Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
    - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)
    - ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)
    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
    - HEATING, PLUMBING AND REFRIGERATION (6 journals)
    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)
    - INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)
    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals)

ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 97 of 97 Journals sorted alphabetically
Territorios     Open Access  
Territorios en formación     Open Access  
The Evolving Scholar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
The Urban Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for Kortlægning og Arealforvaltning     Open Access  
Town and Regional Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Town Planning and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Town Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Urban     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban Affairs Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
URBAN DESIGN International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Urban Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Urban Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Urban Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Urban Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Land     Free   (Followers: 2)
Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Urban Planning and Design Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Urban Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Urban Science     Open Access  
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Urban Studies Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Urban Transformations     Open Access  
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Urbanisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Urbano     Open Access  
Vitruvian     Open Access  
Vivienda y Ciudad     Open Access  
Yhdyskuntasuunnittelu     Open Access  
ZARCH : Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access  

  First | 1 2     

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Urban Studies
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.628
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 68  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0042-0980 - ISSN (Online) 1360-063X
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • Book review: Globalized Authoritarianism. Megaprojects, Slums and Class
           Relations in Urban Morocco

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      Authors: Federica Duca
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T11:27:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221094927
       
  • Surviving and dying through the urban frontier: Everyday life, social
           brokerage and living with militias in Rio de Janeiro’s West Zone

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      Authors: Nicholas Pope
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Urban margins are typically depicted as residual, apolitical spaces, where delinquent activities take place. But these spaces, with their own social, economic and political goings-on, are capable of drawing established urban economic and political structures into question. This paper brings together urban frontiers, political settlements and brokerage literatures to analyse how residents muddle through the challenges of everyday life in the urban margins and interact with coercive systems of rule. Through ethnographic fieldwork, this paper focuses on two brokers from neighbouring communities in Rio de Janeiro’s West Zone; exploring how they mediate violent conditions, coercive militia rule and limited resources, and why and how they do so to different effects. By focusing on the spatial and historical dimensions of brokerage, this paper argues that power in Rio de Janeiro’s margins derives not only from coercive control and domination, but also from agency, legitimacy and social energy. By doing so, this paper unearths potential for more radical possibilities for urban development.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-14T11:25:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221093181
       
  • Urban Studies Best Article 2021

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      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T11:17:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221101094
       
  • Business improvement districts, class turf war and the strategic
           weaponisation of class monopoly rent

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      Authors: Matthew Anderson, Zachary Arms
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Business improvement districts (BIDs) are understood as a proactive response by locally dependent property owners and businesses aimed at attracting capital investment and consumers back to the central city at a time of increasingly gutted public sector resources. BIDs have yet to be explicitly examined as a form of rent-seeking, even though the primary motivation for property owners to self-impose additional taxes for implementing ‘clean and safe’ programmes is rent. In this context, the self-imposed tax is treated as a speculative investment that will hopefully yield a return in the form of enhanced profit for businesses and rents for landowners. As such, we conceptualise BIDs as not only a form of rent-seeking, but an alliance of private-sector actors engaged in the collaborative and strategic mobilisation of class monopoly rent as a weapon against all perceived barriers to profitability. Based on evidence from Seattle, Washington, the paper deepens our understanding of BIDs by linking this phenomenon to the spatial dynamics of rent within the contemporary neoliberal city and concludes by discussing the implications for what BIDs reveal about class monopoly rent in particular, the kind of class conflict this form of rent configures and its role within wider processes of neoliberal urbanisation.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T02:02:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221092339
       
  • Population density and SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: Comparing the geography of
           different waves in the Netherlands

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      Authors: Willem Boterman
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has boosted public and scholarly debate about the relationship between infectious disease and the urban. Cities are considered contagious because they are hubs in (inter)national networks and contain high densities of people. However, the role of the urban and population density in the spread of pathogens is complex and is mediated by the wider bio-social environment. This paper analyses the role of population density in the outbreak of COVID-19 in the densely and highly urbanised context of the Netherlands. It compares the geography of the different phases in the epidemic and assesses when and where density plays a role. Using municipal data on the rate of infections and hospitalisations, this paper reveals that spatial patterns differ substantially in time, which does not appear to be simple diffusion. Using panel regressions, it is demonstrated that population density plays a role in those stages in which containment and mitigation measures were least strict, while in periods of lockdown other factors such as household size are associated with higher infection rates. It concludes that lockdowns may have greater effect in urban areas as key urban elements are temporarily cancelled out.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T02:01:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221087165
       
  • Does the neighbourhood of the dwelling and the real estate agency
           matter' Geographical differences in ethnic discrimination on the
           rental housing market

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      Authors: Billie Martiniello, Pieter-Paul Verhaeghe
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to investigate to which extent the ethnic and socio-economic composition of the neighbourhood is related to levels of discrimination in the rental housing market and how this is linked to theories of ethnic discrimination. Hereby, we divide the context into the neighbourhood of the dwelling and the real estate agency, using data from 2385 correspondence tests conducted among realtors in the city of Antwerp in Belgium. Regarding the neighbourhood of the dwelling, we find a tipping point at one third ethnic minorities whereafter ethnic discrimination decreases, which is in line with the perceived preference hypothesis and customer-based prejudice. A lower socio-economic composition relates to lower general invitation rates, which we describe as an elaboration of Putnam’s hunkering down hypothesis. Regarding the neighbourhood of the real estate agency, a higher percentage of ethnic minorities leads to lower general invitation rates, also referring to the hunkering down hypothesis. The socio-economic neighbourhood composition of the agency, however, has no impact.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-11T10:26:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221086502
       
  • From the streets to the town halls: Municipalist platforms in the
           post-Yugoslav space

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      Authors: Chiara Milan
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In the last decade, urban social movements that emerged in the Yugoslav successor states decided to form political platforms to enter the institutional arena, often after years of mobilisation for the right to the city. Their aim was to seize power at the local level, trying to provide an answer to the crisis of representative democracy and to oppose the process of centralisation of power. These platforms ran for elections in Zagreb (Croatia) and Belgrade (Serbia), to reclaim local autonomy on societal, environmental, economic and political matters. Based on ethnographic work, document analysis and a series of in-depth interviews with activists, this article explores the trajectories of two platforms, ‘Zagreb Is Ours’ (Zagreb je naš) in Zagreb, Croatia, and ‘We Won’t Let Belgrade D(r)own’ (Ne davimo Beograd) in Belgrade, Serbia. It analyses the factors accounting for the choice of urban activists to embrace new municipalist ideas as strategic ideological and political positioning of their electoral platforms, arguing that the reasons are twofold: the embeddedness into regional and transnational activist networks, which facilitated the process of diffusion of new municipalist ideas across Europe and locally, and the resonance of new municipalism with socialist Yugoslavia’s decentralised system of self-management and direct democracy, an historical experience that the platforms’ initiators partially reappraised.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-08T02:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221090134
       
  • Disposable infrastructures: ‘Micromobility’ platforms and the
           political economy of transport disruption in Austin, Texas

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      Authors: John Stehlin, Will Payne
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The rapid rise of digital platform-based transportation services over the past decade has begun to transform urban mobility. Fleets of dockless bicycles and scooters – or ‘micromobility’– represent the newest horizon of investment, particularly in the United States. Micromobility platforms launch rapidly, with minimal public planning or funding and no fixed infrastructure, using inexpensive, GPS-connected vehicles stored in public space. These platforms represent a deepening of the neoliberalisation of transport, in which infrastructural properties emerge biopolitically from the dynamics of private platforms. This article examines public debates over the regulation of micromobility platforms in Austin, Texas, in early 2018. Drawing on interviews with city officials and bikesharing professionals, observation of public meetings and GIS analysis of usage data, we argue that conflicts we observed over new micromobility platforms – specifically ‘clutter’, equity in geographic coverage and data privacy – obscured the deeper political economy of platformisation and the austerity that limited the effectiveness of the existing public station-based bikeshare system. In Austin, the search for ‘innovative’ micromobility transportation at no public cost resulted in the further erosion of the underfunded public system. We argue that despite their flexible, low-carbon image, existing micromobility platforms in the United States largely exploit rather than address inadequacies of urban transport.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-06T11:38:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221091486
       
  • Constructing comparisons: Reflecting on the experimental nature of new
           comparative tactics

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      Authors: Frances Brill
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In this commentary I reflect on experimental approaches to comparative urbanism emerging in recent papers. Drawing on the methodological approaches employed in the special issue on Comparative Methods for Global Urban Studies, I highlight the way in which a more reactive and responsive approach – to both pre-existing conditions and understandings of urban development, as well as realities faced during fieldwork and analysis – have elucidated new ways of thinking with and through different cities to productively push forward the comparative urbanism agenda. In doing so I build on the long history of comparative approaches in urban studies to argue that experimenting with how we put new places into existing conversations, within a particular project or beyond, can be hugely powerful in transforming the way in which comparison is conducted in urban studies and geography.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T11:30:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221089590
       
  • An experiment with the minor geographies of major cities: Infrastructural
           relations among the fragments

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      Authors: Niranjana R
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Research on urban water infrastructures has seldom reached across the Global North-South divide owing to their apparent developmental incommensurability. Yet, the universalising tendencies of urban theory has meant that cities of the Global South are often deemed to have ‘fragmented’ infrastructures or incomplete circulations in implicit comparison to the northern infrastructural ideal. So, in order to truly ‘world’ the study of infrastructures and cities, it is important to go beyond these dominant paradigms and attend to how infrastructures actually work and what socio-technical implications they have in cities of the Global South and North. Building on these provocations, this paper places the water infrastructures of two ‘most different cities’– Chennai, India and London, UK – alongside each other in ‘experimental comparison’, where the aim is not to arrive at paradigmatic urban theory but to highlight heterogeneity and excavate themes for further critical thinking on each case. This paper will delineate the dialogic and reflexive method of research and analysis adopted, tracing how it led to the practice of ‘minor theory’, which focuses on processes that do not find expression in dominant universalising analyses. Here, minor theory is mobilised towards challenging dominant or major constructs about each city and across cities, while amplifying urban multiplicities and enabling a deeper engagement with infrastructure making in the Global South and North, thus expanding urban studies’ toolbox of critical thinking.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T04:55:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221084260
       
  • Introduction: Generating concepts of ‘the urban’ through
           comparative practice

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      Authors: Jennifer Robinson
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This Introduction to the special issue, ‘Comparative Methods for Global Urban Studies’, outlines the basis for a reformatted comparative method inspired by the complex spatialities of the urban world. The articles in the volume each bring forward innovative approaches to comparative methods which support wider conceptualisations of urban processes and urban experiences. The articles in this volume consider a wide range of urban contexts and collectively move beyond geopolitically imprecise propositions of ‘southern’ urbanism to embrace the wider comparative agenda of thinking with both the diversity and the profound interconnectedness of the urban globally. The articles contribute to decentring urban studies, opening conceptualisation to a range of different contexts and differently positioned writers. They also speak to the analytical and methodological challenges posed by current trends in global urbanisation, as dispersed, fragmented and extending over vast territories. Thinking with the multiple elsewheres of any urban context invites a comparative imagination – this introduction draws together the creative ways in which authors in this volume have responded to this potential. Processes of conceptualisation both emerge from and more acutely reveal the spatiality and nature of the global urban: comparative method, then, also proposes a certain mode of theorisation of the urban.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T06:55:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221092561
       
  • New institutions and the politics of the interstices. Experimenting with a
           face-to-face democracy in Naples

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      Authors: Mauro Pinto, Luca Recano, Ugo Rossi
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyses the politics of new municipalism in Naples in relation to the constellation of ‘new institutions’ that has arisen from this politics. These ‘new institutions’ are illustrative of a politics of the interstices as a distinctive trait of the convergence between city government and social movements in Naples, as the latter have opted for staying neither outside nor inside official institutions and the city government has adapted its conduct to this strategy. To illustrate this point, the article explores the emerging constellation of ‘new institutions’ in Naples, which is understood as an embryonic form of radical ‘face-to-face democracy’ (in Murray Bookchin’s terms) at the municipal level, that departs from mainstream conceptions of participatory democracy and commons-based democracy. Through this analysis, the article argues that the experience of new municipalism in Naples offers evidence of a kind of participatory urban democracy understood not in a procedural sense but in a genuinely political vein, where civic participation and political conflict productively coexist with institutional creativity.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T06:50:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221091064
       
  • The framing of urban values and qualities in inter-organisational
           settings: The case of ground floor planning in Gothenburg, Sweden

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      Authors: Stefan Molnar
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article’s overall purpose is to contribute to the recent discussion between the literatures of valuation studies and urban studies. The paper aims to do this by generating knowledge on the framing of urban values and qualities in inter-organisational settings making up wider urban development projects. The paper makes use of a recent framework by Metzger and Wiberg published in 2017 in Urban Studies, although employing it in inter-organisational settings, rather than in the intra-organisational settings of those authors. It also adds a systematic focus on issues of value plurality. The paper pursues its aim by interrogating a recent case of inter-organisational ground floor planning in Gothenburg, Sweden. The article demonstrates how several organisational actors with different reasons for joining the scheme, repeatedly came to shift between different practices, scales, and devices of valuation. One implication of the paper is that the study of inter-organisational valuation allows the researcher to explore the plurality of ways in which actors with different goals evaluate development alternatives to keep the process going. Having said this, the paper also touches upon the fact that the value-agnostic sensibility of valuation studies risks making the researcher neglect power asymmetries.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T06:47:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221090883
       
  • Public space and public rituals: Engagement and protest in the digital age

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      Authors: Tali Hatuka
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In our technology-based society, individuals have more tools that they can use to manage and ‘show’ themselves in public space. In public space, they are monitored by agencies using surveillance practices but they also share information through location-aware technologies. This profound condition alters social norms and, with that, not only change self-rituals practiced in public but also group gatherings in public spaces. With an emphasis on political protests, this commentary focuses on a set of related questions: what characterises contemporary self-rituals in public space' How are these rituals being altered by digitisation processes' How are these changes manifested in the performance of the self during protests' This commentary suggests that public protests in the digital age are ‘moments of togetherness’, accelerated by social media, which dramatically enhance personalisation processes in collective actions. Reflecting on the contemporary alteration of group rituals and protests as extensions of the self, the commentary ends with a discussion about the opportunities and challenges this might bring for future collective actions.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T06:45:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221089770
       
  • Public space on the move: Mediating mobility, stillness and encounter on a
           Cape Town bus

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      Authors: Bradley Rink
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      As a public space, the environment of public transportation services is maintained by an ordered set of rules and conditions. Such rules and conditions are prescribed by law as they are in generally-accepted norms of social behaviour within public space. Through the examination of the Conditions of Carriage that govern bus transportation in Cape Town, South Africa, using Golden Arrow Bus Services, this paper seeks to highlight the myriad ways that urban public space on the move is mediated, negotiated and controlled through rules of conduct that differentiate mobile public space from its counterpart in the environment outside the bus. Understood as a mundane part of the social life of the city and its inhabitants, mobility in the form of public transportation is constituted by micro-communities whose publics are in a constant state of flux and negotiation. Using analysis of the Conditions of Carriage and an ethnographic case study of bus passengering, this paper demonstrates how the Conditions mediate the situated and lived assemblage of actors in mobile public space that is a liminal zone between inclusion and exclusion.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T06:43:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221088123
       
  • Social pathologies and urban pathogenicity: Moving towards better pandemic
           futures

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      Authors: Tankut Atuk, Susan L Craddock
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we suggest rethinking how to move forward in a way that better elucidates socio-economic and political factors driving inequities, and in turn points to more broad sweeping, deep-rooted changes necessary if pandemics in the future are finally going to be mitigated pre-emptively rather than reactively. To this end, we argue that a more comprehensive, flexible and incisive approach is necessary – a hermeneutic framework that focuses analytical attention and action on interventions upstream, on the multifaceted interrelations necessary before lives currently deemed disposable are lost. Unlike dominant public health and epidemiological approaches, that is, Social Determinants of Health and Syndemics, proven unlikely to fuel structural change or to enable pre-emptive response, we propose the framework of pathogenicity and apply it to urban contexts to answer questions concerning the relationship between microbes on the one hand, and on the other, the urban, social, political, ideological, global, scientific, economic and many other relations that galvanise these into pathogens. By employing pathogenicity in the context of two case studies in the US and Turkey, we shift emphasis away from tackling microbes to better understanding what makes those microbes, and even the interventions implemented to stop them, so destructive.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T06:41:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221079462
       
  • The relationships between neighbourhood vacancy, probable PTSD, and
           health-related quality of life in flood-disaster-impacted communities

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      Authors: Galen Newman, Dongying Li, Yunmi Park
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Excessive amounts of neighbourhood vacant land and abandoned structures can significantly lower community and outsider perceptions, and ultimately impact the mental health conditions of inhabitants. While depopulation, economic conditions and land use dynamics can all play a role in the amount of neighbourhood-scaled vacancies and structural abandonment, natural disaster events such as flooding can also exacerbate the ratio of vacant to non-vacant properties in cities and neighbourhoods through resultant building damage and resident relocations. Examinations on post-disaster mental health are limited, and even less is known about the extent of vacant and abandoned properties on mental health, especially within the disaster recovery context. Using survey responses (n=257) from Houston, TX, USA, from Hurricane Harvey stricken neighbourhoods, this study quantitatively examines how vacancy and abandonment are associated with mental health in disaster-effected communities. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was measured using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and health-related quality of life was measured using the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) scale. Vacancy rates and perceived vacancy were used to predict PTSD and HRQOL in generalised mixed linear models while adjusting for covariates. Findings indicate significant relationships between higher neighbourhood vacancy and elevated risks of PTSD and impaired HRQOL. Further, while the average rate of abandonment in Houston stayed relatively flat, it increased considerably in hurricane impacted communities until two years after Harvey. The outcomes of this study suggest a link between hazard mitigation-recovery and urban regeneration planning to prevent neighbourhood deterioration and improve mental health outcomes after disaster events.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-30T04:58:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221083101
       
  • In the name of history: (De)Legitimising street vendors in New York and
           Rome

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      Authors: Ryan Thomas Devlin, Francesca Piazzoni
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Policy makers across the Global North tend to remove poor and non-white vendors as inappropriate users of public space. Scholars have amply demonstrated that such removals reflect dominant aspirations of the present and future image of the city. But how do ideas about a city’s past help shape these aspirations' We compare how heritage, the socially constructed meanings through which people experience history, helps forge consensus over the legitimacy of vendors in Rome and New York. Vending has long allowed oppressed people to survive in both cities. These similar histories translate today into diverging attitudes. In Rome, a city branded as a site of (white) glory, authorities banish both long-standing Jewish vendors and newly arrived immigrants. In New York, mythicised as a place of success for immigrants, policy makers cannot always displace vendors who claim historical legitimacy. We explain these different conditions through a regimes of heritage framework. Using archival and ethnographic data, we examine whose voices count more in constructing each city’s past, what stories are told, and how these stories imbricate with existing political structures. Regimes of heritage, we find, help spatialise neoliberalism, differentiated citizenship, and authenticity. These dynamics highlight heritage as a critical, if underexplored agent of urban oppression and resistance.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-29T12:07:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221088126
       
  • Art in transit: Mobility, aesthetics and urban development

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      Authors: Theresa Enright
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      High-profile architecture and design, alongside integrated arts and cultural programming are now ubiquitous features of public transit networks. This article considers how and why transit-based arts and cultural programmes are proliferating globally as well as the impact of these programmes on transit and urban dynamics. Through critically analysing the discourses surrounding different transit art initiatives and the institutional structures which support them, this article shows how transit art is used today for varied – and often contradictory – ends. Based on this, it argues that we should not uncritically celebrate the rise of transit art as an unmitigated civic good. Rather, we must situate the rise of transit art within a political and aesthetic economy in which art has become ‘expedient’, and contend with the way transit art is implicated in elite, exclusionary and unsustainable processes of urbanisation.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T12:33:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221087035
       
  • Tracing as comparative method

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      Authors: Astrid Wood
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Urban scholarship is bursting with comparison. We use comparison as an explicit and implicit tool to frame our urban analysis. But how do we actually do comparison' This commentary presents a fine-tuned analysis of ‘tracing’ as both a conceptual framework and a methodological process for doing comparative urbanism. It draws on the many excellent contributions in this special issue to argue for three methodological approaches to tracing – following the trace, the people doing the tracing and the pathways of tracing – adding reflections that are not only theoretically valuable but also practically useful. In concluding, I argue that this approach of tracing highlights the endless possibilities for thoughtful and productive comparison starting from everywhere and ending up anywhere.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T12:32:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221086124
       
  • Rail stations and residential sorting: The case of Sydney metropolitan
           area

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      Authors: Laurence Carleton, Roselyne Joyeux, George Milunovich
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      We examine the relationship between rail accessibility and the pattern of demographic characteristics at long-established Rail Transit Served Communities. The analytical methods involve the juxtaposition of property premium estimates and assessment of spatial effects on demographic composition. Despite finding considerable property premiums associated with access to rail transit across metropolitan Sydney, we report little evidence of sorting in relation to economically advantaged or disadvantaged residents. Further, the demographic groups commonly linked to gentrification, including high-income and professionals, are not found to dominate areas of high rail accessibility and only those with advanced educational qualifications are shown to increase in concentration with closer access to rail transit.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T12:54:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221083139
       
