insisting on an alpine protected area, the Gran Paradiso National Park. The applied methodology starts with the construction of a spatial and temporal dataset of anthropogenic impacts and normalization based on relative intensity. The impacts analyzed include overgrazing, helicopter flights, road networks, built-up areas, worksites, derivations and discharges, sports activities, and dams and hydroelectric power plants. Each impact was assigned a weight based on its temporal persistence. Threats maps obtained from the collected, normalized, and weighted geodata are thus obtained. Finally, the risk map is calculated by combining the impact map with the vulnerability map, estimated through the methodology outlined in the Green Guidelines of the Metropolitan City of Turin. The risk map obtained was cross-referenced with the Park’s cartography to highlight any critical issues to specific habitats. Results show that most of the territory falls in low-risk (63%) or no-risk (35%) areas. However, there are some habitats that are totally or nearly totally affected by some degree of risk, although different to zero, such as the “Lentic waters with aquatic vegetation [incl. cod. 3130]”, the “Lentic waters partially buried”, the “Mountain pine forests (Pinus uncinata) [cod. 9430]”, and the “Mixed hygrophilous woods of broad-leaved trees [incl. cod. 91E0]”. This study highlights both the potential of these analyses, which enable informed management and planning of the fruition of protected areas, and the limitations of such approaches, which require in-depth knowledge of the territory and ecosystems and how they respond to threats in order to refine the model and obtain realistic maps.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061124
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1125: Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Based on Deep
           Learning Algorithms Using Information Value Analysis Optimization

    • Authors: Junjie Ji, Yongzhang Zhou, Qiuming Cheng, Shoujun Jiang, Shiting Liu
      First page: 1125
      Abstract: Selecting samples with non-landslide attributes significantly impacts the deep-learning modeling of landslide susceptibility mapping. This study presents a method of information value analysis in order to optimize the selection of negative samples used for machine learning. Recurrent neural network (RNN) has a memory function, so when using an RNN for landslide susceptibility mapping purposes, the input order of the landslide-influencing factors affects the resulting quality of the model. The information value analysis calculates the landslide-influencing factors, determines the input order of data based on the importance of any specific factor in determining the landslide susceptibility, and improves the prediction potential of recurrent neural networks. The simple recurrent unit (SRU), a newly proposed variant of the recurrent neural network, is characterized by possessing a faster processing speed and currently has less application history in landslide susceptibility mapping. This study used recurrent neural networks optimized by information value analysis for landslide susceptibility mapping in Xinhui District, Jiangmen City, Guangdong Province, China. Four models were constructed: the RNN model with optimized negative sample selection, the SRU model with optimized negative sample selection, the RNN model, and the SRU model. The results show that the RNN model with optimized negative sample selection has the best performance in terms of AUC value (0.9280), followed by the SRU model with optimized negative sample selection (0.9057), the RNN model (0.7277), and the SRU model (0.6355). In addition, several objective measures of accuracy (0.8598), recall (0.8302), F1 score (0.8544), Matthews correlation coefficient (0.7206), and the receiver operating characteristic also show that the RNN model performs the best. Therefore, the information value analysis can be used to optimize negative sample selection in landslide sensitivity mapping in order to improve the model’s performance; second, SRU is a weaker method than RNN in terms of model performance.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061125
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1126: The Characteristics of Soil C, N and P and
           Stoichiometric Ratios as Affected by Land-Use in a Karst Area, Southwest

    • Authors: Yang Ma, Chunlai Zhang, Hui Yang, Yikai Xu, Yan Chen, Jing Ning
      First page: 1126
      Abstract: Chemometric analysis is often used as an effective indicator of the supply capacity of nutrients in soil–plant systems and their biogeochemical cycles. Understanding ecological stoichiometric characteristics of C, N and P in soils under various land uses is crucial to guide ecological restoration and agricultural cultivation in karst rocky desertification region. However, data on ecological stoichiometry at different land uses in karst areas is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different land uses on soil ecological stoichiometric ratios and further identify the factors that influence soil ecological stoichiometric ratios. The topsoil from forest, shrub and cultivated land (paddy field and dry land) both in a karst area and non-karst area (as a reference) of Mashan County was sampled to investigate the spatial variance of the ecological stoichiometric characteristics of C, N and P under different land uses. The results show that: (1) Land-use types significantly determined the spatial heterogeneity of soil ecological stoichiometry in karst areas. (2) Soil organic carbon (SOC) was not significantly different between shrubs in the karst area and forests in the non-karst area (p = 0.595), but there were virtual differences in total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), C:N, C:P and N:P between shrubs in the karst area and forests in the non-karst area (p < 0.01). (3) The contents of SOC, TN, and C:P, N:P in the study area were all generally higher in forests than those in cultivated land, and the content of TP was lower in forests than cultivated land, while C:N in cultivated land was higher than in shrubs in karst areas, and C:N was higher in forests than in cultivated land in non-karst areas. (4) Available nitrogen (AvN) was the main factor influencing stoichiometry in shrubs in karst areas, while pH, AvN, available phosphorus and elevation were the main factors in forests in non-karst areas, indicating that these factors significantly affect the soil ecological stoichiometric ratio during land-use changes. This study helps to understand the variations in soil ecological stoichiometric ratios under land-use changes. It provides guidance for the sustainable management of revegetation in karst regions in southwest China.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061126
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1127: Patterns, Trends, and Causes of Vegetation
           Change in the Three Rivers Headwaters Region

    • Authors: Xiongyi Zhang, Jia Ning
      First page: 1127
      Abstract: The Three Rivers Headwaters Region (TRHR), situated in the high-altitude region of the Tibetan Plateau, represents a critical ecological security barrier for both China and Southeast Asia. In addition to providing a vital freshwater supply for China, it is also one of the most biodiverse areas in the world. However, the region is characterized by a fragile and sensitive ecosystem, which makes it particularly vulnerable to environmental disturbances. Given the role of vegetation as a reliable indicator of ecosystem changes, investigating the patterns and drivers of vegetation change in the TRHR can provide valuable insights into the state and trajectory of its ecological system. To assess the spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation changes in TRHR, this study constructed a comprehensive vegetation index (CVI) based on leaf area index (LAI), fractional vegetation cover (FVC), and net primary productivity (NPP). Trend analysis and significance testing were employed to detect and quantify the magnitude and direction of vegetation changes over the past two decades. Moreover, correlation analysis, spatial overlay, and statistical modeling techniques were applied to examine the relative contributions of climate, land use/cover changes, and slope altitude to CVI changes. The results showed the following: (1) the CVI in the TRHR showed an overall increasing trend from 2000 to 2019, with an average annual increase of 0.6%, indicating a positive development trend of vegetation, but with obvious spatial differences. (2) The vegetation in the TRHR has shown a marked increase over the past two decades, with significant increase accounting for 19% of the total area, mainly concentrated in the Yellow River Basin. Conversely, a significant decline in vegetation was observed in 3% of the total area, predominantly in the Yangtze River Basin. (3) Both temperature and precipitation had a positive impact on vegetation restoration in the TRHR, but the area affected by temperature was larger than that affected by precipitation. (4) The land-use regime had a discernible impact on vegetation increase, with the conversion of land use to ecological land promoting vegetation restoration. However, the efficacy of restoration efforts might have varied depending on natural resource endowments in certain regions. (5) With increasing altitude, vegetation conditions initially improved before eventually deteriorating. Conversely, as the slope increased, vegetation experienced an initial improvement before ultimately stabilizing. This study helps to understand the overall changes and driving mechanisms of vegetation in the TRHR and provides a scientific basis and decision-making reference for the dynamic adjustment of vegetation restoration and ecological engineering in the region in the future.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061127
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1128: Examining the Impact of China’s Poverty
           Alleviation on Nighttime Lighting in 831 State-Level Impoverished Counties

    • Authors: Yiguo Shen, Xiaojie Chen, Qingxin Yao, Jiahui Ding, Yuhan Lai, Yongheng Rao
      First page: 1128
      Abstract: China’s poverty alleviation projects have made significant contributions to global poverty eradication. This study investigates the impact of China’s poverty alleviation projects on nighttime lighting in 831 state-level impoverished counties using the “NPP-VIIRS-like” dataset and discusses the difference of land use change under different nighttime light clusters in order to provide reference for future policy formulation and implementation. Our results show that the growth of total intensity of nighttime lighting (GRTNL) and the year-on-year growth rate of total intensity of nighttime lighting (YGRTNL) in China’s impoverished counties are 103.74% and 9.69% from 2013 to 2021, respectively, which are both higher than the average levels of all counties (67.16%, 6.77%) and non-poor counties (64.68%, 6.56%) in China during the same period. Additionally, we discovered that impoverished counties that lifted out of poverty earlier had significantly higher nighttime lighting intensity than those later. Regional analysis reveals that the growth of nighttime lighting intensity shows a trend of decreasing from the central (1550.89 nW·cm−2·sr−1) to the eastern (924.57), western (762.57), and northeastern regions (588.07), while the growth rate decreases from western regions (282.46%) to the eastern (189.13%), central (178.56%), and northeastern (108.07%). We also identified that Gini coefficient of nighttime lighting has a trend of “slow and short-term rise-rapid and continuous decline”. Moreover, nighttime lighting growth had similar trends with land use change, especially construction land. Overall, our study provides novel insights into the relationship between poverty alleviation effects and nighttime lighting in China’s impoverished counties, which could inform future policy-making and research in this area.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061128
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1129: Can China Achieve Its Carbon Emission Peak
           Target' Empirical Evidence from City-Scale Driving Factors and Emission
           Reduction Strategies

    • Authors: Yuxue Zhang, Rui Wang, Xingyuan Yang, He Zhang
      First page: 1129
      Abstract: The development of differentiated emission reduction strategies plays an important role in achieving carbon compliance targets. Each city should adopt carbon reduction strategies according to its carbon emission characteristics. China is a vast country, and there are significant differences between cities. Therefore, this study classifies 340 Chinese cities according to their carbon emission characteristics since 2020 and proposes differentiated emission reduction strategies accordingly. The results of the research show that Chinese cities can be divided into four categories, and they can strive to achieve their carbon peak targets by adopting differentiated emission reduction strategies. In the baseline scenario, Chinese cities will not be able to meet the peak carbon target by 2030. In the differentiated scenario, eco-agricultural cities, industry-led cities, and high-resource-availability cities will be able to achieve peak carbon by 2030. Unfortunately, resource-poor cities will not reach their peak. However, the extent to which their total carbon emissions contribute to the achievement of national goals is low, and their carbon emissions can be traded off for economic development by appropriately relaxing the constraints on carbon emissions. Therefore, in order to achieve China’s peak carbon goal, this study proposes emission reduction recommendations that should be adopted by different types of cities to form differentiated emission reduction strategies.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061129
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1130: Switching from Risks to Opportunities: The
           Application of a Superbonus Tax Incentive to Heritage Buildings from the
           1960s in Fragile Mountain Contexts

    • Authors: Alessia Gotta, Umberto Mecca, Manuela Rebaudengo
      First page: 1130
      Abstract: This paper introduces actual considerations for the progressive disuse of residential space in the Alpine territory, considering possible actions. Nowadays, the building complexes built around the 1960s and 1970s (a symbol of mass tourism) are suffering and searching for a new identity. The generation of owners who bought them has aged and the propensities of the new generations for holiday in those places has changed, which means fewer opportunities for leisure, particularly in the winter. Due to the great attention (and seeming opportunities) of current incentive policies toward improving the energy use of the existing stock, the authors investigate the private conveniences of transformations through the refurbishment of these buildings. Starting from a study of the territory and the dynamics of the local population, this research analyzes a possible set of energy works, based on a new (2020) incentive measure, the 110% Superbonus, which consists of a series of facilitation mechanisms, deductions, and reimbursements for building interventions. A large part of the insight is focused on a technical and economic feasibility study of the possible actions, following a process based on the evolution of the legislation. This work is based on a specific case study, located in a small municipality in the Piedmont mountain area, consisting of three apartment blocks of mostly second homes. The methodology adopted lends itself on the one hand, as a guide for preliminary economic energy assessments and, on the other hand, as a policy evaluation tool from the public and private perspectives.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-25
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061130
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1131: Ecosystem Quality Assessment and Ecological
           Restoration in Fragile Zone of Loess Plateau: A Case Study of Suide
           County, China

    • Authors: Jiayu Xia, Duyuzheng Ren, Xuhui Wang, Bo Xu, Xingyao Zhong, Yajiang Fan
      First page: 1131
      Abstract: The Loess Plateau is the world’s largest loess landform region, characterized by a fragile ecosystem and frequent natural disasters that render it highly susceptible to ecological damage, highlighting urgent ecological restoration. We constructed a “Pattern-Service-Stress Ecosystem Quality Assessment Model” based on the connotation of ecosystem quality and the ArcGIS platform, then applied it to Suide County, a representative area of the Loess Plateau, as the research object. Next, using the dispersal ecology theory and the MCR model, we constructed an ideal ecological network. According to the quality assessment and ecological network analysis, we selected areas with low ecosystem quality within the scope of an ecological corridor as key areas for restoration. Finally, we proposed restoration strategies using regional ecological techniques. This study yielded the following results: The spatial pattern of ecosystem quality in Suide County exhibited a “high in the south and low in the north” pattern, with a high-value area of 823.87 km2, and a low-value area of 509.31 km2, accounting for 44.45% and 27.48% of the total area, respectively. In Suide County’s ecological network, the spatial distribution of ecological sources and corridors is dense in the south and sparse in the north, with a significant amount of path overlap within ecological corridors. Located on the southern ecological corridor of Suide County, forty-five key areas for restoration were classified into seven types. Eight problems were identified in the key areas, and twenty-three targeted restoration measures were proposed. These measures can result in 6.44 km2 of forest land and 5.26 km2 of grassland, improving the ecosystem quality of the key areas and even the entirety of Suide County. This study guides Suide County’s ecological restoration work and provides a paradigm for ecosystem quality assessment and ecological restoration on the Loess Plateau, pointing out directions. It has a certain radiation-driven effect and an important reference significance for ecological restoration in ecologically fragile areas.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061131
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1132: Facilitating Community Transition to
           Sustainable Land Governance: A Study of a Communal Settlement in South

    • Authors: Nicholas Pinfold, Masilonyane Mokhele
      First page: 1132
      Abstract: Land is a fundamental resource that provides a foundation for the economy. Despite a wide range of studies on land governance systems, there is a lack of literature that analyzes the ability of communities to manage a change to different land governance systems. The study aimed to analyze the potential for the Goedverwacht communal settlement in the Western Cape province, South Africa, to transition from a hierarchical governance structure to one based on a communal land governance system. This aim was addressed by answering the research question: What are the roles, expectations and management strategies of the institutions and stakeholders participating in land governance' The study considered the community’s desire to maintain its communal settlement’s existence, and the choice between communal or individual freehold land governance. To understand these issues, the study utilized a framework that includes three theories: the theory of planned behaviour, the theory of institutional capacity, and the critical theory. (2) Methods: Through a survey, qualitative interviews, and focus group discussions, the study analyzed various underlying factors that influenced land governance and the land governance system desired by the community. (3) Results: The findings reveal that power dynamics and conflicting interests significantly affected the community’s ability to manage potential modernization resulting from land reform. While establishing land rights can positively impact economic growth and social mobilization, the lack of the communal settlement’s central government’s capacity to manage modernization effectively can lead to instability.; (4) Conclusions: The paper concludes that balancing institutionalization and modernization is crucial for effectively managing the transition to new land governance systems.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061132
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1133: Ethnicities in Post-Communist Romania: Spatial
           Dynamics, Fractionalisation, and Polarisation at the NUTS-3 Level

    • Authors: Marina-Alexandra Rotaru, Remus Creţan, Ana-Neli Ianăş
      First page: 1133
      Abstract: Scholars have shown a special interest in discovering and studying the role of ethnic diversity and spatiality at the country and region levels. This study contributes to the theoretical debate on the spatial dynamics of ethnicities, with the aim of (1) determining the evolution of ethnic dynamics in post-communist Romania and (2) applying ethnic fractionalisation and polarisation indices. The study uses a mixed methods approach based on a descriptive statistics analysis and applies the fractionalisation and polarisation indices to Romania’s NUTS-3 (i.e., county) level. The findings suggest that the ethnic spatial dynamics in post-communist Romania have shown a decrease in all ethnicities due to migration and low birth rates, with the exception of the Roma ethnicity, for whom the trend is increasing. Additionally, polarisation and fractionalisation indices have different evolutionary manifestations depending on the dynamics of the ethnic groups present in certain geographical areas. Although neither of the two analysed indices has witnessed profound change at the spatial level, these small changes in spatial and short-term ethnic diversity can help us advance knowledge about co-existence in ethnically diverse societies. Higher values of the two indices are obvious in several counties where ethnic Hungarians cohabitate with Romanians and other ethnicities. This discovery can inform policy-makers to implement more policies for the further peaceful co-existence of Hungarians, Romanians, and other ethnic groups in Transylvania and other western counties in Romania. Furthermore, as the population growth trend for the Roma ethnicity is upward, Romania has to implement proper policies and build better government infrastructure to counter social inequality against the Roma people. This will help curb potential conflicts between the Roma and other ethnic groups at the local level. Finally, as most ethnicities decreased in number in post-communist times, further attention needs to be paid to the erosion of ethnic diversity in Romania because this could have a negative impact on economic development, social trust, and democracy.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061133
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1134: Accessibility of Primary Schools in Rural Areas
           and the Impact of Topography: A Case Study in Nanjiang County, China

