Subjects -> ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (Total: 304 journals)
    - CLEANING AND DYEING (1 journals)
    - ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)
    - FIRE PREVENTION (13 journals)
    - HEATING, PLUMBING AND REFRIGERATION (6 journals)
    - HOME ECONOMICS (9 journals)
    - INTERIOR DESIGN AND DECORATION (21 journals)
    - REAL ESTATE (17 journals)

ESTATE, HOUSING AND URBAN PLANNING (237 journals)            First | 1 2     

Showing 201 - 97 of 97 Journals sorted alphabetically
Territorios     Open Access  
Territorios en formación     Open Access  
The Evolving Scholar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Journal of Integrated Security and Safety Science (JISSS)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
The Urban Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for Kortlægning og Arealforvaltning     Open Access  
Town and Regional Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Town Planning and Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Town Planning Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & environmental Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Urban     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Urban Affairs Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
URBAN DESIGN International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Urban Ecosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Urban Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Urban Geography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Urban Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Urban Land     Free   (Followers: 2)
Urban Planning     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Urban Planning and Design Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Urban Policy and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Urban Science     Open Access  
Urban Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Urban Studies Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Urban Transformations     Open Access  
Urban, Planning and Transport Research     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Urbanisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Urbano     Open Access  
Vitruvian     Open Access  
Vivienda y Ciudad     Open Access  
Yhdyskuntasuunnittelu     Open Access  
ZARCH : Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Architecture and Urbanism     Open Access  

  First | 1 2     

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Urban Affairs Review
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.113
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 18  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1078-0874 - ISSN (Online) 1552-8332
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1174 journals]
  • An Expression of Appreciation to our Reviewers

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      Pages: 1198 - 1203
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Volume 58, Issue 4, Page 1198-1203, July 2022.

      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T07:55:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221091861
      Issue No: Vol. 58, No. 4 (2022)
       
  • Insurgent Asylum Policies in European Cities: A Multi-Level Governance
           Perspective

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      Authors: Raffaele Bazurli, David Kaufmann
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Cities worldwide operate on the frontlines to support forced migrants. Some of these cities even overstep their formal prerogatives by refusing to comply with, and at times overtly subverting, the prescriptions of national authorities. This article builds a conceptual framework to understand such forms of insurgent urban asylum policy-making. We argue that insurgency depends on how city governments mediate the constraints and opportunities that emanate from the horizontal and vertical dimensions of multi-level governance, which capture city-level political dynamics as well as intergovernmental interactions. To illustrate our framework, we compare asylum policy-making in Barcelona, Milan, and Munich during the 2010s “refugee crisis.” While Munich invested in rather uncontroversial integration programs, Milan and Barcelona overstepped their jurisdictional boundaries and supported migrants considered “illegal” by national governments. These insurgent responses were enacted as a “remedy from below,” stemming from a sense of urgency that was not as pressing for Munich’s policy-makers because of the greater capacity of Germany’s asylum system.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-25T07:21:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221091594
       
  • Urban Policy Entrepreneurship: Activist Networks, Minimum Wage Campaigns
           and Municipal Action Against Inequality

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      Authors: Marc Doussard, Greg Schrock
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Why are cities acting against inequality' We attribute the growth of municipal economic policy to multi-city urban policy entrepreneurship networks. These networks combine activists who create pressure to address inequality with policy experts who supply the legislative means to do so. We illustrate the concept through the Fight for $15 campaign in Seattle and Chicago. Drawing on more than 100 interviews, participant observation and secondary documents, we show that advocates for municipal policy reform use national policy entrepreneurship networks to develop policy-specific and generalized policy advocacy techniques. Centering urban policy entrepreneurship brings into focus three important aspects of current municipal public policy: 1) The two-way interaction between national and local policy campaigns. 2) Partnerships between activists who set the political agenda and policy entrepreneurs who act on political opportunity. 3) The role of national advocacy and policy entrepreneurship networks in converting new policy ideas into routine, off-the-shelf policy solutions.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T05:47:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221101530
       
  • How Leadership Influences Urban Greenspace Provision: The Case of Surrey,
           Canada

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      Authors: Chris Boulton, Aysin Dedekorkut-Howes, Meg Holden, Jason Byrne
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Much research has examined the socio-spatial distribution of, and access to, urban greenspace; the challenges of supplying greenspace, especially in periods of dynamic urban change, remain poorly understood. Multiple factors shape urban greenspace provision, however understanding the role of leadership as a factor remains somewhat elusive. Addressing this critical knowledge gap, we employed a case study approach, using qualitative methods, to hear first-hand from the key stakeholders involved with municipal urban greenspace provision, to investigate how different types of leadership affected greenspace provision in Surrey, Canada – a dynamically changing mid-size city. Semi-structured interviews with 32 purposively selected participants reveal that here, both leadership and organizational culture influenced resources and decision-making supporting greenspace provision. Aligned political leadership and organizational leadership witnessed a significant increase in Surrey's urban greenspaces – the converse occurred in a later administration. Findings provide insights into the governance of greenspace; especially how different types of leadership can play a pivotal role in effective greenspace provision.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-24T05:47:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221101393
       
  • Municipal Parks, Recreation and Cultural Services in an Age of Migration
           and Superdiversity

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      Authors: Livianna Tossutti
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      The goals of promoting diversity, equity and inclusion have gained currency in planning practice, and institutions are increasingly expected to address structural inequalities related to race, ethnicity and other forms of marginalization. This article examines how six Canadian municipalities have adapted their parks, recreation and culture strategic plans, policies, programs and services in response to international migration and racial diversity. The analysis of official documents and interviews with municipal officials and community representatives reveals that municipalities have adopted de facto multicultural planning practices aligned with the state paradigm of immigrant integration and national identity, even when the term “multiculturalism” is rarely employed in official discourse. They have also incorporated some aspects of mainstreaming into the planning repertoire. In Canada, mainstreaming is not an alternative to group-specific programing, but an additional mechanism for the recognition of difference in public institutions.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T06:27:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221100698
       
  • Working-Class Institutions, Amazon and The Politics of Local Economic
           Development in Western Queens

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      Authors: James DeFilippis, Samuel Stein
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      In November 2018 Amazon announced that they had selected Long Island City, Queens (LIC) as one of two locations for their second headquarters. While there had certainly been criticism and organizing against the proposed deal, given that it had the vocal support of both Mayor de Blasio and Governor Cuomo, most New Yorkers had assumed that the deal would be implemented. Then, rather surprisingly, on February 14th, 2019, Amazon announced its withdrawal from the deal and its decision not to come to LIC. This article uses the case of Amazon and other large scale developments in western Queens to discuss the conflictual and often messy politics of local economic development (LED) in working class communities. It argues that urban studies pays too little attention to how and why working class organizations participate in the politics of LED; and often thereby shape the enacted policies of LED.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-18T05:30:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221100695
       
  • Innovations to Photovoice: Using Smartphones & Social Media

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      Authors: Kirk A. Foster, Brittany Davis, Andrew Foell
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Photovoice, a participatory action research method, has evolved little over the past two decades. The ubiquity of smartphones and their utility as digital cameras make them a natural fit for photovoice projects. The use of social media to post photographs and comment also has the potential to be a platform for photovoice activities. Using these technologies for photovoice promotes capturing daily life in vivo without the need of additional equipment. These technologies also allow the research team to see photos posted daily and track comments without waiting for scheduled interviews or group meetings and elevates the discussion into the public sphere to facilitate wider engagement. These strategies may also produce more photos and narratives than traditional methods by leveraging technology people use daily. Study participants noted these technologies facilitated wider understanding, awareness, and discussions of neighborhood issues.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-17T05:26:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221100263
       