  • From global city makers to global city-shapers: Migration industries in
           the global city networks

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      Authors: Sakura Yamamura
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, increasing migrant-led diversity of urban spaces can be expected to be especially observed in global cities, where global flows of capital, goods and people are concentrated. Although this connection between the global phenomenon of transnational migration and the local socio-spatial impacts on the cities appears evident, empirical research on the ‘relationship of migrants and cities’ remains underexplored. Discussions on global city makers have focused primarily on global economic actors, and have paid little attention to actors involved in shaping these global cities locally. This paper sheds new light on the role of migration industries in shaping global cities on the local level, being based empirically on qualitative interviews with transnational migrants and service providers in Tokyo. It discusses how the novel constellation of service firms for the transnational migration from above and below, that is, corporate migration industry in contrast to the conventional migration industry of labour migration, not only contributes to the global flow of transnational migrations into specific cities, but also draws them into specific socio-spatial patterns within the local urban space. By bringing these different types of migration industries conceptually together, it illustrates how socio-spatial diversification processes within global cities are embedded in the global economy (global city makers) but also locally directed by intermediary actors of migration industries (global city shapers). Embedding migration industries into the global cities perspective, it bridges the gap on urban transformation from the global to the local.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-20T09:23:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221087927
       
  • Order and openness in community-driven urban initiatives: Insights from a
           ‘spot-fix’

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      Authors: Jacob Vakkayil
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines how community-driven urban do-it-yourself initiatives maintain appropriate levels of openness while ensuring sufficient degrees of social order. For this, a specific event is analysed using an analytic framework that differentiates decided and emergent orders. The results indicate how various aspects of the event feature combinations of these orders that serve to sustain it and produce desired outcomes. These combinations indicate certain key factors that facilitate the balance of order and openness in community-driven initiatives. The paper concludes with reflections on the practical implications.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-09T07:26:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221084246
       
  • Hukou as benefits: Demand for hukou and wages in China

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      Authors: Samantha A Vortherms, Gordon G Liu
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      As China encourages urbanisation, a necessary process is the urbanisation of its people, granting local-urban hukou, or local citizenship, to migrant populations. But reforms encouraging urbanisation are dependent on migrant populations wanting to become formal, registered urban residents. What is the demand for hukou' Based on a unique probabilistically-sampled contingent valuation survey of over 900 migrants in Beijing and Changsha, we use migrants’ willingness-to-pay for hukou as a measure of demand for urbanisation. We find that migrants in Beijing are willing to give up between 9% and 14% of their income over five years to gain local-urban hukou. Migrants in Changsha are much less willing to pay for hukou with a willingness-to-pay indistinguishable from zero, and rural migrants have a negative willingness-to-pay. This study contributes to the broader literature on the impact of China’s hukou system by providing a unique test of migrant workers’ willingness-to-pay for local citizenship.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-08T12:29:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221074911
       
  • Book review: Refugee Spaces and Urban Citizenship in Nairobi:
           Africa’s Sanctuary City

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      Authors: Corey R Johnson
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-02T05:51:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221086495
       
  • Translating the nation through the sustainable, liveable city: The role of
           social media intermediaries in immigrant integration in Copenhagen

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      Authors: Tatiana Fogelman, Julia Christensen
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores settled Western migrants whose digital content provides recent, mostly Western migrants in Copenhagen with local know-how and city-related information. This new type of informal integration intermediary functions as an emerging digital component of wider urban integration industries that assist migrants with settlement and social integration. We draw on the sociological theory of translation as a social, productive practice that constructs new meanings through selective interpretations and conceptualise the work of these bloggers as translation. Relying on the analysis of their blog and Instagram posts, and on interviews, this article shows how their translations of the city, and through it Danishness, play a critical role in mediating narratives of ‘becoming local’. Despite the differences between the bloggers’ respective translations (including those afforded through blogs vs Instagram) and despite criticism of a lack of inclusion of the socio-cultural differences in Denmark, these intermediaries ultimately reinforce for newcomers the expectations of the ‘green-city citizen’ and integration into Danish culture and lifestyle. We argue that what makes their translations resonate is not only that social media itself allows them to perform their having become (almost) local, but also that they carefully use their personal reflections as migrants. At the same time, the fact that their personal experiences of the city have been shaped by their positionality as white migrants feeling very welcomed, and even passing for locals, in the city curtails these bloggers’ wider potential as informal intermediaries filling a gap within Copenhagen’s urban integration industries.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T08:16:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221082922
       
  • Book review: Housing for Degrowth: Principles, Models, Challenges and
           Opportunities

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      Authors: Ebru Kamaci Karahan
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T07:28:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221086501
       
  • Speculating on land, property and peri/urban futures: A conjunctural
           approach to intra-metropolitan comparison

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      Authors: Helga Leitner, Eric Sheppard
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores a conjunctural approach to comparison as a means to capture the complexity of the processes shaping metropolitan land transformations in a city of the global South, comparing the co-implicated actions of developers and local residents across central and peri-urban Jabodetabek. A conjunctural approach shares with some other forms of comparison the ambition to build new theories and challenge existing knowledge. Rather than controlling for the characteristics of units of analysis as in conventional comparison, a conjunctural approach attends to the broader spatio-temporal conjuncture. It involves highlighting unexpected or overlooked starting points for comparison, attending to inter-place, inter-scalar and inter-temporal relationalities in order to identify shared general tendencies as well as particularities and to chart their mutual constitution. Grounding this comparison iteratively puts local knowledge and observations in conversation with already existing theories. Deploying these principles in a socio-spatial intra-metropolitan comparison, we show that economic speculation on land and property is complexly entangled with actors’ socio-cultural speculations, as they seek also to realise aspirations for distinct peri/urban futures. Economic speculation deepens already existing inequalities in wealth and power differentials between and among developers and kampung residents. The erasure of informal settlements and displacement of their residents is supplemented by the ability of other kampungs and select residents to take advantage of spillover opportunities from the formal developments built on former kampung land. Distinct central city and peri-urban landscapes are emerging, shaped by differences in the social ecology of land and local governance and planning regimes.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T07:22:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221081642
       
  • Migrant worker recreational centres, accidental diversities and new
           relationalities in Singapore

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      Authors: Daniel PS Goh, Andrew Lee
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      How best to integrate migrant workers in host societies has been a longstanding question in the study of migration and globalisation. Scholars have been conceptualising new modes of transnational mobilities that point to the politics of differential inclusion to address encounters between migrants and locals in Asian global cities. This article uses an instructive case study of temporary, low-wage male migrant workers in Singapore and the issue of their recreational spaces to show that the politics of inclusion/exclusion are layered onto the question of integration/segregation. We take integration to mean the incorporation of migrants into local society to give full access to social institutions of protection and care, and inclusion to refer to the acceptance of migrants into social relationships that define urban life. Segregation and exclusion are their respective corollaries. We focus on state-provisioned recreation centres sited near the dormitories, which were expanded to function as segregating spaces to keep migrant workers away from the city after the Little India riot in 2013. We show that they have instead become contact zones producing accidental diversities of urban encounters between migrants, locals and state-linked agents. We discuss how these contact zones have developed differently across the centres built before and after the riot, the transformation of the accidental diversities in the recreational centres by state-linked agents into a new migrant grassroots sector and the ongoing intensification of this during the COVID-19 pandemic. The new relationalities offer the promise of transcending the layered binaries of integration/segregation and inclusion/exclusion.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T07:21:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221081336
       
  • Book review: War and the City: Urban Geopolitics in Lebanon

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      Authors: Jonas Hagmann
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T07:19:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221086400
       
  • A more global urban studies, besides empirical variation

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      Authors: Julie Ren
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      An expanded set of sites, a more differentiated set of references and linguistic diversification have been discussed as needed changes in urban studies. The critiques of the limitations of urban studies, in terms of both the scholarship and the scholars, offer important and concrete responses to expanding the scope of the field. Yet this tremendous special issue on ‘Comparative Methods for Global Urban Studies’ with 10 papers cutting across a range of sites and topics is decidedly not only about empirical variation; this is an important distinction worth drawing more attention to. The creativity expressed in these papers comes at an auspicious time in urban studies where new routes for doing urban theory are needed to move past debates about singular versus plural epistemologies of the urban. As a kind of research that demands more translation, exchange and collaboration, perhaps comparative urban research as a mode of theory-building can help to humble the chest-pounding, posturing, privilege of thinking and speaking the language of theory. The theoretical ambitions of these very different papers show how urban theory need not only be about better understanding urbanisation within the epistemological confines of late capitalism. Rather than reifying a shared grammar of urbanisation as a necessity to understand each other, they may entice scholars everywhere to develop a broader vocabulary and perhaps even learn another language.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-04-01T07:19:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221085113
       
  • Bridging home and school in cross-border education: The role of
           intermediary spaces in the in/exclusion of Mainland Chinese students and
           their families in Hong Kong

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      Authors: Maggi WH Leung, Johanna L Waters
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Over the last two decades the Hong Kong government has made considerable investments to develop the city into a regional education hub, with ‘diversification’ as a key aim. The vision is, however, delinked from the tens of thousands of young children residing in Shenzhen who commute to Hong Kong for school daily. These children embody differences that are considered undesired and their social exclusion has been widely reported. Taking a spatial perspective, this paper deepens our understanding of the in/exclusion processes impacting these children. Drawing on our policy analysis, interviews, observations in physical spaces and digital media, this paper analyses the role that intermediary spaces play in (re)producing differences and social relationships. Specifically, we examine the power geometries of the children’s school journey and school-related digital space, which are arenas where social differences are played out and in/exclusion is practiced and negotiated. We analyse the network of state and non-state actors at work in these intermediary spaces, showing the complex ways in which separation and integration, exclusion and inclusion intersect and constitute each other mutually. Our paper also gives some first insights into the impact of COVID-19 on the school children within this education mobility field.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T12:49:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221084894
       
  • Book review: The Radical Bookstore: Counterspace for Social Movements

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      Authors: Rosie Levine Hampton
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T12:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221079243
       
  • Book review: A Feminist Urban Theory for Our Time: Rethinking Social
           Reproduction and the Urban

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      Authors: Andrea Urbina-Julio
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T05:38:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221086494
       
  • Towards a constructed order of co-governance: Understanding the
           state–society dynamics of neighbourhood collaborative responses to
           COVID-19 in urban China

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      Authors: Zhilin Liu, Sainan Lin, Tingting Lu, Yue Shen, Sisi Liang
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The state–society relationship in neighbourhood governance has been a focal topic in the urban governance literature, though the existing scholarship was primarily drawn from non-crisis situations. Adopting a mixed-methods approach, this study investigates the intricate state–society dynamics manifested at the neighbourhood scale as state and societal actors collaborated during China’s COVID-19 responses. Our study reveals a pattern of collaborative rather than confrontational dynamics between resident committees and other stakeholders during pandemic responses, which reflects the emergence of a constructed order of neighbourhood co-governance in urban China. Previous community-building reforms consolidated the political legitimacy, power and capacity of resident committees, which were empowered to play a critical coordinating role in bridging hierarchical state mobilisation and horizontal stakeholders in the collaborative pandemic responses. These findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of neighbourhood co-governance in the international literature and provide lessons for resilience governance from a comparative lens.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T05:37:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221081314
       
  • How tenants’ reactions to rent increases affect displacement: An
           interactionist approach to gentrification

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      Authors: Moritz Rinn, Jan Wehrheim, Lena Wiese
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Rising rents play an important role in the displacement of residents through gentrification processes in Germany. Applying an interactionist approach and conceptualising gentrification as an emergent phenomenon that results from an interaction process, we explore how residents of the gentrifying district Altona-Altstadt in Hamburg deal with situations of rent increases. Four strategies emerge: de-problematisation, unwilling consent, changing the field of action and confrontational rejection. Using an interpretive analysis and the concept of the ‘moral economies of housing’, we investigate the normative and strategic conditions of these strategies and how they contribute to or counteract housing-related displacement. This analysis contributes to qualitative research on how residents experience gentrification and negotiate situations relevant to displacement, and, thereby, to the exploration of power in the tenant–landlord relationship.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-26T05:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221078212
       
  • Book review: Metropolitan Governance in Latin America

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      Authors: Sören Scholvin
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T07:01:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221079738
       
  • Book review: The Anti-Back City: Police Terror and Black Urban Life in
           Brazil

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      Authors: Luisa G Melo
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-25T06:59:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221079690
       
  • Book review: The Making of the Banlieue: An Ethnography of Space, Identity
           and Violence

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      Authors: Simone van de Wetering
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-21T12:24:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221086868
       
  • Book review: Reconstructing Public Housing: Liverpool’s Hidden History
           of Collective Alternatives

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      Authors: Mara Ferreri
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-19T10:47:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221086796
       
  • Book review: Slow Cities – Conquering our Speed Addiction for Health
           and Sustainability

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      Authors: Paulo Anciaes
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-19T04:47:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221086418
       
  • Book review: Shareholder Cities: Land Transformations Along Urban
           Corridors in India

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      Authors: Giselle Mendonça Abreu
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T08:26:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221080077
       
  • Book review: Subaltern Geographies

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      Authors: Claudia Seldin
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-14T08:24:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221079248
       
  • Residential segregation of migrants: Disentangling the intersectional and
           multiscale segregation of migrants in Shijiazhuang, China

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      Authors: Gwilym Owen, Yu Chen, Timothy Birabi, Gwilym Pryce, Hui Song, Bifeng Wang
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Residential segregation, especially of rural migrants, is of growing concern in China. A key question is whether this spatial separation is entirely due to income – rural migrants priced out of affluent areas – or whether other factors, such as institutional discrimination or social prejudice or homophily, are also at work. We employ state-of-the-art methods to yield a more detailed and nuanced picture of segregation in Shijiazhuang, a second-tier Chinese city. We use a multilevel modelling approach that allows us not only to quantify the extent of segregation at different spatial scales, but also to disentangle the intersectional nature of segregation: the extent to which segregation is due to migrant status or low income alone. We find that migrant status is actually more important than occupation in determining segregation. These findings emphasise the imperative to decompose intersectional segregation into its constituent parts, a task recently made possible by developments in multilevel modelling.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-09T01:01:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221076802
       
  • Infrastructure-led development and the peri-urban question: Furthering
           crossover comparisons

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      Authors: J Miguel Kanai, Seth Schindler
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Contemporary development policy portrays enhanced connectivity as the key to fostering economic growth in lagging regions. This global policy consensus and consequent infrastructure scramble have resulted in a proliferation of new urban spaces. These are dispersed, fragmentary and often unrecognised as urban by projects and plans centred on large-scale connective infrastructures to integrate remote regions into circuits of capital. Whilst our understanding of infrastructure-led development is informed by critical engagements with planetary urbanisation, global infrastructure and logistics, this position paper seeks to reconcile political economy analyses with situated studies closer to lived forms of heterogeneous precariousness in emerging urban worlds. Addressing recent debates that frame these bodies of scholarship as antagonistic, we emphasise the supplementarity of perspectives from within and beyond urban studies. This pluralism can be practised through comparisons that will (i) trace the geo-economic relationality of mega-infrastructures, which conditions directly and indirectly their planning, financing, construction and management, and (simultaneously or independently) (ii) examine difference in the diverse experiences of and responses to emergent infrastructural urbanisms of precarity. The article shows that genetic and generative comparisons can inform a research agenda on (peri-)urban precariousness, engaging policies with unmistakable global moorings but complex multi-scalar politics, diverging outcomes and situated resistances and appropriations.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T10:39:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211064158
       
  • Exodus in the American metropolis: Predicting Black population decline in
           Chicago neighbourhoods

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      Authors: Michael Snidal, Magda Maaoui, Tyler Haupert
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Urban population decline in the largest metropolitan regions of the United States is now explained almost exclusively by a ‘Black exodus’. In Chicago, competing ‘push’ explanations have been put forth to explain Black population loss in urban neighbourhoods, including housing instability, cost of living, unemployment and crime. However, no study to date estimates the predictive power of each of these factors. This article seeks to answer the research question: which neighbourhood characteristics predict Black exodus in Chicago' We explore relationships between Black population loss in Chicago and a comprehensive range of metrics representing economic and social conditions. A fixed-effects multivariate panel regression is specified for the years 2010 to 2018 at the census tract level and cross-checked with bivariate Granger causality tests. We find that foreclosure filings predict Black population decline, and suggest that government prioritise foreclosure relief policies to stem Black exodus.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T08:40:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211070405
       
  • The financialisation of floor space, Mumbai 1880–2015

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      Authors: Sukriti Issar
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper traces the financialisation of policy instruments regulating floor space, namely, building height restrictions in Mumbai from 1880 to 2015. It describes and explains the shift from prescriptive regulation to hybrid market-based incentive. Drawing on original archival research and interviews with 80 policy experts, findings show that height restrictions shifted from ad hoc rules, to prescribed heights, to floor space index, and finally to market-based air rights. Paradoxically, the local state has used financialised floor space as an incentive to achieve social goals such as slum redevelopment, while the policy remains controversial and beset by conflict. The state has played a key role in financialising floor space, in the process creating a hybrid instrument with multiple constituencies. The conclusion explores how a history of building regulations can advance comparative urbanism.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-25T01:32:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980221076745
       
  • Interlocal interactions, municipal boundaries and water and wastewater
           expenditure in city-regions

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      Authors: Agustin Leon-Moreta, Vittoria Totaro
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Urban regions derive social and economic benefits as local governments supply water and wastewater services. We analyse differences in water and wastewater spending programmes in US city-regions. The municipal provision of water and wastewater services is situated in a regional context, examining how cities respond to different needs for services within regions. We use pooled data from 2002 to 2017 to examine changes in municipal water and wastewater expenditures. Our central finding is that water and wastewater programmes vary considerably across city-regions. Additional findings are that the municipal provision of these programmes appears to be correlated with the interaction between adjacent cities and changes to their jurisdictional boundaries. City governments may adapt their allocation of resources to water and wastewater functions according to the regional conditions surrounding city jurisdictions. This article connects theories of boundary change with systems of interlocal cooperation that support water and wastewater functions in urban regions.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-21T11:06:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211068970
       
  • Residential segregation and public services in urban India

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      Authors: Naveen Bharathi, Deepak Malghan, Sumit Mishra, Andaleeb Rahman
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Urban India is characterised by a high degree of intra-city spatial inequality in the availability of public services like piped water and sewerage. We unpack the political channels that link residential segregation with access to public services. ‘Micro-segregation’, or neighbourhood residential sorting within a ward (the elementary administrative and political unit in urban India), enables segregated neighbourhoods to better organise and petition public services. Political competition further amplifies these demands from segregated neighbourhoods. The state’s response to such demand is, however, modulated by both in-group favouritism and outgroup discrimination. States’ ability to indulge in such favouritism and discrimination is in turn contingent on how the caste composition of a ward is different from that of the city as a whole –‘macro-segregation’. We combine large-scale quantitative analysis using neighbourhood-level national census data for all towns in India with at least 0.3 million residents, and multi-year qualitative fieldwork in Bengaluru, a metropolis of over 10 million residents, to delineate the interactions between these demand-side and supply-side channels. While macro-segregation is negatively associated with piped water and sewerage, micro-segregation has a positive association.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T05:12:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211072855
       
  • ‘Unpleasant’ but ‘helpful’: Immigration detention and urban
           entanglements in New Jersey, USA

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      Authors: Deirdre Conlon, Nancy Hiemstra
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      As a reflection of changing geographies of US migration control, when Essex County, New Jersey’s local government adopted a new immigration detention contract with the federal government, an elected official noted: ‘This is a very unpleasant way of getting revenue…But it’s going to be helpful.’ Despite politically liberal leanings as well as active and expanding resistance to a persistently conservative immigration enforcement agenda from the national level, New Jersey has been a leading provider of detention in the United States, with numerous counties benefiting significantly from immigration crackdowns. This article examines local debates in three New Jersey municipalities alongside public records data that detail financial relationships central to immigration detention operations, to argue that the ensuing relationships intersect and intertwine in ways that make detention economies a critical facet of municipal development. Further, following a 2021 paper by Lauren Martin, we argue that attention to the array of entities that are linked through detention economies demonstrates the usefulness of understanding the migration ‘industry’ as an assemblage. Using a site-specific investigative focus we trace myriad entities’ involvement in immigration detention and reliance on income from Immigration and Customs Enforcement. We detail how these multifarious actors, sometimes with opposing views on detention and distinct rationalities, converge in ways that contribute to the further entrenchment of detention in municipal areas. Through this focused case study, our analysis advances a critical migration industries approach and details how detention economies are ‘assembled’ and entangled with urban areas.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-09T05:10:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211072695
       
  • Bodies of transnational island urbanism: Spatial narratives of
           inclusion/exclusion of Filipinas in Philippine islands