    • Authors: Yuanyuan Zhu, John Aloysius Zinda, Qin Liu, Yukuan Wang, Bin Fu, Ming Li
      First page: 1134
      Abstract: In recent years, many developing countries have consolidated rural primary schools, closed small community schools, and enlarged centralized schools, which can reduce the accessibility of education to many communities. Meanwhile, expanding road networks may enable people in far-flung communities to access schools more easily. To evaluate the impacts of both trends on spatial justice in access to education, it is important to examine spatial patterns of primary school accessibility and their predictors. How do the topographic features of villages and surrounding landscapes correlate with primary school accessibility in rural upland areas' Using a digital map route planning application, this study evaluates the primary school accessibility of each village in Nanjiang County, a mountainous county in southwest China. By evaluating relationships between primary school accessibility and village characteristics, this study provides evidence corroborating frequent claims that rural remote mountainous areas have poor primary school accessibility. Additionally, by analyzing the effects of elevation and ruggedness of villages and of the zone between villages and schools as well as the mechanisms driving these effects, we find that, contrary to expectations, with increasing village elevation, a village’s primary school accessibility first decreases and then increases. The ruggedness of the terrain upon which a village is built has no significant effect. The ruggedness of the zone between a village and its nearest school exerts significant effects. These findings demonstrate that the two policies have created a pattern of spatial injustice that disadvantages peripheral villages, illustrating the need to attend to topography in efforts to provide equitable school access in rural mountainous areas.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061134
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1135: Analysis of Conditioning Factors in Cuenca,
           Ecuador, for Landslide Susceptibility Maps Generation Employing Machine
           Learning Methods

    • Authors: Esteban Bravo-López, Tomás Fernández Del Castillo, Chester Sellers, Jorge Delgado-García
      First page: 1135
      Abstract: Landslides are events that cause great impact in different parts of the world. Their destructive capacity generates loss of life and considerable economic damage. In this research, several Machine Learning (ML) methods were explored to select the most important conditioning factors, in order to evaluate the susceptibility to rotational landslides in a sector surrounding the city of Cuenca (Ecuador) and with them to elaborate landslide susceptibility maps (LSM) by means of ML. The methods implemented to analyze the importance of the conditioning factors checked for multicollinearity (correlation analysis and VIF), and, with an ML-based approach called feature selection, the most important factors were determined based on Classification and Regression Trees (CART), Feature Selection with Random Forests (FS RF), and Boruta and Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) algorithms. LSMs were implemented with Random Forests (RF) and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) methods considering a landslide inventory updated to 2019 and 15 available conditioning factors (topographic (10), land cover (3), hydrological (1), and geological (1)), from which, based on the results of the aforementioned analyses, the six most important were chosen. The LSM were elaborated considering all available factors and the six most important ones, with the previously mentioned ML methods, and were compared with the result generated by an Artificial Neural Network with resilient backpropagation (ANN rprop-) with six conditioning factors. The results obtained were validated by means of AUC-ROC value and showed a good predictive capacity for all cases, highlighting those obtained with XGBoost, which, in addition to a high AUC value (>0.84), obtained a good degree of coincidence of landslides at high and very high susceptibility levels (>72%). Despite the findings of this research, it is necessary to study in depth the methods applied for the development of future research that will contribute to developing a preventive approach in the study area.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061135
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1136: A Review of Village Ecosystem Structure and
           Stability: Implications for the Karst Desertification Control

    • Authors: Li Lin, Kangning Xiong, Qi Wang, Rong Zhao, Jiayi Zhou
      First page: 1136
      Abstract: Villages are places where people gather and live. Due to economic and social development, the irrational behavior of the population has led to an imbalance in the village structure and has threatened the stability of the village ecosystem, resulting in the deterioration of the village environment. Therefore, it is of great necessity to study the structure and stability of village ecosystems and to optimize the structure of village ecosystems to better guide spatial planning and to restore village ecology. This study conducted a literature search and statistical analysis on the structure and stability of village ecosystems based on WOS and CNKI literature databases. We reviewed 105 relevant articles. The current research status and progress are clarified from structural characteristics, structural optimization, structure and function and stability study. To reveal the research achievements and deficiencies of research on the structure and stability of village ecosystems, the vital scientific issues that need to be addressed are summarized based on current research results. The study found that: (1) the quantity of studies on it were on the rise; (2) the study content mainly focused on structure and function (38%) and structural characteristics (21%); (3) the regions studied are mainly in Asia (73%), Europe (12%) and Africa (10%); and (4) research institutions are mainly colleges and universities. Therefore, future research should give attention to the following three aspects: strengthening the differentiation research on the spatio-temporal scale, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the influence of the Karst Desertification Control (KDC) village structure on stability; based on the mechanism of structure on function, appropriate village ecosystem structure should be established to improve ecosystem service function; based on the influence mechanism of structure on stability, the stability evaluation index system will be constructed so as to lay a solid foundation for the stability strategy of the KDC village ecosystem. By applying the strategy of structure optimization and stability improvement to the KDC village ecosystem, the service function of the Karst village ecosystem can be improved, which can provide scientific reference for the sustainable development of the KDC village ecosystem.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061136
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1137: A Participatory Approach to Assess Social
           Demand and Value of Urban Waterscapes: A Case Study in San Marcos, Texas,

    • Authors: Madeline T. Wade, Jason P. Julian, Kevin S. Jeffery, Sarah M. Davidson
      First page: 1137
      Abstract: Waterscapes can have meaningful benefits for people’s wellbeing and mental health by helping them feel calmer and more connected to nature, especially in times of stress such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The waterscapes along the San Marcos River (Texas, USA) provide economic, social, environmental, and emotional benefits to the surrounding community. To assess the social demand for and emotional experiences in these blue spaces, we used a new framework called Blue Index that collects noncontact data from photo stations. From 10 photo stations across different waterscapes, we collected and analyzed 565 volunteer assessments from May 2021 to March 2022—during the COVID-19 pandemic and following the reopening of riverside parks. Most respondents (57%) indicated they spend more time at the river than they did before the onset of the pandemic. Moreover, 93% of respondents agreed that the waterscape they were visiting represented a refuge from stress and isolation caused by COVID-19. Overall, people valued waterscapes for ecological benefits and relationships with the place, rather than for recreation and tourism. Emotions experienced at all 10 waterscapes were overwhelmingly positive. Statistical tests revealed that higher positive emotions were significantly associated with biophysical perceptions of flow, cleanliness, and naturalness. Our results demonstrate that the benefits of blue spaces derive from an interrelated combination of ecosystem and mental health. The new Blue Index approach presented here promotes participatory land management through noncontact community engagement and knowledge coproduction.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061137
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1138: Outdoor Space Elements in Urban Residential
           Areas in Shenzhen, China: Optimization Based on Health-Promoting
           Behaviours of Older People

    • Authors: Zhang, Shao, Tang, Lau, Lai, Tao
      First page: 1138
      Abstract: Given the ageing global population, it is important to promote “healthy ageing”. One of the most effective ways to achieve this is by prolonging the health of older people. Both the physical and mental well-being of older people are closely related to their living environment. Providing daily outdoor activities and enhancing the quality of public spaces and amenities in residential areas can encourage the adoption of healthy behaviours among older people. This study selected eight typical residential areas in Shenzhen, China, and analysed 40 outdoor public spaces. Video content obtained from fixed-point behavioural observation was entered into the Mangold INTERACT behavioural analysis system to extract the health behaviour data of older people. Regression analysis was then performed on the health behaviour data and the index data of the sample space elements. The results showed that several factors affect the outdoor health behaviours of older people. These factors include the scale of the outdoor space, the size of the hard ground area, the quality of the grey space, the green-looking rate, the accessibility of the site, the number of fitness facilities, and the richness of site functions. This study focused on a host of health-related behaviours such as rest, leisure, communication, and exercise. It confirmed the corresponding spatial needs of the elderly when engaging in the aforesaid activities. In this way, the quantitative research has supplemented previous studies by studying and evaluating the behaviour and activities of the elderly in specific settings. Through the analyses, a configuration model of outdoor space in residential areas was constructed with the aim of health promotion. Based on this model, a flexible and multilevel configuration list revealing seven specific types under three priorities is being proposed. The findings provide a scientific and effective strategy for optimising the quality of outdoor environments in residential areas. More specifically, the deployment of the Mangold INTERACT system to extract and quantify behavioural data enabled this study to overcome the limitations of traditional approaches to behavioural observation and recording. This provides a prelude for other quantitative research on the environment and behaviour.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061138
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1140: LULC Change Effects on Environmental Quality
           and Ecosystem Services Using EO Data in Two Rural River Basins in Thrace,

    • Authors: Vatitsi, Ioannidou, Mirli, Siachalou, Kagalou, Latinopoulos, Mallinis
      First page: 1140
      Abstract: Rural abandonment and associated rapid urbanization, agricultural intensification, and climate change have been key factors transforming terrestrial landscapes, with significant impacts on the environmental quality and the ecosystem services (ES) provided to human welfare. In this study, two understudied rural river basins located in Thrace, North Greece, were selected to assess changes in landscape pattern, composition, and eco-environmental quality and ecosystem services values (ESV). Cloud-based remote sensing (RS) analyses of multitemporal Landsat imagery in the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform were applied for multitemporal land use/land cover changes (LULCC) quantification between 1984–2021, along with landscape pattern, eco-environmental quality, and ES assessment. Although ecosystem changes observed were not extensive over this period, eco-environmental quality appeared to be affected due to fragmentation. Preserving the ecosystem’s naturalness can enhance cultural ES to avoid further values loss originating from provisioning ES exploitation. This study highlights the strong connection between landscape configuration and eco-environmental quality, emphasizing the strong impact that anthropogenic activities have on the environment. The monitoring of the effects of LULCC on ecosystem health and the economic value of ES is crucial for the introduction of spatial planning and restoration policies.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-28
      DOI: 10.3390/land12061140
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1040: Critical Analysis of Policy Integration Degrees
           between Heritage Conservation and Spatial Planning in Amsterdam and

    • Authors: Ana Tarrafa Silva, Ana Pereira Roders, Teresa Cunha Ferreira, Ivan Nevzgodin
      First page: 1040
      Abstract: The growing complexity of managing the sustainable development of cities stresses the need for interdisciplinary approaches, with a stronger articulation between different fields. The integration between heritage conservation and spatial planning has already been addressed in recent literature, ranging from a traditional sectorial perspective towards more cooperative and coordinated initiatives, occasionally resulting in integrated policies. Nevertheless, the lack of institutional and policy articulation remains among the most frequent critical governance issues unsolved. This paper unveils the integration degrees between heritage conservation and spatial planning policies in Amsterdam (The Netherlands) and Ballarat (Australia), acknowledged for local and upper governmental initiatives, such as the Belvedere Memorandum and the Imagine Ballarat project, placing both at the forefront of the roadmap to this policy integration. In-depth semi-structured interviews with municipal officials in both cities reveal that, while policy integration is aimed at, implementation remains challenging. Both cities’ heritage conservation and spatial planning fields keep operating in parallel, often in conflict, and with different perspectives on the cultural heritage commonly managed. By identifying local technicians’ challenges, this research demonstrates that policy integration between heritage conservation and spatial planning is an ongoing process that demands more effective articulation towards more sustainable and resilient cities.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051040
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1041: Land Use Planning and Green Environment
           Services: The Contribution of Trail Paths to Sustainable Development

    • Authors: Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos
      First page: 1041
      Abstract: Recently land-use planning and green environment services have been considered as inseparable parts of the design of trail paths for a sustainable development. At present there is need of a holistic overview of land uses and land cover, to be linked with the natural environment and regional development. The key determinants of such an approach embody changes in the wake of drivers and anthropocentric changes as well as changes in global greenhouse gases, causing climate change and affecting global biodiversity. In this study the key determinants and the main research objects of previously developed studies were systematically approached by a search of the literature through the Scopus database using these four fields of keywords: (a) “land use” AND environment AND development, (b) “trail path” in the “article titles” AND the subcategory of “land”, (c) “land use” AND “sustainable development”, and, (d) “sustainable” AND “trail”. The derived documents were collected and organized into the following four main domains, being paired together by: (a) year and country/territory, and, (b) keyword and subject area. The classification of the documents was followed by the calculation of relevant “intensity ratios” as key determinants that disclose the well-defined and the emerging fields of further perspectives regarding land use planning and the particular emerging dynamics of the development of trail paths.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051041
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1042: Urban Grassland Afforestation as a Public Land
           Management Tool for Environmental Improvement: The Example of Krakow

    • Authors: Miłosz Podwika, Krystyna Ciarkowska, Katarzyna Solek-Podwika
      First page: 1042
      Abstract: Afforestation can play a significant role in greenhouse gas emission reduction through increased carbon (C) sequestration in the biomass and soil. However, its environmental effects, especially through changes in soil characteristics as a result of afforestation, are still poorly understood. In this work, we studied the response of grassland soils derived from two different parent materials to afforestation. We measured the basic soil properties, including pH, C accumulation, nutrient contents and enzyme activity, in soils from grasslands and mature forests. We focused on the parameters associated with organic matter and the changes resulting from afforestation. We established that in the humus layers, habitat played a more important role in creating the soil properties, including organic-C accumulation, than land use (forest vs. grassland). We created models to explain the C storage in the soils, which indicated the substantial role of certain conditions in promoting the stabilisation of the organic matter, such as pH, and the amount of clay, humines and residue. We determined negative changes in the soil properties when compared with grassland and forest soils, but we found increased C storage, which counteracts the increased emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The results of our work may be of use for afforestation planners and urban managers.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051042
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1043: Land Cover Change and Food Security in Central
           Sumba: Challenges and Opportunities in the Decentralization Era in

    • Authors: Yohanis Ngongo, Bernard deRosari, Tony Basuki, Gerson Ndawa Njurumana, Yudistira Nugraha, Alfonsus Hasudungan Harianja, Mohammad Ardha, Kustiyo Kustiyo, Rizatus Shofiyati, Raden Bambang Heryanto, Jefny Bernedi Markus Rawung, Joula Olvy Maya Sondakh, Rein Estefanus Senewe, Helena daSilva, Ronald Timbul Pardamean Hutapea, Procula Rudlof Mattitaputty, Yosua Pieter Kenduballa, Noldy Rusminta Estorina Kotta, Yohanes Leki Seran, Debora Kana Hau, Dian Oktaviani, Hunggul Yudono Setio Hadi Nugroho
      First page: 1043
      Abstract: This study focuses on land cover and land management changes in relation to food security and environmental services in a semi-arid area of East Nusa Tenggara (ENT), Indonesia. The study was conducted in the Central Sumba District of ENT province. A classification and regression tree (CART) for land cover classification was analyzed using machine learning techniques through the implementation of the Google Earth Engine. A Focus Group Discussion (FGD) survey followed by in-depth interviews was conducted for primary data collection, involving a total of 871 respondents. The socio-economic data were statistically analyzed descriptively using non-parametric tests. The study showed that (1) there has been a substantial change in land use during the devolution era that has both positive and negative implications for food security and environmental services; (2) there has been population pressure in fertile and agricultural land as a direct impact of the development of city infrastructure; and (3) national intervention through the Food Estate program has fostered and shaped land use change and land management in the Central Sumba District. The study highlights the importance of the devolution spirit in aiding the management of limited arable/agricultural land in predominantly semi-arid areas to ensure food security and environmental services.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-10
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051043
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1044: A Study on the Advancement of Spatial Maps and
           the Improvement of the Legal System as a Key Tool for Sustainable National
           Landscape Planning: Case Study of South Korea

    • Authors: Hyun-Ju Cho, Jin-Hyo Kim, Eun-Jae Lee
      First page: 1044
      Abstract: For sustainable, national landscape-planning, this study focused on land cover changes, landscape analysis methods from various perspectives on the landscape, legal system analysis related to landscape planning, and analysis of a basic spatial map for landscape planning. First of all, in Korea the focus is on the aesthetic aspect of the landscape, while foreign countries look at the landscape from multiple perspectives and tried to solve the problem of landscape damage on this basis. Next, looking at the changes in land cover, it was found that the urbanized area increased significantly, but the area of agricultural land and wetlands decreased significantly due to development plans. In addition, looking at the contents of the landscape plan in terms of the legal system, the legal system of the Republic of Korea included a multifunctional aspect of the landscape, but the contents were only at the level of policy suggestions. Finally, through a review of a basic spatial map for landscape planning, it was found that among various basic spatial maps, the biotope map is highly likely to be used when establishing national landscape plans. The results of this study are meaningful in that they have not only established the concept of landscape in terms of multifunctionality but also established improvement measures in terms of legal and institutional aspects and the basic spatial map.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051044
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1045: Sustainable Development of Farmers in Minority
           Areas after Poverty Alleviation Relocation: Based on an Improved
           Sustainable Livelihood Analysis Framework

