Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
    - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)
    - ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)
    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
    - HEATING, PLUMBING AND REFRIGERATION (6 journals)
    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)
    - INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)
    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals)

ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 97 of 97 Journals sorted alphabetically
Territorios     Open Access  
Territorios en formación     Open Access  
The Evolving Scholar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
The Urban Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for Kortlægning og Arealforvaltning     Open Access  
Town and Regional Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Town Planning and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Town Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Urban     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban Affairs Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
URBAN DESIGN International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Urban Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Urban Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Urban Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Urban Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Land     Free   (Followers: 2)
Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Urban Planning and Design Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Urban Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Urban Science     Open Access  
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Urban Studies Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Urban Transformations     Open Access  
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Urbanisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Urbano     Open Access  
Vitruvian     Open Access  
Vivienda y Ciudad     Open Access  
Yhdyskuntasuunnittelu     Open Access  
ZARCH : Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access  

  First | 1 2     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Urban Ecosystems
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.836
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-1642 - ISSN (Online) 1083-8155
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2469 journals]
  • Author Correction: Estimating carbon storage in urban forests of New York
           City

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      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Ecology with Cities

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      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The urban myth: A lack of agreement between definitions of urban
           environments used in wildlife health research may contribute to
           inconsistent epidemiological findings

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      Abstract: Abstract Worldwide, urbanization and associated anthropogenic land use change is increasing. This has implications for the ecology of wildlife diseases including zoonoses, and relevance for wildlife management, urban planning, and public health. Therefore, wildlife health in ‘urban’ environments is an increasing focus within the published literature. However, researchers use a variety of different classification strategies since there is no established definition of an ‘urban’ environment. It is unclear the degree to which different interpretations of the term ‘urban’ impact our understanding of wildlife health in these environments. In order to explore the implications of various definitions of ‘urban’ and ‘non-urban’ used in wildlife health research, we performed a review of the literature. We determined that 73% of manuscripts that used the term ‘urban’ did not describe or validate the classification metrics employed. We selected 12 binary definitions of ‘urban’ and ‘non-urban’, identified in our literature search, that could reasonably be employed in an Ontario, Canada context, and applied these definitions to a historical raccoon dataset. Mixed univariable logistic regression models were fitted to investigate the impact of different ‘urban’ criteria on the interpretation of Baylisascaris procyonis and canine distemper epidemiology. The proportion of raccoon carcass coordinates classified as ‘urban’ ranged from 10.0% to 91.5%. Individual pairwise agreement between ‘urban’/’non-urban’ designations ranged from 18.3% to 97.7%. Measures of inter-definition agreement ranged from 0.27 to 0.37 depending on the statistic (Cohen’s kappa, prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa, and Gwet’s AC1) and all indicated a fair level of overall agreement. The results of regression analyses were discordant among the definitions. These findings emphasize shortfalls in the degree to which ‘urban’ classification methodology is currently documented in the literature. There are multiple distinct metrics and thresholds associated with the term ‘urban’ that have varying relevance depending on the species, pathogen, context, and research question. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of carefully considering what criteria are relevant in a particular context and providing transparent documentation of these criteria. Moving towards specificity in language by referring to the metric employed, instead of the blanket term ‘urban’, will help to improve clarity, capacity for cross-study comparison, and allow us to develop a more mechanistic understanding of wildlife health in ‘urban’ spaces.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Citizen science in cities: an overview of projects focused on urban
           Australia

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      Abstract: Abstract Citizen science offers a unique opportunity to connect urban-dwellers with the often hidden natural world upon their doorsteps and to contribute to authentic research that increases knowledge of urban ecology and biodiversity. With the majority of Australia’s population residing in large cities, this diverse potential pool of participants in science creates a significant opportunity to increase the spatial and temporal scale of research. Herein, we provide an overview of Australian urban citizen science projects based on an analysis of the projects listed in the Australian Citizen Science Association’s Citizen Science Project Finder. We draw out key features (such as those with research questions specific to cities such as reintroduction and persistence of species in urban environments) from urban citizen science projects that make them suitable for the urban environment and use these features to suggest recommendations for further expansion and development of this important subset of projects. We conclude that the number and diversity of urban citizen science projects is relatively low in Australia, and advocate for an increase in initiatives that can tap into a large pool of potential participants for the benefit of science and society.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Noise attenuation varies by interactions of land cover and season in an
           urban/peri-urban landscape

