Subjects -> RECREATION, TRAVEL AND TOURISM (Total: 204 journals)
    - HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS (2 journals)
    - LEISURE AND RECREATION (24 journals)
    - RECREATION, TRAVEL AND TOURISM (178 journals)

RECREATION, TRAVEL AND TOURISM (178 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted by number of followers
Annals of Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Translation Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Current Issues in Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Tourism Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Sustainable Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Culture Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Travel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Tourism Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Tourism Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Tourism Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Heritage Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Almatourism - Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Tourism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Mobilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nepalese Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Tourism and Himalayan Adventures     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Tourism Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
E-Journal of Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Information Technology & Tourism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Tourism Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cornell Hospitality Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sport & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Tourism & Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Tourism Planning & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observations and Geoinformation     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Digital Culture and Electronic Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Anatolia : An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Studies in Travel Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Tourism Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Tourism Management Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tourism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Event and Festival Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tourism Culture & Communication     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 5)
Space and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ASEAN Journal on Hospitality and Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Event Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of China Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Tourism Review International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Knowledge Management in Tourism and Hospitality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tourist Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tourism Research & Hospitality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Tourism Cities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Tourism Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tourism Recreation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Visitor Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Interaction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Tourism Futures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Hospitality and Event Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Hospitality & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Business & Hotel Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Contemporary Tourism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ecotourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Craft Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Turismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tourism in Marine Environments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Turismo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Podium Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Park and Recreation Administration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Vacation Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Applied Sciences in Tourism and Events     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Caderno Virtual de Turismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anatolia : A Journal of Tourism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Entertainment Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tourism & Adventure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The Journal : Tourism and Hospitality Essentials Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infinitum: Revista Multidisciplinar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Economica Et Turistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marketing & Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Recreation and Society in Africa, Asia and Latin America     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts. Series in Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mondes du Tourisme     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Educación física y deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gestion Turistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Place Management and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Travel Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Tourism Critiques : Practice and Theory     Open Access  
ARA : Revista de Investigación en Turismo     Open Access  
Tourism and Heritage Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Tourism and Heritage Research     Open Access  
Perspectives in Asian Leisure and Tourism     Open Access  
Juara : Jurnal Olahraga     Open Access  
Sasdaya : Gadjah Mada Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
International Journal of Geoheritage and Parks     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Sciences in Travel and Hospitality     Open Access  
Gaze: Journal of Tourism and Hospitality     Open Access  
Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Education     Open Access  
Journal of International and Thai Tourism     Open Access  
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Dusit Thani College Journal     Open Access  
Journal of Halal Product and Research     Open Access  
Tourism and Travelling     Open Access  
Güncel Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights     Hybrid Journal  
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access  
Journal of Tourism Intelligence and Smartness     Open Access  
Jurnal Destinasi Pariwisata     Open Access  
Jurnal Analisis Pariwisata     Open Access  
Jurnal IPTA     Open Access  
Jurnal Kepariwisataan dan Hospitalitas     Open Access  
Jurnal Pariwisata Terapan     Open Access  
Via : Tourism Review     Open Access  
Matkailututkimus     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Turismo y Empresa     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Derecho del Turismo     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
ROTUR : Revista de Ocio y Turismo     Open Access  
Jurnal Pariwisata Pesona     Open Access  
Geotourism/Geoturystyka     Open Access  
Revista Organizações em Contexto     Open Access  
Geofronter     Open Access  
Espiga     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica de Administração e Turismo     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica Academicus     Open Access  
Matrik : Jurnal Manajemen, Strategi Bisnis dan Kewirausahaan     Open Access  
Cenário : Revista Interdisciplinar em Turismo e Território     Open Access  
Turystyka Kulturowa     Open Access  
Jurnal Master Pariwisata (Journal Master in Tourism Studies)     Open Access  
RACE - Revista de Administração, Contabilidade e Economia     Open Access  
Research in Hospitality Management     Open Access  
Revista Interamericana de Ambiente y Turismo     Open Access  
Revista de Gestão Ambiental e Sustentabilidade - GeAS     Open Access  
Revista de turism - studii si cercetari in turism     Open Access  
Multiciencias     Open Access  
Téoros     Open Access  
Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism     Open Access  
Journal of Hospitality Financial Management     Open Access  
TRANSIT     Open Access  
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Journeys     Full-text available via subscription  