    • Authors: Jiaxin Wu, Jigang Zhang, Hongjuan Yang
      First page: 1045
      Abstract: As an essential regional planning policy, poverty alleviation relocation has a significant impact on the regional economy, environment, and social well-being and is critical for sustainable development. Based on the development of minority areas in Yunnan, this study improves the traditional sustainable livelihood analysis framework and constructed a livelihood capital evaluation system including natural, physical, financial, social, human, and cultural capital. Furthermore, the measurement standard of sustainable livelihoods is proposed, which requires not only the enhancement of livelihood capital but also the coupling and coordinated development of all capital components. Based on the data of Menglai township from 2015 to 2021, this study estimates that farmers’ livelihood capital has increased after relocation, and the level of coupling and coordination has improved. Still, it has yet to reach extreme coordination. Hereafter, the theoretical framework of internal and external factors affecting livelihood capital is constructed, and the influencing factors of livelihood capital are obtained through regression analysis. This study provides a new tool for evaluating livelihood capital in minority areas, obtains new findings on the sustainable development of farmers’ livelihood capital after poverty alleviation relocation, and expands a new perspective for studying the influencing factors of livelihood capital.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051045
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1046: Analysis of Ecosystem Service Contribution and
           Identification of Trade-Off/Synergy Relationship for Ecosystem Regulation
           in the Dabie Mountains of Western Anhui Province, China

    • Authors: Muyi Huang, Qilong Wang, Qi Yin, Weihua Li, Guozhao Zhang, Qiaojun Ke, Qin Guo
      First page: 1046
      Abstract: The study of tradeoffs/synergies among ecosystem services (ESs) is highly significant for land-use planning and regional ecosystem optimization. Land-use change and topographic factors have important implications for ESs. Strengthening the comparative analysis of the capacity of ESs provided by different land-use types in specific regions, studying the topographic gradient effects of ecosystem service trade-offs/synergies with slope changes, and identifying the dominate trade-off/synergy relationship among ESs will help us to carry out ecosystem regulation according to local conditions through land-use layout optimization at a fine scale. Our research site was located in the Dabie Mountains of western Anhui Province, China (DBM), where, based on the InVEST software, R language, self-organizing maps (SOM), and GeoDA, the temporal and spatial variations of five typical ESs, including food supply, soil retention, water yield, carbon storage, and biodiversity maintenance from 2005 to 2020, were analyzed, and spatial distributions of the different ESs clusters were also recognized by using the SOM method. Moreover, the impacts of land-use type and slope on ESs, and the characteristics of trade-offs/synergies among the five ESs, were discussed. Results showed, firstly, that the total values of ESs showed a changing trend of “three increases and two decreases” from 2005 to 2020. Among the ESs, food supply, soil retention and water yield showed upward trends, with annual growth rates of 2.83%, 6.50% and 2.98%, respectively, whereas carbon storage and biodiversity maintenance showed downward trends, with annual decline rates of 0.03% and 0.07%, respectively. Second, the results showed that the Moran’s I index of the total ESs was 0.3995 in 2005 and 0.4305 in 2020, respectively, indicating that they had significant spatial clustering characteristics. The Low-Low clustering regions with reduced changes were mainly in the central and northern parts of the study area, whereas the High-High clustering regions with increased changes were found distributed mainly in the south of the study area. Thirdly, it was found that cropland and woodland were the main contributors to the total amounts of ESs, but the supply capacity of ESs per unit area of woodland was the largest, constituting nearly 1/3 of the total supply capacity of the ESs. Last, the slope effect on trade-offs and synergies was significant between typical ecosystem service pairs in the study area; trade-offs were the main relationships between the pairs of ESs in the study area, which accounted for nearly 60% of all types of trade-offs/synergies during the 15 years. In addition, the spatial distributions of the trade-offs/synergies between ESs pairs were visualized clearly, and the six ES bundles were identified by using the SOM method at the township administrative scale. The identification of ecosystem service bundles is of great significance for the division of ecological functional zones and ecological regulation in the DBM.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051046
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1047: Mechanism and Spatial Spillover Effect of
           New-Type Urbanization on Urban CO2 Emissions: Evidence from 250 Cities in

    • Authors: Chiqun Hu, Xiaoyu Ma, Yangqing Liu, Jiexiao Ge, Xiaohui Zhang, Qiangyi Li
      First page: 1047
      Abstract: Exploring the effect of new-type urbanization (NTU) on urban carbon abatement is of great practical significance for promoting urban green construction and coping with the challenge of global climate change. This study used data from 250 cities in China from 2008 to 2020 and constructed the NTU evaluation indicator system from five dimensions. We used classical panel regression models to examine the effects of NTU on urban CO2 emissions, and further used spatial econometric models of SEM, SAR, and SDM to identify the spatial spillover effects of NTU on urban CO2 emissions. The main results are that China’s NTU and CO2 emissions are generally rising, and NTU has a significantly negative effect on urban CO2 emissions, with an impact coefficient of −0.9339; the conclusions still hold after subsequent robustness tests. Heterogeneity analysis reveals that NTU’s carbon abatement effect is more pronounced in resource-based cities, old industrial areas, and cities with lower urbanization levels and higher innovation levels. Mechanism analysis shows that improving urban technological innovation and optimizing resource allocation are important paths for realizing urban CO2 emission reduction. NTU’s effect on urban CO2 emissions has a noticeable spatial spillover. Our findings provide policy makers with solid support for driving high-quality urban development and dual-carbon targets.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051047
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1048: A Framework for a User-Perception-Based
           Approach to Integrate Landscape Protection in Soft Mobility Planning

    • Authors: Irina Di Ruocco, Alessio D’Auria, Rosaria R. D’Alterio, Agostino De Rosa
      First page: 1048
      Abstract: The relationship with bike infrastructure is missing in the current examination of user perception, which places a great deal of emphasis on visual aesthetic quality or surveys. Italy is experiencing the great development of cycling infrastructures, and the related plans, in line with sustainability objectives, have the task of examining users in various aspects. The purpose of this study is to examine users’ criteria based on perceptions of the landscape in the presence of cycling infrastructures and to analyze the current infrastructures and understand their alignment with sustainable plans. One of the multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) was utilized, and it entails identifying the factors that constitute an index and assessing the priority of these factors in relation to other components. The findings demonstrate that the primary variables are distinct aspects of the landscape that are objective. We discovered that these components perform better for urban than metropolitan sectors in this study, as we divided the scenarios into metropolitan and general (urban, suburban, and coastal urban) scenarios.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051048
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1049: Measuring Access to Services of General
           Interest as a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Well-Being Disparities between
           Rural Areas in Europe

    • Authors: Mar Ortega-Reig, Carsten Schürmann, Adrian Ferrandis Martínez, Andrew Copus
      First page: 1049
      Abstract: The gradual reorientation of rural policy paradigms away from competitiveness and economic growth and towards well-being and sustainability creates a need for more appropriate diagnostic tools to assess disparities and policy outcomes. One of the most cited determinants of rural well-being is access to Services of General Interest. Areas with relatively poor access to services can be described as “inner peripheries”, and peripherisation literature provides helpful insights into the challenges faced and policy needs. This paper presents a methodology for modelling and mapping access to a suite of ten key services, covering all of Europe at a 2.5 km grid square level. The approach is intrinsically relative, comparing the travel time to services from each grid square with the average for surrounding regions. Maps are provided for 2017 and 2021, and changes between these dates are described. ‘Inner peripheries’ are found in every country, their configuration being influenced not only by geographical features, but also by service delivery practices. Further analysis explores patterns of risk, identifying areas in which service provision is in a precarious position. The results presented are rich in practical policy implications, not least the suggestion that, in terms of patterns of well-being, local roads are at least as important as trunk infrastructure.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051049
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1050: Review of Land Use Change Detection—A
           Method Combining Machine Learning and Bibliometric Analysis

    • Authors: Bo Liu, Wei Song, Zhan Meng, Xinwei Liu
      First page: 1050
      Abstract: Land use change detection (LUCD) is a critical technology with applications in various fields, including forest disturbance, cropland changes, and urban expansion. However, the current review articles on LUCD tend to be limited in scope, rendering a comprehensive review challenging due to the vast number of publications. This paper systematically reviewed 3512 articles retrieved from the Web of Science Core database between 1985 and 2022, utilizing a combination of bibliometric analysis and machine learning methods with LUCD as the main focus. The results indicated an exponential increase in the number of LUCD studies, indicating continued growth in this research field. Commonly used methods include classification-based, threshold-based, model-based, and deep learning-based change detection, with research themes encompassing forest logging and vegetation succession, urban landscape dynamics, and biodiversity conservation and management. To build an intelligent change detection system, researchers need to develop a flexible framework that integrates data preprocessing, feature extraction, land use type interpretation, and accuracy evaluation, given the continuous evolution and application of remote sensing data, deep learning, big data, and artificial intelligence.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051050
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1051: On Farmland and Floodplains—Modeling
           Urban Growth Impacts Based on Global Population Scenarios in Pune, India

    • Authors: Raphael Karutz, Christian J. A. Klassert, Sigrun Kabisch
      First page: 1051
      Abstract: Emerging megacities in the global south face unprecedented transformation dynamics, manifested in rapid demographic, economic, and physical growth. Anticipating the associated sustainability and resilience challenges requires an understanding of future trajectories. Global change models provide consistent high-level urbanization scenarios. City-scale urban growth models accurately simulate complex physical growth. Modeling approaches linking the global and the local scale, however, are underdeveloped. This work introduces a novel approach to inform a local urban growth model by global Shared Socioeconomic Pathways to produce consistent maps of future urban expansion and population density via cellular automaton and dasymetric mapping. We demonstrate the approach for the case of Pune, India. Three scenarios are explored until 2050: business as usual (BAU), high, and low urbanization. After calibration and validation, the BAU scenario yields a 55% growth in Pune’s population and 90% in built-up extent, entailing significant impacts: Pune’s core city densifies further with up to 60,000 persons/km2, adding pressure to its strained infrastructure. In addition, 66–70% more residents are exposed to flood risk. Half of the urban expansion replaces agriculture, converting 167 km2 of land. The high-urbanization scenario intensifies these impacts. These results illustrate how spatially explicit scenario projections help identify impacts of urbanization and inform long-term planning.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051051
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1052: Correction: Xiao et al. An Assessment of the
           Rational Range of Eco-Compensation Standards: A Case Study in the Nujiang
           Prefecture, Southwestern China. Land 2022, 11, 1417

    • Authors: Weidong Xiao, Liquan Qu, Kai Li, Chuanxu Guo, Jie Li
      First page: 1052
      Abstract: In the original publication [...]
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051052
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1053: The Impact of Regional Integration Strategies
           on the Formation of City Regions and Its Agglomeration Shadow: Evidence
           from the Yangtze River Delta, China

    • Authors: Yanlin Zhen, Dehao Shi, Yanan Lu
      First page: 1053
      Abstract: Using a sample of 122 county-level units in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region from 2000 to 2017, this study employs a difference-in-differences model (DID) to examine the impact of regional integration strategy (RIS) on city-region formation and a difference-in-difference-in-difference model (DDD) to test whether it has spatial heterogeneity. The results indicate that RIS has a significant positive impact on industrial integration while it also displays obvious industrial heterogeneity and spatial heterogeneity. The results of the present study contribute to the following points: First, the implementation of RIS promotes a balanced layout of the secondary industry in the region, yet the tertiary industry tends to agglomerate towards central cities. Furthermore, we found that RIS has a more significant negative effect on the integration of the secondary industry and tertiary industry in cities adjacent to metropolis. Consequently, RIS magnifies the “agglomeration shadow” within city regions in terms of industrial integration. Last, our in-depth fieldwork on Jiaxing unravels the mechanism of the shadow effect of RIS.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051053
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1054: The Evolution of Historic Agroforestry
           Landscape in the Northern Apennines (Italy) and Its Consequences for Slope
           Geomorphic Processes

    • Authors: Filippo Brandolini, Chiara Compostella, Manuela Pelfini, Sam Turner
      First page: 1054
      Abstract: Historic agricultural practices have played a dominant role in shaping landscapes, creating a heritage which must be understood and conserved from the perspective of sustainable development. Agroforestry (i.e., the practice of combining trees with agriculture or livestock) has existed since ancient times in European countries, and it has been recognised as one of the most resilient and multifunctional cultural landscapes, providing a wide range of economic, sociocultural, and environmental benefits. This research explores aspects of the history, physical characteristics, decline, and current state of conservation of historic agroforestry systems on the Northern Apennines in Italy, using an interdisciplinary approach combining archival sources, landscape archaeology, dendrochronology, and GIS analysis. Furthermore, through computer-based modelling, this research aims to evaluate how the abandonment of this historic rural land-use strategy impacted slope geomorphic processes over the long term. The importance of environmental values attached to traditional rural landscapes has received much attention even beyond the heritage sector, justifying the definition of transdisciplinary approaches necessary to ensure the holistic management of landscapes. Through the integration of the Unit Stream Power-Based Erosion Deposition (USPED) equation with landscape archaeological data, the paper shows how restoring the historic agroforestry landscape could significantly mitigate soil mass movements in the area. Thus, the interdisciplinary workflow proposed in this study enables a deep understanding of both the historical evolution of agroforestry systems and its resulting effects for cumulative soil erosion and deposition in the face of climate change.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051054
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1055: The Effect of Policy and Technological
           Innovations of Land Tenure on Small Landholders’ Credit-Worthiness:
           Evidence from Ethiopia

    • Authors: Shewakena Aytenfisu Abab, Feyera Senbeta, Tamirat Tefera Negash
      First page: 1055
      Abstract: Since the early 2000s, Ethiopia has been implementing one of the largest land certification and digitalization programs in Africa, underpinned by technological and policy innovations. The reform indicates a promising avenue for increasing the collateralization of land use rights for smallholder households who have been credit constrained. However, there is scant evidence to what extent these reforms have influenced access to credit. To help generate new insights and fill this gap, the study employed administrative data generated from 11 districts’ digital land registers, survey data from 2296 households in 19 districts, key informant interviews, and policy and legal framework review. Descriptive and inferential statistics complemented by qualitative explanations are employed to analyze the results of the study. The results revealed that accessibility of information from the digital rural land registers increased the credit-worthiness of small landholders and reduced transaction costs and risks. The reform related to collateralization of land use rights also incentivizes financial institutions to establish new loan products for small landholders. The study concludes that while the two-stage land certification programs allow smallholders to possess documented land rights, their credit-worthiness may likely remain negligible without further technological and policy innovations. This implies two policy issues: the need to reform secured transaction laws and digitalizing registries for higher land rights trade ability.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051055
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1056: Evidences of Soil Consumption Dynamics over
           Space and Time by Data Analysis in a Southern Italy Urban Sprawling Area

    • Authors: Nicola Ricca, Ilaria Guagliardi
      First page: 1056
      Abstract: A qualitative and quantitative deterioration of natural environments occurred recently worldwide. Loss of ecological capacities and agricultural decline are the critical consequences of urbanisation. This paper focuses on the value of assessing the urban sprawl in a southern Italy territory in order to evaluate the significant landscape transformations and provide a document to local administrators for a more balanced management of land use. The importance to calculate the soil consumption dynamics is remarkable in the investigated territory, Rende municipality in the Calabria region, southern Italy, since it is characterized by the same human pressure that occurred in other Mediterranean areas, so it is well representative of wider territories included in the Mediterranean setting. The transition from rural areas to urban settlements has been investigated via landscape analysis, and conducted for spatial and temporal changes over 25 years. The landscape analysis has integrated data from the orthophotos and Esri topographic base map. Quantitatively, the estimation of urban growth, in all its components, and soil consumption are evident by analysis of the number of patches. Qualitatively, the occurred consumption of fertile soil has caused a significant impact on local environmental conditions and on human activities resulting in decreasing of arable land, which decreased significantly over the considered period. This study addresses how knowledge of the change in urban areas is needed to effectively manage urban environmental impacts.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051056
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1057: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Warm-Season Ground
           Surface Temperature—Surface Air Temperature Difference over China

    • Authors: Yiwen Long, Guoyu Ren
      First page: 1057
      Abstract: Examining large-scale characteristics of the difference between ground surface temperature (GST) and surface air temperature (SAT) and its long-term trend will help understand land surface energy exchange and the effect of land-atmosphere interaction on climate change and variability. Based on a homogenized monthly dataset of GST and SAT from 1961 to 2018, this study analyzes the spatial distribution and long-term trend of the difference between ground surface temperature and surface air temperature (GST–SAT) in the warm season (April to October) over China mainland. The results show that the warm-season mean GST–SAT in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the northwestern deserts have the largest GST–SAT. On average, the GST–SAT in China is the greatest in summer, with the maximum monthly value occurring in July. During 1961–2018, the warm-season mean GST–SAT undergoes a significant increasing trend (0.04 °C/10yr, p < 0.01), with the largest increase seen in mid-late spring (April and May), and the smallest increase in August. Spatially, the GST–SAT increases significantly in the northern region, decreases slightly in the southern region, and remains unchanged in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The warm-season mean GST–SAT is significantly positively correlated with altitude and sunshine duration (R = 0.50, 0.40; p < 0.05), and significantly negatively correlated with relative humidity and precipitation (R = 0.48, −0.42; p < 0.05), in the country on a whole in the analysis period.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051057
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1058: Identification of Urban Clusters Based on
           Multisource Data—An Example of Three Major Urban Agglomerations in