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      Abstract: Abstract Anthropogenic noise is increasing worldwide because of growing human populations, transportation, and resource extraction. This excessive noise negatively impacts humans and wildlife. To mitigate noise pollution, the use of vegetation in urban planning is becoming increasingly common. However, noise attenuation can be influenced by poorly understood differences in land cover and seasonality that exist across complex urban and peri-urban environments. We compared the noise attenuation capacity of sites typifying dominant land covers in southern Ontario, Canada (forest, tallgrass prairie, and agriculture) across three seasons (summer, fall, and winter). We found that total noise attenuation was affected by a complex interaction of both site and season across low (250 Hz), mid (500 Hz), and high (1000 Hz) frequency sound. Seasonal changes in vegetation density varied between sites and seemed to play only a partial role in total noise attenuation. While forest, trees, and shrubs continue to be effective for managing noise pollution, our results suggest that other types of land cover can also be useful (e.g., tallgrass prairie). With growing interest in the potential noise attenuating capabilities of vegetation, we recommend further consideration of the seasonal variation in attenuation that can occur across the diverse land covers of urban and peri-urban environments.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Long-term assessment of floodplain reconnection as a stream restoration
           approach for managing nitrogen in ground and surface waters

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      Abstract: Abstract Stream restoration is a popular approach for managing nitrogen (N) in degraded, flashy urban streams. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of stream restoration involving floodplain reconnection on riparian and in-stream N transport and transformation in an urban stream in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. We examined relationships between hydrology, chemistry, and biology using a Before/After-Control/Impact (BACI) study design to determine how hydrologic flashiness, nitrate (NO3−) concentrations (mg/L), and N flux, both NO3− and total N (kg/yr), changed after the restoration and floodplain hydrologic reconnection to its stream channel. We examined two independent surface water and groundwater data sets (EPA and USGS) collected from 2002–2012 at our study sites in the Minebank Run watershed. Restoration was completed during 2004 and 2005. Afterward, the monthly hydrologic flashiness index, based on mean monthly discharge, decreased over time from 2002 and 2008. However, from 2008–2012 hydrologic flashiness returned to pre-restoration levels. Based on the EPA data set, NO3− concentration in groundwater and surface water was significantly less after restoration while the control site showed no change. DOC and NO3− were negatively related before and after restoration suggesting C limitation of N transformations. Long-term trends in surface water NO3− concentrations based on USGS surface water data showed downward trends after restoration at both the restored and control sites, whereas specific conductance showed no trend. Comparisons of NO3− concentrations with Cl− concentrations and specific conductance in both ground and surface waters suggested that NO3− reduction after restoration was not due to dilution or load reductions from the watershed. Modeled NO3− flux decreased post restoration over time but the rate of decrease was reduced likely due to failure of restoration features that facilitated N transformations. Groundwater NO3− concentrations varied among stream features suggesting that some engineered features may be functionally better at creating optimal conditions for N retention. However, some engineered features eroded and failed post restoration thereby reducing efficacy of the stream restoration to reduce flashiness and NO3− flux. N management via stream restoration will be most effective where flashiness can be reduced and DOC made available for denitrifiers. Stream restoration may be an important component of holistic watershed management including stormwater management and nutrient source control if stream restoration and floodplain reconnection can be done in a manner to resist the erosive effects of large storm events that can degrade streams to pre-restoration conditions. Long-term evolution of water quality functions in response to degradation of restored stream channels and floodplains from urban stressors and storms over time warrants further study, however.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Tree trade-offs in stream restoration: impacts on riparian groundwater
           quality