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      Authors: Arnisson Andre C Ortega
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Tropical islands can become terrains of urbanisation worthy of examination. In the Philippines, several islands have experienced urban transformation (capital accumulation, immigration, diversification, land conversion) through tourism. At the forefront of these urban transformations are Filipinas, particularly those in interracial relationships with foreign men who invest in island properties and establish resorts. These resorts stimulate a transnationally-oriented mode of urban transformation reliant on the transnational mobilities of tourists, expats and capital. This paper examines this by foregrounding the experiences of Filipinas, concentrating on how they are differentially included and excluded throughout the multi-scalar process of island urban accumulation. I locate these differential experiences in various spaces (nation, community, resort, households), noting in particular the (1) national discourses underlying state tourism and foreign retirement programmes, (2) transactions enabling property purchases and resorts, and (3) translocal mobilities sustaining urban accumulation. What emerge from these accounts are the selective inclusions and exclusions of Filipinas in transnational urban accumulation in the islands. While their role in facilitating island urban accumulation may suggest a form of ‘empowered’ inclusivity, this can easily be undercut by sexist micropolitics of exclusion that tend to reduce them to ‘mere women’ and/or ‘prostitutes’. Such differential practices of inclusion/exclusion demonstrate the gendered dynamics that unequally put a double burden on Filipinas. Unravelling these accounts demonstrates how gendered relations and sexuality are important forces underpinning urban transformation and transnational mobilities that constitute diversification.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T12:06:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211067941
       
  • Is urbanisation in the Global South fundamentally different'
           Comparative global urban analysis for the 21st century

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      Authors: Gregory F Randolph, Michael Storper
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      A vigorous debate has emerged in recent years over how to understand cities of the Global South. A pivotal issue in this debate is whether urbanisation processes in the South are so fundamentally different from historical and current urbanisation in the Global North that many of the theories developed from studying the latter have limited utility in application to the former. In this article, we review evidence from a range of disciplines on recent and ongoing urban transitions and urbanisation dynamics in the Global South, attending to features that distinguish the urban South from the urban North. Our reading of the evidence indicates that parts of the Global South may be urbanising along historically and geographically specific trajectories; however, we argue that these differences are best understood through a unified set of global urban theories. Rather than flattening or silencing difference, theories that seek generalisation across time and space sharpen the identification and appreciation of key differences in urbanisation processes. Analysing how the fundamental dynamics of urbanisation recombine and interact with one another in different contexts offers insight into policy challenges that cut across cities, both within and between the Global South and North, as well as context-specific policy issues that arise through the interaction of global urbanisation forces and local specificities.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T12:04:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211067926
       
  • Deal-making, elite networks and public–private hybridisation:
           More-than-neoliberal urban governance

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      Authors: Chris Gibson, Crystal Legacy, Dallas Rogers
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In this commentary, we argue that augmented concepts and research methods are needed to comprehend hybrid urban governance reconfigurations that benefit market actors but eschew competition in favour of deal-making between elite state and private actors. Fuelled by financialisation and in response to planning conflict are regulatory reforms that legitimise opaque alliances in service of infrastructure and urban development projects. From a specific city (Sydney, Australia) we draw upon one such reform – Unsolicited Proposals – to point to a broader landscape of hybrid urban governance, its reconfigurations of power and potential effect on cities. Whereas neoliberal governance promotes competition and views the state and private sectors as distinct, hybrid urban governance leverages state monopoly power and abjures market competition, instead endorsing high-level public–private coordination, technical and financial expertise and confidential deal-making over major urban projects. We scrutinise how Unsolicited Proposals normalise this approach. Commercial-in-confidence protection and absent tender processes authorise a narrow constellation of influential private and public actors to preconfigure outcomes without oversight. Such reforms, we argue, consolidate elite socio-spatial power, jeopardise city function and amplify corruption vulnerabilities. To theorise hybrid urban governance at the intersection of neoliberalism and Asia-Pacific state-capitalism, we offer the concepts of coercive monopoly (where market entry is closed, without opportunity to compete) and de jure collusion (where regulation reforms codify informal alliances among elites connected across government and corporate and consultancy worlds). We call for urban scholarship to pay closer attention to public–private hybridisation in governance, scrutinising regulatory mechanisms that consecrate deal-making and undermine the public interest.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T12:02:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211067906
       
  • Ethno-religious neighbourhood infrastructures and the life satisfaction of
           immigrants and their descendants in Germany

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      Authors: Jonas Wiedner, Merlin Schaeffer, Sarah Carol
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Urban research assigns immigrant enclaves an ambiguous role. While such areas are seen as rich in beneficial ethno-religious infrastructures and networks, they also tend to be located in deprived and stigmatised inner-city neighbourhoods. Research on neighbourhood attainment provides evidence for both, a desire to attain mainstream middle-class neighbourhoods, which grows the more immigrants and their descendants establish themselves in society, but also a continuing attraction of residing close to co-ethnics. To tease apart this ambiguity, we study how the life satisfaction of immigrants and their descendants depends on the characteristics of the neighbourhood they live in, and pay special attention to heterogeneity along generation, country of origin orientation and income. We use classic measures of neighbourhood quality vis-à-vis newly collected data on the spatial density of ethno-religious minority associations, places of worship and grocers. We link these data to the geocoded German Socio-Economic Panel to predict life satisfaction among immigrants and their descendants. To strengthen a causal interpretation of our results, we employ specifications that address self-selection into neighbourhoods and unobserved confounding. Contra the assumptions of standard assimilation models, we document that ethno-religious infrastructures contribute to increased life satisfaction primarily among the second generation, and there especially among sending-country oriented individuals. This suggests a continuing importance of origin-culture infrastructures for some groups. Furthermore, we find little evidence that overall neighbourhood quality, or the mere share of co-ethnics in a neighbourhood, increases life satisfaction either among immigrants or their descendants.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T12:00:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211066412
       
  • Urban epidemic governance: An event system analysis of the outbreak and
           control of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China

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      Authors: Jinliao He, Yuan Zhang
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The outbreak of a virus such as COVID-19 is composed of a series of seemingly random incidents which are nevertheless interconnected. In a novel approach, this article adopts the event system theory (EST), established in organisational behaviour science, to investigate the mechanism of epidemic governance in Wuhan, the city which reported the first case of COVID-19 and thereafter successfully controlled the outbreak. The event system analysis divided Wuhan’s response mechanism to COVID-19 into four dimensions: the graded response systems, the interactive relationship between multilevel entities of epidemic governance, the quarantine regulations and the governance of public sentiment. There are numerous lessons learned and effective measures developed from the ‘Wuhan experience’. These lessons and measures can assist other cities around the world to cope with the current COVID-19 crisis and prepare their urban governance systems for similar infectious diseases in the future. We urgently advocate the addition of more scholarly discussion on urban epidemic governance by incorporating interdisciplinary approaches like EST in particular.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T11:56:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211064136
       
  • State-steered smartmentality in Chinese smart urbanism

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      Authors: Jun Zhang, Jo Bates, Pamela Abbott
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores the socio-political shaping of Chinese smart urbanism by examining the power relations between the government (national and municipal), private firms and citizens embedded in smartmentality. Our exploration begins with teasing out key analytical standpoints of Alberto Vanolo’s concept of smartmentality applied in neoliberal practices of smart urbanism. Through this analytical framework, we conceptualise Chinafied smartmentality and illustrate how it is actually playing out in China by undertaking documentary research and in-depth interviews from an inductive case study of the Smart Transportation System (STS) in the city of Shijiazhuang. We observe that the idea of Chinafication extends smartmentality with a focus on the power dynamic. We further argue that this Chinafied smartmentality implies uncritical technological solutionism that is state-steered in nature, and citizen participation in digital platforms that is performed with limited roles and power for inclusion. The article concludes by calling for future research on the critical examination of value co-creation for shaping a truly citizen-centric mode of governance in Chinese smart urbanism.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T11:55:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211062888
       
  • Beyond variegation: The territorialisation of states, communities and
           developers in large-scale developments in Johannesburg, Shanghai and
           London

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      Authors: Jennifer Robinson, Fulong Wu, Phil Harrison, Zheng Wang, Alison Todes, Romain Dittgen, Katia Attuyer
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Large-scale urban development projects are a significant format of urban expansion and renewal across the globe. As generators of governance innovation and indicators of the future city in each urban context, large-scale development projects have been interpreted within frameworks of ‘variegations’ of wider circulating processes, such as neoliberalisation or financialisation. However, such projects often entail significant state support and investment, are strongly linked to a wide variety of transnational investors and developers and are frequently highly contested in their local environments. Thus, each project comes to fruition in a distinctive regulatory context, often as an exception to the norm, and each emerges through complex interactions over a long period of time amongst an array of actors. We therefore seek to broaden the discussion from an analytical focus on variegated globalised processes to consider three large-scale urban development projects (in Shanghai, Johannesburg and London) as distinctive (transcalar) territorialisations. Using an innovative comparative approach, we outline the grounds for a systematic analytical conversation across mega-urban development projects in very different contexts. Initially, comparability rests on the shared features of large-scale developments – that they are multi-jurisdictional, involve long time scales and bring significant financing challenges. Comparing three development projects, we are able to interrogate, rather than take for granted, how a range of wider processes, circulating practices, transcalar actors and territorial regulatory formations composed specific urban outcomes in each case. Thinking across these diverse cases provides grounds for rebuilding understandings of urban development politics.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T07:58:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211064159
       
  • Fifty years of Business Improvement Districts: A reappraisal of the
           dominant perspectives and debates

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      Authors: Daniel Kudla
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Originally created in 1970 by a small group of business people in Toronto’s Bloor West Village, Business Improvement Districts (hereafter BIDs) have become commonplace urban revitalisation strategies in cities across the world. Many critical urban scholars have conceptualised BIDs as neoliberal organisations and have resultantly critiqued their role in contemporary urban governance. With BIDs now existing for over 50 years, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overdue reappraisal of the BID research and orient future scholarship. After describing key debates from early BID research, this paper analyses two distinct themes in more recent scholarship: (1) BID policy mobility, and (2) BIDs and social regulation. As the BID model has been transferred to new locations across both the Global North and South, its rapid mobility demonstrates the permeability, resilience and limits of neoliberal urban policies. Moreover, BIDs’ social control tactics highlight how these organisations are shaped by a neoliberal logic that seeks to manage and control urban spaces in ways that attract desirable consumers and exclude the visible poor. This paper outlines the origins of both bodies of work and traces common patterns and variances over time. It concludes by highlighting gaps in the existing literature and offers suggestions for future work.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T06:57:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211066420
       
  • Theorising democratic space with and beyond Henri Lefebvre

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      Authors: Mark Purcell
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The purpose of this article is to theorise space in a way that resonates with democracy. It develops a radical understanding of democracy, as an affirmative project undertaken by people to directly manage their affairs themselves. To theorise space, the article takes up Henri Lefebvre’s concept of ‘differential space’, which it conceives as an autonomous force that produces itself through the operation of desire. This self-production, Lefebvre argues, takes place in and through everyday acts of survival of those who inhabit space. The article then situates this abstract discussion of space, again following Lefebvre, in the context of ongoing worldwide urbanisation. The urban, Lefebvre argues, has agglomerated not only capitalist productive power but also the differences that exist outside of capitalist logic, and so it is where we should be looking for revolutionary difference in the world today. Taking all these insights together, we can see the project of democracy as an affirmative project undertaken by people to directly manage the production of urban space themselves. Lastly, the article argues that the project of democracy must extend beyond Lefebvre’s thought. It thinks through one example, which is the question of the ‘we’ of democracy. It argues that to properly understand the question of difference in democratic community, we are very well served in turning to the work of Judith Butler.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T06:56:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211067915
       
  • Impacts of political fragmentation on inclusive economic resilience:
           Examining American metropolitan areas after the Great Recession

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      Authors: Soomi Lee, Shu Wang
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      We propose the concept of inclusive economic resilience to examine intra-regional economic recovery in American metropolitan areas after the Great Recession. Previous studies have treated regional and municipal economic resilience separately, with little attention to within-region variations in economic resilience. We contribute to the understanding of regional economic resilience by focusing on intra-regional economic recovery in cities. We also introduce an important yet overlooked regional factor in the context of American federalism – fragmentation of local governments. Examining US metropolitan areas from 2007 to 2017, we find that different dimensions of local fragmentation exert different impacts on intra-regional economic resilience. Our results indicate that a large number of municipal governments and greater service responsibilities borne by special and school districts lead to uneven economic recovery. In contrast, similar fiscal responsibilities taken by municipal governments promote inclusive income recovery.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T06:55:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211064455
       
  • Recruiting international students: Analysing the imaginative geographies
           of three urban encounters

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      Authors: Suzanne E. Beech
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      International students are a critical source of income for UK universities, and yet reports indicate that their numbers have been in decline since academic year 2010–2011. Consequently, UK universities need to work harder to attract international students than ever before. This paper uses qualitative interviews with international office staff based at UK higher education institutions together with observational research at recruitment events which took place in Hong Kong in 2017 to demonstrate how the urban has a critical role to play in the international student migration industry. The paper showcases three urban encounters in the recruitment process: the higher education recruitment fair; the connections universities draw between themselves and other urban locations; and by considering how predeparture events mobilise the urban landscape to communicate dynamic learning experiences. The retelling and analysis of these encounters demonstrate how universities, and the UK, create, foster and embed the geographical imaginary in their recruitment processes in order to entice and encourage brand loyalty from prospective students.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T06:52:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211068358
       
  • Light violence at the threshold of acceptability

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      Authors: Casper Laing Ebbensgaard
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper shows how residential high-rise developments in London deteriorate the living conditions for existing residents and set a legal precedent for distributing harm unevenly across the population. The paper unpacks the contentious decision-making process in one of several local planning applications in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets that ended in a spur of high-profile public planning inquiries between 2017 and 2019. The Enterprise House inquiry shows how, among other things, a loss of daylight, sunlight and outlook, and an increased sense of enclosure, affect already marginalised residents in neighbouring buildings disproportionately, elevating light to a legal category for assessing harm and addressing social injustice in the vertical city. The paper adopts a forensic approach to interrogate four instances during the public inquiry, in which numerical evidence of material harm resulting from a loss in daylight, sunlight and outlook was made to appear and disappear. The translation of scientific evidence into legal evidence is performed through the act of claiming ‘truthful’ representations of ‘real life experiences’ of light in digital visualisations. By revealing how material harm resulting from vertical development is normalised and thus naturalised in the planning inquiry, the paper demonstrates how ‘light’ violence is exercised in vertical development.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T06:51:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211067938
       
  • The ethical underpinnings of Smart City governance: Decision-making in the
           Smart Cambridge programme, UK

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      Authors: Richmond Juvenile Ehwi, Hannah Holmes, Sabina Maslova, Gemma Burgess
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      As Smart Cities have become more widespread, so too have concerns about their associated ethical issues. However, ethical debates in the current Smart City literature have tended to focus on issues related to the collection, processing, usage, storage and sharing of data. This paper argues that ethical debates should be extended to capture crucial decisions taken as part of Smart City governance, and the ethical references which underpin them. Using the Smart Cambridge programme as a case study, this paper draws empirical data from interviews with experts and actors involved in the programme, and highlights the ethical nature of decisions taken in key aspects of Smart City governance. The paper reveals that city officials and programme managers demonstrate acute consciousness of legal regulations, which they employ in decision-making, and are less cognisant of governance principles based on norms and values which are also drawn upon. This paper argues that there is nonetheless ethical content which can be traced in decision-making, regardless of whether ethical concerns are explicitly recognised as such.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T06:49:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211064983
       
  • Towards a modest imaginary' Sanitation in Kampala beyond the modern
           infrastructure ideal

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      Authors: Mary Lawhon, Gloria Nsangi Nakyagaba, Timos Karpouzoglou
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The idea of the modern city continues to inform urban policies and practices, shaping ideas of what infrastructure is and how it ought to work. While there has long been conflict over its meaning and relevance, particularly in southern cities, alternatives remain difficult to identify. In this paper, we ‘read for difference’ in the policies and practices of sanitation in Kampala, purposefully looking for evidence of an alternative imaginary. We find increasing acceptance of and support for heterogeneous technological artefacts and a shift to consider these as part of wider infrastructures. These sanitation configurations are, at times, no longer framed as temporary placeholders while ‘waiting for modernity’, but instead as pathways towards a not yet predetermined end. What this technological change means for policies, permissions and socio-economic relations is also as yet unclear: the roles and responsibilities of the modern infrastructure ideal have limited significance, but new patterns remain in the making. Further, while we find increased attention to limits and uncertainty, we also see efforts to weave modernist practices (creating legible populations, knowing and controlling nature) into emergent infrastructural configurations. In this context, we consider Kampala not as a complete instantiation of a ‘modest’ approach to infrastructure, but as a place where struggles over infrastructure are rooted in competing, dynamic imaginaries about how the world is and what this means for the cities we build. It is also a place from which we might begin articulating a ‘modest imaginary’ that enables rethinking what infrastructure is and ought to be.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T06:43:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211064519
       
  • New urban habits in Stockholm following COVID-19

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      Authors: Ann Legeby, Daniel Koch, Fábio Duarte, Cate Heine, Tom Benson, Umberto Fugiglando, Carlo Ratti
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      During the COVID-19 pandemic, physical distancing, mobility restrictions and self-isolation measures were implemented around the world as the primary intervention to prevent the virus from spreading. Urban life has undergone sweeping changes, with people using spaces in new ways. Stockholm is a particularly relevant case of this phenomenon since most facilities, such as day care centres and schools, have remained open, in contrast to cities with a broader lockdown. In this study, we use Twitter data and an online map survey to study how COVID-19 restrictions have impacted the use of different locations, services and amenities in Stockholm. First, we compare the spatial distribution of 87,000 geolocated tweets pre-COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Second, we analyse 895 survey responses asking people to identify places they ‘still visit’, ‘use more’, ‘avoid’ and self-report reasons for using locations. The survey provides a nuanced understanding of whether and how restrictions have affected people. Service and seclusion were found to be important; therefore, the accessibility of such amenities was analysed, demonstrating how changes in urban habits are related to conditions of the local environment. We find how different parts of the city show different capacities to accommodate new habits and mitigate the effects of restrictions on people’s use of urban spaces. In addition to the immediate relevance to COVID-19, this paper thus contributes to understanding how restrictions on movement and gathering, in any situation, expose more profound urban challenges related to segregation and social inequality.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T06:41:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211070677
       
  • Organising grassroots infrastructure: The (in)visible work of
           organisational (in)completeness

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      Authors: María José Zapata Campos, Ester Barinaga, Jaan-Henrik Kain, Michael Oloko, Patrik Zapata
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In this article we build on the concept of incompleteness, as recently developed in both organisational and urban studies, to improve our understanding of the collective actions of grassroots organisations in creating and governing critical infrastructures in the changing and resource-scarce contexts of urban informal settlements. Empirically, the article is informed by the case of resident associations providing critical services and infrastructure in informal settlements in Kisumu, Kenya. Findings suggest three organisational processes that grassroots organisations develop for the production and governance of incomplete grassroots infrastructures: shaping a partial organisation but creating the illusion of a formal and complete organisation; crafting critical (and often hidden) material and organisational infrastructures for the subsistence of dormant (but still visible) structures; and moulding nested infrastructure that shelters layers of floating and autonomous groups embedded in communities. In a resource-poor environment, the strategy is to create incompleteness, less organisation and to keep it partial and limited to a minimum of elements. The article also explores the political implications of organisational and infrastructural incompleteness by examining how it leads to efforts to craft loose and ambiguous governmental arrangements, connecting them materially and politically to formal infrastructure systems. These governmental arrangements are shifting and in the making, and therefore also incomplete. The article reveals how grassroots organisations mobilise a wide range of (in)visibility approaches. It concludes by exposing the hidden power of ‘incompleteness’ and the potential in hiding certain elements of incompleteness from outsiders, while rendering other elements visible when perceived as useful.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-02-02T06:40:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211062818
       
  • Making Mangaung Metro: The politics of metropolitan reform in a South
           African secondary city

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      Authors: Nidhi Subramanyam, Lochner Marais
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Metropolitan reforms, which include the creation of unified metropolitan governments through municipal mergers and reclassification, are emerging as one strategy to address planning and service delivery challenges in the wake of increasing urbanisation across sub-Saharan Africa. Although metropolitanisation adds service area and mandates, well-functioning secondary cities that are part of a two-tier governance system in South Africa are pursuing metropolitanisation. The case of Mangaung, an early instance of secondary city metropolitanisation, is an opportunity to examine the motivations underlying these reforms, the politics involved and their impacts on urban governance. Mangaung’s political and administrative leadership pursued metropolitanisation to jump scale, attain greater political autonomy vis-à-vis other tiers of government, and obtain fiscal and technical resources available only to metropolitan municipalities in South Africa’s urban municipal hierarchy. Metropolitanisation was no panacea for Mangaung’s governance challenges, however, since it did not resolve the underlying weaknesses in municipal capacity or the regional economy, nor did it address the spatial legacies of apartheid that produced a sprawling metropolitan service area. As other South African secondary cities contemplate metropolitanisation, we recommend revising municipal structures and mandates and strengthening administrative capacities and economies in secondary cities.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2022-01-25T12:13:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211065895
       