    • Authors: Gaoyuan Wang, Yixuan Wang, Yangli Li, Tian Chen
      First page: 1058
      Abstract: Accurately identifying the boundary of urban clusters is a crucial aspect of studying the development of urban agglomerations. This process is essential for comprehending and optimizing smart and compact urban development. Existing studies often rely on a single category of data, which can result in coarse identification boundaries, insufficient detail accuracy, and slight discrepancies between the coverage and the actual conditions. To accurately identify the extent of urban clusters, this study proposes and compares the results of three methods for identifying dense urban areas of three major agglomerations in China: Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area. The study then integrates the results of these methods to obtain a more effective identification approach. The social economic method involved extracting a density threshold based on the fused nuclear density of socio-economic vitality data, including population, GDP, and POI, while the remote sensing method evaluated feature indices based on remote sensing images, including the density index, continuity index, gradient index, and development index. The traffic network method utilizes land transportation networks and travelling speeds to identify the minimum cost path and delineate the boundary by 20–30 min isochronous circles. The results obtained from the three methods were combined, and hotspots were identified using GIS overlay analysis and spatial autocorrelation analysis. This method integrates the multi-layered information from the previous three methods, which more comprehensively reflects the characteristics and morphology of urban clusters. Finally, the accuracy of each identification result is verified and compared. The results reveal that the average overall accuracy (OA) of the three areas delineated by the first three methods are 57.49%, 30.88%, and 33.74%, respectively. Furthermore, the average Kappa coefficients of these areas are 0.4795, 0.2609, and 0.2770, respectively. After performing data fusion, the resulting average overall accuracy (OA) was 85.34%, and the average Kappa coefficient was 0.7394. These findings suggest that the data fusion method can effectively delineate dense urban areas with greater accuracy than the previous three methods. Additionally, this method can accurately reflect the scope of urban clusters by depicting their overall boundary contour and the distribution of internal details in a more scientific manner. The study proposes a feasible method and path for the identification of urban clusters. It can serve as a starting point for formulating spatial planning policies for urban agglomerations, aiding in precise and scientific control of boundary growth. This can promote the rational allocation of resources and optimization of spatial structure by providing a reliable reference for the optimization of urban agglomeration space and the development of regional spatial policies.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051058
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1059: Regional Development, Rural Transformation, and
           Land Use/Cover Changes in a Fast-Growing Oil Palm Region: The Case of
           Jambi Province, Indonesia

    • Authors: Ernan Rustiadi, Andrea Emma Pravitasari, Rista Ardy Priatama, Jane Singer, Junaidi Junaidi, Zulgani Zulgani, Rizqi Ianatus Sholihah
      First page: 1059
      Abstract: The development policies implemented in Jambi Province, Indonesia, since the New Order era, have encouraged transformations in demography, regional paradigms, growth base sectors, and growth actors. This study aims to understand how the central government’s demographic policies and plantation development program have impacted regional land cover change, rural development transformation, and economic development in Sumatra Island’s biodiversity-rich rainforest region (Jambi Province). This study explores the shifts in village typology that have occurred. Descriptive analysis and cluster analysis were applied to collect data at the provincial level that included population, poverty rate, levels of education, HDI, GRDP, Gini index, and land cover. Village Potential Data at the village level was then used to build an infrastructure index and a diversity of activities index. The results of this study indicated that macro development indicators are in a positive trend: HDI, educational levels, GRDP per capita, and the proportion of the tertiary sector in GRDP have all increased. The growth of the tertiary sector was largely driven by the trade and motorized-vehicle repair sectors. The provincial landscape has changed significantly due to the expansion of oil palm plantations. At the village level, the infrastructure index and diversity index show an increase in the number of facilities and variations in economic activity in most villages. Some shifts in rural typology are highlighted: the increase in urban villages and in villages that specialize in oil palm plantation or other industrial plantation crops.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051059
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1060: Eco–Environmental Effects of
           “Production–Living–Ecological” Space Land Use
           Changes and Recommendations for Ecological Restoration: A Case Study of
           the Weibei Dryland in Shaanxi Province

    • Authors: Junfang Jin, Shuyan Yin, Hanmin Yin, Xin Bai
      First page: 1060
      Abstract: As eco–environmental effects have become important considerations in the construction and planning of production, living, and ecological spaces, we used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze the eco–environmental effects’ spatiotemporal evolution and present appropriate ideas for ecological restoration based on the land use data. The results show that during the research period both an improvement and degradation of the regional eco–environment occurred simultaneously. In the earlier period, the ecological environment tended to be worse, while in the later period, the eco–environmental quality was dramatically enhanced. Pasture ecological land in the study area had the strongest positive impact on the eco–environmental quality, while the negative effect of agricultural production land was severe. The quality of the regional eco−environment was enhanced (degraded) due to the extension (contraction) of ecological land. The construction of an ecological environment is a complex engineering task. Although the eco−environment in most areas of the study area showed an improving trend, the overall eco–environment remains relatively fragile. In the course of supporting high–quality regional social and economic growth and pursuing high–level environmental preservation strategies, we should take corresponding measures to protect and repair the regional ecological environment.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051060
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1061: Analysis of Urban Park Accessibility Based on
           Space Syntax: Take the Urban Area of Changsha City as an Example

    • Authors: Yuehong Long, Jianxin Qin, Yang Wu, Ke Wang
      First page: 1061
      Abstract: Park green space is an important part of the green infrastructure in a city, and urban park space accessibility is an important indicator for measuring the city’s comprehensive strength, living environment, and resident happiness, which greatly affects the sustainable development and construction of the city. The spatial syntax method can discuss the accessibility of urban parks from the perspective of topology, which inherits the objective stability of the topological relationship. There are few research studies on the accessibility of urban parks. Therefore, with the support of space syntax theory and the spatial statistics method, this paper combined the data of park green space and road network to complete the accessibility evaluation of urban parks in the Changsha City urban area. This paper evaluates the accessibility of urban parks in the study area from four aspects, namely global accessibility, perceptual accessibility, local accessibility, and psychological accessibility, by using five quantitative indexes of space syntax, namely connectivity, depth, integration, selection, and synergy. The conclusions are as follows: The spatial layout area of the park is roughly consistent with the areas that have good global and local accessibility of the road network, and the global accessibility and local accessibility of the park in the study area are relatively high. The global spatial structure can be better perceived by the local space at a radius scale greater than or equal to 3000 m, and the perceptual accessibility of the park is high. Most of the urban parks in the Changsha urban area are located in sections with high space efficiency. The park space penetration is good, and nearly 70% of the parks have high psychological accessibility. Based on the overall spatial layout of urban parks, the space syntax method quantitatively and comprehensively evaluates the accessibility of urban parks from the perspective of topology. The conclusion is reliable and has important application value in the evaluation of park accessibility. It can be used as an important supplement to improve the evaluation model of accessibility.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051061
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1062: China’s Urban and Rural Development
           Significantly Affects the Pattern of Human Appropriation of Net Primary

    • Authors: Tian Zhang, Jian Peng, Xiaoshu Cao
      First page: 1062
      Abstract: Increasing human activities have greatly influenced the ecosystem and the use of ecological resources, and the unbalanced urban–rural development in China (urban and rural areas being two major bases of human activities) has always been accompanied by heterogeneous ecological effects. Human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) is an integrated indicator quantifying the human domination of productivity and harvest in the biosphere. Identifying the unbalanced constraints of urban and rural development on HANPP has become necessary for improving human–land relationships. This study analyzed the spatial distribution and regional differentiations of the HANPP in China in 2015 and investigated how HANPP and its components responded to unbalanced regional urban–rural development. The results show that the total amount of HANPP was 2.68 PgC and gradually decreased from the southeast to the northwest of China in 2015, representing 60.33% of the NPPpot. In addition, HANPPluc, harvest through cropland, livestock grazing, and forestry contributed 60.70%, 29.86%, 8.53%, and 0.91%, respectively, to the total HANPP, with HANPPluc playing the dominant role in 21 provinces. There was a significant differentiation (p < 0.05) in the spatial distribution of HANPP (gC/m2), HANPPharv (gC/m2), and HANPPluc (gC/m2), especially between the Huanyong Hu Line and the western–eastern part of China, fundamentally resulting from uneven regional development. In addition, biomass production–consumption decoupling existed in most regions in China, 17 provinces were identified as consumption type, and a universal positive correlation (p < 0.05) was identified between the production–consumption ratio of occupied biomass and HANPPharv (%HANPP). Different drive mechanisms were found between urban–rural development and HANPP, and each HANPP index was more likely to be affected by urban economy (UE), rural population (RP), and rural agricultural technology (RA) in China. The higher regional average nighttime light intensity, the proportion of the built-up area, and the urban road area corresponded with a large HANPPluc value. Conversely, HANPP would decrease as the proportion of urban green spaces increased. Furthermore, HANPP (%NPPpot) and HANPP (gC/m2) mostly depended on the rural development index, while HANPPluc and HANPPharv were mainly controlled by urban and rural development, respectively. Our findings help understand, first, how unbalanced regional development influences human-induced biomass occupation, the comprehensive urban ecological construction, and rural ecological restoration and, second, that the overall planning of urban–rural integration development must be strengthened to face greater ecological pressures in the future.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051062
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1063: Intensity Analysis for Urban Land Use/Land
           Cover Dynamics Characterization of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso in
           Burkina Faso

    • Authors: Valentin Ouedraogo, Kwame Oppong Hackman, Michael Thiel, Jaiye Dukiya
      First page: 1063
      Abstract: Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso remain the two major urban centers in Burkina Faso with an increasing trend in human footprint. The research aimed at analyzing the Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) dynamics in the two cities between 2003 and 2021 using intensity analysis, which decomposes LULC changes into interval, category and transition levels. The satellite data used for this research were composed of surface reflectance imagery from Landsat 5, Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 acquired from the Google Earth Engine Data Catalogue. The Random Forest, Support Vector Machine and Gradient Tree Boost algorithms were employed to run supervised image classifications for four selected years including 2003, 2009, 2015 and 2021. The results showed that the landscape is changing in both cities due to rapid urbanization. Ouagadougou experienced more rapid changes than Bobo-Dioulasso, with a maximum annual change intensity of 3.61% recorded between 2015 and 2021 against 2.22% in Bobo-Dioulasso for the period 2009–2015. The transition of change was mainly towards built-up areas, which gain targeted bare and agricultural lands in both cities. This situation has led to a 78.12% increase of built-up surfaces in Ouagadougou, while 42.24% of agricultural land area was lost. However, in Bobo-Dioulasso, the built class has increased far more by 140.67%, and the agricultural land areas experienced a gain of 1.38% compared with the 2003 baseline. The study demonstrates that the human footprint is increasing in both cities making the inhabitants vulnerable to environmental threats such as flooding and the effect of an Urban Heat Island, which is information that could serve as guide for sustainable urban land use planning.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051063
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1064: Standardized Description of Degraded Land
           Reclamation Actions and Mapping of Actors’ Roles: A Key Step for
           Action in Combatting Desertification (Niger)

    • Authors: Abou-Soufianou Sadda, Maud Loireau, Nouhou Salifou Jangorzo, Hassane Bil-Assanou Issoufou, Jean-Luc Chotte
      First page: 1064
      Abstract: Land degradation is a major issue in the Sahel region. Numerous investments have been made in implementing sustainable land management (SLM) actions to reverse land degradation. Our work aims to (i) describe the variety of degraded land reclamation actions (DLRAs) and (ii) map the stakeholders acting in Niger. A time series (2008–2021) of georeferenced public data was collected and organized using a harmonized nomenclature. The results show that about 279,074 ha could be analysed in our study. Dug structures are the most widespread technique, while treated land is mostly devoted to single agricultural or pastoral uses. DLRAs are unevenly distributed in the Niger. More than 100 stakeholders were part of the effort to restore degraded land in the country—some playing a specific role, while others, such as the Government of the Niger, were responsible for mobilizing funds for implementing sustainable land management programs, while also carrying out certain programmes of their own. Our study points out the added value of creating a geolocalized dataset and, in future, a spatialized database management system to (i) deploy targeted sustainable land management actions complementing past and ongoing actions and (ii) create synergy between all the stakeholders.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051064
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1065: Spatiotemporal Variation and Dynamic Simulation
           of Ecosystem Carbon Storage in the Loess Plateau Based on PLUS and InVEST

    • Authors: Kang Liu, Chaozheng Zhang, Han Zhang, Hao Xu, Wen Xia
      First page: 1065
      Abstract: Terrestrial ecosystems play an important role in carbon reduction and sequestration, and it is important to explore the carbon sequestration potential of terrestrial ecosystems under different land use scenarios to enhance the regional carbon storage potential. We analysed land use changes in the Loess Plateau, an important ecological barrier in China, from 2000 to 2020, used the PLUS model to predict land use patterns under different scenarios in 2035, and applied the InVEST model to assess carbon storage from 2000 to 2035. The findings were as follows: (1) Cropland in the study area decreased significantly from 2000 to 2020, and forests, waters, and construction land showed an increasing trend. The area of cropland further decreased under the natural growth and ecological protection scenarios, the area of grassland decreased significantly under the cropland protection scenario, and forests and waters were effectively protected under the natural development, ecological protection, and cropland protection scenarios. (2) Carbon storage in the Loess Plateau has increased by 28 Tg (0.56%) over the past 20 years. Compared with those in 2020, by 2035, carbon storage under the natural development, ecological protection, and cropland protection scenarios will increase by 30, 44, and 21 Tg, respectively. (3) Carbon storage has obvious spatial heterogeneity, with high carbon density in the northern Qinling Mountains, Taihang Mountains, and Lvliang Mountains and low carbon density in Erdos City and its surrounding areas. Regional differences in carbon density are closely related to the spatial distribution of land use types. (4) Carbon storage showed an inverted V-shaped trend with the increase in elevation. Land use change is the main reason for the increase or decrease in carbon storage under different scenarios. Compared with the other two scenarios, the ecological protection scenario not only protects the ecological environment but also has a strong carbon storage potential, which may be significant for guiding the formulation of future land use planning on the Loess Plateau.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051065
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1066: From Productive Landscape to Agritouristic
           Landscape' The Evidence of an Agricultural Heritage System—Zhejiang
           Huzhou Mulberry-Dyke and Fish-Pond System

    • Authors: Ran Zhou, Lu Huang, Ke Wang, Wenhao Hu
      First page: 1066
      Abstract: Agricultural Heritage Systems exhibit multiple functions of agricultural production, ecological protection, and invaluable cultures and landscapes. The mulberry-dyke and fish-pond system is an important agricultural heritage. The Nanxun District of Huzhou, China is currently the area with the most complete and largest mulberry dykes and fish ponds in the world. In the past thirty years, with changes in labor force distribution and consumer demand, the production function of mulberry dyke and fish ponds has been challenged, and the production landscape as the carrier of farming culture has been threatened. Studying the spatial characteristics and optimization of mulberry dykes and fish ponds is of great significance to the sustainable development of the regional economy, culture, and environment. This study analyzes the spatial and temporal pattern evolution of mulberry dyke and fish ponds in Nanxun District since 1975. Based on the evaluation of the environmental carrying capacity of fish ponds, and according to the development goals of agricultural heritage inheritance and “planting and breeding balance”, the Future Land Use Simulation model is adopted to optimize the study area. The results show the following findings: (1) From 1975 to 2019, fish ponds and construction land increased significantly, mulberry fields and paddy fields decreased significantly, the scale of mulberry dykes and fish ponds decreased significantly, and the proportion of mulberry dykes and fish ponds was seriously unbalanced; (2) The overall scale of fish-pond breeding in Nanxun District is too large, and the proportion of farming and breeding needs to be adjusted; (3) In view of economic growth, cultural inheritance, and environmental protection, this paper simulates the spatial layout of mulberry dykes and fish ponds in 2035, and divides mulberry dykes and fish ponds in Nanxun District into a display area and an industrial development area. The display area restores the traditional mulberry dykes and fish ponds to the greatest extent. The industrial development zone maximizes the economic benefits of agriculture on the basis of “balancing planting and breeding”. Overall, this study provides a reference for protecting Huzhou mulberry-dyke and fish-pond agricultural heritage, optimizing agricultural production space, balancing human–environment relationship, and promoting regional sustainable development.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051066
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1067: Spatial Structure and Evolution of Territorial
           Function of Rural Areas at Cultural Heritage Sites from the Perspective of
           Social Space

    • Authors: Chong Wu, Mengling Yang, Hang Zhang, Yafang Yu
      First page: 1067
      Abstract: Affected by multiple factors, differentiated capital investment and power games have led to the uneven regional development of rural areas at cultural heritage sites. Therefore, it is urgent to reflect on the spatial equity and justice of heritage sites from the perspective of social space. This study took the territorial function of rural areas (TFRA) as its research objective, utilizing the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site—the Qinshihuang Mausoleum—and the Qianling Mausoleum and the Qiaoling Mausoleum in Shaanxi Province as cases. Based on the theory of spatial production, an index system of TFRA was constructed using social and spatial dimensions. Factor analysis and social–spatial differentiation indices were employed to identify the spatial structure and differentiation of TFRA. The results show the following: (1) the case areas reflect eight principal components, and these components have obvious spatial differentiation characteristics; (2) the principal components related to heritage display and utilization have had a sustained impact over the past decade, which have driven the development of related industries, but the scores of principal components related to the restrictions of heritage protection have been decreased; (3) six functional type zones are designated, and the spatial pattern of TFRA presented a concentric circle with a core-periphery structure, which is influenced by heritage protection zoning; (4) high-value-added functional spaces form and expand along transportation lines; (5) the inherent demand for capital proliferation is the fundamental driving force for the differentiation and evolution of TFRA at heritage sites. Based on the results of the above analysis, strategies of coordinated development between society and space are proposed to address the issue of uneven regional development at heritage sites.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051067
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1068: Geodiversity and Geoheritage to Promote
           Geotourism Using Augmented Reality and 3D Virtual Flights in the Arosa
           Estuary (NW Spain)