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      Abstract: Abstract Riparian zones are a vital interface between land and stream and are often the focus of stream restoration efforts to reduce nutrient pollution in waterways. Restoration of degraded stream channels often requires the removal of mature trees during major physical alteration of the riparian zone to reshape streambank topography. We assessed the impact of tree removal on riparian groundwater quality over space and time. Twenty-nine wells were installed across 5 sites in watersheds of the Washington D.C. and Baltimore, Maryland, USA metropolitan areas. Study sites encompassed a chronosequence of restoration ages (5, 10 and 20 years) as well as unrestored comparisons. Groundwater wells were installed as transects of 3 perpendicular to the stream channel to estimate nutrient uptake along groundwater flow paths. Groundwater samples collected over a 2-year period (2018-2019) were analyzed for concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), and dissolved components of calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), sulfur (S) and other elements. Results showed some interesting patterns such as: (1) elevated concentrations of some nutrients and carbon in riparian groundwater of recently restored (5 year) sites; (2) decreasing linear trends in concentrations of TDN, K and S in groundwater during a 2 year shift from wet to dry conditions; (3) linear relationships between DOC (organic matter) and plant nutrients in groundwater suggesting the importance of plant uptake and biomass as sources and sinks of nutrients; (4) increasing concentrations in groundwater along hydrologic flow paths from uplands to streams in riparian zones where trees were recently cut, and opposite patterns where trees were not cut. Riparian zones appeared to act as sources or sinks of bioreactive elements based on tree removal. Mean TDN, DOC, and S, concentrations decreased by 78.6%, 12.3%, and 19.3% respectively through uncut riparian zones, but increased by 516.9%, 199.7%, and 34.5% respectively through the 5-year cut transects. Ecosystem recovery and an improvement in groundwater quality appeared to be achieved by 10-20 years after restoration. A better understanding of the effects of riparian tree removal on groundwater quality can inform strategies for minimizing unintended effects of stream restoration on groundwater chemistry.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Green in times of COVID-19: urban green space relevance during the
           COVID-19 pandemic in Buenos Aires City

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      Abstract: Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has had a deep impact on the way we perceive our world. This study explores its effect on Urban Green Space (UGS) perception in Buenos Aires City (CABA), Argentina. We provide a detailed overview of the distribution of UGS in CABA, along with socio-economic analysis and visitors' profile and perception before and during the restrictive measures adopted by the national authorities to contain the COVID-19 outbreak (July to December of 2020). We conducted a series of surveys based on open and closed questions. Before the pandemic, surveys were carried out in situ in eight parks of six districts, randomly chosen. During the confinement, online surveys were conducted. According to our results, the mean UGS density in CABA is 6.09 m2 /person, but marked differences between districts exist, ranging from 0.02 m2 /person to 17.68 m2 /person. This uneven distribution causes differences in the quality of life of CABA inhabitants, perhaps more pronounced during reduced-mobility situations like COVID-19 confinement. Socio economic analysis were done linking multidimensional poverty, COVID-19 positive cases and urban mobility in CABA. Regarding UGS visitors, before the confinement, the majority of respondents were employees or students; during the confinement, employees and retirees predominated. When asked to choose important attributes to describe their perception about the UGS from a given list, respondents selected “calm,” “green,” and “sounds of nature,” without differences before and during the confinement. However, when asked about the UGS role, the main answer was “a place to be with nature” before the confinement and “an important place in the city” during it. Understanding how society perceives the UGS, especially during crises, is essential to rethink the urban landscape and prepare our cities, towards biophilic cities and for a more sustainable future.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • City biodiversity index and the cities-biodiversity relationship: a case
           study for Sorocaba, SP, Brazil