  • Institutionalising city networking: Discursive and rational choice
           institutional perspectives on membership of transnational municipal
           networks

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      Authors: Solveig Grønnestad, Anne Bach Nielsen
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article analyses participants’ reasoning for their city’s membership in transnational municipal networks and the extent to which this changes over time. Theoretically, we build on new-institutional theory and conclude that although parts of the members’ reasoning have rational components, a discursive institutional perspective improves the understanding of cities’ membership of transnational municipal networks. This perspective uncovers how important aspects of transnational municipal network participation are motivated by a different logic than that of measurable output. Cities use transnational municipal networks as sources of internal and external legitimacy, to legitimatise their position in domestic politics and their international position among other ‘global’ cities.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-12-29T04:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211061450
       
  • The city and the virus

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      Authors: Max Nathan
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Cities around the world are the epicentres of the coronavirus pandemic: both in the first wave, as the disease spread from East Asia, and now, as many countries enter a third wave of infections. These spatial patterns are still far from properly understood, though there is no shortage of possible explanations. I set out the emerging theories about cities’ role in the spread of coronavirus, testing these against existing studies and new analysis for English conurbations, cities and towns. Both reveal an urbanised public health crisis, in which vulnerabilities and health impacts track (a) urban structural inequalities, and (b) wider weaknesses in institutions, their capabilities and leaders. I then turn to ‘post-pandemic’ visions of future cities. I argue that this framing is unhelpful: even with mass vaccination, COVID-19 is likely to remain one of many globalised endemic diseases. Instead, ‘pandemic-resilient’ urban places will require improved economic, social and physical infrastructure, alongside better public policy. Describing such future cities is still highly speculative: I identify five zones of change.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-12-18T06:01:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211058383
       
  • Urban studies in India across the millennial turn: Histories and futures

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      Authors: Karen Coelho, Ashima Sood
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The millennial turn saw a distinct efflorescence in scholarship on urban India. This essay introduces a Virtual Special Issue on urban studies in India that showcases a selection of articles from the journal’s archives. It traces the disciplinary, thematic and methodological shifts that have marked this millennial turn. On the one hand, the social science of the urban has had a statist bent, reacting to the policy focus on cities as growth engines in the post-liberalisation era. On the other hand, critical urban studies has brought attention to the unregulated, deregulated, unplanned and unintended city produced by dynamic processes of informality acting overtly or covertly against the state’s neoliberal agendas. This introductory essay aims to examine the ways this interplay has unfolded both in the pages of this journal and elsewhere. It locates the Virtual Special Issue selection within a broader review of the state of scholarship in Indian urban studies and marks out areas for productive interventions in the future study of Indian cities.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-12-17T08:52:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211056773
       
  • Disassembling connections: A comparative analysis of the politics of slum
           upgrading in eThekwini and São Paulo

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      Authors: Camila Saraiva
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents an innovative comparison that works creatively with the entangled spatialities of policy mobilities, drawing on a city-to-city cooperation between São Paulo (Brazil) and eThekwini (South Africa) municipalities for the exchange of slum upgrading expertise. The proposed comparative tactic entails tracing the establishment of this connection in order to disassemble the constituent flows and localities merged within it. Subsequently, by posing questions to one another, a relational comparison of the trajectory of slum upgrading policy in each locality is composed, unearthing the political and institutional conditions that preceded the existence of the connection per se. In that sense, both eThekwini and São Paulo are considered equivalent starting points from which local actors engaged in circulating ideas and mobilised slum upgrading policies. This paper not only brings a fresh approach to comparative methods – incorporating political contexts and their extensive overlapping networks of relations alongside a focus on particular policy trajectories – but also contributes to furthering global urban studies in two other ways. First, it provides insight into the processes by which policies are put on the move and localised (or not). Second, it demonstrates how repeated instances of urban practice may be unravelled by allowing each context of policy formation, with its distinctive trajectory of slum upgrading, to speak to one another. In this regard, the comparative analysis identified how, in both São Paulo and eThekwini, the consolidation of democracy was followed by the development of more technocratic approaches to the detriment of earlier slum upgrading initiatives focussed on community empowerment.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-12-08T05:10:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211059703
       
  • De-colonising the right to housing, one new city at a time: Seeing housing
           development from Palestine/Israel

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      Authors: Oded Haas
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The right to housing is generally understood as a local struggle against the global commodification of housing. While useful for recognising overarching urbanisation processes, such understanding risks washing over the distinctive politics that produce the housing crisis and its ostensible solutions in different contexts around the globe. Situated in a settler-colonial context, this paper bridges recent comparative urban studies with Indigenous narratives of urbanisation, to re-think housing crisis solutions from the point of view of the colonised. Based on in-depth interviews with Palestinian citizens of Israel, the paper compares two cases of state-initiated, privatised housing developments, one in Israel and one in the Occupied Palestinian Territories: the new cities Tantour and Rawabi. Each case is examined as a singularity, distinctive formations of the spatialities of Zionist settlement in Palestine, which are now being transformed through privatised housing development. The paper presents these developments as mutually constituted through a colonial-settler project and Palestinian sumud resistance, the praxis of remaining on the land. The paper utilises comparison as a strategy, exploring each new city in turn, to reveal the range of directions in sumud. Thus, by seeing housing development as site for negotiating de-colonisation on the ground, the paper contributes to recent debates over the power of comparative urbanism to re-think global phenomena through treating urban terrains as singularities.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-11-29T06:27:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211056226
       
  • Shared projects and symbiotic collaborations: Shenzhen and London in
           comparative conversation

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      Authors: Shaun SK Teo
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents ‘shared projects’ and the ‘symbiotic’ relations they engender to capture accounts of state and society actors collaborating to turn individual constraints into collective opportunities for pursuing urban experiments which are institutionally-shaped but also institution-shaping. The concepts are developed through a sequential and recursive comparison – that is, a ‘comparative conversation’– between a case of urban village upgrading in Shenzhen and Community Land Trust Development in London. The paper uses a pragmatist approach to capitalist transformation as a starting point for comparison between these supposedly ‘incomparable’ cases. I build both heterogeneous and generalisable accounts of the pathways and progressive potential of collaborations on shared projects by recursively composing analytical proximities across the cases and their contexts of state entrepreneurialism and austerity localism. Theoretically, this paper contributes to scholarship which focuses on the contingency and complexity inherent in urban transformation. State and society actors are seen as potential collaborators working pragmatically to solve systemic problems without necessarily targeting wholesale systemic change. Methodologically, it contributes to ongoing attempts to demonstrate the positive relationship between experimental comparisons and conceptual innovation through staging a ‘comparative conversation’.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-11-12T06:42:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211048675
       
  • On the move in the (post)colonial metropolis: The Paris Metro in
           Francophone African and Afrodiasporic fiction

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      Authors: Anna-Leena Toivanen
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Literary texts convey the complexities of the urban experience in a tangible way. While there is a wide body of work on literary representations of Paris, the role of public transport as part of the (postcolonial) urban experience has not received much attention. This article sets out to analyse the meanings of the mobile public space comprising the Paris Metro in Francophone African and Afrodiasporic literary texts from the mid-20th century to the 2010s. The reading demonstrates how the texts represent the public space of the Metro as a symbol of modernity, a space of disappointment and alienation, an embodiment of social inequalities and as a site of convivial encounters and claims of agency. Through this analysis, the article highlights the role of literature in elucidating the intertwinement of mobility, public space and postcolonial urbanity.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-11-06T08:48:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211053976
       
  • The impact of ethnic segregation on neighbourhood-level social distancing
           in the United States amid the early outbreak of COVID-19

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      Authors: Wei Zhai, Xinyu Fu, Mengyang Liu, Zhong-Ren Peng
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 pandemic has been argued to be the ‘great equaliser’, but, in fact, ethnically and racially segregated communities are bearing a disproportionate burden from the disease. Although more people have been infected and died from the disease among these minority communities, still fewer people in these communities are complying with the suggested public health measures like social distancing. The factors contributing to these ramifications remain a long-lasting debate, in part due to the contested theories between ethnic stratification and ethnic community. To offer empirical evidence to this theoretical debate, we tracked public social-distancing behaviours from mobile phone devices across urban census tracts in the United States and employed a difference-in-difference model to examine the impact of racial/ethnic segregation on these behaviours. Specifically, we focussed on non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic communities at the neighbourhood level from three principal dimensions of ethnic segregation, namely, evenness, exposure, and concentration. Our results suggest that (1) the high ethnic diversity index can decrease social-distancing behaviours and (2) the high dissimilarity between ethnic minorities and non-Hispanic Whites can increase social-distancing behavior; (3) the high interaction index can decrease social-distancing behaviours; and (4) the high concentration of ethnic minorities can increase travel distance and non-home time but decrease work behaviours. The findings of this study shed new light on public health behaviours among minority communities and offer empirical knowledge for policymakers to better inform just and evidence-based public health orders.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-30T05:03:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211050183
       
  • Seeing the street through Instagram. Digital platforms and the
           amplification of gentrification

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      Authors: Irene Bronsvoort, Justus L Uitermark
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      As digital platforms are woven into urban life, they become an intrinsic part of the urban experience. Here we examine how representations on digital platforms reflect and shape urban change. Which groups produce and share these representations' What places do they picture' What are their aesthetic registers and norms' And what are the material consequences of these representations' Elaborating on the concept of ‘discursive investing’ introduced by Zukin et al., we address these questions in a case study of Javastraat, a shopping street in a gentrifying neighbourhood in Amsterdam East. On the basis of an analysis of Instagram posts, street observations and interviews, we show that gentrifiers use social media to express their identity status, often creating posts that serve as advertisements for hip and high-class establishments. Meanwhile, other establishments are largely absent from digital platforms, with the notable exception of a number of shops that changed their aesthetics to appeal to gentrifiers. We further show that these uneven representations have material consequences, changing the aesthetics and composition of the shopping street.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-29T06:55:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211046539
       
  • Governing public health emergencies during the coronavirus disease
           outbreak: Lessons from four Chinese cities in the first wave

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      Authors: Lingyue Li, Surong Zhang, Jinfeng Wang, Xiaoming Yang, Lan Wang
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had a far-reaching impact on urban living, prompting emergency preparedness and response from public health governance at multiple levels. The Chinese government has adopted a series of policy measures to control infectious disease, for which cities are the key spatial units. This research traces and reports analyses of those policy measures and their evolution in four Chinese cities: Zhengzhou, Hangzhou, Shanghai and Chengdu. The theoretical framework stems from conceptualisations of urban governance and its role in public health emergencies, wherein crisis management and emergency response are highlighted. In all four cities, the trend curves of cumulative diagnosed cases, critical policies launched in key time nodes and local governance approaches in the first wave were identified and compared. The findings suggest that capable local leadership is indispensable for controlling the coronavirus epidemic, yet local governments’ approaches are varied, contributing to dissimilar local epidemic control policy pathways and positive outcomes in the fight against COVID-19. The effectiveness of disease control is determined by how local governments’ measures have adapted to geospatial and socioeconomic heterogeneity. The coordinated actions from central to local governments also reveal an efficient, top-down command transmission and execution system for coping with the pandemic. This article argues that effective control of pandemics requires both a holistic package of governance strategies and locally adaptive governance measures/processes, and concludes with proposals for both a more effective response at the local level and identification of barriers to achieving these responses within diverse subnational institutional contexts.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-26T09:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211049350
       
  • The academic effects of chronic exposure to neighbourhood violence

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      Authors: Amy Ellen Schwartz, Agustina Laurito, Johanna Lacoe, Patrick Sharkey, Ingrid Gould Ellen
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper estimates the causal effect of repeated exposure to violent crime on test scores in New York City. We use two empirical strategies; value-added models linking student performance on standardised exams to violent crimes on students’ residential block, and a regression discontinuity approach that identifies the acute effect of additional crime exposure within a one-week window. Exposure to violent crime reduces academic performance. Value-added models suggest the average effect is very small (approximately −0.01 standard deviations) but grows with repeated exposure. Regression discontinuity (RD) models also find a larger effect among children previously exposed. The marginal acute effect is as large as −0.04 standard deviations for students with two or more prior exposures. Among these, it is almost one tenth of a standard deviation for Black students. We provide credible causal evidence that repeated exposure to neighbourhood violence harms test scores, and this negative effect increases with exposure.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-23T11:59:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211052149
       
  • Comparison and political strategy: Internationalism, colonial rule and
           urban research after Fanon

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      Authors: Stefan Kipfer
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Debates about comparative method have been at the forefront of English-language urban studies during the last two decades. In one sense, these debates simply derive from and help sustain the crucial labour process of urban research. In other respects, the rise of comparative method to foremost prominence has demonstrated theoretical differences in the field. The heat that some of these debates have occasionally generated (e.g. on scale, global cities, assemblage and planetary urbanisation) alerts us to the political stakes involved in comparison. These range from the micro-political dynamics of knowledge creation to various macrological considerations. In this paper, I deal not only with the political implications of comparative projects, I also raise the question: how do political strategies produce comparative perspectives' After a few observations about comparative debates in urban research and beyond, I zero in on Frantz Fanon’s tricontinental internationalism as a generator of a relational comparative outlook before discussing three intellectual engagements with Fanon’s legacy. These engagements are situated within the creole literary movement in Martinique, Indigenous radicalism in Canada and political anti-racism in mainland France. By highlighting the obstacles that stand in the way of translating Fanon’s internationalism, these engagements also underline the importance of understanding colonial rule and its legacies (including its urban dimension, which Fanon understood under the larger rubric of colonial compartmentalisation) in relationally comparative ways: historically and geographically distinct but inter-linked through broader processes, strategies and intellectual practices.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-20T08:50:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211049346
       
  • Socialist worldmaking: The political economy of urban comparison in the
           Global Cold War

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      Authors: Łukasz Stanek
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article revisits comparative urban studies produced during the Cold War in the framework of ‘socialist worldmaking’, or multiple, evolving and sometimes antagonistic practices of cooperation between socialist countries in Eastern Europe and decolonising countries in Africa and Asia. Much like the recent ‘new comparative urbanism’, these studies extended the candidates, terms and positionalities of comparison beyond the Global North. This article focuses on operative concepts employed by Soviet, Eastern European, African and Asian scholars and professionals in economic and spatial planning across diverse locations, and shows how they were produced by means of ‘adaptive’ and ‘appropriative’ comparison. While adaptive comparison was instrumental in the application of Soviet concepts in countries embarking on the socialist development path, appropriative comparison juxtaposed concepts from various contexts – whether the ‘West’ or the ‘East’ – in order to select those best suitable for the means and needs on the ground. This article argues that this conceptual production was conditioned by the political economy of socialist worldmaking and shows how these experiences are useful for a more critical advancement of comparative urban research today.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-13T11:40:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211050178
       
  • The imaginary of a moderncity: Post-politics and Myanmar’s urban
           development

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      Authors: Tamas Wells, Vanessa Lamb
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Theories of ‘post-politics’ provide a lens through which to analyse contemporary urban development. Yet empirical studies examining this ‘age of post-politics’ are few, especially outside of Europe and North America. This article examines the promise and limits of notions of post-politics through the case of planning for New Yangon City, a multi-billion dollar urban development in Myanmar (Burma). While the 2021 military coup has now made the future of the project uncertain, our research conducted in 2019 revealed similar dynamics at play to those described more broadly in the literature on post-politics. We highlight familiar processes of delegation of decision-making, a proliferation of governance actors and an individualisation of policy issues. What is distinctive in Myanmar is the way a coalition of elite decision-makers have diluted and defused policy disagreements through the construction of a utopian vision of a modern international city. We see this imaginary of the modern city as a tactic to support the broader efforts of depoliticisation. This diverges from arguments that the imagination of social change is curtailed through the pragmatic post-political notion that ‘there is no alternative’. Instead, in the context of New Yangon City, utopian vision is integral to depoliticisation and limiting dissent. We conclude that attention to processes of depoliticisation is crucial in relation to mega project planning in Asia, and that a productive way forward for studies of urban development is not wholesale acceptance or dismissal of the notion of post-politics, but robust engagement with its critiques and promise.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T10:01:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211044006
       
  • Statecraft on cement:The politics of land-based accumulation
           inErdoğan’s Turkey

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      Authors: Melih Yeşilbağ
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article contributes to the literature on the role of the state in land-based accumulation by presenting an explanatory framework on the case of contemporary Turkey, a case marked by an unprecedented construction boom that carries the distinct mark of the ruling AKP (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi, or Justice and Development Party). Land-based accumulation has constituted a defining aspect of the political economic setting of the AKP era. An investigation of the motivations behind this strategy reveals that it has been instrumental for the ruling party’s political agendas. Through land-based accumulation, the AKP has been able to cultivate a new generation of firms in the construction industry with connections to the party, consolidate its power among domestic capital and develop new mechanisms to finance party politics. Furthermore, symbolic and material manifestations of land-based accumulation have been abundantly used in the party’s propaganda machinery to provide ideological legitimation. Overall, the AKP’s authoritarian grip on power has been forged through the political-ideological resources provided by land-based accumulation. Contrary to the widespread narratives of weakening, passive or merely facilitating states, the case of Turkey brings to the fore an instance of boosting state agendas through land-based accumulation. My findings underline the need to combine capital-switch arguments with a Gramscian political conjunctural analysis for a fuller understanding of the role of the state in land-based accumulation, and point to the urban roots of neoliberal authoritarianism.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T01:27:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211044044
       
  • Transcending path dependencies: Why the study of post-socialist cities
           needs to capitalise on the discussion on urbanisation in the South (and
           vice versa)

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      Authors: Jakub Galuszka
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Recently, the theoretical relevance and utility of the regionalised notion of post-socialist cities have been questioned. The ensuing debate has resulted in several positions, including suggestions to drop the term entirely or to create a distinctive narrative based on the concept of a Global East, in order to position the knowledge as equal vis-a-vis discourses originating from Western power centres. This article responds to this call through efforts to transcend the dominant frames of research on post-socialist cities. However, I argue that the first step in overcoming the subaltern positioning of local knowledge is to refocus attention on previously marginalised urban phenomena, and to link the post-socialist research agenda to existing empowering discourses. The importance of creating linkages with the research originating from the South, and the potential for such joint engagements to contribute to global theory-making are discussed in the context of the study of urban informality.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T01:52:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211047182
       
  • The effects of social housing regeneration schemes on employment: The case
           of the Glasgow Stock Transfer

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      Authors: Meng Le Zhang, George Galster, David Manley, Gwilym Pryce
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Regeneration is an internationally popular policy for improving distressed neighbourhoods dominated by large social housing developments. Stimulating employment is often touted as a secondary benefit, but this claim has rarely been evaluated convincingly. In 2003, Glasgow City Council transferred ownership of its entire social housing stock to the Glasgow Housing Association and over £4 billion was invested in physical repairs, social services and other regeneration activities. Using a linked census database of individuals (Scottish Longitudinal Study), we evaluate the causal effect of the Stock Transfer on employment in Glasgow through a quasi-experimental design that exploits idiosyncrasies and changes in Glasgow’s administrative boundaries. We find that the Stock Transfer had a positive effect on employment for Glasgow residents who were not living in transferred social housing stock. We establish that this effect was mainly accomplished through the local employment multiplier effect of capital spending rather than through any other programmatic elements of the Stock Transfer. Exploratory analysis shows heterogeneous effects: individuals who were over 21, female, living with dependent children and with less education were less likely to benefit from the intervention. We did not find significant subgroup effects by neighbourhood deprivation.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T01:50:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211047044
       
  • The cities we need: Towards an urbanism guided by human needs satisfaction

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      Authors: Rodrigo Cardoso, Ali Sobhani, Evert Meijers
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article proposes moving beyond the tyranny of economic imperatives towards a human needs-based framework to assess cities and envision their development. Existing calls for such a transition lack a foundation able to capture the various dimensions of human life in cities, which can be provided by the concept of human needs. We ask whether cities deliver satisfiers that make them good places to cater for the full range of human needs in a similar way to how they cater for economic needs. The article develops a framework that allows us to address that question. We show how the main debates in human needs theory are illustrated by urban phenomena, and search for a human needs model which is able to advance those debates and tackle the problem specifically in cities. Then we highlight the specifically urban aspects of needs satisfaction processes and construct a table of indicators to assess how cities fare in that respect, ensuring global comparability as to whether, as well as local contextualisation as to how, needs are satisfied.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T01:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211045571
       