    • Authors: Antonio Martínez-Graña, José Angel González-Delgado, Carlos Nieto, Vanessa Villalba, Teresa Cabero
      First page: 1068
      Abstract: Geoheritage constitutes a natural resource that promotes sustainable rural tourism by creating employment and activities that allow population settlement in unpopulated areas with great natural heritage. The objective of this work is to value the singularity and variety of the geosites, which show a wide geodiversity, with lithological, geomorphological, tectonic and natural process diversity (fluvial, coastal, sedimentary, etc.). In the “Arosa estuary” (Galicia, Spain), seven Geosites have been identified, described and valued, determining their scientific, educational and tourist-recreational potential and obtaining values between 565 and 660 points. The state of conservation and risk of degradation is analyzed in order to proceed with their geoconservation, promoting sustainable geo-tourism. The values of degradation susceptibility range between 0.03 and 3 points, and anthropic degradation between 0.33 and 1.73 points. A 3D virtual itinerary is made using Google Earth, implementing descriptive sheets, interpreted diagrams and photographs, and analysis of the geological processes. An interactive virtual flight is presented for academic and tourist purposes to promote geotourism. The virtual tour also has geomatic didactic elements: geoapp and georeferenced thematic cartographies. These resources are helpful for the unknown geoheritage of the population that lives or visits the “Arosa estuary”, favoring sustainable development and fostering attitudes and skills of respect for nature.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051068
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1069: Multidimensional Role of Agrovoltaics in Era of
           EU Green Deal: Current Status and Analysis of
           Water–Energy–Food–Land Dependencies

    • Authors: Aikaterini Roxani, Athanasios Zisos, Georgia-Konstantina Sakki, Andreas Efstratiadis
      First page: 1069
      Abstract: The European Green Deal has set climate and energy targets for 2030 and the goal of achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, while supporting energy independence and economic growth. Following these goals, and as expected, the transition to “green” renewable energy is growing and will be intensified, in the near future. One of the main pillars of this transition, particularly for Mediterranean countries, is solar photovoltaic (PV) power. However, this is the least land-efficient energy source, while it is also highly competitive in food production, since solar parks are often developed in former agricultural areas, thus resulting in the systematic reduction in arable lands. Therefore, in the context of PV energy planning, the protection and preservation of arable lands should be considered a key issue. The emerging technology of agrovoltaics offers a balanced solution for both agricultural and renewable energy development. The sustainable “symbiosis” of food and energy under common lands also supports the specific objective of the post-2020 Common Agricultural Policy, regarding the mitigation of and adaptation to the changing climate, as well as the highly uncertain socio-economic and geopolitical environment. The purpose of this study is twofold, i.e., (a) to identify the state of play of the technologies and energy efficiency measures of agrovoltaics, and (b) to present a comprehensive analysis of their interactions with the water–energy–food–land nexus. As a proof of concept, we consider the plain of Arta, which is a typical agricultural area of Greece, where we employ a parametric analysis to assess key features of agrovoltaic development with respect to energy vs. food production, as well as water saving, as result of reduced evapotranspiration.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051069
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1070: Integrating Energy Systems Language and Emergy

    • Authors: Weiguo Fan, Wei Yao, Kehan Chen
      First page: 1070
      Abstract: As an effective policy to revitalize rural land assets, land transfer is important to promote reforming rural land systems in poor areas. In this study, we integrated the energy systems language and emergy approach, quantified the energy flow process under the land transfer model, simulated the resource storage and energy flow state in the land transfer process, and finally compared and discussed the economic and ecological benefits of land transfer under different scenarios. The results show the following: (1) Economic benefits were significantly improved after the land transfer, and labor storage and infrastructure value were reduced. (2) Government investment enhanced the infrastructure value, and private investment led to a rapid reduction in labor storage. (3) Expanding apple orchards positively affected labor storage and infrastructure value and negatively influenced soil organic carbon storage and rural asset storage. (4) Land transfer behavior reduced the proportion of provisioning and supporting services and increased the proportion of regulating and cultural services. Overall, the research results are helpful for clarifying the complex mechanisms of the various components in the land transfer system and provide a scientific basis for the prediction and evaluation of land transfer in similar areas.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051070
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1071: The Impact of Expressway Development on
           Industrial Structure in Rugged Terrain: The Case of Sichuan Province,

    • Authors: Min Su, Miaomiao Guo, Weixin Luan, Feng Pian
      First page: 1071
      Abstract: The expressway is an important pillar of economic development and has a significant impact on the transformation of regional industrial structure. This study analyzes the optimization of the industrial structure and spatial distribution of three industries using relevant statistical data from Sichuan Province, China. It also assesses the influence of expressways on the change in industrial structures using a difference-in-differences model. The results indicate that regions with well-developed expressway networks generated high-added value for the three industry sectors. The introduction of expressways upgraded the industrial structure of mountainous regions with rich tourism resources, increasing the added value of the tertiary industry and constricting the secondary industry. While aiding the overall development of the regional economy, expressways optimized the industrial structure and guided the transformation of the secondary industry, along with the development of the tertiary industry. Similarly, the private-sector economy also developed rapidly owing to the introduction of expressways. This study would serve as a useful reference for studying the relationship between expressways and regional economic development.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051071
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1072: Interactive Effects Determine Radiocarbon
           Abundance in Soil Fractions of Global Biomes

    • Authors: Guoai Li, Xuxu Chai, Zheng Shi, Honghua Ruan
      First page: 1072
      Abstract: Soil organic carbon (SOC) is heterogeneous, consisting of fractions with differing turnover rates. Climate, vegetation, and soil properties can all affect the characteristics of these different soil carbon fractions. However, there has been little investigation into the interactive effects of biotic and abiotic drivers on a large spatial scale. In this study, we utilized data from the international soil radiocarbon database (ISRaD) to investigate the radiocarbon abundance (an indicator of carbon persistence) in soil fractions from several different biomes. Bulk SOC was categorized into three fractions according to the density fractionation method: a free light fraction (fLF), an occluded light fraction (oLF) and a heavy fraction (HF). In addition to the impacts of significant factors such as depth and climate, interactive effects between soil fractions and environmental factors on radiocarbon abundance were prevalent. Specifically, there were significant interactions between climate, vegetation types, soil properties, and soil fractions affecting Δ14C levels. The difference in Δ14C of the shallow depth fractions was significant in the temperate forest, and was not significant in the boreal and tropical forests. The interactive effect between mean annual temperature (MAT) and mean annual precipitation (MAP) on Δ14C was significant in the shallower depth (i.e., 0–30 cm and 30–60 cm) of the oLF and in the deeper soils (i.e., 30–60 cm and 60–100 cm) of the HF. Soil properties also interact with soil fractions in determining Δ14C. After accounting for depth effect, oxalate-extractable aluminum (Alo) accounted for 63.5% of the remaining Δ14C variation in the fLF and accounted for 35.9% of the remaining Δ14C variation in the oLF. Rather than Alo, cation exchange capacity (CEC) accounted for 46.1% of the remaining Δ14C variation in the HF. These findings suggest that the way the interactions between climate, vegetation, and soil properties affect soil carbon persistence at various fractional depths is critical for the accurate prediction of soil carbon dynamics.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051072
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1073: How Destination City and Source Landholding
           Factors Influence Migrant Socio-Economic Integration in the Pearl River
           Delta Metropolitan Region

    • Authors: Xuanyu Liu, Zehong Wang, Yungang Liu, Zhigang Zhu, Jincan Hu, Gao Yang, Yuqu Wang
      First page: 1073
      Abstract: Few studies have analyzed the mixed effects of city size and land factors at the macro level on migrant socio-economic integration. On the basis of survey data on migrants in the Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region (PRDMR), this study developed a system of multidimensional indicators for analyzing the degree of migrant socio-economic integration and factors influencing it. This study demonstrated the following: (1) The overall degree of socio-economic integration of migrants in the PRDMR was low. Factors including city size, hometown landholding, year of birth, education level, gender, and migratory duration exerted effects of varying extents on the degree of the socio-economic integration of migrants. (2) Better job positions were offered and infrastructure was more developed in first-tier cities, so the degree of migrant economic integration was higher, and the sense of identity was stronger in first-tier cities. Given the low housing prices in second-tier cities, migrants therein were more likely to buy a house and achieve family integration, and the degree of their social integration was stronger. (3) In terms of source landholding factors, the degree of socio-economic integration was relatively low among the migrants who owned arable land and homesteads, and who were born outside Guangdong Province. The study tries to measure the socio-economic integration of immigrants more comprehensively and provide reference for the implementation of differentiated socio-economic integration policies and land transfer policies in the immigration and emigration areas.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051073
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1074: Identification of the Forest Cover Growth on
           Landscape Level from Aerial Laser Scanning Data

    • Authors: Miroslav Sivák, Miroslav Kardoš, Roman Kadlečík, Juliána Chudá, Julián Tomaštík, Ján Tuček
      First page: 1074
      Abstract: Aerial laser scanning technology has excellent potential in landscape management and forestry. Due to its specific characteristics, the application of this type of data is the subject of intensive research, with the search for new areas of application. This work aims to identify the boundaries of forest stands, and forest patches on non-forest land. The research objectives cover the diversity of conditions in the forest landscapes of Slovakia, with its high variability of tree species composition (coniferous, mixed, deciduous stands), age, height, and stand density. A semi-automatic procedure was designed and verified (consisting of the creation of a digital terrain model, a digital surface model, and the identification of peaks and contours of tree crowns), which allows after identification of homogeneous areas of forest stands and/or forest patches (areas covered with trees species canopy) with selected parameters (height, crown size, gap size), with high accuracy. The applicability of the proposed procedure increases the use of freely available ALS data (provided by the Office of Geodesy, Cartography, and Cadastre of the Slovak Republic) and freely distributable software tools (QGIS, CloudCompare).
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051074
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1075: Quantitative Analysis of Seasonality and the
           Impact of COVID-19 on Tourists’ Use of Urban Green Space in Okinawa:
           An ARIMA Modeling Approach Using Web Review Data

    • Authors: Ruochen Yang, Kun Liu, Chang Su, Shiro Takeda, Junhua Zhang, Shuhao Liu
      First page: 1075
      Abstract: We employed publicly available user-generated content (UGC) data from the website Tripadvisor and developed an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model using the R language to analyze the seasonality of the use of urban green space (UGS) in Okinawa under normal conditions and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The seasonality of the use of ocean-area UGS is primarily influenced by climatic factors, with the peak season occurring from April to October and the off-peak season from November to March. Conversely, the seasonality of the use of non-ocean-area UGS remains fairly stable throughout the year, with a relatively high number of visitors in January and May. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic greatly impacted visitor enthusiasm for travel, resulting in significantly fewer actual postings compared with predictions. During the outbreak, use of ocean-area UGS was severely restricted, resulting in even fewer postings and a negative correlation with the number of new cases. In contrast, for non-ocean-area UGS, a positive correlation was observed between the change in postings and the number of new cases. We offer several suggestions to develop UGS management in Okinawa, considering the opportunity for a period of recovery for the tourism industry.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051075
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1076: Capacity of Urban Green Infrastructure Spaces
           to Ameliorate Heat Wave Impacts in Mediterranean Compact Cities: Case
           Study of Granada (South-Eastern Spain)

    • Authors: Manuel José Delgado-Capel, Paloma Cariñanos, Marcos Escudero-Viñolo
      First page: 1076
      Abstract: Heat wave episodes are becoming more frequent and severe worldwide, especially in areas such as the Mediterranean region. This study is aimed at assessing the impact of heat waves in an urban environment and the ways areas of urban green infrastructure (UGI) can play key roles in moderating the impacts of these high-temperature events. We analyzed land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data retrieved from Landsat 8/9 satellite images. These data were recorded during heat wave episodes from 2017 to 2022 in a representative Mediterranean medium-sized compact city. We carried out a correlation analysis between LST and NDVI per area type and as individual units to assess how UGI elements can contribute to the cooling of the urban matrix during heat wave episodes. Those small green spaces distributed throughout the city, defined as “Other” areas, showed stronger negative correlation. These spaces are particularly relevant for Mediterranean cities, where highly limited space in city centers hinders the possibility of having larger-surface UGI elements. The study highlights the need for further research into the composition of those small public green spaces to understand how their components enhance the city’s cooling capacity given the climate conditions and water scarcity in the Mediterranean region.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051076
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1077: Ecosystem Services for Planning Post-Mining
           Landscapes Using the DPSIR Framework

    • Authors: Peer von Döhren, Dagmar Haase
      First page: 1077
      Abstract: Mining in general, and particularly mining for energy resources such as coal and lignite, results in massive impacts on the surrounding landscape and ecosystems. Post-mining reclamation that takes account of the disturbed ecosystem services requires a research approach that links the mining impact to ecosystem functions and ecosystem service potentials. The method used in this paper combines the Driving Forces–Pressures–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR) framework and the ES cascade approach by complementing the limitations of each approach with the strengths of the other. The DPSIR framework is extended to a causal network to account for the multiple interconnected causal chains of coal and lignite mining impacts. The presented causal network supports the identification of ES indicators for the assessment, planning, and monitoring of post-mining reclamation in coal/lignite mining landscapes. The presented approach can also inform political and administrative decisions by identifying the ecosystem elements at risk of being degraded from mining.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051077
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1078: Analysis of Net Primary Productivity of Retired
           Farmlands in the Grain-for-Green Project in China from 2011 to 2020

    • Authors: Yuanming Xie, Zemeng Ma, Mingjie Fang, Weiguo Liu, Feiyan Yu, Jiajing Tian, Shuoxin Zhang, Yan Yan
      First page: 1078
      Abstract: The Grain-for-Green Project (GFGP), one of the largest ecological restoration projects in China, has made a significant contribution to carbon neutrality. However, the quantitative contribution to climate change and the driving forces of the carbon sequestration of retired farmlands remains unclear. To analyze the carbon dynamics of the retired farmlands and their driving forces, GlobeLand30 databases were used to identify retired farmlands from 2001 to 2020; in addition, net primary productivity (NPP) of the identified lands was estimated with the Carnegie–Ames–Stanford Approach (CASA). Results showed that 131,298 km2 of farmlands were retired from 2001 to 2010 (L01–10), and 130,225 km2 were retired from 2011 to 2020 (L11–20). The largest areas of retired farmlands were South Central China (24%) in L01–10 and Northwest China (22%) in L11–20. The annual NPP increment of retired farmlands was the highest and most significant in Southwest China (26,455–28,783 GgC·year−1 for retired farmlands in L01–10 and 21,320–23,303 GgC·year−1 in L11–20). In this study, NPP had significantly positive correlations with temperature and precipitation as well as significant constraint relationships with rural population density and animal husbandry output value. The findings could provide suggestions for the further implementation of the GFGP and other restoration projects.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051078
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1079: Forage Supply–Demand Assessment and
           Influencing Factor Analysis from the Perspective of Socio-Ecological
           System: A Case Study of Altay Prefecture, China

    • Authors: Zihan Yang, Bo Li, Bo Nan, Yuying Li, Kai Huang, Xu Bi, Yirong Fan, Yao Fan
      First page: 1079
      Abstract: The provision and utilization of grassland resources connect grassland ecosystems and pastoral society. Revealing the mechanism behind the forage supply–demand relationship and balancing forage supply and demand is essential in pastoral socio-ecological systems. Taking Altay Prefecture as the case study, this study quantified the dynamics of natural forage supply, artificial supplemental forage, and forage demand. The ratio of forage supply to demand was calculated in the traditional grazing scenario and the grazing prohibition and supplemental feeding scenario. The results showed that during 2001–2018, the forage supplied by natural grasslands fluctuated, with the highest and lowest values in 2013 and 2008, respectively. The artificial supplemental forage increased at a higher rate in 2011–2018 than in 2001–2010. The overall trend of forage demand was upward, at approximately 2.98 × 104 t/a. The ratio of forage supply to demand decreased in the traditional scenario with an average value of 0.4717 and increased in the grazing prohibition and supplemental feeding scenario with an average value of 0.8289. The influencing factors were analyzed from the perspective of the interactions between the socio-ecological system elements, and the forage supply–demand relationships were conceptualized based on the social–ecological system framework. This study concludes that natural grasslands cannot entirely meet the increasing forage demand without artificial supplemental forage. The increasing artificial supplemental forage has promoted a balance between forage supply and demand, indicating an optimized grassland utilization pattern. The factors that affect forage supply–demand relationships are interrelated, and a holistic perspective should be adopted when implementing management measures.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051079
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1080: Rural Transformation Development and Its
           Influencing Factors in China’s Poverty-Stricken Areas: A Case Study
           of Yanshan-Taihang Mountains