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      Abstract: Abstract In order to adopt a strategic model which aims to mitigate the environmental pressures exerted by the process of unbridled urbanization, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), an international agreement that permeates its conservation, the sustainable use of its resources and the equitable sharing of its resources, approved in 2010 the creation of the City Biodiversity Index (CBI), a political-legal instrument that aims to assess its management and progress. Later in 2016, the “Sorocaba: the city of biodiversity” program was launched by Secretariat for the Environment and Sustainability (SEMA), consisting of six specific objectives and among them, the establishment of criteria for the evaluation of conservation measures through indicators adapted from CBI, in order to propagate the urban ecology and ecosystems importance. Given the above, this study aimed to prove the compatibility between urban centers and biodiversity and to evaluate the environmental management of the city of Sorocaba, located in the interior of the State of São Paulo, through the application of 23 CBI indicators and semi-structured interviews with environmental technicians of the municipality, in order to raise possible strategies in the conservation of biodiversity. The sum of the indicators resulted in a value of 57 points out of a total of 92 (61.9%), showing that, although Sorocaba has a relevant biodiversity, the low score of many indicators implies a need for greater mobilization of government spheres and the successive application of the CBI, in order to expand the conservation and environmental management of the city agenda over the years, strategy agreed among the technicians interviewed.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Living in a tropical concrete jungle: diversity and abundance variation in
           a parrot assemblage (Aves, Psittacidae) of a major Amazonian city

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      Abstract: Abstract The effects of urbanization on biodiversity had been studied mainly in northern hemisphere. Therefore, biodiversity analysis in tropical cities is urgently required for a full understanding of the how animal and plant communities react to urbanization. Parrots are iconic tropical birds and considered particularly vulnerable to urbanization impacts. Here we describe patterns of diversity and abundance of a parrot assemblage in Manaus, a major Amazonian city. We made standardized censuses of parrots in 12 Manaus neighborhoods, covering a wide range of environmental and socioeconomic profiles. The Manaus parrot assemblage (urban plus rural areas) is composed of 23 species, of which 14 were recorded in urbanized areas. Most species found in Manaus are associated with seasonally flooded vegetation. In contrast, species that needs large and continuous areas of upland forests appears to avoid urban environment. Parrot species richness and relative abundance were relatively stable across the year with only the two most frequent species increasing their abundances during dry season. Green area cover and monthly variation in rainfall did not affect parrot relative abundance. However, distinctive parrot assemblages with higher species richness were found in neighborhoods with high percentage of green cover. Manaus is a city with remarkable parrot diversity and this diversity is related to the availability of green areas. The adequate managing and protection of these green areas could be benefit for parrot conservation in Manaus.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Spread of the invasive Javan myna along an urban–suburban gradient
           in Peninsular Malaysia

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      Abstract: Abstract Invasive species can spread rapidly at local and national scales, resulting in significant environmental and economic impacts. Rapid urbanisation and deforestation can accelerate the spread of invasive species and depress populations of native species. We studied the pattern of spread of the Javan myna Acridotheres javanicus, an introduced species in Peninsular Malaysia that has benefited greatly from urbanisation over the past 40 years (1981–2020). We used the online database eBird–a citizen science project–to build a species distribution model using data collected by birdwatchers from discrete locations and visits. We show that the invasive Javan myna range has drastically increased in Peninsular Malaysia over the past 40 years following the escape and release of captive individuals. The number of mynas continued to increase over four 10-year observation phases. Notably, there was a particularly drastic increase in 2011–2020 period, with 56,201 Javan myna observations. The cumulative Javan myna range across Peninsular Malaysia was 28,855 km2 in 2011–2020, with the majority of this distribution occurring in two major metropolitan cities: greater Kuala Lumpur (including the suburban area, Selangor) and Johor. In urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia, the Javan myna spread rate increased by approximately 44.4% from the 2001–2010 period to the 2011–2020 period. A species distribution model applied to the entirety of Peninsular Malaysia showed that urban land use was related to the model. The generalised linear model showed a significant positive relationship between urban area expansion and Javan myna abundance. We effectively map the spread of the highly invasive Javan myna and highlight the need for an improved management plan that includes a risk prediction analysis and management strategies for this species. Such dynamic mapping and analyses is crucial for better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the persistence of urban biodiversity.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Molluscs community as a keystone group for assessing the impact of urban
           sprawl at intertidal ecosystems