  • Informal settlements, Covid-19 and sex workers in Kenya

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      Authors: Rahma Hassan, Teela Sanders, Susan Gichuna, Rosie Campbell, Mercy Mutonyi, Peninah Mwangi
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper highlights the challenges faced by female sex workers living and working in the urban informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, during the Covid-19 outbreak and the aftermath of the pandemic. Using data collected through phone interviews during the immediate crisis, we document the experiences of urban poor sex workers, illustrating the acute problems they faced, including precarious housing with the reality of eviction and demolition. The paper highlights the ramifications of the Covid-19 crisis for the sex industry and predominantly women working within this informal, illegal economy. Through our empirical data we illustrate how the nature of selling sex has changed for sex workers in this context, increasing risks of violence including police abuses. We argue that examining the Covid-19 crisis through the lens of one the most marginalised populations graphically highlights how the pandemic has and will continue to deepen pre-existing structural urban inequalities and worsen public health outcomes among the urban poor. Sex worker communities are often located at the intersections of structural inequalities of gender, class, race and nation and the socio-spatial fragmentations of how they live make them some of the most vulnerable in society. We close with comments in relation to sexual citizenship, exclusionary state practices and the feminisation of urban poverty.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T01:46:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211044628
       
  • Changes in the economic status of neighbourhoods in US metropolitan areas
           from 1980 to 2010: Stability, growth and polarisation

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      Authors: Wei Kang, Elijah Knaap, Sergio Rey
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper we move away from a static view of neighbourhood inequality and investigate the dynamics of neighbourhood economic status, which ties together spatial income inequality at different moments in time. Using census data from three decades (1980–2010) in 294 metropolitan statistical areas, we use a statistical decomposition method to unpack the aggregate spatiotemporal income dynamic into its contributing components: stability, growth and polarisation, providing a new look at the economic fortunes of diverse neighbourhoods. We examine the relative strength of each component in driving the overall pattern, in addition to whether, how, and why these forces wax and wane across space and over time. Our results show that over the long run, growth is a dominant form of change across all metros, but there is a very clear decline in its prominence over time. Further, we find a growing positive relationship between the components of dispersion and growth, in a reversal of prior trends. Looking across metro areas, we find temporal heterogeneity has been driven by different socioeconomic factors over time (such as sectoral growth in certain decades), and that these relationships vary enormously with geography and time. Together these findings suggest a high level of temporal heterogeneity in neighbourhood income dynamics, a phenomenon which remains largely unexplored in the current literature. There is no universal law governing the changing economic status of neighbourhoods in the US over the last 40 years, and our work demonstrates the importance of considering shifting dynamics over multiple spatial and temporal scales.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-07T01:45:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211042549
       
  • Spatialising urban health vulnerability: An analysisof NYC’s critical
           infrastructure during COVID-19

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      Authors: Gayatri Kawlra, Kazuki Sakamoto
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examines how fragmentation of critical infrastructure impacts the spread of the coronavirus outbreak in New York City at the neighbourhood level. The location of transportation hubs, grocery stores, pharmacies, hospitals and parks plays an important role in shaping spatial disparities in virus spread. Using supervised machine learning and spatial regression modelling we examine how the geography of COVID-19 case rates is influenced by the spatial arrangement of four critical sectors of the built environment during the public health emergency in New York City: health care facilities, mobility networks, food and nutrition and open space. Our models suggest that an analysis of urban health vulnerability is incomplete without the inclusion of critical infrastructure metrics in dense urban geographies. Our findings show that COVID-19 risk at the zip code level is influenced by (1) socio-demographic vulnerability, (2) epidemiological risk, and (3) availability and access to critical infrastructure.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-10-01T01:18:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211044304
       
  • Urban ethnic enclaves and migration industries: The urban choices of
           mobile people

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      Authors: Hila Zaban
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      When migrants come in large numbers, they tend to segregate in enclaves where they lead a familiar lifestyle alongside people who can provide a support system. But how do these enclaves come about' This paper engages with migration industries literature, saying that it is ‘the labour involved in managing, facilitating and controlling migration’ that makes it an industry. Relying on the case of privileged Jewish migration to Israel, I argue that while the state remains central in facilitating and controlling migration, migration industries and migrants’ social networks dictate in which urban areas privileged migrants settle, creating unequal urban geographies. To illustrate this, I rely on qualitative data gathered in two research projects I completed in Israel over the past decade, in various Israeli cities relating to migrants and second-home owners from Western countries. I look at how and why people decide where to settle upon migrating and the role of various migration industries actors in their choices. I argue that what seems like individual decision-making is in fact a ‘structured agency’, repeating patterns of the imagined urban geographies produced by agents of migration and various urban stakeholders. The result is unequal patterns of location and consumption, where privileged migrants locate in urban enclaves, distancing themselves from other groups and causing gentrification.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-09-30T09:53:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211045494
       
  • Street markets, urban development and immigrant entrepreneurship:
           Unpacking precarity in Moore Street, Dublin

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      Authors: Cristín Blennerhassett, Niamh Moore-Cherry, Christine Bonnin
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Traditional markets represent vital spaces of opportunity for livelihood-building, intercultural contact and for developing familiarity with the city. Yet, worldwide, markets are under pressure due to redevelopment agendas driven by neoliberalised forms of urban governance. Although precarious sites of occupation and employment, markets still maintain an attractiveness for immigrant micro-entrepreneurs as a foothold into the labour market and urban economy. Through a case study of the historic Moore Street market in central Dublin (Ireland), we explore the experiences of immigrant entrepreneurs. While these may be different in terms of their familiarity with the urban, institutional and regulatory landscapes, they are not entirely dissimilar from the experiences of longer-term traders in Moore Street. However what is evident is how precarity is tactically exploited by newcomer entrepreneurs for particular reasons. These traders prize the autonomy brought by market trading and use it as a meso-scale between low-paid waged employment and higher-level employment that may be out of reach for a variety of reasons. We argue that in examining urban precarity, increased attention should be paid to exploring the context-specific nature of the processes that give rise to it as well as the agentic capacity exercised to exploit it even within structural constraints.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-09-28T01:45:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211040928
       
  • Resonance beyond regimes: Migrant’s alternative infrastructuring
           practices in Athens

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      Authors: Mirjam Wajsberg, Joris Schapendonk
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In migration studies, there is an increasing interest in understanding how migration processes are shaped by different forms of brokerage and mediation. We relate these debates to the everyday struggles of migrants in the city of Athens. In so doing, we propose a shift from the all-encompassing view on infrastructures, that is, as systematic entities of facilitation/control to the infrastructuring practices of migrants. This implies a focus on how migrants create dynamic social platforms, and how these platforms relate to formal infrastructures and industries. We analyse these infrastructuring practices through a conceptual lens of resonance that is sensitive to the constitutive (how things, people and processes are brought together) as well as travelling capacities of these practices (how the platforms shift to other places). With an ethnographic approach, we create in-depth insights into the ways in which migrants mediate im/mobility in the urban environment of Athens through infrastructuring practices. The paper concludes by reflecting on the promises and limitations of the infrastructuring practices as sites of solidarity. We thereby argue that there are many links to make within the mobile commons debate. At the same time, our findings highlight that the transformative potential of infrastructuring practices does not always go along with a clear claim on solidarity.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-09-21T03:28:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211044312
       
  • Cities and infectious diseases: Assessing the exposure of pedestrians to
           virus transmission along city streets

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      Authors: Achilleas Psyllidis, Fábio Duarte, Roos Teeuwen, Arianna Salazar Miranda, Tom Benson, Alessandro Bozzon
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      As cities resume life in public space, they face the difficult task of retaining outdoor activity while decreasing exposure to airborne viruses, such as the novel coronavirus. Even though the transmission risk is higher in indoor spaces, recent evidence suggests that physical contact outdoors also contributes to an increased virus exposure. Given that streets constitute the largest percentage of public space in cities, there is an increasing need to prioritise their use to minimise transmission risk. However, city officials currently lack the assessment tools to achieve this. This article evaluates the extent to which street segments are associated with spatiotemporal variations of potential exposures of pedestrians to virus transmission. We develop a multi-component risk score that considers both urban form and human activity along streets over time, including (a) an assessment of pedestrian infrastructure according to the average width of pavements, (b) a measure of accessibility for each street based on its position in the street network, (c) an activity exposure score that identifies places along streets where exposure could be higher and (d) an estimate of the number of pedestrians that will pass through each street during weekdays and weekends. We use Amsterdam in the Netherlands as a case study to illustrate how our score could be used to assess the exposure of pedestrians to virus transmission along streets. Our approach can be replicated in other cities facing a similar challenge of bringing life back to the streets while minimising transmission risks.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-09-21T03:28:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211042824
       
  • Industrial destabilisation: The case of Rajajinagar, Bangalore

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      Authors: Shriya Anand, Aditi Dey
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      There has been a recent interest in expanding the focus of deindustrialisation studies to the cities of the Global South. Bangalore, with its long legacy of state sponsored industrialisation, as well as a substantial shift in its economy following economic liberalisation in 1991, presents itself as a suitable case to examine the impacts of industrial transformation. We study the decline of the engineering economy in one of Bangalore’s earliest planned industrial suburbs, Rajajinagar, to understand how industrial restructuring at the city and national scale has affected and reconfigured local economies. Using this case study, we make two main theoretical contributions: one, we bring out shifts at a neighbourhood scale that go beyond the existing literature on neoliberal transformations in Bangalore as well as other Indian cities. Two, the case also allows us to assess the limitations of deindustrialisation as a framework to analyse these changes, and we suggest a modified framework, that of ‘industrial destabilisation’.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-09-17T12:50:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211044005
       
  • CORRIGENDUM to ‘Making ways for “better education”: Placing the
           Shenzhen-Hong Kong mobility industry’

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      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-09-15T12:51:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211048339
       
  • A posteriori comparisons, repeated instances and urban policy mobilities:
           What ‘best practices’ leave behind

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      Authors: Sergio Montero, Gianpaolo Baiocchi
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Urban studies scholars have engaged in a lively debate on how to reformat comparative methods in the face of critical scrutiny of the discipline’s purported universalism. We share the enthusiasm for a reformatted urban comparativism and, in this paper, we turn to the thorny and more pragmatic question of how to actually carry it out. While traditional comparisons in urban studies have sought to find variation among similar cases by selecting a priori, in this article we propose to compare the findings of different researchers through a posteriori, that is, after the research has been done. We also argue that urban researchers need to focus on urban processes rather than cities; on repeated instances rather than on controlling for difference; and on mid-level abstraction rather than on grand theory or descriptive empirical cases. We put this strategy to work by comparing empirical research previously carried out by the authors on how two Latin American cities became international urban ‘best practices’: Bogotá as a sustainable transport model and Porto Alegre as a model of local participatory budgeting. The comparison highlights the tension between the simplified policy narratives that were mobilised to circulate Bogotá and Porto Alegre as international ‘best practices’ and the broader multi-scalar institutional reforms that these ‘best practice’ narratives have left behind in their global circulations. In doing so, we show the potential of a posteriori comparisons to analyse contemporary global urban dynamics and provide some explicit methodological tactics on how to do comparisons in a more systematic way.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T05:43:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211041460
       
  • Internal migration industries: Shaping the housing options for refugees at
           the local level

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      Authors: Matthias Bernt, Ulrike Hamann, Nihad El-Kayed, Leoni Keskinkilic
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we focus on ways in which ‘internal migration industries’ shape the housing location of refugees in cities. Based on empirical studies in Halle, Schwerin, Berlin, Stuttgart and Dresden, we bring two issues together. First, we show how a specific financialised accumulation model of renting out privatised public housing stock to disadvantaged parts of the population has emerged that increasingly targets migrant tenants. With the growing immigration of refugees to Germany since 2015, this model has intensified. Second, we discuss how access to housing is formed by informal agents. While housing is almost inaccessible for households on social welfare, the situation is even worse for refugees. This situation has given rise to a new ‘shadow economy’ for housing that offers services with dubious quality for excessive fees. Bringing these two issues together, we argue that housing provision to refugees has become a new business opportunity. This has given rise to a broad variety of ‘internal migration industries’ that provide the housing infrastructure, but also control access to housing. This not only results in new opportunities for profit extraction, but actively shapes new patterns of segregation and the concentration of refugees in particular types of disadvantaged neighbourhoods.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-09-07T05:41:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211041242
       
  • Locked down by inequality: Older people and the COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: Tine Buffel, Sophie Yarker, Chris Phillipson, Luciana Lang, Camilla Lewis, Patty Doran, Mhorag Goff
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper develops the argument that post-COVID-19 recovery strategies need to focus on building back fairer cities and communities, and that this requires a strong embedding of ‘age-friendly’ principles to support marginalised groups of older people, especially those living in deprived urban neighbourhoods, trapped in poor quality housing. It shows that older people living in such areas are likely to experience a ‘double lockdown’ as a result of restrictions imposed by social distancing combined with the intensification of social and spatial inequalities. This argument is presented as follows: first, the paper examines the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on older people, highlighting how the pandemic is both creating new and reinforcing existing inequalities in ageing along the lines of gender, class, ethnicity, race, ability and sexuality. Second, the paper explores the role of spatial inequalities in the context of COVID-19, highlighting how the pandemic is having a disproportionate impact on deprived urban areas already affected by cuts to public services, the loss of social infrastructure and pressures on the voluntary sector. Finally, the paper examines how interrelated social inequalities at both the individual and spatial level are affecting the lives of older people living in deprived urban neighbourhoods during the pandemic. The paper concludes by developing six principles for ‘age-friendly’ community recovery planning aimed at maintaining and improving the quality of life and wellbeing of older residents in the post-pandemic city.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T09:19:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211041018
       
  • Generational variations in the timing of entry into homeownership in
           Shanghai: The role of family formation and family of origin

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      Authors: Xueying Mu, Can Cui, Wei Xu, Junru Cui
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Radical housing reform has triggered tremendous changes in both housing supply and housing demand in China over the past four decades, leading to apparent generational fractures in homeownership. In contrast to the rising age of first dwelling purchasers in some Western countries, younger cohorts in China are entering homeownership at increasingly younger ages despite rising housing prices. Based on a retrospective survey conducted in Shanghai in 2018 and 2019, this study examines the changing roles of family formation and parental background in affecting the timing of entering homeownership across different cohorts. Employing event history analyses, this study demonstrates that transitions to first homeownership have become synchronised with family formation among younger cohorts, which implies the social norm of ‘marital home’. Furthermore, the results reveal that parental background is increasingly influential in determining the timing of first home purchase; men and individuals from one-child families are more likely to be the beneficiary of parental help to enter homeownership. Through the lens of cohort, this study contributes to understanding the changing role of family formation and family of origin, which are shaped by institutional and cultural transformations in China. The intensified intergenerational transmission leads to exacerbation of horizontal housing inequality, that is, some achieving homeownership at a younger age while others being shunned from homeownership in the context of worsening housing affordability.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T09:17:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211040947
       
  • Making ways for ‘better education’: Placing the Shenzhen-Hong
           Kong mobility industry

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      Authors: Maggi WH Leung, Johanna L Waters, Yunyun Qin
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Tens of thousands of children living on Mainland China cross the border between Shenzhen and Hong Kong for a ‘better education’ every day. A well-oiled industry is in place to manage, facilitate and control this education mobility field. It involves schools, diverse businesses and non-governmental organisations that, in articulation with the Chinese and Hong Kong states, stimulate and regulate the movement of people, materialities, ideas and practices. Drawing on our fieldwork and media analysis, this paper unpacks the transurban mobility industry to illustrate the role of the various players and how they work in conjunction to facilitate cross-border schooling, especially among the very young children. We map out and visualise with photos the workings of the schools, buses, escorts, tutoring centres, day care and boarding houses. We show how the mobility industry, intersecting with other business networks and mobility systems, links Shenzhen and Hong Kong, taking and making places in these cities, especially in the border region. Our paper illustrates the role of this mobility industry in the making of the political-economy and socio-culture of the border area, which constantly connects, divides and redefines the two cities and regions it bridges. We end with some reflections on the implications of the recent political challenges and COVID-19 pandemic on this cross-border education mobility system.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T01:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211042716
       
  • Problematising concepts of transit-oriented development in South African
           cities

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      Authors: Astrid Wood
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Transit-oriented development (TOD) is generally defined as planned high-density development containing a mixture of residential, retail, commercial and community uses around a transit hub and surrounded by a high-quality urban realm that prioritises the pedestrian (and more recently the cyclist) over the automobile. This article analyses the steps taken in Cape Town and Johannesburg to develop TOD schemes. In so doing, it problematises both the concept of TOD as a universal mechanism in which all cities apply a similar set of guidelines as well as the specific planning practices in South African cities. Drawing on the policy mobilities literature and specifically the emerging discussions of policy mobilities failure, I note the challenges and delays in implementing TOD in South Africa. It is not so much that TOD has been applied incorrectly as that it has been unable to stick in the local context. Rather than furthering the debate on whether a city should or should not promote TOD, viewing their planning through a policy mobilities lens highlights the urban politics of policymaking. Accordingly, the article presents a fine-tuned analysis of TOD as both a conceptual framework as well as a process for actually doing transport planning. Such a critical reading of the intertwined and overlapping practices of policymaking provides insights into the process of urban development and spatial transformation in (South/ern) Africa as well as across cities of the global south.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-09-01T05:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211033725
       
  • Spatial and social disparities in the decline of activities during the
           COVID-19 lockdown in Greater London

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      Authors: Terje Trasberg, James Cheshire
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      We use data on human mobility obtained from mobile applications to explore the activity patterns in the neighbourhoods of Greater London as they emerged from the first wave of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions during summer 2020 and analyse how the lockdown guidelines have exposed the socio-spatial fragmentation between urban communities. The location data are spatially aggregated to 1 km2 grids and cross-checked against publicly available mobility metrics (e.g. Google COVID-19 Community Report, Apple Mobility Trends Report). They are then linked to geodemographic classifications to compare the average decline of activities in the areas with different sociodemographic characteristics. We found that the activities in the deprived areas dominated by minority groups declined less compared to the Greater London average, leaving those communities more exposed to the virus. Meanwhile, the activity levels declined more in affluent areas dominated by white-collar jobs. Furthermore, due to the closure of non-essential stores, activities declined more in premium shopping destinations and less in suburban high streets.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-31T08:44:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211040409
       
  • Between containment and crackdown in Geylang, Singapore: Urban crime
           control as the statecrafting of migrant exclusion

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      Authors: Joe Greener, Laura Naegler
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Based on a case study conducted in Geylang, Singapore, this article explores the role of urban policing, surveillance and crime control as mechanisms of social ordering that contribute to the marginalisation of excluded groups, including low-income migrant workers and sex workers. Adopting a statecraft approach that emphasises the significance of ‘governing through crime’ for the upholding of urban political-economic projects, we examine the entanglement of political discourses and crime and social control practices as co-constructive of class- and race-based inequality in Singapore. Drawing from qualitative interviews with NGO workers and sex workers, augmented by extensive non-participant observations, we identify three processes through which state power is vectored in Geylang: the stigmatisation of the neighbourhood through association with marginalised groups, legitimising intense spatialised intervention; the enacting of performative zero-tolerance policing; and the containment and surveillance of illicit activities within the neighbourhood. Contributing to discussions that advance the statecraft approach to researching urban crime control, the article shows that seemingly contradictory practices of tolerance and intervention constitute strategies of governance. The article argues that spatially specific crime control practices in Geylang generated an exclusionary ‘spectacle’ which symbolically connects low-income migrant workers with deviance, in turn supporting citizenship exclusion, racialised marginality and a wider politics of capital accumulation resting on disempowered labour. As we argue, crime control policies are an important form of statecraft legitimising an urban political economy that is heavily reliant on low-cost labour provided by migrant workers.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-28T12:32:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211034681
       
  • Delivering higher density suburban development: The impact of building
           design and residents’ attitudes

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      Authors: Pablo Navarrete-Hernandez, Alan Mace, Jacob Karlsson, Nancy Holman, Davide Alberto Zorloni
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The urgent need for housing in London will be met almost exclusively through building on brownfield sites. While Inner and suburban Outer London are both home to a range of brownfield sites, the politics of delivering new housing varies between the two. First, Outer London is built at significantly lower density and therefore densification has a more noticeable impact. Second, many residents in Outer London value living at lower density and will see densification as undermining that which they value. Third, homeownership is more common in Outer London and as housing is the most significant asset for most homeowners any threat to its value is likely to be strongly resisted. Our research tests whether design can positively impact both the perception and acceptability of densification. For this, we run a randomised control trial presenting 939 Outer London residents with simulated images representing different design features. We find that the effects of building design are limited and relate almost exclusively to low and medium density options. Our research shows that vernacular design can make some increase in density acceptable but for significantly higher density the influence of design declines. As density increases, the perception and acceptability of density are more influenced by people’s views on, for example, the extent of London’s housing crisis. This indicates that planners and politicians must reach beyond design and seek to better inform and persuade residents about housing need if the impasse on densification is to be overcome.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-25T10:52:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211036633
       
  • Citizens go digital: A discursive examination of digital payments in
           Singapore’s Smart Nation project