    • Authors: Yuanzhi Guo, Wenyue Zhong
      First page: 1080
      Abstract: Rural China has undergone a rapid transformation in the past few decades, especially the poverty-stricken areas, making a historic leap from inadequate subsistence to full well-off status. Based on rural regional system theory, this study analyzes the connotation of rural transformation development (RTD), explores the spatio-temporal patterns of RTD in the Yanshan-Taihang Mountainous, and diagnoses its influencing factors using a geographically and temporally weighted regression model. The results show that RTD is a dynamic process of qualitative changes in rural regional systems based on the accumulation of quantitative changes of elements, and the key to its measurement lies in analyzing the coupling coordination degree between quantitative changes of elements. From 2000 to 2020, the rapid development of urban population share, non-agricultural industry share, construction land share and NDVI in the Yanshan-Taihang Mountains contributed to a leap in RTD status, and the proportion of counties in a coupling coordination state increased from 24.24% to 96.97%. Spatially, the RTD level in the Taihang Mountains was significantly superior to that in the Yanshan Mountains. Average years of schooling, road density, per capita GDP and urban–rural dual structure were the main influencing factors of RTD, of which the first three were positive factors and the last one presented a negative correlation. To promote RTD to a higher level, it is an urgent matter to boost the high-quality development of county economy and rural education, improve public transportation infrastructure and innovate the policy system.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051080
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1081: Factors Determining Concurrent Reclamation and
           Abandonment of Cultivated Land on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    • Authors: Yiming Sang, Liangjie Xin
      First page: 1081
      Abstract: The Tibetan Plateau has important functions, such as water and soil conservation, wind and sand control, carbon fixation, and biodiversity protection. Agricultural development on the Tibetan Plateau not only maintains local food security but is also related to the important ecological functions in China and Asia. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of reclaimed and abandoned cultivated land in the Yarlung Zangbo–Lhasa–Nyangqu River (YLN) region on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 2000 to 2020 using high-resolution remote sensing data. Additionally, this study explored the factors influencing spatial distribution patterns using a landscape pattern index and correlation analysis. The results showed that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, cultivated land reclamation and abandonment coexisted in the YLN region. The total areas of reclaimed and abandoned cultivated land were 558.57 and 196.85 km2, and their growth and abandonment rates were 25.47 and 8.29%, respectively. (2) Apparent regional differences existed in the distribution of reclaimed and abandoned lands. The reclaimed land was concentrated in the northeast and southwest of YLN, whereas abandoned land was scattered, with relatively higher fragmentation than in the former. (3) Climate and location affected the spatial distribution of both land types, with precipitation, aspect, and SOM having less influence and temperature, elevation, slope, traffic conditions, and farming radius having relatively prominent influence. (4) Socioeconomic factors were the main factors driving changes in cultivated land area in the region, wherein grain output and the number of livestock positively impacted reclamation and abandonment, relatively more significantly for reclamation. This study helps to understand the land use changes and their impacts in the YLN region on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is of great significance for formulating appropriate sustainable development strategies and land management policies, and ensuring the sustainable development of local ecological environment and cultivated land resources utilization.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051081
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1082: Book Review: Mertens, E. Resilient City
           Landscape Architecture for Climate Change; Birkhäuser: Basel,
           Switzerland, 2022; ISBN: 978-3035622348

    • Authors: Majid Amani-Beni, Mohammad Reza Khalilnezhad
      First page: 1082
      Abstract: Today, a majority of the global populace resides in urban areas and requires healthy surroundings to prosper and fulfill their potential [...]
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051082
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1083: Application of RMMF-Based GIS Model for Soil
           Erosion Assessment in Andaman Ecosystem

    • Authors: Sirisha Adamala, Ayyam Velmurugan, Nikul Kumari, T. Subramani, T. P. Swarnam, V. Damodaran, Ankur Srivastava
      First page: 1083
      Abstract: Water erosion is one of the major land degradation problems all over the globe, and its accurate quantification in different land use contexts is required in order to propose suitable conservation measures and curtail related hazards. In the Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Islands, the land use changes due to faster urbanization and deforestation practices have led to accelerated erosion at many points around the inhabited Islands. Moreover, agricultural land uses in the A&N Islands are vulnerable to severe soil erosion, mainly due to cultivation practices along the steep slopes and mono-cropping culture. A study was conducted by establishing runoff plots in areas with different land uses to measure soil and nutrient losses and to estimate soil erosion using a semi-process-based soil erosion model, i.e., Revised Morgan Morgan and Finney (RMMF). The RMMF model was calibrated using primary data from runoff plots for the years 2019–21, validated for the year 2022, and applied in a Geographical Information System (GIS) to estimate soil erosion spatially over the Andaman ecosystem. The RMMF model simulated soil erosion during validation with a coefficient determination (R2) greater than 0.87 as compared to measured soil erosion from the runoff plots. The study revealed that annual N, P, and K losses of 41–81%, 42–95%, and 7–23%, respectively, due to runoff from various land uses. The land use land classification analysis of the Andaman Islands revealed that about 88% of the total geographical area is under the forest and mangrove land uses, which exhibited very slight soil erosion of <5 t/ha. This 88% of forest and mangrove areas requires suitable conservation measures such as afforestation and rehabilitation/restoration of mangroves. Moreover, 6% of cultivated areas need terracing, bunding, intercropping, etc., at the highest priority in order to conserve a sustainable Andaman ecosystem. On average, the annual soil loss from the Andaman Islands is 3.13 t/ha. About 6% of the study area exceeds the soil tolerance limit of 2.5–12.5 t/ha/year, which needs suitable soil and water conservation measures at the lowest priority due to economic implications.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051083
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1084: Precision Farming: Barriers of Variable Rate
           Technology Adoption in Italy

    • Authors: Margherita Masi, Jorgelina Di Pasquale, Yari Vecchio, Fabian Capitanio
      First page: 1084
      Abstract: Research dealing with the adoption of various precision agriculture technologies has shown that guidance and recording tools are more widespread than reactive ones (such as variable rate technology), with much lower utilization rates in European case studies. This study aims to analyze the propensity to innovate variable rate technologies among young Italian farmers. A cluster analysis was carried out revealing four groups. The first two groups represent non-adopters who think technological innovation is very complex from a technical point of view, as well as not very accessible as capital-intensive technology. The third and fourth groups represent adopters. The third reports an early level of adoption, still considering the cost of access a major barrier to technology implementation. The fourth, on the other hand, shows a more intensive level and considers the lack of institutional support a major limitation. The cluster with the most intensive adoption is characterized by the youngest age group, the farms with the largest size, and a prevalence of female entrepreneurs. The need for management training in day-to-day business operations upon adoption is detected for all groups. This paper identified relevant drivers and barriers in characterizing the adopting farm of variable rate technologies. Results may offer insights to the policy maker to better calibrate support interventions.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051084
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1085: Coupling and Coordination Relationship between
           Urbanization Quality and Ecosystem Services in the Upper Yellow River: A
           Case Study of the Lanzhou–Xining Urban Agglomeration, China

    • Authors: Wusheng Zhao, Peiji Shi, Ya Wan, Yan Yao
      First page: 1085
      Abstract: The study of the man–land relationship in the urbanization process is the current frontier and focus of international research. How to balance urban development and ecosystem conservation in the Upper Yellow River is a key issue for sustainable development in China. In this study, we evaluated the Lanzhou–Xining urban agglomeration (LXUA) by constructing a multi-dimensional assessment system for urbanization quality and ecosystem services. The efficacy function model, entropy weight method, and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model were used to quantitatively assess the subsystems’ state of development. Then, the coupling model (CD) and the coordination degree (CCD) model were used to explore the coupling coordination relationship and spatial-temporal change characteristics of the composite system. The findings indicate that: (1) In 2020, the quality of urbanization in the LXUA showed the pattern of “double core”. The development of urban centers in each city is insufficient, and the proportion of counties with a low level is too high. (2) Integrated ecosystem services showed an increasing distribution pattern from the northeast to the southwest. Water provision services, soil conservation services and carbon fixation services all showed growth trends. (3) Each county’s composite system was in the run-in stage or highly coupled stage. The subsystems were closely related to each other. (4) The CCD was decreased by 6% between two decades. The number of counties on the verge of disorder was the highest. About 80% of the counties were relatively lagging behind in ecosystem services.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051085
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1086: Social Perception of the Ecosystem Services of
           Prunus serotina subsp. capuli in the Andes of Ecuador

    • Authors: Juan Carlos Carrasco Baquero, Luis Felipe Lema Palaquibay, Carlos Renato Chávez Velásquez, Verónica Caballero-Serrano, Rachel Itle, Dario J. Chavez
      First page: 1086
      Abstract: Ecosystem services (ES) refer to the benefits that people obtain from the ecosystem. In this sense, Prunus serotina is associated with the provision of ES; however, these services have been scarcely studied. The objective of this research was to determine the knowledge and perceptions of individuals in rural areas regarding the importance of ES, as well as the factors that influence them. Surveys were applied in three study areas (Chimborazo, Tungurahua, and Cotopaxi) of the central Andes of Ecuador that detailed the sociodemographic and perception characteristics of ES based on the predefined ES of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA). In the assessment, the interview data were analyzed to obtain the relationships between the variables using Spearman’s correlation in the R-studio software. The results showed that individuals’ level of education, age, and gender play an important role in variations in peoples’ knowledge of ES. A total of 21 ES were identified; the most representative services, according to their ecosystem category, were support (shelter for birds and insects and soil formation), provisioning (food, insecticide, wood, and firewood), regulation (improvement in the quality of air and climate regulation), and culture (scenic beauty and the maintenance of traditions). This analysis of the social perception of ES works as a strategy for the maintenance of Prunus serotina in the orchards and plots of families in the central Andes of Ecuador. The identification of ES through the social perception of their existence facilitates an understanding of the importance of ES in rural localities, which lays the foundation for strategies to be developed in the future for their conservation.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051086
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1087: Object- Versus Pixel-Based Unsupervised Fire
           Burn Scar Mapping under Different Biogeographical Conditions in Europe

    • Authors: Marta Milczarek, Sebastian Aleksandrowicz, Afroditi Kita, Rizos-Theodoros Chadoulis, Ioannis Manakos, Edyta Woźniak
      First page: 1087
      Abstract: Wildfire detection and mapping is crucial for managing natural resources and preventing further environmental damage. In this study, we compared two methods of mapping burn scars using Sentinel-2 satellite imagery, a pixel-based approach and an object-based approach, at test sites located in various climatic zones with diverse land cover synthesis. The study aimed to determine the advantages and limitations of each method in terms of accuracy and precision in detecting burn scars. The results showed that both methods could detect burn scars with high accuracy, but with some limitations. The F1 score was in the range of 0.64–0.89 for the object-based approach, and 0.58–0.90 for the pixel-based approach. The pixel-based method produced a more precise delineation of the burnt area, but it was only suitable for detecting burn scars in a limited area of interest. The object-based method, on the other hand, was able to detect burn scars over a larger area accurately but with some commission errors. The results of both methods were also compared to the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (CEMS) rapid mapping product.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051087
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1088: Assessing Relativeness in the Provision of
           Urban Ecosystem Services: Better Comparison Methods for Improved

    • Authors: Goran Krsnik, Sonia Reyes-Paecke, Keith M. Reynolds, Jordi Garcia-Gonzalo, José Ramón González Olabarria
      First page: 1088
      Abstract: In this study, we evaluated alternative methods for comparing the provision of ecosystem services among urban areas, stressing how the choice of comparison method affects the ability to compare the ecosystem service outcomes, in order to improve the management actions in urban green areas, reduce environmental inequality, and ensure satisfactory levels of human well-being. For the analysis, ten spatial indicators were quantified to assess the provision of urban ecosystem services in Barcelona, Spain, and Santiago, Chile. Two comparison methods were applied in both cities to evaluate the differences in their provision scores. The analysis was performed using the Ecosystem Management Decision Support (EMDS) system, a spatially enabled decision support framework for environmental management. The results depicted changes in the values of the provision of ecosystem services depending on the methodological approach applied. When the data were analysed separately for each city, both cities registered a wide range of provision values across the city districts, varying from very low to very high values. However, when the analysis was based on the data for both cities, the provision scores in Santiago decreased, while they increased in Barcelona, showing relativeness and a discrepancy in their provisions, hindering an appropriate planning definition. Our results emphasise the importance of the choice of comparison approach in the analyses of urban ecosystem services and the need for further studies on these comparison methods.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051088
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1089: Assessment of Urban Ecological Resilience Based
           on PSR Framework in the Pearl River Delta Urban Agglomeration, China

    • Authors: Qiongrui Zhang, Tao Huang, Songjun Xu
      First page: 1089
      Abstract: Studying resilience provides an opportunity to address a range of urban environmental problems. However, existing studies pay little attention to urban ecological resilience (UER), and the system of assessing urban resilience pays little attention to the process attribute of resilience. This study focuses on UER and constructs an evaluation framework based on the pressure _state _response (PSR) framework. The ‘pressure’ indicator morphological resilience (MR) is evaluated using source _sink landscape theory. The ‘state’ indicator density resilience (DR) is evaluated using the ratio of ecological carrying capacity to ecological footprint. The ‘response’ indicator uses indicators of economic structure, vitality, and innovation for evaluation. We found that the MR and DR of the study area in 2020 showed a spatial layout of low in the central area and high in the peripheral areas, while the high-value ER area was in the central part. The average district and county MR was 1.44, DR was between 0.003 and 1.975, and ER was 0.32; overall, ER and MR are better in the study area, but DR is worse. The spatial layout of comprehensive UER was found to be low in the middle and high in the periphery of the study area. Some areas with low MR and DR have high UER, which verifies the compensation effect of ER on urban ecology. This study provides a new method for assessing UER, and the findings can provide useful information for urban planning.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051089
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1090: Effect of Canal Bank Engineering Disturbance on
           Plant Communities: Analysis of Taxonomic and Functional Beta Diversity

    • Authors: Brittany E. Pugh, Richard Field
      First page: 1090
      Abstract: We aimed to determine how patterns of functional and taxonomic dissimilarities and their components differ between disturbed and undisturbed plant communities. Taxonomic (species) and functional (trait) diversity are key aspects of biodiversity, and their respective dissimilarities are important in diversity scaling and for informing conservation. We utilized a pseudo-experimental setting, the Basingstoke Canal, UK, where sections of canal bank have been repaired over a four-year period and are interspersed with sections left undisturbed. We collected plant community data, computed functional beta diversity and taxonomic beta diversity and partitioned them into species loss and replacement components. We compared disturbed and undisturbed plots with respect to these dissimilarity measures, the time since disturbance, invasive species, plant life-forms and environmental dissimilarity. We found high levels of taxonomic (85–90%) and functional (70–76%) dissimilarities between disturbed and undisturbed sites, primarily driven by turnover. The total dissimilarity was lower for functional dissimilarity than taxonomic dissimilarity. Disturbed sites had greater between-site taxonomic and functional dissimilarities and lower plant abundances than undisturbed sites, driven by both turnover and nestedness components. The disturbed site functional diversity diverged strongly from null expectations. We found no significant effects of time since disturbance, environmental variables or invasive species, possibly indicating the dominance of stochastic, local-scale processes. However, disturbed sites had lower levels of phanerophyte richness and higher levels of therophyte richness. Our results indicate that small-scale disturbances may increase taxonomic and functional between-community dissimilarities in anthropogenic habitats without increasing invasive species, lending support to local-scale conservation that enhances habitat heterogeneity to promote taxonomic diversity and its corresponding biotic functions.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051090
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1091: Analysis of the China’s Interprovincial
           Innovation Connection Network Based on Modified Gravity Model

    • Authors: Kai Zhu, Zhiling Gu, Jingang Li
      First page: 1091
      Abstract: With the arrival of the era of innovative economy, innovation is of great significance for the development of China, and even the world. Based on statistical data and taking 2009, 2014, and 2019 as node years, this study uses the entropy weight method and a modified gravity model to study the pattern and evolution characteristics of China’s interprovincial innovation network. The results showed that: 1. The weights of innovation output, innovation input, and innovation environment were 0.253, 0.340, and 0.407, respectively. Currently, innovation output is the most representative of the interprovincial innovation connections, but the weight of innovation environment has been increasing year by year, and its importance is constantly highlighted. 2. The overall spatial structure of China’s interprovincial innovation network shows a “core periphery” feature, radiating from coastal provinces such as Jiangsu, Beijing, and Zhejiang to inland provinces, and exhibiting an overall pattern of “strong in the east and weak in the west”. 3. In terms of evolutionary characteristics, Guangdong and Jiangsu ranked in the top two in terms of outward innovation scale from 2009 to 2019. The combined total innovation connections of the top five provinces in 2009, 2014, and 2019 accounted for 70.79%, 64.29%, and 64.24%, respectively. Although the phenomenon of uneven innovation connections exists, it has slowed down. In addition, China’s interprovincial innovation network is gradually becoming enriched, with the most significant change being the number of innovation links, with a gravity level increasing from four in 2009 to twenty-six in 2019. The interprovincial innovation links continue to strengthen, but the focus has not changed significantly; it is still concentrated in the Bohai Rim region and the Yangtze River Delta region. 4. In terms of maximum gravitational lines, Guangdong Province had the highest number of maximum gravitational lines in 2009, 2014, and 2019, with a total of six. The maximum gravitational line change from 2009 to 2019 took place from 2014 to 2019, transitioning from “Jilin-Liaoning” to “Jilin-Heilongjiang”.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-18
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051091
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1092: Study on Spatiotemporal Evolution and Driving
           Forces of Habitat Quality in the Basin along the Yangtze River in Anhui
           Province Based on InVEST Model