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      Abstract: Abstract Mollusc communities are getting endangered in the aftermath of urban sprawl because artificial structures do not surrogate natural substrates. In this study, we compared the diversity, community and trophic arrangements of molluscs among different models of artificial substrate and their adjacent natural rock, to detect relationships between some abiotic variables and the mollusc communities. Complexity, chemical composition and age were tested as potential drivers of the community. Diversity, community and trophic structure differed between natural and artificial substrates. Complexity at the scale of cm was detected as the most important factor driving the community structure. In addition, a chemical composition based on silica and/or scarce calcium carbonates seems to be relevant for molluscs, as well as for the secondary substrate where they inhabit. However, age did not seem to be a driving factor. Among the different artificial structures, macroscale complexity was detected as the main factor diverging a drastically poor community at seawall from other artificial structures. In this context, macro and microscale complexity, chemical composition and mineral type are variables to consider in future designs of artificial substrates.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Designing and managing biodiverse streetscapes: key lessons from the City
           of Melbourne

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      Abstract: Abstract Underutilised public spaces such as streetscapes offer substantial opportunities to integrate habitats that increase biodiversity into existing urban landscapes and create more ecologically connected cities. Cooperation and collaboration from diverse stakeholders are paramount to achieving this because growing conditions for plants in streetscapes are often much harsher than remnant habitats or urban parks and little is known about the horticultural performance of many native understorey species in these novel urban environments. This paper describes how the City of Melbourne collaborated with researchers from the University of Melbourne to develop and test a suite of understorey plant species to increase streetscape biodiversity. To do so, we selected species using criteria from a horticultural planting guide which guided the design and creation of four streetscape plantings within the municipality. Here, we document the process and discuss lessons learnt from this project to assist other cities to design, construct and maintain streetscapes with successful, cost-effective plantings that improve urban biodiversity and aesthetic value. Key to the long-term success of these biodiverse plantings was thorough soil preparation and weed management before planting, and the implementation of a clear, ecologically sensitive management plan. To support this plan, suitably qualified and experienced landscape maintenance staff were essential, particularly those with horticultural knowledge and experience with indigenous and native plant species. Our project highlights the often conflicting needs of local authorities and ecological researchers and the necessary trade-offs needed to meet realistic goals and achieve successful project outcomes for creating more biodiverse urban landscapes.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Cultivar blends: A strategy for creating more resilient warm season
           turfgrass lawns

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      Abstract: Abstract Turfgrass lawns are synonymous with plant selection in the built environment. Plants in urban landscapes are largely selected to enhance aesthetic quality and comply with social norms. Warm season turfgrasses are produced and planted as intraspecific cultivar monocultures to preserve heritable traits that meet aesthetic standards. Monocultures are less resilient to biotic and abiotic stress than more diverse plantings, which increases reliance on pesticides and resource-intensive maintenance and presents unintended environmental risks. Increasing interspecific plant diversity may provide the greatest resilience benefits, but it introduces production, maintenance, and marketing barriers that can inhibit industry and consumer acceptance. Intraspecific cultivar blends may provide plant diversity resilience benefits without compromising industry and consumer values. Using a four-year field experiment we determined the effects of mixing warm season turfgrass cultivars on lawn resilience and aesthetic quality. We find that mixing turfgrass cultivars increases quality compared to cultivar monocultures, but primarily when a poorly performing cultivar is present. Mixtures of four cultivars containing the poorly performing cultivar averaged 42% greater plant cover and 33% greater aesthetic quality than monocultures of that cultivar, indicating that the other cultivars compensated for the loss of one from the stand. Three years after planting, perceived aesthetic quality of lawns by turfgrass industry professionals was above the minimum aesthetic threshold only for plots containing blends of four cultivars. Thus, our results suggest that mixing warm season turfgrass cultivars extends the longevity of turfgrass coverage and quality compared to conventional cultivar monocultures. Such benefits can reduce monetary, natural resource, and pesticide inputs without conflicting with social aesthetic norms and may be a ready-made approach to more sustainable lawns in urban greenspaces.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Tree canopy macrostructure controls heating of asphalt pavement in a
           moist-temperate urban forest