           

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Journal of Park and Recreation Administration
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0735-1968
Published by Sagamore Publishing LLC Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Factors Influencing Intended Bicycling Behavior

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      Authors: Vanessa Gravenstine, Diane M. Kuehn, Ashley A. Dayer
      Abstract: Executive SummaryBicycling for transportation and recreation has many benefits including human health, greenhouse gas reduction, and community building. Understanding the factors that influence intentions to bicycle can help community planners improve access to bicycle routes and facilities for residents. This study examines the facilitators, constraints, motivations, demographic and experiential characteristics, and intentions to ride a bicycle of the residents of the Town of DeWitt in Central New York State. Data were collected using a mail and internet survey during the summer of 2015. Survey questions focused on constraints/facilitators, motivations, intentions, demographics, recent participation in bicycling during the summer of 2015, and lifetime involvement in bicycling (i.e., number of years). Of the 1,253 questionnaires distributed, a qualified sample of 1,206 households was obtained; 56 questionnaires were completed online and 417 were returned by mail, resulting in a 39% response rate. Descriptive statistics and path analysis were used to identify determinants of bicycling intentions. Lack of adequate infrastructure was identified as a significant constraint on bicycling intentions, while support for infrastructure enhancements, enjoyment from riding, riding to spend time with friends and family, and number of children in the respondent’s household all directly and significantly influenced intentions to bike ride. Other factors (i.e., infrastructure connections in the community, spending time outdoors, support from others for biking, gender, free time, age, and income) indirectly influenced intentions. The results indicate that respondents would likely be in support of infrastructure improvements in the future, especially if these improvements create safer riding locations for both adults and children. In addition, the analysis made it possible to discern previously unrecognized factors influencing bicycling intentions, such as gender-based differences in level of support for biking infrastructure enhancements, the number of children in the household, and the importance of biking as a social experience. Incorporating off-road bike paths and gathering places for bicyclists into future planning efforts would likely be supported by residents seeking safe riding experiences for themselves and their children.
      PubDate: 2022-06-12
      DOI: 10.18666/JPRA-2022-11053
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Short-Term Changes in Youth Physical Activity Behaviors and Attitudes: The
           Influence of Summer Camp

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      Authors: Jennifer Agans, Caitlin Garbo, Giulia Panter
      Abstract: Changes in patterns of physical activity are common across adolescence and are often associated with psychological factors such as feelings of athletic competence (Agans et al., 2017; Dawes et al., 2014). However, although physical activity preferences and beliefs about competence and abilities are important contributors to participation (Sallis et al., 2000), these factors are rarely studied over shorter time scales or in the context of specific recreational environments. We therefore assessed the extent to which summer camp experiences may contribute to changes in youth physical activity behavior and attitudes, and examined factors associated with these changes. Data were collected from 309 youth (85% white, 44% female, average age of 11.6) attending three different summer camps in the northeastern United States. Camper survey data were analyzed using multilevel regression models to account for potential camp-level differences in physical activity experiences. Our findings suggest that youth experiences with physical activity at camp are not isolated from prior physical activity behaviors and attitudes, but that even one-week camp sessions can lead to changes for some youth. Specifically, overall physical activity levels increased from pre-camp to the end of camp, but camper demographics and pre-camp physical activity behaviors and beliefs were associated with participants’ self-reported activity levels, self-perceived athletic competence, and eagerness for physical activity at the end of a week of camp. We also found that many campers reported decreases in their enjoyment of physical activities with which they had prior experience, and this was especially true for teens with the lowest levels of physical activity at camp. Finally, we found that youth who tried more new types of physical activity at camp reported decreased self-perceived competence but were more likely to have higher levels of physical activity while at camp. These results suggest that summer camps can enable youth to increase their physical activity levels and change their physical activity-related beliefs, but that recreational camp programs do not affect all youth similarly. Camp staff should therefore be attentive to campers’ prior experiences, and seek to tailor their programs to better support the physical activity behaviors and attitudes of all campers.
      PubDate: 2022-06-07
      DOI: 10.18666/JPRA-2022-11513
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Politics, Parks, and Pandemic: A Research Note