    • Authors: Yong Cao, Cheng Wang, Yue Su, Houlang Duan, Xumei Wu, Rui Lu, Qiang Su, Yutong Wu, Zhaojun Chu
      First page: 1092
      Abstract: The basin along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province is an important ecological protective screen in the Yangtze River Delta Economic Belt, with a large number of wetlands, lakes, and nature reserves in the basin. The effect of the rapid development of regional urbanization on the ecological environment quality has become an important threat source that restricts ecosystem function and biodiversity protection in the basin. Therefore, this study used InVEST model to analyze the spatial and temporal evolution of habitat quality based on remote sensing image data from 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020 in the basin along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province and revealed the spatial evolution trend of habitat quality degradation by using hot and cold spot analysis methods. The geographical detector model was used to discuss the main driving factors of habitat quality change. The study results showed that a trend of increase and decrease of construction land and paddy land in the basin from 1990 to 2020 was the opposite, that is, the area of construction land increased, and the area of paddy land decreased. Especially, the area of construction land increased from 390.18 km2 in 1990 to 1616.34 km2 in 2020. The area of increase and decrease of other land types remained around 1% to 2%. During the period from 2000 to 2020, Construction land was mainly transferred in from paddy land, accounting for over 60% of the area transferred in, which indicated the continuous increase of human activity intensity in the study area. From 1990 to 2020, the areas with a significant decline in habitat quality in the basin were mainly concentrated along the Yangtze River and in the northern part of the Chaohu Lake. The area proportion with the lowest grade of habitat quality showed a trend of increasing year by year, that is, the area proportion increased from 4.85% in 1990 to 8.47% in 2020. The hot spots of habitat quality degradation were concentrated in Hefei and its surrounding areas, while the cold spots of the degradation were mainly concentrated in the southern and western mountainous areas. Land use type was the main driving factor affecting habitat quality, and the interaction between land use and per capita GDP was the main driving factor for changes in habitat quality. The study results had important theoretical and practical value for the ecological environment protection and harmonious development of the relationship between humans and nature in the basin along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051092
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1093: Predictions of Land Use/Land Cover Change and

    • Authors: Shanshan Wang, Qiting Zuo, Kefa Zhou, Jinlin Wang, Wei Wang
      First page: 1093
      Abstract: Natural vegetation on both sides of the Tarim River Basin (TRB) is the only barrier—a critical ecological niche—between the economic belt in the artificial oasis and the Taklimakan Desert. To understand the impact of human activities on the TRB, we explored the spatial and temporal variations in land use/land cover change (LUCC) and landscape pattern evolution from 2000 to 2020. These variations were simulated for 2030 with the 20 years of data using the cellular automata–Markov model and geographical information system analyses. The results predicted substantial LUCCs in the lower reaches of the Tarim River (TRlr), with 3400 km2 (20.29%) of the total area (16,760.94 km2) undergoing changes. Wetland, artificial land, grassland, farmland, and forestland areas increased by 578.59, 43.90, 339.90, 201.62, and 536.11 km2, respectively, during the period from 2020 to 2030. The only decreases were in the Gobi/other deserts and bare soils (1700.13 km2). We also determined current and future changes in TRlr landscape pattern indices at the class and landscape levels. Combined with a field survey and hydrological data, theoretical support for effective land use management strategies is provided. The findings offer a scientific basis for future ecological civilization construction and sustainable development in the TRB.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051093
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1094: Economic Valuation of Mangroves and a Linear
           Mixed Model-Assisted Framework for Identifying Its Main Drivers: A Case
           Study in Benin

    • Authors: Corine Bitossessi Laurenda Sinsin, Alice Bonou, Kolawolé Valère Salako, Rodrigue Castro Gbedomon, Romain Lucas Glèlè Kakaï
      First page: 1094
      Abstract: Mangroves are brackish wetland ecosystems found in tropical areas. They are highly productive ecosystems that contribute to the economic empowerment of local communities. Proper estimation of their monetary value and the extent of their contribution to rural households’ income, although challenging, is paramount for sustainable management decisions. This study aimed to estimate the total economic wealth earned from mangrove ecosystems in Benin. Specifically, the study assessed the diversity of ecosystem services (ESs) provided by mangroves and the contribution of ESs to the total annual economic value of mangroves, and it identified socio-demographic drivers of the total economic value at the individual informant level. In total, 298 informants from 15 villages were interviewed to determine the diversity of mangrove ESs. The ESs were then gathered per category. Household-level economic values of mangroves, economic values of mangroves per ES category, and total economic value were estimated by combining diverse approaches. The contribution of each category of ES to the total economic value (TEV) was determined. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to describe the relationships between the economic value of categories of ESs. A Linear Mixed Effect Model (LMEM) was used to determine valid socio-demographic drivers of the TEV. Twenty-nine ESs were identified, with regulation and recreation services being the best contributors to annual TEV, which was estimated at USD 1.29 billion (USD 195,223.69/hectare). Stakeholdership followed by household size are the main socio-demographic drivers of TEV. The identified ESs and their estimated economic value can be incorporated into policy briefs and technical sheets to (i) promote ESs for the optimisation of TEV and (ii) raise awareness and funding for the conservation and sustainable management of mangrove ecosystems.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051094
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1095: Investigating Near-Surface Hydrologic
           Connectivity in a Grass-Covered Inter-Row Area of a Hillslope Vineyard
           Using Field Monitoring and Numerical Simulations

    • Authors: Vedran Krevh, Lana Filipović, Jasmina Defterdarović, Igor Bogunović, Yonggen Zhang, Zoran Kovač, Andrew Barton, Vilim Filipović
      First page: 1095
      Abstract: The interplay of surface and shallow subsurface fluxes plays a critical role in controlling water movement in hillslope agroecosystems and impacting soil and plant health during prolonged dry periods, demonstrating a need for in-field monitoring. This study was conducted for two years (2021–2022) by combining field monitoring of the grass-covered inter-row area (passive wick lysimeter, surface runoff, and meteorological data), laboratory determination of soil hydraulic properties (SHPs), and numerical modeling with the aim to explore near-surface fluxes at the SUPREHILL Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) located on a hillslope vineyard. Additionally, sensitivity analysis for basic root water uptake (RWU) parameters was conducted. The model was evaluated (R2, RMSE, and NSE) with lysimeter (hillslope) and runoff (footslope) data, producing good agreement, but only after the inverse optimization of laboratory estimated hydraulic conductivity was conducted, demonstrating that adequate parameterization is required to capture the hydropedological response of erosion-affected soil systems. Results exhibit the dependence of runoff generation on hydraulic conductivity, rainfall, and soil moisture conditions. The data suggest different soil-rewetting scenarios based on temporal rainfall variability. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that Leaf Area Index (LAI) was the most responsive parameter determining the RWU. The study offers an approach for the investigation of fluxes in the topsoil for similar sites and/or crops (and covers), presenting the methodology of self-constructed soil–water collection instruments.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051095
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1096: Aboriginal Community Views about a Native
           Plant-Based Enterprise Development in Northern Australia

    • Authors: Julian Gorman, Gretchen Ennis, Penelope Wurm, Melissa Bentivoglio, Chris Brady
      First page: 1096
      Abstract: As global populations rapidly increase, there is a need to maintain sustainable landscapes through innovative agricultural systems and practices that continue to work towards addressing Sustainable Development Goal 2, Zero Hunger. Indigenous people around the world seek culturally appropriate and sustainable livelihood opportunities to improve their socioeconomic status, and there is a rich diversity of existing globally important agricultural heritage systems that have been developed by Indigenous cultures over millennia. Wild harvest of plant products is an innovative agricultural practice which has been conducted by Aboriginal Australians for thousands of years and is a more acceptable form of agriculture on Aboriginal land than more intensive forms, such as horticulture. Wild harvest is typically more culturally appropriate, less intensive, and involves less impact. However, enterprise development programs in Aboriginal communities across Northern Australia have historically had very limited economic success. Such communities often experience high welfare dependency and few economic development opportunities. This research takes a case study approach to explore community views about the development of an Aboriginal plant-based enterprise in the Northern Territory, Australia. We used qualitative methods to engage with community members about their experiences, current attitudes, and future aspirations towards the Enterprise. We found that there was broad support from across all sectors of the community for the Enterprise and clear understanding of its monetary and non-monetary benefits. However, there was limited knowledge of, and involvement in, the business beyond the role of provider and producer, and of the governance aspects of the Enterprise. Using this case study as our focus, we advocate for deeper understanding and stronger inclusion of community aspirations, realities, and perspectives on Aboriginal economic development. Cultural values and knowledge need to inform business development. Additionally, there is a need to invest in basic infrastructure to account for the low base of private asset ownership in this context. A holistic, multifunctional landscape approach is required to support sustainable agricultural practices on Aboriginal lands across Northern Australia.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051096
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1097: Bibliometrics on Public Utilities Registration

    • Authors: Grgo Dželalija, Miodrag Roić
      First page: 1097
      Abstract: Public utilities, such as electricity, water, heat, oil, gas, and electronic communication, are a vital component of every modern society. With rising urbanisation, more complex buildings and infrastructure, underground and overground construction, as well as a limited amount of space in such areas, the proper registration of utilities has become more important than ever. A bibliometric analysis was conducted on the research topic of public utilities’ registration. On publications retrieved from the Scopus database concerned with the topic of public utilities in land administration a bibliometric performance analysis and a scientific mapping analysis were conducted. A total of 241 publications containing the keyword ‘utilities’ or ‘infrastructure’, together with the keyword ‘cadastre’ or ‘land administration’, in their titles, abstracts, or keywords were selected for this research. The outcomes of the performed analysis were also compared with the outcomes of analysis of publications concerned with land administration research in general. Our results revealed that research conducted on the topic of public utilities registration has increased but is still rare compared to the research conducted on land administration in general. Our results also showed the importance of the development of three-dimensional cadastres, as well as standard models, such as the ISO standard Land Administration Domain Model, for including utilities in land administration.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051097
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1098: Challenges and Solutions for Forest
           Biodiversity Conservation in Sweden: Assessment of Policy, Implementation
           Outputs, and Consequences

    • Authors: Per Angelstam, Terrence Bush, Michael Manton
      First page: 1098
      Abstract: Swedish policies aim at conserving biological production, biodiversity, cultural heritage and recreational assets. This requires compositionally and structurally functional networks of representative habitats, the processes that maintain them, and resilient ecosystems. The term green infrastructure (GI) captures this. We review (1) policy concerning forest biodiversity conservation from the 1990s; (2) the implementation outputs, including the formulation of short-term and evidence-based long-term goals for protected areas, education, and the development of hierarchical spatial planning; (3) the consequences in terms of formally protected and voluntarily set-aside forest stands, as well as conservation management and habitat restoration. We assess the successes and failures regarding policy, outputs and consequences, discuss challenges to be addressed, and suggest solutions. Policies capture evidence-based knowledge about biodiversity, and evidence-based conservation planning as an output. However, the desired consequences are not met on the ground. Thus, the amount of formally protected and voluntary set-aside forests are presently too low, and have limited quality and poor functional connectivity. GI functionality is even declining because of forestry intensification, and insufficient conservation. Challenges include limited collaborative learning among forest and conservation planners, poor funding to conserve forest habitats with sufficient size, quality and connectivity, and national politics that ignores evidence-based knowledge. As solutions, we highlight the need for diversification of forest management systems with a landscape perspective that matches forest owner objectives and regional social-ecological contexts. This requires integrative approaches to knowledge production, learning and spatial planning.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051098
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1099: Optimal Modeling of Sustainable Land Use
           Planning under Uncertain at a Watershed Level: Interval Stochastic Fuzzy
           Linear Programming with Chance Constraints

    • Authors: Bingkui Qiu, Yan Tu, Guoliang Ou, Min Zhou, Yifan Zhu, Shuhan Liu, Haoyang Ma
      First page: 1099
      Abstract: In this paper, an uncertain interval stochastic fuzzy chance constraint land use optimal allocation method is proposed and applied to solve the problem of land use planning in river basins. The UISFCL-LUP method is an aggregation of interval parametric programming, fuzzy linear programming and chance constraint programming which can cope with uncertain problems such as interval value, fuzzy set and probability. In this paper, the uncertain mathematical method is explored and studied in the optimal allocation of land use in the next two planning periods of Nansihu Lake Basin in China. Moreover, it was proved that ISFCL-LUP can deal with the uncertainty of interval, membership function and probability representation and can also be used to solve the land use planning and land use strategy analysis under uncertain conditions. On the basis of model calculations, we obtained the optimal allocation results for six types of land use in four regions over two planning periods based on different environmental constraints. The results show that the optimized λ value (that is, the degree of satisfaction with all the model conditions) is in the range of [0.54, 0.79] and the corresponding system benefits are between [18.4, 20.4] × 1012 RMB and [96.7, 109.3] × 1012 RMB. The results indicate that land managers can make judgments based on the different socio-economic development needs of different regions and determine strategic land use allocation plans under uncertain conditions. At the same time, the model obtained interval solutions under different system satisfaction and constraint violation probabilities, which helps land managers to analyze the importance of land system optimization and sustainable development more deeply.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051099
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1100: How Does New Energy Demonstration City Policy
           Promote Urban Land Use Efficiency in China' The Mediating Effect of
           Industrial Structure

    • Authors: Mengcheng Wang, Nana Lin, Youming Dong, Yifeng Tang
      First page: 1100
      Abstract: As an effective measure to solve the dilemma of urban energy consumption and economic development, the new energy demonstration city (NEDC) policy in China could greatly promote the development of the new energy industry and urban economy. This study aims to explore how the NEDC policy effectively promotes the growth of urban land use efficiency (ULUE), an essential indicator of economic development, through the urban industrial structure. Based on the panel data of 285 Chinese cities during 2003–2019, this study took the NEDC policy as a quasi-natural experiment and employed the PSM-DID method and the mediating effect model to objectively evaluate its policy effects. We found that the NEDC policy could significantly promote the growth of the ULUE. Specifically, the ULUE has been significantly improved by 17.0%. The NEDC policy could also promote the ULUE indirectly through the mediating effect of industrial structure advancement (ISA), but the mediating effect of industrial structure rationalization (ISR) was not significant. Furthermore, the promotional effect of the NEDC policy on the ULUE has regional heterogeneity. Compared with eastern cities and high-innovation cities, central and western cities and medium-innovation and low-innovation cities can obtain much higher promotion effects. This study may provide some policy inspiration for policymakers to support low-corban and sustainable economic development and urban land use.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-20
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051100
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1101: Land Use/Land Cover Change Analysis Using
           Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Data: A Case Study of Tigris and Euphrates
           Rivers Basin

    • Authors: Azher Ibrahim Al-Taei, Ali Asghar Alesheikh, Ali Darvishi Boloorani
      First page: 1101
      Abstract: Multi-temporal land use/land cover (LULC) change analysis is essential for environmental planning and recourses management. Various global LULC datasets are available now. However, they do not show strong consistency on a regional scale and are mainly time limited. Therefore, high-quality multi-temporal LULC mapping with reasonable consistency on a regional scale is still demanding. In this study, using the Landsat 7, Landsat 8, and the NASA digital elevation model (DEM), LULC mapping of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers basin (TEB) was performed by random forest (RF) classifier in the Google Earth Engine platform during 2000–2022. The spectral bands, spectral indices, morphological, and textural features were applied in the developed procedure. The results indicated that the proposed approach had accurate performance (accuracy = 0.893 and an F score = 0.820) with a good consistency with previous studies. The feature importance evaluation was carried out using Gini index, and spectral indices were identified as the most important features in LULC mapping. Overall, severe LULC change has happened in the TEB during the last two decades. Our results revealed the expansion of water and built-up classes while trees class has experienced a decreasing trend. From a regional perspective, three main areas in the east and south-east of Iraq, north-west of Iraq, and east of Syria were identified where LULC change was intense. These areas are prone to land degradation and dust storms emission problems, and it is necessary to take steps to prevent severe LULC changes in them.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051101
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1102: Review of Valuation of Forest Ecosystem
           Services and Realization Approaches in China

    • Authors: Shiliang Liu, Yuhong Dong, Hua Liu, Fangfang Wang, Lu Yu
      First page: 1102
      Abstract: Forests are essential for the provision of water, financial resources, food, and carbon, and offer immense ecosystem service values. The accurate, quantitative, and objective evaluation of forest ecosystem service (FES) values can help uncover methods for realizing ecological product value, which in turn supports forest conservation and ecological benefit enhancement. In China, FES valuation methods are diverse and tailored to specific objectives, encompassing matter quantity assessment, value quantity assessment, energy value analysis, and landscape ecological modeling methods. The “Forest Ecosystem Service Function Assessment Specification” guideline plays a crucial role in fostering standardized valuation. Carbon-related ecosystem services have been increasingly studied in China; however, valuation challenges remain, including data accuracy, the double counting of ecosystem services, methodological limitations, and the incomplete assessment of non-use values. Regarding value realization, the development of payment for ecosystem services (PES), ecological product benefit trading (EPBT), ecological premiums, and ecological industries has seen gradual progresses in recent years. However, realization approaches still depend on government support, and the establishment of market-oriented strategies requires further reinforcement. Enhancing FES valuation necessitates the integration of interdisciplinary and multi-method approaches, as well as the creation of an accounting and assessment mechanism. Realization approaches must not only be continuously expanded but also consistently innovated over time. It is essential to consider the impact of market development on FES valuation; establish robust realization approaches; reinforce promotional and guarantee mechanisms; and increase the efficacy of policy management.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051102
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1103: Multi-Perspective Analysis of Land Changes in
           the Transitional Zone between the Mu Us Desert and the Loess Plateau in
           China from 2000 to 2020