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      Authors: Gordon Kuo Siong Tan
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated digitalisation efforts in many countries as they try to contain the virus. With the physical handling of cash posing as a potential virus transmission risk, digital payments have become important in the urgent transition to a cashless society and a key feature of smart city projects. Critical analyses have typically framed smart cities as neoliberalist developmental projects that see the partnering of the state with private corporations. However, it is unclear how the smart city emerges under the technocratic inclinations of the developmental state. Focusing on the digital payments project under Singapore’s Smart Nation initiative, this paper unpacks the discursive practices employed in mobilising citizen support for electronic payments through a critical analysis of publicly available government materials and recent initiatives. The discourse surrounding digital payments is bound up in narratives surrounding economic competitiveness, technological progress and public health and safety, and strongly rooted in a technocratic governance ethos that limits genuine citizen participation in shaping smart payments technologies. This paper argues that such discursive framings represent a missed opportunity to build a smart city that is truly citizen-centric. This reorientation requires more bottom-up and grassroots-based modes of governance that reformulate smart citizenship into one that pays greater attention to the affective and social contexts behind digital technologies.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-25T10:49:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211039407
       
  • The divergent logics of urban regeneration in Israel:A neoliberal toolkit
           andnational rationales

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      Authors: Tal Alster, Nufar Avni
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In recent years, urban regeneration policy in Israel has relied largely on market-based mechanisms to deliver its goals, seemingly in keeping with neoliberal trends. Whereas, in previous decades, the construction and renovation of housing was facilitated primarily by state-run projects, current urban regeneration policy relies heavily on private actors – developers and homeowners – motivated by profit and the allocation of building rights. In this article, we argue that while this policy appears to be consistent with neoliberal trends, the Israeli government, as well as the public, in fact continue to view urban regeneration as a project of national significance, deserving of public funding if market forces should prove inadequate. We describe the unique characteristics of urban regeneration policy in Israel, arguing that they derive from ‘moral economy’ logic as well as geopolitical considerations such as national security and commitment to the periphery. We make this argument by examining urban regeneration in the country’s geographical and economic ‘periphery’, where the state is expected to finance and incentivise regeneration in the absence of market incentives. We conclude that even in a supposedly heightened neoliberal era, Israel’s regeneration policy continues to be centralised and driven by national objectives and centre–periphery relations that reproduce the country’s path-dependent development trajectory.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-24T06:47:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211036012
       
  • Natural population growth and urban management in metropolitan regions:
           Insights from pre-crisis and post-crisis Athens, Greece

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      Authors: Sabato Vinci, Gianluca Egidi, Rosanna Salvia, Antonio Gimenez Morera, Luca Salvati
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Between the 1970s and the 1990s, cities in Southern Europe experienced a progressive delocalisation of population, settlements and activities over larger regions. Economic downturns have increasingly influenced more recent waves of metropolitan growth, shaping differentiated patterns of urban change. While some cities evolved towards accelerated population dynamics in central districts responding to re-urbanisation impulses, other agglomerations were intrinsically bounded in a sort of ‘late suburbanisation’, with demographic shrinkage of both inner districts and rural areas, and uneven expansion of suburban population. By providing a comprehensive interpretation of the socioeconomic mechanisms underlying recent urban expansion, this study illustrates a diachronic analysis of population dynamics over multiple spatial scales and time frames in a metropolitan region of Southern Europe (Athens, Greece) between 1999 and 2019. Natural population balance was investigated vis à vis selected territorial indicators using descriptive, inferential and multivariate statistics. Results of the analysis identify different social forces underlying suburban population growth during economic expansion (2000s) and recession (2010s), evidencing a distinctive response of local communities to economic downturns that depends mostly on the background context (affluent versus disadvantaged neighbourhoods). Given the multiplicity of territorial dimensions involved in urban growth, our findings highlight how economic downturns distinctively shape metropolitan development based on locally differentiated demographic dynamics.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-21T09:43:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211035041
       
  • Social capital and perceived tenure security of informal housing: Evidence
           from Beijing, China

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      Authors: Mengzhu Zhang
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Perceived tenure security is recognised to affect the socioeconomic behaviours and wellbeing of informal settlement dwellers. The provision of perceived tenure security is centred on the developmental agenda as a key policy alternative of tenure legalisation. Despite the consensus about its importance, the reason perceived tenure security is different amongst dwellers remains unclear. To fill this gap, we introduce social capital theory to understand the formation of and disparity in perceived tenure security. The hypotheses are that dwellers living in informal settlements with higher collective social capital and having higher individual social capital tend to feel more secure on their tenure because of higher backing power attained to deter the threats of eviction. We examine the hypotheses using a structural equation model approach to a dataset collected from three small property rights housing communities, which are emerging informal settlements in urban China. Modelling results support our hypotheses and suggest that female, low-income and migrant dwellers tend to feel less secure on their tenure because of the lack of social capital to deter the threats to their tenure. This study contributes to a new sociological explanation for the disparity in perceived tenure security other than the established psychological explanation. Empirically, this study contributes to the understanding of the rapid development of small property rights housing developments in China from the perspective of how dwellers develop security on informal tenure.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-21T09:41:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211033085
       
  • On the conditions of ‘late urbanisation’

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      Authors: Sean Fox, Tom Goodfellow
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      We are living through a global urban transition, but the timing of this transition has varied significantly across countries and regions. This geographic variation in timing matters, both theoretically and substantively. Yet contemporary debates on urbanism hinge primarily on questions of universalism versus particularism, at the expense of attention to how history and geography collide to shape urban processes. Specifically, they neglect the critical fact that urbanisation in many countries today is late within the context of the global urban transition. We argue that trajectories of contemporary urbanisation must be understood in relation to a suite of conditions unique to the late 20th and early 21st centuries and partly shaped by early urbanisation, including historically unprecedented demographic intensity, hyperglobalisation, centripetal state politics and the spectre of environmental catastrophe in the late Anthropocene. These factors condition the range of possibilities for late urbanisers in ways that did not apply to early urbanisers yet can also produce diverse outcomes depending on local circumstances. We draw on a comparison between countries in sub-Saharan Africa and China to illustrate why the conditions of late urbanisation matter, but also why they have produced highly variable outcomes and are not deterministic of urban futures.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-21T09:40:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211032654
       
  • On the recursive relationship between gentrification and labour market
           precarisation: Evidence from two neighbourhoods in Athens, Greece

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      Authors: Konstantinos Gourzis, Andrew Herod, Ioannis Chorianopoulos, Stelios Gialis
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Gentrification and labour precarisation constitute prominent responses to urban capitalist crises. They have typically been addressed in the literature as distinct processes. Even though they can indeed occur independently of one another, here we argue that they are also often deeply interconnected. To do so, we utilise a mix of fieldwork and secondary data to investigate how gentrification has both fostered labour precarisation but also how it has been supported by it, within a context of economic recession yet growing tourist inflows into two neighbourhoods (Koukaki and Kerameikos) in central Athens, Greece. Our findings show that the growth of precarious labour in construction has facilitated the development of several gentrification loci whilst, in turn, gentrification’s consolidation has encouraged the growth of poor working conditions in local lodging, hospitality/catering, and creative activities. Ultimately, in highlighting the role of labour precarisation in gentrification, the paper argues that these processes are more than mere parts of an opportunistic conjuncture. Instead, their interconnectedness constitutes an integral part of the city’s contemporary urbanisation, being a continuation of the crisis-struck, construction-driven economic models that have historically characterised much of the Mediterranean European Union.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-21T09:33:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211031775
       
  • Urban statecraft: The governance of transport infrastructures in African
           cities

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      Authors: Liza Rose Cirolia, Jesse Harber
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Through the lens of infrastructure governance, this article explores the configurations and operations of the urban state in sub-Saharan Africa. We deploy and extend the concept of ‘statecraft’, drawing on the recent scholarship within urban studies which explores city and municipal statecraft. Consolidating insights across several studies on transport governance in African cities, we identify three ‘sites’ of urban statecraft evident in urban Africa. First, we look at sectoral authorities, which we analyse through the common experience of ringfenced national road agencies. Carving off urban functions can fragment power over urban infrastructure. Second, we look at metropolitan authorities, which we analyse through bus rapid transit (BRT) agencies. Metropolitanisation crafts new scales of governance in Africa’s larger cities. Finally, we turn to the regulation of informal service delivery systems, which we analyse through popular transport regulation. The regulation of minibus and motorcycle taxis shows the central importance of everyday practice in urban statecraft in Africa. The case of transport governance provides a particularly vivid display of the institutional fragmentation that exists between state agencies and institutions in African cities. In this context, the urban state is not a static municipal entity, but is enacted through complex and multi-scalar relationships. These relationships relate not only to the assignment of functions or territorial design, but also to the practices which animate infrastructural systems. More generally, we argue that there is ample scope within the African urban governance debates for deeper interrogation of statecraft.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-21T09:31:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211028106
       
  • The politics of hyperregulation in La Paz, Bolivia: Speculative peri-urban
           development in a context of unresolved municipal boundary conflicts

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      Authors: Philipp Horn
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In Bolivia, urbanisation increasingly takes place in peri-urban settings situated outside the boundaries of cities. Unlike previous research that considers peri-urban developments such as rural-to-urban land use transitions to be characterised by state absence and little regulation and planning, this article demonstrates that such developments occur precisely because of the presence of particular multi-scalar governance configurations. Drawing on case study material from peri-urban La Paz, the article demonstrates how legislative reforms by Bolivia’s national government on decentralisation and municipal delineation, which failed to establish clear jurisdictional boundaries, create a situation of hyperregulation whereby multiple local authorities claim political control over the same territory by deploying distinct and at times conflicting, legal and planning frameworks. While hyperregulation enables a loose coalition of elite actors, including government authorities, resident leaders of peri-urban settlements and private sector representatives, to advance specific political and socio-economic interests, it puts ordinary residents in a situation of permanent uncertainty. The article contributes to and further nuances conceptual debates on calculated informality which uncover how states deliberately create legally ambiguous systems to facilitate speculative urban developments. Unlike previous studies which highlight that this is mainly achieved through state engineering, and particularly by suspending or violating the law, this article demonstrates that legal ambiguity and irregularity can also be generated through multi-scalar governance configurations that (1) involve a number of elite actors, including state authorities but also private sector and civil society representatives and (2) create a situation in which different regulatory systems co-exist without coordination.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-07T11:25:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211031806
       
  • ‘Timepass’ and ‘setting’: The meanings, relationships and politics
           of urban informal work in Delhi

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      Authors: Sanjeev Routray
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The engagement of people in extremely low-wage work in major cities of the Global South and their withdrawal from labour-organising activities arise from several factors. Among these is the hegemonic meaning construction of work as ‘timepass’ or leisure and as an opportunity for sociality and neighbourliness that is central to the social reproduction of everyday life. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Delhi, this article examines how work regimes are marked by a ‘commission economy’, whereby various stakeholders in the chain of surplus accumulation demand a commission for their services. The possibility of undertaking informal economic activities is contingent on a host of improvisations that are founded upon discipline, violence and also solidarity. In this respect, various stakeholders possess what they refer to as a ‘setting’, which alludes to an active process of economic and non-economic relationship-building with both state and non-state agencies within both formal and informal arenas. To ‘do setting’ is a dynamic spatial process that draws on negotiations with the aim of shaping favourable relationships and outcomes in particular urban spaces. It entails the use of social and cultural resources, everyday political negotiations and extra-judicial solutions.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-07T11:24:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211031721
       
  • Quality of local government and social trust in European cities

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      Authors: Conrad Ziller, Hans-Jürgen Andreß
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Communities are responsible for a range of public services and represent critical experiential contexts for social interactions between residents. However, the role of local governance and public service provision for creating social trust has received limited attention so far. This study examines how quality, efficiency and fairness of local public service provision relates to social trust. Using multilevel models on repeated cross-sectional survey data from the Quality of Life in European Cities project, we test the relationship between time-varying city-level indicators of quality of local government and social trust. The empirical results show that an increase in the dimension of local public service quality is substantially associated with an increase in social trust. We find improvements in sport and leisure facilities as well as the state of public spaces, streets and buildings to be particularly relevant.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-08-02T11:21:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211019613
       
  • Everyday contours and politics of infrastructure: Informal governance of
           electricity access in urban Ghana

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      Authors: Ebenezer F Amankwaa, Katherine V Gough
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article contributes to shaping the discourse on unequal geographies of infrastructure and governance in the global South, opening up new ways of thinking through politics, practices and modalities of power. Conceptually, informality, governance and everyday urbanism are drawn on to unpack how the formal encounters the informal in ways that (re)configure infrastructure geographies and governance practices. This conceptual framing is empirically employed through an analysis of electricity access in Accra, Ghana, highlighting how residents navigate unequal electricity topographies, engage in self-help initiatives, and negotiate informal networks and formal governance practices. The spatiality of the electricity infrastructure has created inequity and opportunities for exploitation by ‘power-owners’ and ‘power-agents’ who control and manage the electricity distribution network and, in turn, privately supply power. Electricity connections are negotiated, access is monetised and illegality excused on grounds of good-neighbourliness, thereby producing and perpetuating everyday politics of ‘making do’. Community movements, everyday acts of improvisation, and incremental modifications are shown to influence the workings of formal institutions of government and shape uneven power relations and experiences of inequality. Such an understanding of how marginalised residents navigate the electricity topographies of Accra reveals a more nuanced politics of infrastructure access, which reflects the complex realities of hybridised modalities of governance and the multiple everyday dimensions of power that shape urban space. The article concludes that informality should not be recognised as failure but as a sphere of opportunity, innovation and transition.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-29T09:03:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211030155
       
  • Land financialisation, planning informalisation and gentrification as
           statecraft in Antwerp

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      Authors: Callum Ward
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article offers insight into the role of the state in land financialisation through a reading of urban hegemony. This offers the basis for a conjunctural analysis of the politics of planning within a context in which authoritarian neoliberalism is ascendant across Europe. I explore this through the case of Antwerp as it underwent a hegemonic shift in which the nationalist neoliberal party the New Flemish Alliance (Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie; N-VA) ended 70 years of Socialist Party rule and deregulated the city’s technocratic planning system. However, this unbridling of the free market has led to the creation of high-margin investment products rather than suitable housing for the middle classes, raising concerns about the city’s gentrification strategy. The consequent, politicisation of the city’s planning system led to controversy over clientelism which threatened to undermine the N-VA’s wider hegemonic project. In response, the city has sought to roll out a more formalised system of negotiated developer obligations, so embedding transactional, market-oriented informal governance networks at the centre of the planning system. This article highlights how the literature on land financialisation may incorporate conjunctural analysis, in the process situating recent trends towards the use of land value capture mechanisms within the contradictions and statecraft of contemporary neoliberal urbanism.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-29T09:02:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211028235
       
  • Remembering the river: Flood, memory and infrastructural ecologies of
           stormwater drainage in Mumbai

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      Authors: V. Chitra
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Mumbai’s storm water drainage system is rapidly transforming as incidences of heavy rainfall rise. Its transformation is built on the idea of conserving the city’s ‘rivers’ that were lost to urban development. While this move to recuperate a heritage of rivers seems like a step in the right direction, Mumbai’s drainage system was largely cobbled together over time through piecemeal interventions in an estuarine landscape. This article shows how by engineering a history of rivers, the city’s planning authorities set in motion an agenda to train the expansive estuarine and improvisational systems into governable riverine channels contained within the state’s developmental visions. It focuses on one major channel, the Mithi, to show how the rationality of disaster preparedness, the emergent calculus of carrying capacities, as well as infrastructure are braided into constructed ecological histories to inscribe a new hydrological order on the city. For Mumbai’s engineers, these changes introduce new scalar logics and alter the nature of the drainage assemblage. Mithi’s transformation is emblematic of how articulations of nature, technology and urban development are emerging from the anxieties of climate change.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-29T08:54:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211023381
       
  • Working the urban assemblage: A transnational study of transforming
           practices

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      Authors: Catherine Durose, Mark van Ostaijen, Merlijn van Hulst, Oliver Escobar, Annika Agger
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article places those working for change in urban neighbourhoods at the centre of debates on urban transformation, directing attention to the importance of human agency in the work of assembling urban transformation. Drawing on cross-national qualitative fieldwork undertaken over 30 months shadowing 40 urban practitioners in neighbourhoods across four European cities – Amsterdam, Birmingham, Copenhagen and Glasgow – our research revealed the catalytic, embodied roles of situated agents in this assembling. Through exemplar vignettes, we present practices in a diverse range of socio-material assemblages aimed to address complex problems and unmet needs in the urban environment. The practices we studied were not those of daily routines, but were instead a purposeful assembling that included nurturing and developing of heterogeneous resources such as relationships, knowledges and materials, framed through an emerging vision to inform, mobilise and channel action. This article brings together assemblage-theoretical and practice-theoretical ideas, with rich empirical insight to advance our understanding of how the city may be re-made.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T12:23:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211031431
       
  • The three tenures: A case of property maintenance

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      Authors: Geoff Rose, Richard Harris
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Property maintenance affects health and safety, market values and neighbourhood dynamics. Previous studies have indicated that owner-occupiers maintain their properties better than do absentee (non-resident) landlords. Some evidence suggests that maintenance by resident landlords falls in between but no study has compared all three tenures. This study of the City of Rochester, New York, utilises tax data for every residential property in the city in 2017, these being linked to records of building inspections, mostly pro-active. It indicates that code violations were highest for absentee-owned properties, lowest for the owner-occupied and intermediate for the properties of resident landlords. Comparison of the two- and three-unit properties of resident landlords indicates the impact of pro-active inspections. Maintenance by Limited Liability Companies was about average for absentee-owned properties, but those handled by management companies were worse. Longitudinal analysis of independent changes in the ownership and tenure of dwelling units, 2011–2017, indicates that observed differences in maintenance in 2017 were attributable to the incentives characteristic of each tenure, not to differences in personal preference among property owners. Results underline the importance of pro-active inspections and the need for qualitative research to clarify the motivations of different types of landlords.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T12:21:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211029203
       
  • Multiple problematisations: The logics governing wet markets in two
           Chinese cities

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      Authors: Shuru Zhong, Yulin Chen, Guojun Zeng
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Wet markets serve as a cornerstone of food distribution in China but are increasingly being threatened by urban displacement. This study explores the various motivations for local governments in Sanya City and Beijing City to enact aggressive policies limiting wet markets, the dynamic nature of the governing process and the multifaceted impacts such governance has on the everyday practices of vendors and consumers. Drawing upon Foucault’s notion of problematisation, this study found that wet markets have become representations of ‘problems’ such as insanitation and disorder, lowlands of economic revenue and ‘low-skilled industry’. Specific governance is regularly entangled with multiple means of problematisation, shaped and conditioned by forces such as administrative capacity, policy intensity, market configuration, business activism and consumer demand, as well as the interrelationships among them. Current governance is attempting to ‘correct’ wet markets to desired forms, but ignores the holistic value they embed in urban life. Thus, this research suggests more inclusive governance and sustainable development with regards to wet markets.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T12:20:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211028115
       
  • Arab integration in new and established mixed cities in Israel

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      Authors: Ahmed Baker Diab, Ilan Shdema, Izhak Schnell
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The segregation or integration of minority groups is a core issue in contemporary urban fabrics. The literature tends to highlight the difference between ethnic groups while diversity within them receives less attention. This study addresses such differences by looking at Arab residents of ethnically mixed Israeli cities. Specifically, it highlights religious affiliation and community standing (in terms of being an old/new city) by comparing three Arab subgroups: Muslims and Christians from Haifa and Christians from Nof HaGalil. Uncovering these variations, we use Schnell’s multidimensional model of segregation/integration relating to 12 dimensions of economic, social, cultural and emotional capitals. The study employed 222 questionnaires and GPS loggers to track the respondents’ daily movements. The results reflected different patterns of integration/segregation between the three communities, with Haifa Christians exhibiting wider and deeper integration compared with Nof HaGalil’s Christian residents and Haifa Muslims. Additionally, the high diversity within each group demonstrates the complexities of integration/segregation processes combining structural issues and personal choices.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-28T12:19:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211021346
       
  • Asymmetric housing information diffusions in China: An investor
           perspective

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      Authors: Shu-hen Chiang, Eddie C.M. Hui, Chien-Fu Chen
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past few decades, numerous attempts have been made to examine ripple effects using housing prices. What seems to be lacking, however, is a return to investor behaviour in terms of how it inspires inter-city spillovers. We thus propose the price-to-rent (P/R) ratio as a quantitative anchor in regard to how investor sentiment affects future housing values. By utilising a time-varying spillover approach based on monthly housing prices and rents across first-tier cities in China, it becomes clear that the characteristics of investment-driven diffusions are short-lived and more sensitive to economic policy changes in 2014 (the new normal initiative) and 2018 (strict housing control measures). Finally, in addition to good and bad perspectives, there is asymmetric evidence to show that negative outlooks such as a great fear of loss generally play a dominant role in the information transmission process, while a strong repercussion of good news in 2019 has subsequently been dampened by the COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-24T11:49:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211026555
       
  • Private ordering of public processes: How contracts structure
           participatory processes in urban development in Amsterdam and Hamburg