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      Authors: Caleb J. Scruggs, Chris A. B. Zajchowski, Jennifer Huggins, Alexander Burns
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the importance of parks as critical infrastructure for societal well-being; however, for much of the pandemic, the risk for disease exposure and transmission in these spaces was unclear. Public health messaging by parks continues to attempt to influence health-promoting behaviors, but the impact of advisories may vary due to the message source. In fall 2020, we surveyed park visitors in Virginia, U.S. across political affiliations to understand decision-making factors influencing visitation. Results indicate many similarities in decision-making factors across political affiliations, such as the perceived importance of health benefits derived from outdoor recreation. Significant differences in the perceived importance between message sources (i.e., Trump Administration) (ηp 2 = .104) and risk perceptions related to COVID-19 (ηp 2 = .228) across political affiliations were evident. These findings demonstrate the importance of attending to political affiliations when crafting messaging strategies, not limited to the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
      PubDate: 2022-05-05
      DOI: 10.18666/JPRA-2022-11477
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Public Perceptions of Local Parks and Recreation as an Essential Community
           Service During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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      Authors: Samantha L. Powers, Nicholas A. D. Pitas, Andrew J. Mowen
      Abstract: Local residents are the primary stakeholder for municipal parks and recreation who have the potential to influence funding and policy through their participation, voting, and advocacy. Research has suggested that individuals are more likely to support parks and recreation and view them as essential when they perceive they provide benefits that address their own as well as broader community needs. This panel study investigated Pennsylvania residents and the extent they considered parks and recreation an essential community service during the COVID-19 pandemic. It further assessed the rationale for why parks and recreation were considered either essential or non-essential during this time period. A majority of respondents (54%) felt local parks and recreation were an essential service in their community during the pandemic based primarily on their perceived contributions to physical health, mental health and wellbeing, and the safe provision of recreation opportunities. Conversely, parks and recreation were considered non-essential when they had been closed, when individuals were unsure of what services were actually provided during the pandemic, or they were perceived as unsafe or unsanitary given the presence of COVID-19. Findings provide evidence of the contributions provided by local parks and recreation during the COVID-19 pandemic and suggest influenceable factors associated with perceptions of whether parks and recreation are an essential community service.
      PubDate: 2022-01-14
      DOI: 10.18666/JPRA-2022-11223
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2022)
       
  • Relationship between Visitors’ Sense of Place, Recreation Behavior, and
           Acceptability of Resource Allocation Strategies at a Reservoir Facing a
           Water Crisis

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      Authors: Zack D. Darby, Neelam Chandra Poudyal, Adam Frakes, Omkar Joshi
      Abstract: Municipal drawdowns at public reservoirs can negatively impact recreational uses on site. Therefore, sustaining recreation requires understanding how users relate themselves with the reservoir and the resource therein, and how they will respond to circumstances and policies impacting the resource. Researchers use placedbased theory, particularly sense of place (SOP), to assess the user community’s perspective on the natural resource or recreation site of interest. This study utilized visitor survey data (n=282) from Canton Reservoir in Oklahoma to assess visitors’ sense of place (SOP), and to evaluate the relationship of SOP with their acceptability of alternative water allocation strategies and future intention of visiting the reservoir under depleted water conditions. Visitors had a high level of SOP with the reservoir and supported protective water allocation strategies that either favor the retention of water on-site or ensure a fair distribution between recreation and municipal use. Results suggest a positive relationship between visitors' SOP and their intended trips to the reservoir even under depleted water conditions. The findings highlight the psychological, functional, and emotional benefits associated with the recreational use of the Canton Reservoir, which will in turn help managers make more informed and balanced decisions about water conservation and allocation. Insights from this study will also contribute in literature on the sense of place and protective norms and offers several implications for the management of public reservoirs.
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.18666/JPRA-2021-10898
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Developing an Intentionally Designed Physical Activity Model of
           Programming for Children’s Structured Recreation in Canada