  • Walking the Talk: Why Cities Adopt Ambitious Climate Action Plans

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      Authors: Sanya Bery, Mary Alice Haddad
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Why do some municipalities adopt ambitious climate action plans and others do not' This study examines United States cities that have signed the Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate & Energy, to identify the factors that have led some of them (37 percent, 63 cities) to adopt ambitious (Net Zero) climate action plans. It finds that two factors make the most difference: (a) whether the city has a paid city employee (or department) dedicated to environmental/energy management and (b) whether the city has a university. Other factors, such as per capita income, city revenue, state funding, size, partisan orientation, and membership in international climate networks, did not significantly influence how ambitious a city's climate action plan was. This study combines a statistical analysis of the signatory cities with a qualitative study Middletown Connecticut to explain why city energy managers and universities can have such a positive effect on city climate action.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T07:31:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221098951
       
  • The Fiscal Impact of County-to-Urban District Conversion in China

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      Authors: Huiping Li, Hai (David) Guo, Pengju Zhang
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Municipal annexation has been one of the most widely adopted instruments for urban growth in the United States. Scholars of public choice and regional studies have long debated the fiscal effect of local government annexation. Few studies, however, examine the fiscal effect of municipal administrative annexations in China, where prefectural cities have extensively annexed county-level governments through forcefully converting rural counties into urban districts in a top-down manner. Employing a difference-in-differences (DID) method coupled with an event study approach, we analyzed a panel data set of 282 prefectural cities from 2007 to 2015 to examine the fiscal impact of annexation in China. The findings show that prefectural cities have significantly increased their land conveyance fees through administrative annexation. Given that land conveyance fees serve as one of the most important own-source revenues at the local level, our findings shed light on the crucial link among the urbanization process, government reorganization, and local land finance in China and, potentially, in other transition countries.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T07:30:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221098152
       
  • How Policy Entrepreneurs Encourage or Hinder Urban Growth Within a
           Political Market

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      Authors: Edgar E. Ramírez, Manlio F. Castillo, Eliana I. Sánchez
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      This paper updates and extends the Political Market Framework (PMF) by integrating elements of interest groups and political market theory with policy entrepreneurs’ (PEs) roles in explaining the patterns of urban infrastructure construction. The prominent role of PEs is observed through a grounded analysis of two large infrastructure projects in Mexico City. A comparative study of the cases suggests that: (1) The agency of PEs in political markets is central to explaining the construction of urban infrastructure; (2) PEs contribute to the definition of pro-growth or anti-growth coalitions and the definition of public problems; (3) the legitimacy of PEs is grounded in their political or technical reputation, or both; (4) the appropriate use of political institutions requires that PEs know how to use electoral timing strategically; and (5) the role of PEs seems to be better understood within a bounded analysis framework, such as the political markets approach.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T01:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221097078
       
  • The Effects of Rental Assistance Programs on Neighborhood Outcomes for
           U.S. Children: Nationwide Evidence by Program and Race/Ethnicity

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      Authors: Andrew Fenelon, Natalie Slopen, Sandra J. Newman
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Project-based housing programs and tenant-based housing programs (vouchers) may have differential effects on neighborhood outcomes for residents. Theoretically, vouchers should enhance access to low-poverty neighborhoods for low-income families thereby promoting economic mobility for children, though vouchers’ success may vary by race and ethnicity. Drawing on a national survey-administrative data linkage and a quasi-experimental approach, we examine the impact of project-based housing and vouchers on an index of socioeconomic neighborhood disadvantage among children. We find that living in project-based housing leads to greater exposure to neighborhood disadvantage while receiving vouchers leads to reduced exposure. Reductions in neighborhood disadvantage for children receiving vouchers are found only for non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino children. For non-White families, vouchers are associated with a reduced likelihood of living in high-poverty neighborhoods and increased likelihood of living in low-poverty neighborhoods, presenting an opportunity to narrow racial and ethnic differences in children's neighborhood attainment.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-10T08:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221098376
       
  • What Does it Mean to be Homeless' How Definitions Affect Homelessness
           Policy

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      Authors: Andrew Alfred Sullivan
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Government agencies use varying criteria in defining homelessness. While scholars debate over and use different definitions of homelessness, little research has explored the impacts the definition has on perceived problem severity and the types of communities receiving aid. I first explore four definitions of child and youth homelessness used by United States’ federal agencies. I then use panel data for school districts, which report homelessness by subgroup, to analyze how the definition of homelessness changes its prevalence and leads to disparate impacts. I find the definition of homelessness including students living doubled-up leads to a higher growth rate. Definitions also change which districts have high rates of homelessness and characteristics of these districts, suggesting resources following students experiencing homelessness go to different types of communities. Scholars should consider how a problem is defined, differences in the measurement used between studies, and how the definition affects where resources go.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T11:58:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221095185
       
  • “Listen to the People of Starkville”: Dynamics of (Extra-)Local
           Political Opposition to Short-Term Rental Regulation in a Small Southern
           City

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      Authors: Taylor Shelton
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Though housing inequality is manifest in a variety of ways around the world, one of the most noteworthy has been the rise of short-term rentals. And while a growing body of literature has demonstrated the negative impacts of this new housing typology on cities and neighborhoods, as well as the need for such cities to regulate this phenomenon, scholars have had less to say about how the fights for and against these regulations have actually played out. Through a case study of proposed short-term rental regulations in the small southern college town of Starkville, Mississippi, this paper documents some of the key ways that fights over short-term rental regulation actually play out on the ground, and how these dynamics can lead to more effective approaches to regulating short-term rentals in the future.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-21T05:07:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221095190
       
  • ‘Whiny, Fake, and I Don't Like Her Hair’: Gendered Assessments
           of Mayoral Candidates

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      Authors: Erin Tolley, Andrea Lawlor, Alexandre Fortier-Chouinard
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Municipal mayoral elections present a compelling puzzle: what happens when gendered stereotypes about level of government conflict with those about type of office' Although local politics is viewed as communal and more feminine, the mayoral office is a prominent, prestigious position of political leadership that voters may perceive as more masculine. We intervene by analyzing open-ended comments about 32 mayoral candidates from a survey of 14,438 municipal electors in eight Canadian cities. We argue gendered trait and issue stereotypes are embedded in voters’ assessments of mayoral candidates. We find no evidence that female candidates benefit from their perceived competence in local policy issues, and they experience backlash when they display the traits typically associated with strong leaders. We conclude that, even at the level of government frequently thought of as more open to women, female mayoral candidates are disadvantaged by an enduring association between masculinity and political leadership.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-13T07:39:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221090874
       
  • Can Economic Growth Reduce Public Dissatisfaction' Evidence from a
           Panel Threshold Model in Chinese Cities

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      Authors: Yao Liu, Jiannan Wu, Jiayin Qi, Yuling Deng, Alimire Tuerhong
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Much is known about the relationship between economic growth and satisfaction, while little is known about the relationship between economic growth and dissatisfaction. This study measures the levels of public dissatisfaction in 36 Chinese cities from 2011 to 2018 using data from an official online petition platform. We construct panel data to analyze the impact of per capita GDP and per capita income on public dissatisfaction. The results show that per capita income has a significant negative effect on public dissatisfaction, but only once the per capita income exceeds a threshold amount. In the extended discussion, the nonlinear relationship between income and public dissatisfaction is described as a stair-shaped curve. The results imply the need for developing countries to adhere to economic policies based on income maximization.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-11T03:03:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221091591
       
  • Mapping Racial Capital: Gentrification, Race and Value in Three Chicago
           Neighborhoods

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      Authors: Jesse Mumm, Carolina Sternberg
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      We interrogate the interrelations of race and gentrification in three Chicago neighborhoods of historical significance to Black, Mexican, and Puerto Rican residents. Our previous work indicates that historical legacies of structural racism mean that gentrification works differently in each area, although the extant literature has not directly addressed how race fuels local valuation regimes. For each neighborhood we provide GIS mapping of 30 years of property parcel data and Census block data on race, compared with a parcel level visual scan of material conditions in the built environment. Changes in value at the block level reveal value assigned to whiteness irrespective of material improvement and run counter to standard explanations of gentrification but closely align with a model of racial capitalism. We bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative research by mapping the everyday life of racial change that is felt and known by residents of color in Chicago.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-07T12:42:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221082614
       