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      Authors: Everardus Wilhelmus (Michiel) Stapper
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The use of contracts to achieve public goals has been gaining traction since the 1980s. In this article, I investigate the implications of the increased use of private law instruments for participatory democracy. This study starts with problematising the notion of contracts and proposes a conceptual model to study contractual relations in participatory processes. Next, through a detailed description of two case studies in Amsterdam and Hamburg, I show the consequences of contractual governance for participatory democracy in urban development. Namely, the interests of commercial parties and government agencies are incorporated in contracts, whereas the interests of residents are incorporated in non-legal agreements.This has four implications for our understanding of participatory democracy and urban politics. First, the arena of public decision making has shifted from public meetings to contractual negotiations. Second, contracts are not set in stone. Mobilisation by residents can influence, adjust and politicise agreements. However, third, residents need to be able to mobilise and negotiate. This creates new boundaries between residents who are able to make deals and those who are excluded. Lastly, investigating how contracts transform urban politics should take a broad view on how contractual relations are formed and focus on both non-legal and contractual agreements.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-24T11:41:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211024144
       
  • Selective migration and urban–rural differences in subjective
           well-being: Evidence from the United Kingdom

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      Authors: Marloes Hoogerbrugge, Martijn Burger
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Although more and more people choose to live in (large) cities, people in the Western world generally report lower levels of subjective well-being in urban areas than in rural areas. This article examines whether these urban–rural differences in subjective well-being are (partly) driven by selective migration patterns. To this end, we utilise residential mobility data from the United Kingdom based on 12 waves of the British Household Panel Survey. We explore urban–rural differences in life satisfaction as well as changes in life satisfaction of people moving from rural areas to urban areas (or vice versa), hereby paying specific attention to selection and composition effects. The results show that selective migration can, at least partly, explain the urban–rural subjective well-being differential through the selection of less satisfied people in cities and more satisfied people in the countryside. While the average life satisfaction of urban–rural migrants is higher compared to the life satisfaction of rural–urban migrants, we do not find – on average – long-lasting life satisfaction effects of migration. At the same time, there are differences between sociodemographic groups in that we find that a move from the countryside to the city is positively associated with the life satisfaction of students while it is negatively associated with the life satisfaction of people with a non-tertiary education.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-19T12:14:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211023052
       
  • Cultural practices and rough sociality in Mexico’s midsize cities:
           Tijuana, Puebla and Monterrey

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      Authors: Leandro Rodriguez-Medina, María Emilia Ismael Simental, Alberto Javier López Cuenca, Anne Kristiina Kurjenoja
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      It is frequently claimed that cultural agents are necessary to sustain and strengthen the social fabric, to guarantee economic growth and social development and to consolidate knowledge economies based on innovation. These arguments tend to avoid inquiring what kind of sociality these cultural actors are enacting. To address this point, we researched three Mexican midsize cities: Puebla, Tijuana, and Monterrey, between 1984 and 2017. Sociality produced by cultural dynamics, sponsored either by the public (cultural policy) or the private sector (cultural market), is generally characterised by a focus on social order, the construction of local identity, a hygienic view of public space and disempowerment of local actors. Differing from these views, our research has found a new form of sociality that we call ‘rough sociality’, produced by cultural agents from civil society. This sociality is conflictive, ephemeral, spatially bounded and affective, which has implications not only for the cultural work but, most importantly, for the social relations and the being/doing-togetherness that such work may enact and reproduce.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-19T12:12:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211026544
       
  • Family names, city size distributions and residential differentiationin
           Great Britain, 1881–1901

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      Authors: Tian Lan, Justin van Dijk, Paul Longley
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Cities have specialised in particular urban functions throughout history, with consequential implications for urban and regional patterns of economic and social change. This specialisation takes place within overall national city size distributions and is manifest in different but often similarly variegated residential structures. Here we develop a novel and consistent methodological approach for measuring macro-scale city size and micro-scale residential differentiation using individual digital census records for the period 1881–1901. The use of family names and neighbourhood classification of dominant economic and social roles makes it possible to relate the changing city size distribution in Great Britain to patterns of urban growth and residential differentiation within urban areas. Together, we provide an integrated and consistent methodology that links the classification of all major urban area growth in Great Britain to attendant intra-urban geodemographic changes in urban residential structures. We suggest ways in which this manifests social and economic change across the settlement system for both new and long-established residents.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-19T12:11:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211025721
       
  • The gifted city: Setting a research agenda for philanthropy and urban
           governance

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      Authors: Pablo Fuentenebro, Michele Acuto
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      With billions worth of funding to city-based projects, urban dwellers and city leaders the world over, philanthropy is no small matter. It might shape the form, politics and direction of urban development worldwide, yet little discussion of its role is present in urban studies. In this commentary, we call for urban scholars and practitioners to become more explicitly conversant in its investment dynamics in cities and their impact on urban governance. We highlight a two-pronged research agenda focused on institutions and individuals. First, we argue that we need to understand the impact of philanthropic institutions not just generally on cities but specifically on urban governance. Second, we call for nuanced attention to the philanthropy of high-net-worth individuals (HNWIs) and its relationship to urban policymaking and wealth redistribution in cities. Third, we highlight the value of a more ‘global urban’ outlook onto the landscape of philanthropic funding in cities, starting with greater attention to philanthropic practices beyond the Global North. We conclude by sketching possible empirical steps towards an action research agenda, whilst underlining the necessary reflexivity that urban scholars should have in their positioning vis-a-vis philanthropy and its engagement in urban academia.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-16T10:02:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211024158
       
  • Towards a post-COVID geography of economic activity: Using probability
           spaces to decipher Montreal’s changing workscapes

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      Authors: Richard Shearmur, Priscilla Ananian, Ugo Lachapelle, Manuela Parra-Lokhorst, Florence Paulhiac, Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay, Alastair Wycliffe-Jones
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In March 2020, many workers were suddenly forced to work from home. This brought into stark relief the fact that urban economic activity is no longer attached to specific workplaces. This detachment has been analysed in research on organisations and workers, but has not yet been incorporated into concepts used to document and plan the economic geography of cities. In this article, three questions are explored by way of an original survey: first, how can a shift in the location of economic activity be measured at the urban scale whilst incorporating the idea that work is not attached to a single location' Second, what is the nature of the shift that occurred in March 2020' Third, what does this tell us about concepts that have underpinned the study of urban economic form by geographers and planners' Applying concepts developed in organisation studies and sociology, we operationalise the idea that economic activity happens across multiple spaces: it occurs within a probability space, and since March 2020 it has shifted within this space. To better understand and interpret the longer-term impact of this shift on cities – downtowns in particular – we draw upon interviews with people working from home.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-16T10:02:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211022895
       
  • Land use disadvantages in Germany: A matter of ethnic income
           inequalities'

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      Authors: Stefan Jünger
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Environmental hazards affect people from different income groups and migration backgrounds on different levels. The research on environmental inequalities and environmental justice has proposed several theories to explain such inequities; still, it remains unclear which of these theories applies to the German societal context. This research investigates whether individual-level income differences between Germans and migrants account for objectively measured exposure to the environmental goods and bads of land use, specifically soil sealing and green spaces. Marginal effects and predictions based on georeferenced survey data from the German General Social Survey reveal that Germans with higher incomes live in areas with better neighbourhood quality. Germans with lower incomes are exposed to fewer disadvantages stemming from land use, and there is no marginal difference between nonurban and urban municipalities. Spatial assimilation in high-income groups occurs; however, the difference in low-income groups can be explained by place stratification and discrimination in the housing market. While this study uses more indirect and non-hazardous measures of environmental quality – in contrast to air pollution or noise – it provides evidence that such indicators also create distributional injustices in Germany.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T12:03:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211023206
       
  • Choreographing atmospheres in Copenhagen: Processes and positions between
           home and public

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      Authors: Mikkel Bille, Bettina Hauge
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores how people choreograph spaces to feel particular ways through material objects and intangible phenomena like light and sound. Drawing on theories of atmospheres and ethnographic fieldwork in Copenhagen, we argue that while there has been a proliferation of research on atmospheres in urban studies, we also need to attend empirically to the processes through which they come into being, consolidate and coagulate. Through exploring the interplay between domestic and urban spaces, we highlight the volatility and inherently social character of atmospheres. This entails how people’s dynamic positioning within an urban atmosphere comes to matter for people’s sense of the city. We exemplify with one such sensation of the city through the concept of ‘midding’, as the feeling of comfortably being on the perimeter of a situation. Exploring atmospheric positionings and processes enlightens our understanding of the urban atmosphere and shows how shared atmospheric moments connect people in time and space, stressing the importance of urban design to allow for such sharing.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T12:01:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211022966
       
  • Not diverse enough' Displacement, diversity discourse, and commercial
           gentrification in Santa Ana, California, a majority-Mexican city

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      Authors: Carolina Sarmiento
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This research investigates how diversity discourse unfolds as part of commercial gentrification when public and private growth actors call for increased diversity in a city that is majority Latinx in the United States. My argument is twofold: first, commercial gentrification is itself a racialised project to manage diversity; second, the discourse around diversity foments spatial strategies used by both state and private actors that dislocate immigrant communities and economies. This in-depth case study using Santa Ana, California, provides a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between diversity and commercial gentrification in a majority Mexican immigrant city. The research finds that, as diversity discourse promotes liberal colourblind practices within a majority Latinx city, it also contributes to distributing resources along racial lines. Diversity discourse presented a liberal and inclusive form of gentrification while also providing a justification for the displacement of immigrant-serving businesses by positioning them as exclusionary or backward. The dislocation or erasure of immigrant-serving businesses occurred through spatial strategies backed by the state to make new property available in the downtown commercial area. Removal was not only physical but also occurred through assimilation, wherein businesses ‘adapted’ to survive. Planning and development actors in this case failed to recognise the value of cultural and economic community networks while also diverting attention and resources away from immigrant-serving businesses. The case provides unique insight into the multiplicity of economic and political interests in a Latinx-majority place.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-07T12:54:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211020912
       
  • Cities in a post-COVID world

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      Authors: Richard Florida, Andrés Rodríguez-Pose, Michael Storper
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper examines the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and its related economic, fiscal, social and political fallout on cities and metropolitan regions. We assess the effect of the pandemic on urban economic geography at the intra- and inter-regional geographic scales in the context of four main forces: the social scarring instilled by the pandemic; the lockdown as a forced experiment; the need to secure the urban built environment against future risks; and changes in the urban form and system. At the macrogeographic scale, we argue the pandemic is unlikely to significantly alter the winner-take-all economic geography and spatial inequality of the global city system. At the microgeographic scale, however, we suggest that it may bring about a series of short-term and some longer-running social changes in the structure and morphology of cities, suburbs and metropolitan regions. The durability and extent of these changes will depend on the timeline and length of the pandemic.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-06-27T10:43:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211018072
       
  • Urban rhythms in a small home: COVID-19 as a mechanism of exception

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      Authors: Jenny Preece, Kim McKee, David Robinson, John Flint
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The amount of living space we have access to is one manifestation of the unequal distribution of housing resources within societies. The COVID-19 pandemic has required most households to spend more time at home, unmasking inequalities and reigniting longstanding debates about the functionality and experience of smaller homes. Drawing on interviews across three UK cities, this article attends to the changing household routines of individuals living in different types of small home, exploring daily life before and during ‘lockdown’. Using the concept of urban rhythms, the data show that the lockdown has intensified existing pressures of living in a smaller home – lack of space for different functions and household members – whilst constraining coping strategies, like spending time outside the home. Lockdown restrictions governing mobility and contact acted as a mechanism of exception, disrupting habitual patterns of life and sociability, and forcing people to spend more time in smaller homes that struggled to accommodate different functions, affecting home atmospheres. For some, the loss of normal strategies was so significant that they sought to challenge the new rules governing daily life to protect their wellbeing.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-06-27T10:42:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211018136
       
  • Urban scaling in rapidly urbanising China

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      Authors: Weiqian Lei, Limin Jiao, Gang Xu, Zhengzi Zhou
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding the scaling characteristics in China is critical for perceiving the development process of rapidly urbanising countries. This paper conducts a comprehensive scaling analysis with quantitative assessment of a large number of diverse urban indicators of 275 Chinese cities. Our findings confirm that urban scaling laws can also be applied to rapidly urbanising China but demonstrate some unique features echoing its distinct urbanisation. Chinese urban population agglomeration results in more effective economic production but the economies of scale for infrastructure are less obvious. Some urban indicators associated with infrastructure and living facilities surprisingly scale super-linearly with urban population size, contrary to expected sublinear scaling behaviours. In developing countries, different-sized cities have diverse agglomeration, industrial and resource allocation advantages, which can be reflected by scaling exponents. We characterise these unique features in detail, exploring the spatial disparities and temporal evolution of scaling exponents (β). Strong regional variations and differences are particularly pronounced in Northeast China and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration. Scaling exponent variations over time reflect the temporal evolution of the urban system and measure the coordination and balance of urbanisation. Economic output was most efficient in 2009 and β of GDP was slightly greater than 1.15 in recent years. Urban land expansion has been accelerating since 2000 with β remaining around 0.85–0.90. The study of urban scaling in China is enlightening in elaborating the uniqueness and coordination of urban development in rapidly urbanising countries and provides support in formulating differentiated urban planning for different-sized cities to promote coordinated development.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T07:55:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211017817
       
  • Urban paradox and the rise of the neoliberal city: Case study of Lagos,
           Nigeria

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      Authors: Oluwafemi Olajide, Taibat Lawanson
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In a bid to actualise the vision of transforming Lagos into Africa’s model megacity and global economic and financial hub, the state government has embarked on and/or supported various urban development projects. Drawing on the theoretical underpinnings of neoliberalism, we argue that governance practices in Lagos are transforming the city in a manner that is paradoxical to the intents of the city’s development plan. This paper, therefore, explores how government practices have shaped the city, and the socio-spatial consequences of the recent Lagos state government-supported developments. Of interest are projects from the Lagos State Development plan (2012–2025) which have resulted in significant spatial displacements – hence the selected case studies of Lekki Free Trade Zone and Badia-East Housing Estate. The study reveals that the Lagos state development policy results in creative destruction largely due to the uncritical embrace of market logic over social logic, thereby entrenching urban discontent and socio-spatial fragmentation across the city.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T07:52:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211014461
       
  • Beyond growth and density: Recentring the demographic drivers of urban
           health and risk in the global south

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      Authors: James Duminy
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Debates within urban studies concerning the relationship between urbanisation and infectious disease focus on issues of urban population growth, density, migration and connectivity. However, an effective long-term risk and wellbeing agenda, without which the threat of future pandemics cannot be mitigated, must also take account of demographic forces and changes as critical drivers of transmission and mortality risk within and beyond cities. A better understanding of the dynamics of fertility, mortality and changing age structures – key determinants of urban decline/growth in addition to migration – provides the foundation upon which healthier cities and a healthy global urban system can be developed. The study of how basic demographic attributes and trends are distributed in space and how they interact with risks, including those of infectious disease, must be incorporated as a priority into a post-COVID-19 urban public health agenda. This perspective concurs with recent debates in urban studies emphasising the demographic drivers of urban change. Moreover, it raises critical questions about the microbial and environmental emphasis of much research on the interface of urban health and governance.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T12:14:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211014410
       
  • Repopulating density: COVID-19 and the politics of urban value

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      Authors: Colin McFarlane
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      How might concepts of ‘value’ and ‘population’ illuminate the present and future of urban density' The COVID-19 pandemic prompted a public debate on density in the city. While some initially blamed density for the spread of the virus, others rightly cautioned against those claims. As the pandemic progressed, an imaginary of density-as-pathology gave way to a more nuanced geographical understanding of the urban dimensions of the crisis, focused on connections, spatial conditions, domestic ‘overcrowding’ and poverty. Throughout, an interrogation and reflection on urban density and its future unfolded, throwing into question the historical relationship between ‘value’ and ‘population’ in understandings of density. I argue for a new politics of value based on shifts in three interconnected domains – governance, form and knowledge – and identify implications for research on density in urban studies.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-06-09T12:13:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211014810
       
  • An enclave entrepôt: The informal migration industry and Johannesburg’s
           socio-spatial transformation

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      Authors: Tanya Zack, Loren B Landau
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The spatial concentration of production in cities attracts international and domestic labour in ways that change the character and scale of urban space. Drawing on two decades of research on migration and informal trading in Johannesburg, South Africa, this article argues that the global trade in Chinese ‘fast fashion’ interacts with South Africa’s immigration policy, transportation networks, informal trade and established migration infrastructures to transform the city’s Park Station neighbourhood into an enclave entrepôt. Operated and supported by a network of informal logistics services that keep the enclave within but apart from the city, it is exquisitely tailored to cross-border shoppers. At the social and legal margins but at the city’s geographic core, it enables fluidity in an otherwise hostile space; it is at once highly visible and invisibilising. Formed in the shadows of formal institutions and law enforcement, this entrepôt is migrant-driven and serves the needs of people often seeking to remain invisible from the South African state and citizenry. As such, its services are adapted from the infrastructures that service legal and irregular migration in the subcontinent. Unlike ethnic enclaves or neighbourhoods that work as arrival zones, it provides the means to move ‘through’ rather than ‘into’ the city. The entrepôt is a form of migrant space-claiming by vulnerable and mobile people wishing to be in but not of the city. It acts as portal into, through and beyond national territory.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-05-21T07:58:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211012632
       
  • The interurban migration industry: ‘Migration products’ and the
           materialisation of urban speculation at Iskandar Malaysia

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      Authors: Sin Yee Koh
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Iskandar Malaysia (IM) is a 4749 km2 urban conurbation and development region located at the Malaysia–Singapore border. State-led development of this regional economic corridor has attracted inflows of foreign investments and spurred the rise of mid- to high-end urban developments by foreign developers. This has resulted in the emergence of an interurban migration industry consisting of intermediary entities that are co-developing and co-marketing ‘migration products’ (real estate, education and lifestyle migration) as an integrated package to middle-class, aspiring transnational investor/lifestyle migrants from the region. This article argues that this middlemen industry is crucial to the materialisation of urban speculation, for state actors and investor/lifestyle migrants alike. Through interurban alliances that capitalise on the broader state-led speculative urbanism landscape, the industry co-creates an imagined urban future that is grounded in transnational lifestyle mobilities. This article highlights the need to analyse speculative urbanism and transnational investment/lifestyle migration as intertwined processes.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-02-23T09:17:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0042098021992219
       
  • The constitution of the city and the critique of critical urban theory

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      Authors: Allen J. Scott
      First page: 1105
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      A theoretical account of the genesis and internal spatial structure of cities is given. The essence of the urbanisation process is described in terms of the following main developmental phases: (a) the emergence of relationships based on specialisation and interdependence in society; (b) the pre-eminent role of the division of labour within these relationships and its recomposition in dense spatial nodes of human activity; and (c) the concomitant formation of the networked intra-urban spaces of the city. These phases are then contextualised within three intertwined dimensions of urban materiality, namely, an internal dimension (the internal organisation and spatial dynamics of the city), a socially ambient dimension (the relational structure of society at large) and an exogenous dimension (the geographic outside of the city). In light of this account, an evaluative review of what I designate ‘the new critical urban theory’ is carried out, with special reference to planetary urbanisation, postcolonial urban theory and comparativist methodologies. I argue that while every individual city represents a uniquely complex combination of social conjunctures, there are nonetheless definite senses in which urban phenomena are susceptible to investigation at the highest levels of theoretical generality.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-05-13T02:01:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211011028
       
  • The refugees’ right to the centre of the city: City branding versus
           city commoning in Athens

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      Authors: Charalampos Tsavdaroglou, Maria Kaika
      First page: 1130
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Over the years, cities have figured as exemplary places for neoliberal urban policies which tend to appropriate the right to the city through city-branding policies. However, as this article demonstrates, there are important claims of the right to the city raised by newly arrived refugees in the city of Athens. Although most refugees reside in overcrowded state-run camps on the outskirts of the city, there are many cases in which refugees enact the production of collective common spaces, occupying abandoned buildings in the urban core and claiming the right to the centre of the city. In this context and following the Lefebvrian notion of the right to the city and the spatial analysis on commons and enclosures, we explore the actions of refugees, and the way they engage in commoning practices that not only strive against the official state policies, but also often contest city-branding policies. In particular, we focus on the area of Exarcheia in Athens, which is an emblematic case of the conflicted nexus between investors’ and refugees’ right to the city.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T11:11:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0042098021997009
       
  • Displacement through development' Property turnover and eviction risk
           in Seattle

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      Authors: Alex Ramiller
      First page: 1148
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Eviction is a powerful form of displacement that perpetuates and amplifies socioeconomic and racial inequalities through the rental housing market. Examining the relationship between evictions and property turnover through Neil Smith’s theories of gentrification and uneven geographical development, this article considers the argument that eviction provides a mechanism for property owners to facilitate displacement prior to property redevelopment and neighbourhood change. Models of property-level turnover in the city of Seattle reveal that evictions are more likely to occur at properties that are sold in the same year, properties where planned demolition or remodelling activity is imminent and buildings that have been recently constructed. Increased likelihood of eviction is also associated with a greater volume of remodelling and demolition permit applications filed in the surrounding neighbourhood, suggesting that evictions may be more likely to occur at the early stages of development-driven neighbourhood change. These findings highlight the multifaceted relationship between evictions and property turnover and illustrate the value of administrative microdata for displacement research.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-05-11T06:11:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211004214
       