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      Abstract: Abstract Tree canopies influence the urban microclimate by controlling solar radiation reaching the ground surface. Temperature gradients are easily measured between shaded and exposed asphalt pavement, but it is not clear how differences in canopy structure affect pavement heating or whether temperature variation is sufficient to affect the pavement’s structural integrity. In this study, we document pavement heating in response to solar exposure through a diurnal cycle. Pavement temperature was measured under and near thirteen street-side trees in a residential neighborhood in the Ohio Valley, USA. Temperature variation was compared with canopy coverage and structural elements including tree size (dbh), species, aspect, and canopy density. Pavement temperature in open-sky plots increased by 29–34 °C through the course of a day but only 8–15 °C in plots under tree canopies. Under-canopy plots showed intermittent heating caused by side lighting early and late in the day defined by aspect, crown geometry, and the position of adjacent trees. Observed temperature ranges suggest substantially lower tensile stress in pavement under tree canopies than in sections exposed to direct sun. Pavement temperature did not differ significantly with tree size or canopy porosity measured in hemispherical photos. We conclude that temperature in unshaded areas varies within ranges likely to reduce pavement service life, and that shading by street trees has the potential to moderate such damage. Pavement temperature is controlled by tree location and crown geometry (urban forest macrostructure); properties of individual tree canopies (microstructure) appear less important.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • The spatial variation of air purification benefit provided by street tree
           assemblages in Shenyang, China

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      Abstract: Abstract Street tree assemblages are a widespread natural component in cities and provide a range of ecosystem services. The spatial distribution of street tree assemblages within cities, however, is not uniform. We assessed the air purification benefits provided by street trees in Shenyang, China, to examine how urban form, urban geography and drivers of vegetation management affect this ecosystem service. The i-Tree Street Model was utilized to evaluate air purification benefits provided by street trees. We analyzed the results using two indices, with values expressed in US dollars (USD, $): the per kilometer benefit (PKB) and average tree benefit (ATB). Neither index displayed a consistent trend across the human population density gradient or along the urban-suburban continuum. The district with the highest PKB and ATB is neither the oldest nor the newest one to develop, but rather the one that began to develop around 2002. We conclude that public policy is a main driver of vegetation management, especially for street trees, because street tree abundance is closely related to road construction, which, in turn, is closely tied to economic development in a region. We also discovered no significant difference in the benefit of street tree assemblages along the urban-suburban continuum. That's probably because all areas within the different beltways contain mature street trees, the time-lag effect for growth is inconsequential. We recommend that the dynamic variations of street tree assemblages over a certain time span be taken into consideration when examining the effects of urban sprawl on ecosystem services provided by street tree assemblages.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Urban–rural gradients in soil nutrients beneath Chinese pine (Pinus
           tabulaeformis Carr.) are affected by land-use