  • Officer-Involved Killings and the Repression of Protest

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      Authors: Traci Burch
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the likelihood that officer-involved killings affect protest. Analyzing respondents to the Collaborative Multiracial Political Survey (CMPS) reveals no increases in protest activity between treatment groups exposed to officer-involved killings in their local area prior to participating in the survey and control groups who were exposed to officer-involved killings after survey participation overall. In fact, local exposure to Black victims appears to repress protest, but only among young Black respondents. This effect depends on the characteristics of the victim and the incident, as killings of low threat Black victims do not seem to repress protest.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-17T02:40:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221087220
       
  • Beyond Urban Displacement: Suburban Poverty and Eviction

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      Authors: Peter Hepburn, Devin Q. Rutan, Matthew Desmond
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Eviction has been studied almost exclusively as an urban phenomenon. The growing suburbanization of poverty in the United States, however, provides new cause to analyze the prevalence and correlates of displacement beyond cities. This study analyzes urban-suburban disparities in eviction rates across 71 large metropolitan areas. We show that eviction is a common experience in suburbs as well as cities. Urban eviction rates exceed suburban rates in most cases, but in one in six metropolitan areas experienced higher eviction rates in the suburbs. Multilevel models show that key correlates of eviction—especially poverty and median rent—influence eviction patterns differently in urban and suburban contexts. We explore variations in urban-suburban disparities through case studies of Milwaukee, Seattle, and Miami. Metropolitan areas with larger shifts toward suburban poverty, more expensive urban rental markets, and more segregated suburbs experience more suburban evictions.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-07T04:43:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221085676
       
  • Urban Fault Lines: The Politics of Territorial Restructuring in Nanjing
           and Ningbo

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      Authors: Kyle A. Jaros
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Recent decades have seen a flurry of administrative division adjustments (ADAs) in major Chinese cities, including ADAs that reconfigure multiple local government units at once. Despite the growing visibility of such reforms, it remains unclear how they come about and how profoundly they change cities’ governance and development prospects. To address these questions, this paper examines cases of ADA in Nanjing and Ningbo that had varying practical and political significance. Nanjing's 2013 ADA, though broad in scope, primarily served the purpose of administrative streamlining. By contrast, Ningbo's 2016 ADA marked a political and economic turning point, furthering the city's agenda of territorial consolidation. This detailed case comparison traces how varying ADA outcomes emerged from different intergovernmental relationships between cities, urban subunits, and provincial authorities, highlighting the territorial interest conflicts that play out within Chinese cities and the broader political challenges surrounding efforts to improve metropolitan governance.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T11:07:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221082219
       
  • Case Studies of Urban Metabolism: What Should be Addressed Next'

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      Authors: Hsi-Chuan Wang
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      This paper analyzes case studies of Urban Metabolism (UM), an interdisciplinary field that studies the flow of materials and energy in cities. It focuses on global cases to help researchers identify research gaps. I have categorized the studies based on location, scale, and urban system. Two findings need to be specified: first, the geographic distribution of UM case studies is uneven. Only limited studies have been developed for emerging African cities despite expected large future populations. Second, neighborhood-scale cases do not use an appropriate local scale, primarily due to the lack of reliable data sources. Upon noticing concerns over (1) the evaluation of optimized metabolisms, (2) the effectiveness of knowledge transfer, and (3) the awareness of timeframe in delivering practical policy, researchers may now focus on developing more applicable planning and design guidelines while paying attention to the early communication of UM assessment results between scientists and practitioners.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-02-15T04:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874221080145
       
  • Still Muted: The Limited Participatory Democracy of Zoom Public Meetings

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      Authors: Katherine Levine Einstein, David Glick, Luisa Godinez Puig, Maxwell Palmer
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Recent research has demonstrated that participants in public meetings are unrepresentative of their broader communities. Some suggest that reducing barriers to meeting attendance can improve participation, while others believe doing so will produce minimal changes. The COVID-19 pandemic shifted public meetings online, potentially reducing the time costs associated with participating. We match participants at online public meetings with administrative data to learn whether: (1) online participants are representative of their broader communities and (2) representativeness improves relative to in-person meetings. We find that participants in online forums are quite similar to those in in-person ones. They are similarly unrepresentative of residents in their broader communities and similarly overwhelmingly opposed to the construction of new housing. These results suggest important limitations to public meeting reform. Future research should continue to unpack whether reforms might prove more effective at redressing inequalities in an improved economic and public health context.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-02-03T02:29:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211070494
       
  • The Involvement of Business Elites in the Management of Homelessness:
           Towards a Privatization of Service Provision for Homeless People'

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      Authors: Antonin Margier
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Although the influence of local urban elites on urban planning is well established in urban studies and geography, the ways in which business and property owners take part in the management of homelessness has received far less attention. This article focuses on Portland (OR) in the United States as a means of understanding the motivations that underlie the role of the private sector and its impact on public policies. To this end, I focus on the support by Portland's downtown Business Improvement District of homeless outreach programs, and on the funding of two homeless shelters by business elites / philanthropists. I argue that although public authorities have different views on the actions to be taken to end homelessness, business elites often manage to bring initially-reluctant public authorities to support their projects in what might be termed a forced-march cooperation. I also highlight the versatility of the private sector and business elites’ participation in homelessness management, given that the outreach programs they support and the homeless facilities they fund provide services for the homeless while simultaneously removing them from visible public space. In this sense, the involvement of business and property owners is also a way for them to protect their own interests.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-01-13T01:19:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211073882
       
  • The Business of Improving Neighborhoods. A Critical Overview of
           Neighborhood-Based Business Improvement Districts (NBIDs) in Sweden

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      Authors: Dragan Kusevski, Maja Stalevska, Chiara Valli
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article offers an overview of neighbourhood-based BIDs (NBIDs) in Sweden. Swedish NBIDs tend to appear in stigmatized residential areas engaging with pressing sets of urban issues that have been longstanding concern of social policy. Their overarching goal is raising property values in neighborhoods on the edge between urban decline and (re)development potential. Emerging in a neoliberalizing institutional context, NBIDs present themselves as correctives to public-policy failures by promoting property-oriented solutions. The adaptation of the BID model in the Swedish ‘post-welfare’ landscape, however, exhibits, and arguably exacerbates, the shortcomings found in BID elsewhere. Their opaque institutional structure and lack of accountability contribute to curbing democratic influence over local development, thus reinforcing spatial inequalities. We argue that the growing political advocacy for the institutionalization of the BID model in Sweden presents a new milestone in the neoliberalization of urban governance, as private actors are promoted to legitimate co-creators of urban policy.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-01-11T11:04:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211070746
       
  • Does an Increased Share of Black Police Officers Decrease Racial
           Discrimination in Law Enforcement'

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      Authors: Sunyoung Pyo
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Based on representative bureaucracy theory, the current study investigates whether increasing Black representation in police forces is negatively associated with racial discrimination in law enforcement. This study additionally investigates how associations may differ according to the organizational or environmental contexts of the forces. Results show that an increased share of Black officers is associated with decreased police-involved deaths of Black residents, but is not significantly associated with a change in order maintenance arrests of Black suspects. In addition, the negative association between Black representation and police-involved deaths of Black residents disappears when the percent of Black officers surpasses about 15 percent, especially in organizations where White officers comprise a larger share. These findings support the potential negative role of organizational socialization on the effectiveness of increasing the share of Black officers in policing, implying that additional long-term efforts to change organizational culture are needed to realize the benefits of enhancing Black representation.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T12:44:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211070245
       
  • Neighborhood Distribution of Unsheltered Homelessness and its Temporal
           Changes: Evidence from Los Angeles

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      Authors: Eun Jin Shin
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Using the 2016–2020 point-in-time homeless count data, this study investigates neighborhood characteristics associated with the levels of and changes in unsheltered homeless population density in Los Angeles. The results show that unsheltered homeless people in the study area are heavily concentrated in and around the city center, and in neighborhoods with greater access to shelters and lower socioeconomic status. Notably, neighborhoods closer to the city center experienced a relatively large increase in unsheltered homelessness during the study period, implying a persistent spatial concentration of unsheltered homelessness. The results consistently indicate that residential land share, Hispanic resident share, and the number of bridges in the baseline year are significant predictors of relative changes in unsheltered homelessness in subsequent years, whereas access to shelters and poverty rates are not. This study’s findings provide several important policy implications that could potentially help prevent and mitigate unsheltered homelessness.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-24T11:21:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211059990
       