    • Authors: Yunzhi Zhang, Tongyan Zheng, Chen Yu, Jing Ren, Xuegang Gong, Hao Wang, Yihao Duan
      First page: 1103
      Abstract: The transition zone between the Mu Us Sandy Land and the Loess Plateau is considered an ecologically fragile area. However, significant changes in land use have occurred in the past few decades due to changes in land policies and the implementation of major national ecological projects. Despite this, there is still a lack of clear investigation into the impact of these changes on the landscape structure and ecological health of the area. This study utilizes high-resolution annual land use data from China, along with multi-index models and algorithms, to comprehensively analyze regional land use changes, landscape patterns, and the ecological environment’s quality. Through a comprehensive analysis of various factors, including changes in quantity, transformation in land types, spatial dynamics, landscape structure, and ecological quality, we aim to provide a better understanding of the complex interactions between land use and ecological systems in this area. The research results indicate that: (1) Since 2000, 9057.4 km2 of land in the study area has undergone changes. The grassland area has the largest increase, the forest area has the fastest growth rate, while cropland and barren land have decreased to varying degrees, and impervious surface has slightly expanded. (2) The movement trajectory of the center of gravity for different land types is closely related to human activities such as land development and utilization, as well as ecological restoration. Land changes have resulted in an escalation of landscape fragmentation, a reduction in landscape diversity, and a decline in the uniform distribution of different types. (3) Ecological land is the key to improving the ecological environment. The increase in ecological land area in the study area has led to an improvement in the quality of the ecological environment. The net contribution rate of land change to ecological improvement reaches 1.99%. The analysis methods and perspectives used in this study can be applied to other similar studies. The study’s findings enhance the understanding of how land and vegetation changes affect the ecological environment in this crucial area. They are of great significance in guiding the development and utilization of land resources and the implementation of ecological environment projects.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051103
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1104: Land Use Transition and Its Driving Mechanism
           of “Human–Elephant” Conflicts Zone in Yunnan, China

    • Authors: Yuan Wang, Zhiyu Liu, Yanfang Wen, Yahui Wang
      First page: 1104
      Abstract: In recent years, the issue of “human–elephant” conflict in the south of the Yunnan Province, China has been escalating and poses a severe threat to the livelihoods of local residents. To address this problem, this study utilized survey data from farmers in Pu’er City and villages in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province. By employing land input–output analysis and spatial analysis methods, this study aims to uncover the land use transition in the research area over the past three decades and identify the driving mechanism behind this transition. The findings of this research can provide valuable guidance for reducing regional conflicts between humans and wild animals, as well as improving the livelihoods of farmers. Research indicates that farmers in the study area have significantly transformed their land use practices. The per capita arable land area has increased, and traditional grain crops are being replaced with economically profitable crops such as rubber. Rubber is the predominant crop in the conflict-prone “human–elephant” core region, while other economic crops dominate the peripheral region. The overall land use index has risen, with a greater diversity and stability in land use structure. However, the input–output efficiency of cultivated land in the “human–elephant” core region remains low, leading to a lower comprehensive land use index than that of the peripheral region. The land use transition is influenced by several factors, including socio-economic development, changes in crop comparative benefits, and the activities of wild Asian elephants. Frequent crop destruction by elephants, which results in damage to farmers’ livelihoods, is the primary cause of land use changes in “human–elephant” conflict areas. Ultimately, this conflict stems from the competition for regional land resources between humans and elephants, as humans dominate production space while elephants dominate ecological space. Local governments should optimize the layout of regional production and ecological spaces to alleviate these conflicts while also regulating circulation markets and improving farmers’ land output levels.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051104
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1105: Assessing the Livelihood Vulnerability of
           Nomads to Changing Climate in the Third Pole Region of Nepal

    • Authors: Rijan Bhakta Kayastha, Woo-Kyun Lee, Nischal Shrestha, Sonam Wangyel Wang
      First page: 1105
      Abstract: This study was performed in Nepal’s Langtang and Shey Phoksundo National Parks (NPs) to find out how vulnerable the nomads’ ways of making a living are to climate change. We interviewed 68 household heads between March and May 2022 to obtain information on 13 components and 46 indicators. The original data were backed up by an analysis of the published and unpublished literature that was available. A composite index was used to combine the data, and different vulnerabilities were compared. As nomads in both NPs rely mostly on natural resources for energy, water, and food, the findings revealed that land, energy, water, sanitation, and natural resources are the most important factors influencing nomads’ livelihood vulnerability in both NPs. Although herders in Shey Phoksundo NP suffered less loss as a result of climate change-related natural disasters, human–wildlife conflict was a major issue in both parks. Both the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) and LVI–IPCC suggested that both national parks were moderately vulnerable to climate change indicators. The results are likely to serve as empirical evidence for future strategies, such as implementing policy measures aimed at reducing the sensitivity of habitat conditions, increasing societal resilience, introducing sustainable livelihood alternatives, and improving individual stability.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051105
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1106: Scale-Dependent Field Partition Based on Water
           Retention Functional Data

    • Authors: Annamaria Castrignanò, Ladan Heydari, Hossein Bayat
      First page: 1106
      Abstract: Functional data are being used increasingly in recent years and in many environmental sciences, such as hydrology applied to agriculture. This means that the output, instead of a scalar variable represented by a spatial map, is given by a function. Furthermore, in site-specific management, there is a need to delineate the field into management areas depending on the agricultural procedure and on the scale of application. In this paper, an approach based on multivariate geostatistics is illustrated that uses the parameters of Dexter’s water retention model and some soil properties to arrive at a multiscale delineation of an agricultural field in Iran. One hundred geo-referenced soil samples were taken and subjected to various measurements. The volumetric water contents at the different suctions were fitted to Dexter’s model. The estimated curve parameters plus the measurements of the soil variables were transformed into standardized Gaussian variables and the values transformed were subjected to geostatistical cokriging and factorial cokriging procedures. These results show that soil properties (organic carbon, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and tensile strength of soil aggregates) influence the parameters of Dexter’s model, although to different extents. The thematic maps of both soil properties and water retention curve parameters displayed a varying degree of spatial association that allowed the identification of homogeneous areas within the field. The first regionalized factors (F1) at the scales of 508 m and 3000 m made it possible to provide different delineations of the field into homogeneous areas as a function of scale, characterized by specific physical and hydraulic properties. F1 at a short and long distance could be interpreted as “porosity indicator” and “hydraulic indicator”, respectively. Such type of field delineation proves particularly useful in sustainable irrigation management. This paper emphasizes the importance of taking the spatial scale into account in precision agriculture.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051106
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1107: Post-Tin-Mining Agricultural Soil Regeneration
           Using Local Organic Amendments Improve Nitrogen Fixation and Uptake in a
           Legume–Cassava Intercropping System

    • Authors: Rizki Maftukhah, Katharina M. Keiblinger, Ngadisih Ngadisih, Murtiningrum Murtiningrum, Rosana M. Kral, Axel Mentler, Rebecca Hood-Nowotny
      First page: 1107
      Abstract: The low nitrogen content of Bangka Island’s post-tin-mining soil may limit its suitability for agricultural production. In this study, we investigated the effect of locally available organic soil amendments on nitrogen fixation (N2–fixation) and crop nitrogen (N) uptake in a cassava–legume intercrop system. Cassava was intercropped with centrosema in post-tin-mining soils with six treatments, including a control and different soil amendments, such as dolomite, compost, charcoal, a combined treatment of charcoal and compost, and a combined treatment of compost and sawdust. The percentages of N derived from N2-fixation (%Ndfa) with the different seasons and treatments were comparable. Nonetheless, due to the higher shoot biomass accumulation, the mass of N2–fixation in soil amended with compost and when combined with charcoal was significantly higher than the control (50 to 73 kg ha−1). Treatments with compost and its combination with charcoal exhibited higher N uptake from the cassava–centrosema intercropped system (82 and 137 kg ha−1) and higher inorganic ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the soil at harvest time (5.5 and 6.7 µg g−1). When combined with organic soil amendments, N2–fixation from centrosema produces not only higher biomass, but also higher N contribution to the system. Overall, locally available organic amendments, particularly the combined application of charcoal and compost, showed promise for improving N2–fixation of intercrop centrosema as well as for increasing N availability in the soil, which is of critical importance for crop growth in post-mining soils that have lost fertility.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051107
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1108: Responses of Vegetation Phenology to
           Urbanisation and Natural Factors along an Urban-Rural Gradient: A Case
           Study of an Urban Agglomeration on the Northern Slope of the Tianshan

    • Authors: Gulbakram Ahmed, Mei Zan, Pariha Helili, Alimujiang Kasimu
      First page: 1108
      Abstract: Understanding the responses of vegetation phenology to natural and human disturbances is essential for better understanding ecosystems. In this study, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data and products were used together with other relevant data to analyse vegetation phenological responses to urbanisation and natural factors in the major urban agglomerations of the Urumqi-Changji, Shihezi-Manasi, and Wusu-Kuidun-Dushanzi regions on the Urban Agglomeration on the Northern Slope of the Tianshan Mountains (UANSTM). Vegetation phenology distributed along an urban-rural gradient showed distinct variability, with start of growing season (SOS), end of growing season (EOS), and growing season length (GSL) occurring earlier, later, and longer, respectively, in urban areas than those in suburban and rural areas. In the Urumqi-Changji region, the earliest SOS, the later EOS, and the longest GSL occurred. Surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII) was most pronounced in the Urumqi-Changji region, with a heat island intensity of 1.77–3.34 °C. Vegetation phenology was influenced by both urbanisation and natural factors, whose contributions were 44.2% to EOS and 61.8% to SOS, respectively. The results of this study emphasise the importance of quantifying the vegetation phenological responses to human disturbances, including climate change, along the urban-rural gradient on the UANSTM.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051108
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1109: Water as a Problem and a Solution in Arid
           Landscapes: Resilient Practices and Adapted Land Use in the Eastern
           Marmarica (NW-Egypt) between the 2nd Millennium BCE and the 1st Millennium

    • Authors: Anna-Katharina Rieger
      First page: 1109
      Abstract: Arid environments are suitable for researching the resilience of landscapes, since their ecological conditions pose continuous water stress to plants, animals, and humans living there. It is not only water, but also soil that is a limited resource. The arid landscape of the Eastern Marmarica (NW-Egypt) serves as an example for studying the resilience in and of a past landscape and its inhabitants from the 2nd millennium BCE to the 1st millennium CE, which is conceptualised as a ‘social arid landscape’. The adapted life strategies and resilient practices to make a living in the arid environment are reconstructed from (geo-) archaeological evidence, discussing the applicability of the concept of resilience for ancient (landscape) studies. Resilience is an etic concept, depending on the perspective on and scale of a system. With the categories of ‘event’, ‘practice’ and ‘knowledge’, however, various scales can be bridged; life strategies can be defined as communities of practice and dichotomies be solved. Niche dwellings in the ancient Marmarica, where exposure to stress was normal, functioned because of an elaborate water management and the mobility of the people living there. The resilience of the arid social landscape is based on mixed life strategies, where only a multi-factored crisis (economic and climatic) or a series of smaller shocks (many dry years) could have destructive impacts.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051109
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1110: Coastal Wetland Restoration Strategies Based on

    • Authors: Xin Jing, Yuefei Zhuo, Zhongguo Xu, Yang Chen, Guan Li, Xueqi Wang
      First page: 1110
      Abstract: A unique variety of wetlands known as coastal wetlands that connect terrestrial and marine ecosystems is crucial to reducing and adapting to climate change as well as the advancement of human culture. However, the coastal wetland ecosystem is currently in danger as a result of the increasing intensity of human activity, and wetland restoration and reconstruction have garnered a lot of interest. The differentiated ecological restoration strategies based on ecosystem service change analysis can provide a reference for the effective management and sustainability of coastal wetland ecosystems. The InVEST model and ArcGIS were used to analyze the spatiotemporal changes in ecosystem services before and after the implementation of coastal wetland restoration policies based on remote sensing image data, meteorological and soil data, etc. The ecological restoration pattern of coastal wetlands was divided, and the corresponding ecological restoration strategies were proposed in this study. The following are the results: (1) there are still many wetlands that have been converted to non-wetlands following the implementation of the wetland restoration policy, and the ecosystem services as a whole exhibit a rising and then falling trend, with a rise from 2005 to 2015, a fall in 2015 due to the creation of Hangzhou Bay New District, and a slight improvement to 2020. Among them, the water yield increased continuously, the carbon storage fluctuated, and the habitat quality did not improve significantly. (2) The hot spots of ecosystem services were concentrated in the south and southeast of the study area, with no obvious cold spots. (3) By comprehensively analyzing the changes and spatial patterns of ecosystem services, the coastal wetlands on the south bank of Hangzhou Bay were divided into an ecological conservation zone, a green development zone, and an ecological restoration zone at the township level, and corresponding optimization strategies were proposed. The results can provide a reference for the fine-grained and differentiated management of regional ecosystem services.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051110
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1111: Effects of the Implementation of the Broadband
           China Policy (BCP) on House Prices: Evidence from a Quasi-Natural
           Experiment in China

    • Authors: Peng Wang, Yihui He, Kengcheng Zheng
      First page: 1111
      Abstract: With the rapid development of digital finance, the implementation of digital infrastructure is becoming increasingly significant. Broadband construction is an important part of the communication network, and can promote urban infrastructure in cities. However, whether the development of broadband can affect housing prices by affecting the urban infrastructure and the convenience of residents is a question worth addressing. In this study, using panel data regarding cities in China, we used the spatial multi-period difference-in-differences (SDID) model to investigate the utility of the Broadband China Policy (BCP) on urban house prices and the mechanism of impact. We found that the BCP can increase house prices, and that this impact has a positive spatial spillover effect. This conclusion still held after a series of tests such as parallel trend tests, placebo tests, and the exclusion of other policy effects. The BCP can increase house prices by improving urban infrastructure, promoting urbanization, and optimizing urban industrial structure. In addition, we conducted a heterogeneity analysis by taking into consideration the administrative level, economic development level, and location of cities. The findings of this paper not only enrich the research on the BCP and housing prices, they also provide policy recommendations in terms of urban land use and sustainable development.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051111
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1112: Evaluating the Applicability of Global LULC
           Products and an Author-Generated Phenology-Based Map for Regional
           Analysis: A Case Study in Ecuador’s Ecoregions

    • Authors: Gladys Maria Villegas Rugel, Daniel Ochoa, Jose Miguel Menendez, Frieke Van Coillie
      First page: 1112
      Abstract: An accurate and detailed understanding of land-use change affected by anthropogenic actions is key to environmental policy decision-making and implementation. Although global land cover products have been widely used to monitor and analyse land use/land cover (LULC) change, the feasibility of using these products at the regional level needs to be assessed due to the limitation and biases of generalised models from around the world. The main objective of the present study was to generate regional LULC maps of three target areas located in the main ecoregions of Ecuador at a resolution of 10 m using Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud-based computing. Our approach is based on (1) Single Date Classification (SDC) that processes Sentinel-2 data into fuzzy rule-driven thematic classes, (2) rule refinement using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data, and (3) phenology-based synthesis (PBS) classification that combines SDC into LULC based on the occurrence rule. Our results show that the three target areas were classified with an overall accuracy of over 80%. In addition, cross-comparison between the global land cover products and our LULC product was performed and we found discrepancies and inaccuracies in the global products due to the characteristics of the target areas that included a dynamic landscape. Our LULC product supplements existing official statistics and showcases the effectiveness of phenology-based mapping in managing land use by providing precise and timely data to support agricultural policies and ensure food security.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051112
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
  • Land, Vol. 12, Pages 1113: Historical Political Ecology in the Former Lake
           Texcoco: Hydrological Regulation

    • Authors: Carolina Montero-Rosado, Enrique Ojeda-Trejo, Vicente Espinosa-Hernández, Demetrio Fernández-Reynoso, Miguel Caballero Deloya, Gerardo Benedicto Valdés
      First page: 1113
      Abstract: Lake Texcoco in Mexico is a remarkable place for observing how human and natural relationships evolve through time in a landscape. Since the opening of the watershed and the draining of the lake, there have been various attempts to exploit the area, although few have succeeded. This study highlights the importance of historical analysis in identifying socio-natural processes that have historically influenced lake use, degradation, management, and conservation. The novelty of this study lies in its application of a historical political ecology approach to understand the evolving dynamics between power relations and the ecology of the former Lake Texcoco in Mexico Valley. By examining both the ecological and political-economic history of the lake, this study reveals how conflicts related to natural resource management in the past have influenced the ecological dynamics of the present. Overall, this study presents a unique perspective on the socio-natural history of Lake Texcoco, demonstrating the potential of using historical political ecology to understand the long-term effects of environmental change.
      Citation: Land
      PubDate: 2023-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/land12051113
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 5 (2023)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

Your IP address:
Home (Search)
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-