  • Legacy participation and the buried history of racialised spaces:
           Hypermodern revitalisation in Rio de Janeiro’s port area

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      Authors: Abigail Friendly, Ana Paula Pimentel Walker
      First page: 1167
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars have documented how financial capital has produced displacement driven by hypermodern urban spaces characterised by luxury and exclusivity. In this article we highlight how hypermodern public–private partnerships (PPPs) often re-write history, creating a futuristic global city image. Our case study of Porto Maravilha’s PPP reviews a dualistic narrative in the context of changes in Rio de Janeiro in preparation for the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics. Porto Maravilha aimed to position Rio de Janeiro as a centre of global competition and capital. However, this narrative re-framed the history of the transatlantic slave trade through discursive tactics that diluted and undermined the brutality of slavery in Rio’s port. Furthermore, this hypermodern PPP reinforced the post-abolition discriminatory urban planning policies that dislodged Africans and Afro-Brazilians from their places of residence, work and culture in the port district. The result is the erasure of the experiences of Black Brazilians in the port area for touristic consumption, selling the city on the world stage. Given this contradiction, we develop the concept of ‘legacy participation’ to secure the rights of Afro-Brazilians and their organisations to make decisions about their own territory.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T09:06:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211008824
       
  • ‘I can’t just go up to a person to ask what’s going on.’ How Dutch
           urbanites’ accounts of non-engagement enhance our understanding of urban
           care

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      Authors: Laurine Blonk, Margo Trappenburg, Femmianne Bredewold
      First page: 1185
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In the context of increasing appeals to informal care in Western welfare state policies, questions concerning urban sociality acquire new significance. This paper aims to contribute to the emergent thinking on ‘urban care’ by situating it in policy debates concerning care responsibilities between citizens. We used small-scale focus groups among urban residents in The Hague (the Netherlands) to inquire into the accounts urbanites give of engaging or not engaging with perceived care needs of a stranger. Informed by Goffman’s ‘civil inattention’, we found that accounts of non-engagement highlight urbanites’ orientation towards maintaining friendly social interactions in the face of strange or worrisome situations. Urbanites feel that they should respect people’s choices even if these might hurt them. They fear that interference might be humiliating and they attribute to themselves the task of sticking to normality, while family members, friends or professionals might take on the task to intervene. This careful non-engagement, contrasted with long-standing accounts of urban indifference, enhances our understanding of urban care.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-03-26T08:40:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0042098021997013
       
  • Can subsidies paid directly to employers reduce residential discrimination
           in employment' An assessment based on serial field experiments

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      Authors: Sylvain Chareyron, Laetitia Challe, Yannick L’Horty, Pascale Petit
      First page: 1202
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      ‘Emplois Francs’ is a new public policy in France that provides financial assistance to companies when they hire a jobseeker living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood. This study evaluates the effect of this policy by using three waves of correspondence tests spaced six months apart to measure discrimination in access to employment based on ethnic origin and place of residence. We find a substantial level of discrimination based on ethnic origin and a lower level of residential discrimination. We find that the programme decreases residential discrimination after six months, but we cannot conclude that the effect is still present 12 months later.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T08:51:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211006033
       
  • Understanding the geography of affordable housing provided through land
           value capture: Evidence from England

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      Authors: Alexander Lord, Chi-Wan Cheang, Richard Dunning
      First page: 1219
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Governments the world over routinely undertake Land Value Capture (LVC) to recover some (or all) of the uplift in land values arising from the right to develop in order to fund infrastructure and public goods. Instruments to exact LVC are diverse but are usually implemented independently. However, since 2011 England has been experimenting with a dual approach to LVC, applying both a tariff-style levy to fund local infrastructure (the Community Infrastructure Levy) and negotiated obligations, used primarily to fund affordable housing (Section 106 agreements). In this article we employ a difference-in-differences (DID) method to identify the interaction of these two instruments available to local planning authorities. We explore the question of whether the Community Infrastructure Levy ‘crowds out’ affordable housing secured through Section 106 planning agreements. In so doing we show that the interaction of these two approaches is heterogeneous across local authorities of different types. This raises questions for understanding the economic geography of development activity and the theory and practice of Land Value Capture.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-03-25T09:48:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0042098021998893
       
  • Seoul’s nocturnal urbanism: An emergent night-time economy of substitute
           driving and fast deliveries

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      Authors: Jieheerah Yun
      First page: 1238
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Seoul has undergone a very rapid urbanisation and modernisation process, particularly in the years since the Korean War, as the city became part of the global capitalist system. Examining night-time mobility in today’s Seoul, this article seeks to contribute to the recent scholarly attention given to night-time economies and related new spatial practices. In particular, it considers the night-time substitute driver services (or daeri-gisa) and fast grocery delivery, along with their spatial practices related to the urban built environment of Seoul. After examining statistical and ethnographic data on substitute drivers and grocery deliverers, I conclude that while the influence of external factors in global capitalism cannot be denied, the thriving night-time driver/delivery services in Seoul are also shaped by local urban conditions including intricate public transportation, a frequent ‘company night out culture’ and the predominantly vertical organisation of residential space.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T08:50:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211005963
       
  • The spatial reach of financial centres: An empirical investigation of
           interurban trade in capital market services

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      Authors: Tom Hashimoto, Vladimír Pažitka, Dariusz Wójcik
      First page: 1255
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates the spatial patterns of interurban trade in capital market services by analysing 16,324 trade links involving advisers and clients in the Visegrád Four plus Austria and their counter-parties worldwide between 2000 and 2014. We aim to address a gap in the research on financial centres and interurban trade by providing empirical evidence on the relationship between the complexity of services and the size of market areas across which they are traded. We utilise recent contributions to Central Place Theory (CPT), which provide us with suitably general models of interurban trade applicable to financial services. The key proposition of CPT in this respect is that more complex services are traded across larger market areas, thus translating into a further spatial reach of service centres. Given that these propositions are derived at a very general level, we rely on global city theory for explaining the underlying causal mechanisms in the context of capital market services. Our analysis examines the geography of adviser–client trade links to investigate how spatial patterns of interurban trade in capital market services are shaped by the characteristics of the services traded. We uncover evidence that more complex and larger transactions are associated with higher distance between clients and financial services providers. This in turn means that more complex services are traded across larger market areas. While clients in Central and Eastern Europe can generally find suitable providers for less complex capital market services locally, they often rely on financial services providers globally for the most complex transactions.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-04-17T06:54:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0042098021999992
       
  • Does urban concentration matter for changes in country economic
           performance'

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      Authors: Roberto Ganau, Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
      First page: 1275
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper uses a novel, globally harmonised city-level data set – with cities defined at the Functional Urban Area (FUA) level – to revisit the link between urban concentration and country-level economic dynamics. The empirical analysis, involving 108 low- and high-income countries, examines how differences in urban concentration impinge on changes in employment, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and labour productivity at country level over the period 2000–2016. The results indicate that urban concentration reduces employment growth but increases GDP per capita and labour productivity growth. The returns of urban concentration are higher for high- than for low-income countries and are mainly driven by the ‘core’ of FUAs, rather than by suburban areas.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-04-01T06:43:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0042098021998927
       
  • ‘Remaining the same or becoming another'’ Adaptive resilience
           versus transformative urban change

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      Authors: Stephan Leixnering, Markus Höllerer
      First page: 1300
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Structural change of cities has long been a central theme in urban studies. Recent manifestations of urban change have been described either as instances of ‘adaptation’, often associated with flexible adjustment and reorganisation, or of ‘transformation’, implying a deeper and more radical scope of change. The conceptual difference between these two ideas, however, remains surprisingly under-theorised and ambiguous in the extant literature. We find both notions casually (and at times even interchangeably) employed in recent debates on ‘resilient cities’. Addressing this conceptual imprecision, our commentary focuses on the structure–identity relationship, coupling resilience thinking with an institutional perspective that has provided the intellectual moorings for recent scholarly approaches to city identity. Through this prism, city identity is firmly conceptualised as a distinctive set of socio-political values; the structure of a city, then, provides the means to realise these values. In consequence, we are able to offer a precise conceptual differentiation between what we here dub ‘adaptive resilience’ and ‘transformative urban change’ as the two facets of change in city contexts: if structural change is accompanied by a shift in socio-political values (and thus a change in identity), we refer to this as transformative; if no such identity shift takes place, this is an instance of adaptive urban change, primarily on the level of structures. We illustrate our argument with the empirical case of the city of Vienna. Overall, our commentary’s ambition is to add nuance, clarity and conceptual precision to the debates on resilience currently raging in the field of urban change.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T11:10:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0042098021998923
       
  • Corrigendum to “Displacement through development' Property turnover
           and eviction risk in Seattle”

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      First page: 1311
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-06-10T07:43:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211025394
       
  • The Janus-faced genius of cities

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      Authors: Christof Parnreiter
      First page: 1315
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Departing from Storper’s (2013) notion of a ‘genius of cities’ but extending the concept from agglomeration economies to inter-city networks and the built environment as foundations of cities’ genius, I argue that cities’ genius is Janus-faced. My contention is that cities’ specific environments not only breed all the ‘good’ innovations that drive innovation and growth but they also generate the ‘bad’ ones, which allow for the development of the means of exploitation. Cities are, as a result of their very properties, key places for the organisation of uneven development.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T08:54:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211007718
       
  • ‘It’s part of our community, where we live’: Urban heritage and
           children’s sense of place

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      Authors: Lucy Grimshaw, Lewis Mates
      First page: 1334
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The literature on a ‘sense of place’ often sidelines the voices of children. Consequently, little is known about how children can be encouraged to develop a sense of place. This matters because a sense of place involves feelings of belonging and attachment, and can contribute to children’s wellbeing and identity. Informed by the research of Bartos and Severcan, we deploy data from a qualitative research project in a primary school in a former coalfield area in the north-east of England to argue that children’s experiences of learning about their urban local history and heritage can help to develop their sense of place. Placing children’s voices centrally in our research, we explore how they engage with learning about local mining history, and the impact of place-based pedagogy. Emphasising the possibilities and importance of their deep involvement with their urban heritage, we show, firstly, the ways in which children’s sense of place is strengthened when they develop a feeling of ownership over their own history. Secondly, we explore how children develop a sense of place through engaging their emotions and physicality, and, thirdly, their senses. We conclude that learning about local history through place-based pedagogy allows children to create and interpret historical events and develop a sense of place. Taking ownership of their history makes the children active participants in telling the story of their place. Children can then develop new ways of seeing themselves in places, as they make connections between the past, present and future.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-10T12:01:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211019597
       
  • The crowd and citylife: Materiality, negotiation and inclusivity at
           Tokyo’s train stations

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      Authors: Romit Chowdhury, Colin McFarlane
      First page: 1353
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      In the history of urban thought, density has been closely indexed to the idea of citylife. Drawing on commuters’ experiences and perceptions of crowds in and around Tokyo’s Shinjuku Station, this article offers an ethnographic perspective on the relationship between urban crowds and life in the city. We advance understandings of the relations between the crowd and citylife through three categories of ‘crowd relations’– materiality, negotiation and inclusivity – to argue that the multiplicity of meanings which accrue to people’s encounters with crowds refuses any a priori definitions of optimum levels of urban density. Rather, the crowd relations gathered here are evocations of citylife that take us beyond the tendency to represent the crowd as a particular kind of problem, be it alienation, exhaustion or a threshold for ‘good’ and ‘bad’ densities. The portraits of commuter crowds presented capture the various entanglements between human and non-human, embodiment and mobility, and multiculture and the civic, through which citylife emerges as a mode of being with oneself and others.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T09:04:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211007841
       
  • Reclaiming Hong Kong through neighbourhood-making: A study of the 2019
           Anti-ELAB movement

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      Authors: Yao-Tai Li, Katherine Whitworth
      First page: 1372
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Set in the context of the 2019 Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill (Anti-ELAB) protest movement in Hong Kong, this study focuses on selected material and social appropriations of space including community-focused events held in shopping malls, the establishment of networks connecting consumers to suppliers with like-minded political values, and human chains. Drawing on popular concepts such as scale, network and place-frames found in the literature on contentious politics, we argue that the place-making practices observed during the period of study became claim-making practices that effectively framed movement aims and projected movement claims beyond the neighbourhood scale into a dynamic contestation at the city and national scales. Adopting key elements of neighbourhood as defined by Jenks and Dempsey, we highlight that the socio-spatial practices of the Anti-ELAB protests not only re-cast city spaces into neighbourhood spaces but also redefined traditional understandings of neighbourhood as a socio-spatial construct. We argue that during the Anti-ELAB movement an ‘ideological neighbourhood’ emerged in which spatial relationality is not borne out through physical proximity. Instead, connections between functional and social units were established through ideological affinity. These new connections and the replication of neighbourhood-based practices reinforced the construction of a socially and politically distinct Hong Kong identity. We extend the literatures on contentious politics and urban sociology by showing that the ideology and the imaginaries of movement participants can become spatially manifest and thus defensible in the physical world through new territorialities such as the neighbourhood.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-05-22T07:38:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211014448
       
  • Moving down the urban hierarchy: Turning point of China’s internal
           migration caused by age structure and hukou system

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      Authors: Xiaoyan Mu, Anthony Gar-On Yeh, Xiaohu Zhang, Jiejing Wang, Jian Lin
      First page: 1389
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Internal migration is critically important in China, where the fertility rate is declining and international immigration is under strict control. This study explores the massive population movement in China, examines the migration pattern of non-hukou migrants, 2010–2015 and 2014–2015 migration patterns through the urban hierarchy of the urban system using migration trajectories derived from the 2015 One Percent Population Sample Survey. Results reveal an emerging reversal from a predominantly upward pattern (e.g. most of the net flows move to high-level cities) to a downward one (e.g. from super-large/extra-large cities to large cities) in the recent migration trend. Regional disparities are significant. An upward and eastward tendency still dominates in the western, central and northeastern regions, whereas a downward and decentralised tendency has been initiated in the eastern region. The causes for the structural change include common factors found in developed countries, such as the influence of age and life courses. The age structure of China’s population caused by the ‘one-child’ policy weakened the upward momentum and led to a strengthening downward trend in the current migration pattern. The contextual and institutional factor hukou also has a significant effect on people’s migration directions. Hukou attracts people to move up or down the hierarchy to their registered place or where they can acquire registration. The characteristics of registered migrants reflect the different criteria of cities in granting hukou.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-05-06T08:57:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211007796
       
  • Citizenship acquisition and spatial stratification: Analysing immigrant
           residential mobility in the Netherlands

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      Authors: Christophe Leclerc, Maarten Vink, Hans Schmeets
      First page: 1406
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Whereas the so-called ‘citizenship premium’ in the labour market has been widely studied, we know little about how naturalisation affects immigrants’ lives beyond work and income. Focusing on the Netherlands, this paper analyses the relationship between citizenship acquisition and immigrant residential mobility, in particular the propensity of immigrants to move away from areas with high concentrations of migrants. We draw on register data from Statistics Netherlands (N = 234,912). We argue that possessing Dutch citizenship reduces spatial stratification by diminishing the risk of housing market discrimination, thereby facilitating mobility outside of migrant-concentrated areas. Our findings show that naturalised immigrants are 50% more likely to move out of concentrated neighbourhoods, all else constant. The effect of naturalisation is especially relevant for renting without housing benefits and for home ownership, and for mid-risk immigrants who earn around the median income and hold permanent jobs, whose applications face strong scrutiny from landlords, rental agencies and mortgage lenders.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-05-03T09:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211006030
       
  • Post-studentification' Promises and pitfalls of a near-campus urban
           intensification strategy

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      Authors: Nick Revington
      First page: 1424
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The concentration of students in neighbourhoods through processes of studentification has often precipitated conflicts with other residents centred on behavioural issues and perceived neighbourhood decline. Dominant policy responses have been exclusive in nature, attempting to restrict where students can live or to encourage them to live in purpose-built student accommodation in designated areas. Drawing primarily on interviews with key informants in Waterloo, Canada, I examine a process of ‘post-studentification’ where non-student residents are instead integrated into student-dominated neighbourhoods through urban intensification, promoted by an alternative policy approach. I outline this process and its links to other forms of urban change. Despite the promise of a more inclusive strategy to mitigate the challenges of studentification, I find that post-studentification is subject to several pitfalls related to local planning objectives, local contingencies and inequalities with respect to class, age and gender.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-07-02T02:19:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211021358
       
  • Neoliberalism and neo-dirigisme in action: The state–corporate alliance
           and the great housing rush of the 2000s in Istanbul, Turkey

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      Authors: Sinan Tankut Gülhan
      First page: 1443
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This paper foregrounds the state–corporate alliance in real estate development in Istanbul since the early 2000s. Employing a geo-coded sample of 294 private housing development projects built since the early 1980s and in-depth interviews with the private development companies, the paper focuses on how the construction industry and the massive commodification of urban land produced a new state–space nexus. The underlying question here is the nascent shape of urban political-economy, the trends of housing construction, the cycles of boom and bust and the mechanisms of capital accumulation concerning the state’s centralising control over space. In this sample, a few critical aspects of the production of concrete space became apparent. Seven findings are discussed. First, the developers of Istanbul followed the clientelistic patterns in the urban built environment. The second aspect is that the state is the sole supply-side actor that determines Istanbul’s built environment. The third point in this analysis of urban development initiated by the private sector is focused on the fact that the real estate speculation is state-led. The fourth and fifth points are related to the Turkish real estate developers’ inability to procure financing for the duration of the construction process. The sixth factor in the evaluation of the private real estate sector in Istanbul is the geographical and class dispersal of active development projects. The seventh factor in understanding those real estate developers is their novel approach to marketing and advertisement and the way they employ architecture as an extension of public relations.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T07:56:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211012618
       
  • Manufacturing urbanism: Improvising the urban–industrial nexus through
           Chinese economic zones in Africa

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      Authors: Tom Goodfellow, Zhengli Huang
      First page: 1459
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      The relationship between industrialisation and urban development is subject to assumptions based on experiences in the global North, with little research on how it plays out in countries undergoing urbanisation and industrialisation today. In the context of recent excitement about China’s role in stimulating an ‘industrial revolution’ in Africa, we examine how Chinese zones in Ethiopia and Uganda are influencing the urban–industrial nexus. We argue that Chinese zones are key sites of urban–industrial encounter, but these dynamics are not primarily driven by the government officials that dominate the ‘policy mobilities’ literature, nor by the State-Owned Enterprises usually associated with Chinese activity overseas. Rather, they are emerging through the activities of inexperienced private Chinese actors who do not even operate in the worlds of urban policy. Faced with government histories and capacities that vastly differ from China’s, directly replicating the Chinese experience is virtually impossible; yet the tentative and improvisational relationships between Chinese firms, African government authorities and other local actors are gradually moulding new urbanisms into shape. The piecemeal bargaining and negotiation that unfolds through these relationships bridges some of the gaps between industrialisation and planning, but this cannot compensate for the governance of the urban–industrial nexus at higher scales.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-05-13T01:58:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211007800
       
  • Outer-suburban politics and the financialisation of the logistics real
           estate industry: The emergence of financialised coalitions in the Paris
           region

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      Authors: Nicolas Raimbault
      First page: 1481
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      Logistics real estate is a type of property rarely covered in the existing literature on the financialisation of property markets. The emergence of specialised international real estate firms, which act as developers, investors and property fund managers, means that the logistics real estate industry has taken a unique financialisation path. The present article explains the specific features of the financialisation of the logistics real estate industry and contributes to the understanding of the financialisation of outer-suburban governance. Based on a qualitative analysis of the European logistics real estate market and case studies conducted in the Greater Paris region, the article combines an analysis of the sociotechnical mediations of financial circuits in the logistics built environment with the study of emerging local public–private coalitions formed to develop logistics zones. As such, it will be seen that the domination of integrated global firms in logistics real estate depends on their capacity to form local coalitions.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-06-16T10:06:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211014452
       
  • Governing investors and developers: Analysing the role of risk allocation
           in urban development

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      Authors: Frances Brill
      First page: 1499
      Abstract: Urban Studies, Ahead of Print.
      This article argues that urban governance, and academic theorisations of it, have focused on the role and strategies of real estate developers at the expense of understanding how investors are shaped by regulatory environments. In contrast, using the case of institutional investment in London’s private rental housing (Build to Rent), in this article I argue that unpacking the private sector and the development process helps reveal different types of risk which necessitate variegated responses from within the real estate sector. In doing so, I demonstrate the complexities of the private sector in urban development, especially housing provision, and the limitations of a binary conceptualised around pro- and anti-development narratives when discussing planning decisions. Instead, I show the multiplicity of responses from within the private sector, and how these reflect particular approaches to risk management. Uncovering this helps theorise the complexities of governing housing systems and demonstrates the potential for risk-based urban governance analysis in the future.
      Citation: Urban Studies
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T07:53:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/00420980211017826
       
 
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