  • Racial Capitalism and City Politics: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis

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      Authors: Michael Javen Fortner
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-23T01:33:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211066627
       
  • When Cities Borrow State Power: New York State's Empire State Development
           Corporation in New York City

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      Authors: Elizabeth M. Marcello
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Since the late 1960's New York State's Urban Development Corporation (UDC), now operating as the Empire State Development Corporation (ESDC), has been leveraged by New York City government to pursue large-scale projects. This paper examines two cases from New York City in which the city borrowed a state-controlled public authority's power to accomplish projects initiated at the local level: the case of Queens West, a development in western Queens, proposed in the early 1980s, and the case of Columbia - Manhattanville, an expansion of the Columbia University campus into Harlem, announced in 2003. These cases highlight how cities might, at times, embrace state involvement rather than lament its restrictions or rue its indifference. The study concludes by suggesting a theoretical path for incorporating such a city-state dynamic.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-20T10:37:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211067141
       
  • Local Government's Resource Commitment to Environmental Sustainability:
           Capacity, Conservatism, and Contractual Dynamics

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      Authors: Wonhyuk Cho, Daewook Kim, Angela Y. S. Park
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Local governments are leading sustainability efforts through a range of initiatives, often voluntarily. While a spate of research exists to explain what drives these voluntary decisions, we are still limited in understanding how localities follow through with the resources to implement their adopted plans. This is particularly the case for environment and climate protection programs that are transboundary in nature and thus require more innovative and longer-term approaches than those that are relatively low-cost and easier to implement with future savings. This research examines local investment in promoting three of these program areas: air quality, biodiversity preservation, and ecological restoration. It investigates how local governments vary according to resource commitment and what factors explain those variations. We find several factors significant, including community capacity, political ideology, and institutional arrangements for service production and delivery. Variations are, however, found across different types of resource commitment, suggesting a more complex picture of local resource availability for advancing sustainability efforts.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-17T11:37:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211064976
       
  • Progressive Urbanism in Small Towns: The Contingencies of Governing From
           the Left

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      Authors: Ross Beveridge, Matthias Naumann
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      The progressive potential of urban politics is the subject of growing interest. However, debates have been largely focused on large cities with strong progressive constituencies of activists and Left-voting residents. We know little about the opportunities and challenges for progressive politics in smaller urban areas. This article addresses these shortcomings through a discussion of “progressive urbanism” in relation to small towns. In doing so, it makes three main contributions. First, it provides a definition of progressive urbanism as political projects of social justice, citizenship and democracy exploring the contingent potential of “localism”, “urban movements” and “municipal government”. Second, the article provides empirical insights on small towns in the German state of Brandenburg governed by mayors of the Left Party. Third, the article outlines challenges and opportunities of progressive urbanism in small towns, providing points of reflection for future research.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T12:56:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211055834
       
  • Using Emerging hot Spot Analysis to Explore Spatiotemporal Patterns of
           Housing Vacancy in Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Areas

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      Authors: Victoria Morckel, Noah Durst
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      We highlight the use of a newer method—emerging hot spot analysis of space-time cubes from defined locations—for examining the spread of housing vacancy in large, Ohio MSAs. Using this method, we discovered that many Ohio MSAs concurrently experienced spread, contraction, and vacancy stabilization in census tracts located adjacent to, or within close proximity of, one another. These results indicate that vacancy proliferation is not solely a matter of geographic determinism, whereby high vacancy in one tract predicts high vacancy in neighboring tracts in future years. We also found that vacancy spread at the tract level is associated with population dynamics at the neighborhood, city, and MSA levels. Our findings suggest that vacancy reduction initiatives should account for population trends at various geographic scales, not just physical conditions within a particular neighborhood or tract.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T12:49:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211065014
       
  • You Won't be My Neighbor: Opposition to High Density Development

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      Authors: Jessica Trounstine
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Virtually every city in the United States bans multifamily homes in at least some neighborhoods, and in many cities most residential land is restricted to single family homes. This is the case even though many metropolitan areas are facing skyrocketing housing costs and increased environmental degradation that could be alleviated by denser housing supply. Some scholars have argued that an unrepresentative set of vocal development opponents are the culprits behind this collective action failure. Yet, recent work suggests that opposition to density may be widespread. In this research note, I use a conjoint survey experiment to provide evidence that preferences for single-family development are ubiquitous. Across every demographic subgroup analyzed, respondents preferred single-family home developments by a wide margin. Relative to single family homes, apartments are viewed as decreasing property values, increasing crime rates, lowering school quality, increasing traffic, and decreasing desirability.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T04:24:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211065776
       
  • School Segregation in the Era of Color-Blind Jurisprudence and School
           Choice

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      Authors: Charles T. Clotfelter, Steven W. Hemelt, Helen F. Ladd, Mavzuna R. Turaeva
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      The decades-long resistance to federally imposed school desegregation entered a new phase at the turn of the new century. At that time, federal courts stopped pushing racial balance as a remedy for past segregation and adopted in its place a color-blind approach to evaluating school district assignment plans. Using data that span 1998 to 2016 from North Carolina, one of the first states to come under this color-blind dictum, we examine the ways in which households and policymakers took actions that had the effect of reducing the amount of interracial contact in K-12 schools within counties. We divide these reductions in interracial contact into portions due to the private school and charter school sectors, the existence of multiple school districts, and racial disparities between schools within districts and sectors. For most counties, the last of these proves to be the biggest, though in some counties private schools, charter schools, or multiple districts played a deciding role. In addition, we decompose segregation in the state's 13 metropolitan areas, finding that more than half can be attributed to racial disparities inside school districts. We also measure segregation by economic status, finding that it, like racial segregation, increased in the largest urban counties, but elsewhere changed little over the period.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-06T04:24:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211049510
       
  • How Strong is Local Politics’ Grip on Local Economic Development'
           The Case of Swiss Small and Medium-Sized Towns

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      Authors: Stefan Wittwer
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Economic development directly manifests itself in the form of employment at the local level. This paper examines the ability of local politics to shape this development in a competitive federalist environment by examining how local party–political developments affect local economic development in Swiss small and medium-sized towns (SMSTs). Local economic development in the form of employment is a central local policy domain in federal and polycentric Switzerland. This paper argues that party–political influence is conditional on the characteristics of four distinguished economic sectors that differ in their dependence on the regional context. By analyzing the panel data of all Swiss SMSTs, the paper finds that local party–political developments only systematically precede growth in the residential economy, while regional processes determine the economic sectors in ambiguous ways. The grip of local politics on the development of export-oriented economies therefore is not guided by party–political development and more influential at regional levels.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-11-30T02:48:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211056519
       
  • Continuity and Change of Urban Policies in São Paulo: Resilience,
           Latency, and Reanimation

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      Authors: Eduardo Cesar Leão Marques
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      It is usually considered that urban policy change happens gradually or abruptly, provoked by coalition shifts, political pressure, or by agenda changes in public policies. However, a broad set of urban policies in São Paulo, Brazil shows the relevance of the third kind of oscillating trajectory not yet accounted for by the literature. Departing from compared urban policies in São Paulo, this article shows incremental progressive trends due jointly to political competition (pushed by progressive governments) and policy production itself.While some programs entered the agenda to stay, others swung between implementation, latency, and reanimation. To investigate these processes, we compare four programs—(a) in situ slum upgrading and (b) bus integration (gradually imposing themselves), (c) cooperative housing construction, and (d) bus lanes/corridors (oscillating between latency and reanimation). The results challenge explanations of urban policy change, contributing to closer dialogues between urban studies and political science.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-11-26T12:34:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211043845
       