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      Abstract: Abstract Urban–rural gradients of soil nutrients may be affected by many factors including land use, vegetation cover, and management. In this study, focusing on one vegetation type (Chinese pine, Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) to exclude the effects of vegetation cover, we investigated soil nutrients in three land-use types (neighborhoods, parks and roadsides) along urban–rural gradients in Beijing, China, to explore the differences in soil nutrients across land-use types and the changes of soil nutrients along the urban–rural gradient. Soil nutrients (organic carbon, calcium and magnesium) are significantly higher in neighborhoods and parks than in roadsides, while soil nutrients (except for magnesium) showed no significant differences between in neighborhoods and in parks. Interestingly, soil moisture, nitrate-nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, and available phosphorus and potassium all decreased along urban–rural gradients in parks, while only soil available phosphorus did so in neighborhoods and none soil variables studied showed this trend in roadsides. Thus, land use plays an important role in modifying urban–rural gradients of soil nutrients.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Phase II MS4 challenges: moving toward effective stormwater management for
           small municipalities

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      Abstract: Abstract Federal regulations for municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) in the United States have been in place since 1990 as part of the Nation Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), aiming to reduce sediment and pollutant loads originating from urban areas. However, small-municipality (Phase II) MS4s frequently grapple with several challenges, resulting in a lack of stakeholder buy-in and actionable stormwater management plans. We identify five common challenges concerning MS4 requirements based on literature review, professional experience, and feedback solicited from stakeholders, municipal managers, and fellow professionals and offer real-world examples of efficient, effective MS4 frameworks and/or solutions. The five challenges are summarized as beliefs that: (1) agricultural land use is the largest pollutant contributor and the root cause of pollution problems; (2) stormwater management only benefits downstream communities; (3) large, expensive projects are required to comply with regulations; (4) maintenance, monitoring, and inspection of best management practices (BMPs) is overwhelmingly complex and expensive; and (5) a lack of direct funding makes complying with regulations an impossible task. These challenges are universal in nature for Phase II MS4 permittees and can create real barriers for effective stormwater management. However, we found many examples of methods or techniques to effectively address these five specific challenges, making them well-suited and important for discussion. BMPs can create tangible improvements for surrounding communities (e.g., reduced streambank erosion and flooding), and improved understanding of the structure and options within the MS4 program will help small municipalities make informed choices about management plans.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Coproduction of place and knowledge for ecology with the city

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      Abstract: Abstract Ecology with the city is a transdisciplinary pursuit, combining the work of researchers, policy makers, managers, and residents to advance equity and sustainability. This undertaking may be facilitated by understanding the parallels in two kinds of coproduction. First, is how urban systems themselves are places that are jointly constituted or coproduced by biophysical and social processes. Second, is how sustainable planning and policies also join human concerns with biophysical structures and processes. Seeking connections between coproduction of place and the coproduction of knowledge may help improve how urban ecology engages with diverse communities and urban interests in service of sustainability.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
  • Land sharing between cultivated and wild plants: urban gardens as hotspots
           for plant diversity in cities

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      Abstract: Abstract Plant communities in urban gardens consist of cultivated species, including ornamentals and food crops, and wild growing species. Yet it remains unclear what significance urban gardens have for the plant diversity in cities and how the diversity of cultivated and wild plants depends on the level of urbanization. We sampled plants growing within 18 community gardens in Berlin, Germany to investigate the species diversity of cultivated and wild plants. We tested species diversity in relation to local and landscape-scale imperviousness as a measure of urbanity, and we investigated the relationship between cultivated and wild plant species within the gardens. We found that numbers of wild and cultivated plant species in gardens are high – especially of wild plant species – independent of landscape-scale imperviousness. This suggests that all community gardens, regardless of their urban contexts, can be important habitats for plant diversity along with their role in urban food provision. However, the number of all species was negatively predicted by local garden scale imperviousness, suggesting an opportunity to reduce imperviousness and create more habitats for plants at the garden scale. Finally, we found a positive relationship between the number of cultivated and wild growing species, which emphasizes that community gardens present a unique urban ecosystem where land sharing between cultivated and wild flora can transpire. As the urban agriculture movement is flourishing worldwide with gardens continuously and spontaneously arising and dissipating due to urban densification, such botanical investigations can support the argument that gardens are places for the reconciliation of plant conservation and food production.
      PubDate: 2022-06-01
       
 
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