  • The End of the Right to the City: A Radical-Cooperative View

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      Authors: Caleb Althorpe, Martin Horak
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Is the Right to the City (RTTC) still a useful framework for a transformative urban politics' Given recent scholarly criticism of its real-world applications and appropriations, in this paper, we argue that the transformative promise in the RTTC lies beyond its role as a framework for oppositional struggle, and in its normative ends. Building upon Henri Lefebvre's original writing on the subject, we develop a “radical-cooperative” conception of the RTTC. Such a view, which is grounded in the lived experiences of the current city, envisions an urban society in which inhabitants can pursue their material and social needs through self-governed cooperation across social difference. Growing and diversifying spaces and sectors of urban life that are decoupled from global capitalism are, we argue, necessary to create space for this inclusionary politics. While grassroots action is essential to this process, so is multi-scalar support from the state.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-11-24T01:30:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211057815
       
  • Urban Policy in Times of Crisis: The Policy Capacity of European Cities
           and the Role of Multi-Level Governance

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      Authors: Roberta Cucca, Costanzo Ranci
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      This article investigates how the policy capacity of urban governments in Europe to deal with the social challenges caused by the 2008-2009 financial crisis, has been strongly shaped by the institutional multi-level governance (MLG) settings in which cities were embedded. We consider the financial crisis as an important ‘stress test’ for urban policy. Urban governments faced a highly complex, trilemmatic situation: they faced not only growing social and economic problems at the local level, but also a process of devolution of institutional responsibility from central to local governments, and important cuts in central funding. Our analysis is based on an empirical investigation carried out between 2009 and 2016 in six major European cities: Barcelona, Copenhagen, Lyon, Manchester, Milan, and Munich. What clearly emerges from the research is that European cities may still show a certain capacity to innovate and govern economic changes and social challenges only if supported by an enabling MLG system.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-11-03T01:02:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211041710
       
  • Revisiting Medellin's Governance Arrangement After the Dust Settled

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      Authors: John J. Betancur, Peter Brand
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Governance is a polysemic prescription for contemporary government and at an urban level has been instrumental in some radical and often striking reshaping of cities. This paper examines the interests and power structures behind those changes through the critical examination of the case of Medellin, Colombia, until recently a model of “good governance,” internationally acknowledged for its early millennium transformation from “murder capital to model city.” Based on extensive literature reviews and interviews, we unveil the forces underlying concrete governance practices. Major characteristics emerging from this perspective concern i) market hegemony, ii) the disempowerment of grass-roots movements and iii) the influence of illegal actors in the complex and shifting dynamics within and between the city's major players. The notion of both “good governance” and model practice are strongly revisited.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-29T11:29:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211047938
       
  • Undermining Sanctuary' When Local and National Partisan Cues Diverge

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      Authors: Loren Collingwood, Gabriel Martinez, Kassra A. R. Oskooii
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      To what extent do national partisan cues exert influence over local voting behavior' Despite being an “immigrant welcoming city,” in November, 2019, Tucson, Arizona, voters rejected Prop. 205—the Tucson Families Free and Together Initiative. We leverage theories of elite partisan cues to explain why voters in a progressive city voted against such an initiative. In contrast to Democratic support for sanctuary cities at the national level, we argue that mixed cues from local Democratic elites contributed significantly to a surprising rejection of the initiative. Using aggregate-level data and a framing experiment, we find that the local political environment split Democratic votes (50% favored, 50% opposed) while keeping Republican voters—who received consistent elite cues of opposition—uniformly against the proposition. This study illustrates how local partisan elite cues can shape ballot initiative voting outcomes, even to the point of overriding negative partisanship and national co-partisan consensus on the same issue.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T03:17:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211043867
       
  • Who Benefits From Brownfield Cleanup and Gentrification' Evidence From
           Chicago

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      Authors: Richard T. Melstrom, Rose Mohammadi, Tania Schusler, Amy Krings
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents research on the distribution of economic benefits from brownfield cleanup and land development. There is growing concern that cleaning up blighted areas, including brownfields, can entrench inequality by disproportionately benefiting some demographic groups more than others. We look for evidence of disproportionate benefits by relating changes in move decisions to land use activity in Chicago using a heterogeneous sorting model. Our research produces two key insights: first, Black and Hispanic households benefit less than White households from brownfield cleanup and vacant land development. Second, owners appear to benefit more than renters from cleanup and development. Overall, these results provide evidence of differences associated with race and housing tenure in who benefits from local land use actions.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-25T03:17:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211041537
       
  • Measuring and Explaining Stalled Gentrification in Newark, New Jersey: The
           Role of Racial Politics

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      Authors: Domingo Morel, Akira Drake Rodriguez, Mara Sidney, Nakeefa Bernard Garay, Adam Straub
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Gentrification research focuses on timing and variation; how the racial makeup of cities and neighborhoods influences its extent; and the policies that foster or combat it. Most examines places with continuing or recent gentrification and majority-White leadership, such as New York City and San Francisco. We build on this by analyzing a majority-Black city where fear of gentrification is increasing, but gentrification is not widespread. To analyze Newark, NJ, a city with longstanding Black leadership, we adapt widely used measures to show that gentrification started but stalled during the 2000s. We examine whether policies explain this, and whether the racial politics of the city's majority-Black population and leadership play a role. Our findings suggest that mayoral administrations took similar, growth-driven approaches, except that the current mayor is the first to place “fighting gentrification” onto the agenda. We end by considering how the politics of race shape the politics of gentrification.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-23T05:47:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211046340
       
  • An Empirical Examination of Representational Equity in Consolidated
           Governments, 1965–2002

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      Authors: Christopher Acuff
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Research on the impacts of city–county consolidation often focuses on issues relating to efficiency, effectiveness, and economic development; yet, relatively few studies have addressed the issue of racial and ethnic minority representation. Although existing research is limited, findings indicate that consolidating city and county governments dilutes minority voting strength and has a disparate impact on minority representation. However, it is not clear if this is a nationwide trend, particularly in preclearance states previously covered by the Voting Rights Act. Thus, the question becomes, does consolidation negatively affect minority representation, and to what extent' This study employs a quasi-experimental interrupted time-series analysis to ascertain the overall impact of consolidation on the descriptive representation of African Americans since 1965. Results indicate that while descriptive representation has generally increased in recent decades, there are discernible declines following consolidation and noticeable representational disparities in counties previously covered by the Voting Rights Act.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-23T05:47:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211041043
       
  • How Landlords of Small Rental Properties Decide Who Gets Housed and Who
           Gets Evicted

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      Authors: Nathaniel Decker
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Scholars and policymakers have long been interested in whether large-scale owners of rental properties have different management practices than smaller-scale owners and whether these differences matter for the housing stability of tenants. This is of particular concern among the 1- to 4-unit small rental properties that comprise half the nation’s rental housing stock. I conducted a nationwide survey supplemented with interviews to understand how owners (i) select their tenants and (ii) react to rent delinquencies. I find that larger-scale owners’ highly routinized property management systems make them much more likely to start the eviction process after a delinquency. However the tenant selection processes of professional owners also appear to result in a tenantry that has a somewhat higher delinquency rate, while the selection process for non-professional landlords raises fair housing concerns. I discuss how the link between the tenant selection and rent delinquency practices of landlords has a number of policy implications.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-12T02:05:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211041513
       
  • Examining the Dynamics Between Formal and Informal Institutions in
           Progressive City Planning

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      Authors: Andrea Restrepo-Mieth
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      What explains the institutionalization of progressive city planning practices' Using Medellín as a case study, I analyze how state and nonstate actors target both formal and informal institutions in efforts to maintain the continuity of progressive public space provision practices. I introduce the idea of institutional compounding, defined as the quest by networks of individuals and organizations to create and sustain both formal and informal institutions, where each maintains its particular defining features while together they provide continuity and legitimacy to an existing practice. I draw on in-depth, semi-structured interviews, direct observation, and document analysis to demonstrate that continuity efforts are more likely to have an effect when actors engage in institutional compounding, since the strategy minimizes the shortcomings of formal and informal institutions alone. The findings contribute toward conceptualizing how nascent institutions become effective, highlighting how actors strengthen practices and how they seek to embed them through networked efforts.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-08T01:53:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211041612
       
  • The Problems with Neighbors: An Examination of the Influence of
           Neighborhood Context Using Large-Scale Administrative Data

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      Authors: Yan Liu, Siqin Wang, Lynda Cheshire
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Where earlier conceptions of problem neighbors saw them as contributing to neighborhood level forms of disorder, neighbor problems, in contrast, occur in the everyday domestic setting of residential life and challenge conceptual boundaries between public/private and civility/incivility. As a result, there is a need to better understand the phenomenon of problems between neighbors beyond conceptions of public disorder and to understand the processes that influence how and why neighbor problems arise. In this study, we examine neighbor problems as manifest in reported complaints to a local municipality in Australia to understand how neighborhood features affect the likelihood of neighbors experiencing problems with each other. We propose five hypotheses to examine the social-interactive, environmental, and geographical mechanisms of neighborhood effects and test these hypotheses through logistic regression models on the way certain neighborhood features relate to the prevalence of neighbor problems. The findings reveal the sources of neighbor problems that typically reside in a combination of the social-interactive dynamics of the neighborhood itself—including the composition of the resident population—and the environmental features of the neighborhood in terms of the condition, density and use of dwellings, but not in the location of the neighborhood relative to larger-scale political and economic forces of the city. The paper concludes with a discussion of the significance of these findings for research, policy, and practice.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-04T04:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211042811
       
  • Long Live Marketization for Local Public Spaces: A Study of Scandinavian
           Managers’ Satisfaction with Private Provider Performance

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      Authors: Andrej Christian Lindholst
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Continued critiques, evidence and newer reform trends have increasingly contested the use of market-centered models–the competition prescription–for urban public space maintenance as well as other local services. This article adopts a contextualized contingency perspective on the competition prescription and questions the contested status of market-centered models in a survey-based study of the current use of and satisfaction with private providers for maintenance of parks/greenspaces and road/streets in Scandinavian local governments. The study finds widespread use of and satisfaction with private providers. However, satisfaction depends on national context and multiple contingencies. The study challenges the contested status of market-centered models, highlights that different models serve different strategic objectives, and directs attention to discussions of context and key contingencies that define how well market-centered models perform.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-30T02:15:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211042544
       
  • The Role of Demographic Data Bias in the Under-Provision of Retail: A
           Quasi-Experimental Case Study of Low Food Access Neighborhoods in
           Twenty-Five Southern Metros

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      Authors: William Graves, Yi Zhang
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Municipal policy attempting to remediate low food access neighborhoods tends to focus on improving demand conditions in these neighborhoods. We investigate the role of two fundamental measures of food demand (population and income) and the biases inherent in these data in creating low food access neighborhoods. Population and income data were collected for a 1-mile radius surrounding seventy-one grocery desert sites in Southern U.S. metro areas, those results were compared to thirty-eight low-income, non-desert sites in the same metros. No significant difference between the demand characteristics of desert and non-desert sites was found in our sample—suggesting that policy may need to be refocused on issues other than demand metrics. In addition, we detected significant demand underestimation bias from one source commonly used by grocery stores. Given these findings we believe that parcel level characteristics such as visibility, accessibility, and buildability may play a larger role in remediating low food access than addressing demand conditions.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-13T02:53:11Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211040407
       
  • “We Roll our Sleeves up and get to Work!”: Portraits of Collective
           Action and Neighborhood Change in Atlanta's West End

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      Authors: Andrew Foell, Kirk A. Foster
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Collective action is one strategy urban neighborhood residents use to address community issues. However, collective action dynamics in rapidly changing urban neighborhoods are not well understood. This study used photovoice to examine perspectives on collective action and neighborhood change among residents of an urban neighborhood experiencing redevelopment in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Residents indicated that place attachment motivated and reinforced participation in collective action efforts to address neighborhood issues and to reconstruct narratives that challenged place stigmatization. Findings suggest that residents have heterogeneous perspectives about neighborhood change and local development, and simultaneously balance desires for neighborhood improvement with concerns about displacement, gentrification, and equitable development.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-06T08:15:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211027848
       
  • The Ideological Structure of Municipal Non-Ideology

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      Authors: Jack Lucas
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      This paper explores the structure of elite disagreement about the ideological or nonideological character of municipal politics. I propose two possible relationships between a representative’s own ideology and their beliefs about the character of municipal politics: an “ends-against-the-middle” pattern, in which ideologues on the left and right embrace an ideological vision of municipal politics, whereas moderates insist that municipal politics is not ideological; and an “asymmetric visions” pattern, in which individuals on the left endorse an ideological view of municipal politics and those on the right oppose it. I use new survey data from more than 800 mayors and councillors in Canada to assess these possible relationships. While both are supported by the data, the asymmetric visions pattern is the stronger of the two: the nonideological view of municipal politics is most firmly embraced by municipal politicians of the moderate right, while the ideological vision is most common among representatives on the left. This pattern, I argue, is in keeping with a century of municipal political history and should be incorporated into our theories of municipal elections, representation, and policy disagreement.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-24T02:23:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211038321
       
  • Can Institutional Reform Have a Lasting Impact on the Policy Agenda'
           Evidence From the 10-1 in Austin, TX

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      Authors: Brooke Nicole Shannon
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Institutional reforms to districted city councils from at-large systems are typically motivated by the desire to increase geographic and descriptive representation, enriching representation for historically excluded groups. The policy impact of descriptive representation, however, have been found to be conditional and not definitive. In this article, I explore whether institutional reform from at-large to districts has effects on a city council's policy agenda, or whether institutional constraints can quell the reform's impacts. I look to the “10-1” reform in Austin, Texas, implemented in 2015, using an original dataset collected from items in the council's 2009–2019 meeting minutes for a direct measure of the agenda. After coding each item for policy substance and testing the agenda's diversity, I find that the reform had short-term effects on the policy agenda. Instead, local government's agenda is largely driven by external problems and pragmatic needs facing the city. Consequently, the effects of reform are overwhelmed by institutional stickiness.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-24T02:21:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211038285
       
  • Immigrants Serving in Local Government: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis of Factors Affecting Candidacy and Election

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      Authors: Shervin Ghaem-Maghami, Vincent Z. Kuuire
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Descriptive representation, the extent to which politicians reflect the descriptive characteristics (e.g., ethnicity or gender) of their constituents, has been studied at various scales since it was first introduced in Hanna Pitkin's seminal work several decades ago. In recent years, scholars have also begun to investigate immigrant representation in politics, including at the local, state, and national levels of government. This study evaluates the current research on the factors affecting the election of immigrant candidates to municipal government. In addressing the lack of data-driven reviews in this type of research, the paper employs a scoping review methodological framework. Fifty-six distinct factors are identified as important for immigrants’ electoral fortunes. The factors are classified under: Macro-level electoral structures and situational elements, meso-level immigrant group dynamics, and micro-level individual candidate characteristics. The most salient factors are elaborated on, together with a discussion on policy implications and future potential areas of inquiry.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T12:00:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211038500
       
  • Understanding Urban Retail Vacancy

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      Authors: Emily Talen, Jein Park
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Storefront retail is highly valued because of its contribution to street life, its pedestrian-oriented urban design quality, and its ability to foster social connection. Despite this valuation, in many areas, main street retail struggles and storefront vacancies are common. To better understand retail vacancy causes, effects, and mitigation, we conducted 18 in-depth (in-person or phone) interviews of the leaders of business organizations in Chicago. From the literature, common explanations for retail vacancy include structural transformation of the retail industry, demographic change, and the increased cost of being a retailer. Responses from our interviewees cited demographic change, urban context, and property owner behavior as the main reasons for retail vacancy. While there was significant overlap with the literature concerning the role of demographic change, our respondents put particular emphasis on contexts and behaviors witnessed at the “street level,” such as property owner behavior.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-18T11:58:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211025451
       
  • Conceptualizing Municipal Elections: The Case of Toronto 2018

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      Authors: J. Scott Matthews, R. Michael McGregor, Laura B. Stephenson
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Since Angus Campbell and colleagues first introduced the “levels of conceptualization” (LoC) framework as a measure of political sophistication, a number of scholars have applied the approach to subsequent American national elections. In this study, we present the first application of the LoC framework to a municipal election, and focus upon the 2018 Toronto mayoral race. After describing the method and data we use to adapt the framework to this new context, we replicate previous analyses, and find that LoC is related to local voter turnout and several measures of political sophistication. We then consider the question of whether major candidates were discussed at different LoC, and if their supporters view local politics at different LoC. We conclude by making the case that the LoC framework is helpful for resolving the debate over whether local politics are ideological or managerial in nature.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-04T04:17:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211031155
       
  • Investing in Gentrification: The Eligibility of Gentrifying Neighborhoods
           for Federal Place-Based Economic Investment in U.S. Cities

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      Authors: Noli Brazil, Amanda Portier
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Place-based policies commonly target disadvantaged neighborhoods for economic improvement, typically in the form of job opportunities, business development or affordable housing. To ensure that investment is channeled to truly distressed areas, place-based programs narrow the pool of eligible neighborhoods based on a set of socioeconomic criteria. The criteria, however, may not be targeting the places most in need. In this study, we examine the relationship between neighborhood gentrification status and 2018 eligibility for the New Markets Tax Credits, Opportunity Zones, Low Income Housing Tax Credits, and the Community Development Financial Institutions Program. We find that large percentages of gentrifying neighborhoods are eligible for each of the four programs, with many neighborhoods eligible for multiple programs. The Opportunity Zone program stands out, with the probability of eligibility nearly twice as high for gentrifying tracts than not-gentrifying tracts. We also found that the probability of eligibility increases with a greater percentage of adjacent neighborhoods experiencing gentrification.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-27T02:22:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211032637
       
  • Urban Political Development and the Social Construction of Interests: The
           Case of Chicago's Dearborn Park

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      Authors: Joel Rast
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Studies of political power and governance in U.S. cities have long been dominated by political economy approaches in which the material interests of political actors are seen as the principal drivers of preferences and behavior. More recently, scholars from the emerging field of urban political development have questioned this view, arguing that ideas may play an important role—along with material factors—in determining what actors desire. Less understood, however, is where ideas of this nature come from. This article identifies social learning as one possible source. Social learning can be understood as a change in perceptions and behavior that results from experiences of some kind that provide important policy lessons. Through a case study of a near-downtown housing development in Chicago, I show how social learning caused actors to reinterpret their interests and behave in ways contrary to what materialist arguments would predict.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-08T02:52:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211025009
       
  • Residential Location and Household Spending: Exploring the Relationship
           

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      Authors: Andrew Schouten
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and a seven-category neighborhood typology, this analysis examines the relationship between urban form and household spending. Results suggest that poor households living in urban areas have lower transportation expenditures than their counterparts in sprawling suburbs. Lower transportation costs, however, do not offset high housing prices, with poor households paying particularly high premiums for housing in the densest, most transit-rich neighborhoods. Households above the poverty threshold also benefit from reductions in transportation costs, especially in intensely urban areas. Nevertheless, these low transportation costs are not associated with lower overall expenditures; instead, they countervail high housing premiums, meaning that the most transit-rich neighborhoods do not offer cost savings relative to other neighborhood types. Findings highlight the need to expand the supply of both transit and housing in communities where poor households can leverage affordable transportation options to reduce their combined expenditure burden.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-29T03:58:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211028814
       
  • Do Local Immigrant-Welcoming Efforts Increase Immigration' The Detroit
           Experience

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      Authors: Xi Huang
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Immigration policymaking has been active at the local level in the United States over the past few decades. This study examines whether the economic development-oriented immigrant-welcoming efforts that started in 2010 in Detroit have increased the local immigrant population. It uses the synthetic control method to construct a comparison region that resembles Detroit in the preintervention periods to serve as a counterfactual. Empirical results reveal a statistically significant increase in the immigrant share of the population in the metropolitan area during the postintervention period of 2011–2014. The increase is robust to various sets of specifications and placebo tests. The share of high-skilled immigrants in the local population also increased during this time, albeit with a weak statistical significance. These findings point to the potential of immigrant-welcoming programs in attracting and retaining immigrants and immigrant talent.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-24T06:05:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211025214
       
  • Perception of Health and Well-being Among the Chinese Immigrant Population
           in Seville (Spain): Does Territorial Concentration Matter'

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      Authors: Bárbara Badanta, Ricardo Iglesias-Pascual, Sergio Barrientos-Trigo
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      This study analyzes the relationship between the territorial concentration of the Chinese immigrant population and their perception of health and well-being in Seville, a city in southern Europe, where this ethnic community has seen one of the fastest growth rates in recent times. An ethnographic design and a merging strategy by data transformation were adopted. The results show that there is a greater perception of good health and well-being among the Chinese population, who live mainly in neighborhoods with a high concentration of Chinese immigrants with a high socioeconomic status. However, this territorial concentration does not result in a lower perception of integration, affection or support from the host society. This apparent contradiction could be explained by the importance of relations with their fellow nationals at work as a key element in the socialization of the Chinese population.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-24T05:59:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211017287
       
  • “It’s a Racist plot”: An Experimental test of the Racial
           Defense

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      Authors: Nyron N. Crawford
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Black municipal leaders are routinely accused of using race and racism to sidestep allegations that they have run afoul the ethics of public office. That is, they use racial defenses to respond to what they view as racist attacks against them. This type of race-based account has been treated as commonplace in American politics, but its effectiveness as a political account has received little scholarly attention. For example, how effective is the racial defense at minimizing negative political fallout for scandalized Black politicians' Using data from a survey experiment, I test how Black Americans respond to the political accounts profferred by Black elected officials accused of official misconduct. I show that a strategy involving a racial defense can yield positive evaluations in terms of trait judgment and voter intention, while offering no comment reduces participant suspicion about investigative malfeasance.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-11T05:41:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211016937
       
  • Predatory Policing, Intersectional Subjection, and the Experiences of
           LGBTQ People of Color in New Orleans

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      Authors: Tia Sherèe Gaynor, Brandi Blessett
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Much of the disparate outcomes experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other identities along the spectrum (LGBTQ+) people of color are directly linked to the practices of public actors and through institutional policies. This is perhaps no truer than for LGBTQ+ individuals of color in their interactions with police. This article argues that intersectional subjection fosters an environment prime for predatory policing and uses it as a framework to examine perceptions of predatory policing practices and its role in the exploitation of LGBTQ+ people of color in New Orleans. Research findings suggest that participants perceive predatory policing as part of the everyday practices of the New Orleans Police Department, where modes of power and social control tactics are regularly used to maintain systems of oppression. Ultimately, the goal of this project is to use the lived experience to explore the presence of predatory policing to understand how it has contributed to the marginalization of LGBTQ+ identifying individuals of color.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-01T04:20:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211017289
       
  • Neighborhood Economic Change in an Era of Metropolitan Divergence

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      Authors: Jared N. Schachner
      First page: 923
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      This study foregrounds the metropolitan area as a key driver of contemporary neighborhood economic change. The recent “Great Divergence” in metros’ economic, social, and political conditions suggests metros increasingly stratify neighborhood trajectories. Yet, many studies only consider neighborhood-level predictors of change or implicate metro-level factors more applicable to the twentieth century (e.g., manufacturing exposure) than the twenty first. To clarify the metro's contemporary role, this study synthesizes multiple literatures, deriving novel hypotheses that link metropolitan skill agglomeration and income segregation to neighborhood economic change, and then tests them using multilevel models and data drawn from multiple sources, including the census, Opportunity Insights, and National Transit Database. Analyses, based on all neighborhoods within 325 metros between 2000 and the mid-2010s, suggest over 10% of the variance in neighborhood median income change resides between, rather than within, metros. As predicted, metro skill agglomeration dynamics appear to boost neighborhoods’ median incomes, and metro income segregation depresses them. Results remain intact after accounting for state fixed effects and controls for five plausible alternative explanations of metro effects. Overall, the study provides a theoretical and empirical foundation for future neighborhood change research highlighting the metro in general, and two higher order spatial processes—income segregation and skill agglomeration—in particular.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-14T05:43:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211016940
       
  • From Community to Public Familiarity: Neighborhood, Sociability, and
           Belonging in the Neoliberal City

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      Authors: Felipe Link, Andrés Señoret, Felipe Valenzuela
      First page: 960
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Current urban neoliberalism processes have shaped and changed contemporary cities, including the local scale’s built environment and social relations. This article aims to study how such transformations affect local sociability by analyzing the effects of neighborhoods’ morphology and socio-demographic characteristics on different forms of interactions and how they affect the sense of belonging. Taking the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile, as a case study, we gathered secondary data on urban morphology and surveyed ten neighborhoods to measure sociability patterns. The results obtained from multilevel logistic regression models show that time living in the neighborhood and public pedestrian space is the most critical factor affecting neighborhood sociability. Moreover, instead of local ties, public familiarity is the form of sociability with the most substantial effects on a sense of belonging. We conclude that recent neighborhoods, formed by neoliberal urbanization, tend to discourage neighborhood sociability and a sense of belonging.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-29T03:55:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211021512
       
  • Planning the Barrio: Racial Order and Restructuring in Neoliberal Los
           Angeles

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      Authors: Alfredo Huante
      First page: 996
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Scholarship examining the legacy of early twentieth-century zoning and real estate practices on present-day urban landscapes has provided significant insight into the ways public officials appraised communities of color at the national and city scale. However, less is known about how local policy makers evaluated communities of color through the social movements of the 1970s and austerity policies of the 1980s. Analyzing Los Angeles City planning and administrative archives from the 1970s to 1990s, I assess how local policy makers arrived at regarding historically racialized and disinvested places such as Boyle Heights as potential sites of investment during the last quarter of the twentieth century. I find that city policy makers briefly categorized Boyle Heights as fit for preservation grounded in its socioracial composition and, later, designated the barrio as ancillary to intensifying efforts to revitalize downtown. Following the evolution of appraisals of land use during this period of transformation historicizes contemporary gentrification processes.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-11T05:49:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211021332
       
  • “Building Together” in Baltimore' Corporate Megadevelopment and
           Coalitions for Community Power

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      Authors: P. Nicole King, Meghan Ashlin Rich
      First page: 1028
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      We consider how various coalitions influence redevelopment projects in cities, especially as communities demand more inclusion in the development process. Based on qualitative research, we investigate the approval process for the 235-acre megadevelopment project at Port Covington in Baltimore, Maryland, and how stakeholders, including developers, community-based organizations, politicians, and impacted community members view the project, the tax increment financing (TIF) granted by the city, and community benefits agreements (CBAs). Community leaders leaned hard on the development corporation, demanding community and city-wide benefits before a TIF could be approved. We analyze the processes of the Port Covington CBA within the context of the political and economic dynamics of Baltimore. This case study adds to our understanding of how communities respond to corporate-led developments through coalition building, effectively gaining power in how elite governing regimes dictate development in cities.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-24T06:02:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211021325
       
  • State-Level Influences on Community-Level Municipal Sustainable Energy
           Policies

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      Authors: Jayce L. Farmer
      First page: 1065
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      State and local governments engage each other in a broad set of complicated interdependent relationships. Yet, there is limited research on what these multilevel governance relationships mean for community-focused sustainability. This study applies a transaction cost federalism framework to examine the hierarchical influences of state fiscal support and policy actions on municipal commitments to sustainability at the community-level. An analysis of U.S. cities reveals that state investments in energy programs encourage municipal efforts for incentivized energy efficiency initiatives for local taxpayers. Larger percentages of state funding directed to energy programs lead to stronger municipal commitments to incentivized sustainability programs such as individual grants, direct loans, and tax incentives. The results suggest that stable and supportive multilevel governance systems are key for reducing political transaction costs inherent within vertical systems driven by coercive authority. These findings produce theoretical and practical implications for understanding community-level sustainability within the face of “contested federalism.”
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-03-01T09:17:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1078087421995262
       
  • Business Improvement District Enabling Laws in the United States and
           Germany: A Comparative Analysis of Policy Learning

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      Authors: Göktuğ Morçöl, Annette Vollmer, Daniel J. Mallinson
      First page: 1096
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to answer the question how political cultures of respective countries affect policy learning processes. Using historical and contextual information about the political cultures of the United States and Germany and with applications of the advocacy coalition framework and cultural theory, this study finds that the originally American business improvement district (BID) institutional form was adopted in Germany when its political culture was open to it. German policy makers adopted the provisions of the U.S. laws that were compatible with their secondary beliefs, which were related to where and how to deliver local services. They did not directly adopt the BID governing models in the U.S. laws, which were based on the American deep core and policy core beliefs. Instead, they adapted the American models to their own Hegelian deep core beliefs and the hierarchical political core beliefs, which resulted in the formulation of the “Aufgabenträger” (task performer) model.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-21T05:21:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211025551
       
  • Motivations for Mobilization: Comparing Urban and Suburban Residents’
           Participation in the Politics of Planning and Development

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      Authors: Aaron A. Moore
      First page: 1124
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      This paper compares and contrasts suburban and urban residents’ attitudes and behavior toward development by comparing the frequency and motivation for mobilization of residents in the suburbs of Surrey, British Columbia, and Brampton, Ontario, with residents of their respective metropolitan urban cores. It finds that suburban residents engage less in planning politics than their urban counterparts and that they are more likely to oppose development than urban residents. However, while some variation exists in the concerns suburban and urban residents raise when they express their opposition to development, overall, the concerns of residents in suburbs and urban cores are largely the same. The data suggest that what differences exist between suburban and urban residents in the politics of urban development and planning likely arise due to the varying nature and prevalence of development encroaching on existing neighborhoods, rather than from underlying cultural differences.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-08T04:56:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211016939
       
  • Assessing Police Stops of Pedestrians: Toward a New Generation of
           Benchmarks

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      Authors: Michael R. Smith, Rob Tillyer, Mitchell Smith, Caleb D. Lloyd
      First page: 1152
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      This paper extends the stop and frisk literature from New York City by examining pedestrian stops made by San Jose, California, police officers from January 2013 through March 2016 with a particular focus on benchmarking. Using violent crime suspects and nuisance-related calls for service (CFS) as comparators, we consider whether San Jose Police Department (SJPD) officers disproportionately stopped individuals from the city’s dominant racial and ethnic groups citywide and in certain police beats with high levels of nuisance calls. Using violent crime suspects citywide as a benchmark, Whites were significantly overrepresented among those stopped by the police while Hispanics, Asians, and Blacks were underrepresented. The CFS findings at the beat level were consistent with the citywide findings for Blacks but reversed direction for Hispanics and varied for Asians depending upon beat and call type. We discuss possible reasons for this divergence across benchmarks and racial/ethnic groups and consider the implications for future research.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-05-26T03:57:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211016930
       
  • Call and Response' Neighborhood Inequality and Political Voice

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      Authors: Amber Wichowsky, Paru Shah, Amanda Heideman
      First page: 1182
      Abstract: Urban Affairs Review, Ahead of Print.
      Over the past 20 years, many cities across the United States have adopted a range of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to make it easier for residents to get informed, communicate their preferences, and hold public officials accountable. In this paper, we ask two questions. First, are service requests and responses illustrative of existing neighborhood differences across a city' Second, do patterns of request and response differ by the type of complaint made to the city' We leverage data from the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to examine neighborhood variation in service requests and subsequent response times to those complaints. Our analysis makes a number of important contributions to the current literature on ICTs, including providing a more nuanced understanding of how types of requests vary by neighborhood context, and a more comprehensive picture of how requests and response times reveal social and racial disparities across the city.
      Citation: Urban Affairs Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-11T05:46:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/10780874211021327
       
 
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