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      Authors: Nadine Van Wyk, Nicole Taylor McCallum, Larry Katz
      Abstract: Sport and education organizations have established models to ensure that coaches and teachers understand the physical, social, emotional and mental development of children. Such pathways of intentionally designed models fail to exist in the recreation sector where many physical activity (PA) programs are mainly developed based on convenience and instructor availability rather than on established credentials and current pedagogy practices. Addressing this gap, this paper explores the creation of an intentionally designed model of programming for children’s structured recreation, which is defined as sport or PA-based programs that are planned and led by an instructor. This proposed model is contextualized within the province of Alberta, but may be applicable across the nation. The authors further define “intentionally designed” as the development of purposeful programming with specific objectives that align with outside sources. One such source comes from the Canadian Parks and Recreation Association, who has created a Canadian Recreation Framework, an initiative to ultimately develop the well-being of all Canadians. The proposed, structured recreation model also incorporates several guiding principles including physical literacy and sport philosophy. Physical Literacy (PL) focuses on the lived body as the embodied dimension of our human experience, and how it can be enriched through various experiences that enable us to reach our full potential (Whitehead, 2007). It is about viewing the body holistically rather than separate from the entire being. By planning diverse PA in four environments, including land, water, air, and ice, the model also aligns with the sports sector and its philosophy of developing both fundamental movement skills and fundamental sport skills. Moreover, with allocated playing time, intentionally designed structured lesson plans, and one consistent leader in each activity, the model aims to increase the participants’ motor proficiency and levels of PA while building their confidence and competence across distinct exercises. The execution of the proposed recreation model involves a four-month program where participants rotate to a different PA environment each month and attend two classes per week, cumulating in 32 total classes. Management implications are discussed to determine how recreational professionals can achieve the intended outcomes of the model. Finally, further research is necessary to determine if this model can increase participants’ motor proficiency and positively influence physical activity behaviors in the recreation sector.
      PubDate: 2021-12-14
      DOI: 10.18666/JPRA-2021-10910
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • “What Do We Do For Snacks'”: The Perceived Role of Parks and
           Recreation Administrators in the Youth Sports Food Environment

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      Authors: Madison Augustine, Lori Andersen Spruance, J. Mitchell Vaterlaus
      Abstract: Dietary intake is influenced by multiple systems, as highlighted in the Social- Ecological Model, including community influences like community programs. In this context, parks and recreation administrators may have a role in the types of snacks and beverages provided during youth sports. The current study focused on understanding park administrators’ experiences relative to the youth sports environment, including their responsibility and influence on the food environment. This was an exploratory qualitative case study conducted in Utah. Semi-structured interviews with parks and recreation administrators were completed via phone by a research assistant. A qualitative case study analysis was conducted by two researchers. In addition to the interviews, the websites of all the park and recreation sites were searched and phone calls were made to check physical locations for nutrition fliers/information. Three themes emerged through qualitative case study analysis. The first theme was the administrators’ role in the youth parks and recreation activities. The second theme was the administrators’ awareness of the food environment within youth sports. The final theme was the administrators’ role in influencing more nutritious snacks at these youth sporting activities. The results from this case study suggest that the parks and recreation administrators within Utah valued the importance of nutritional snacks and beverages within youth sporting activities and were supportive of the food environment improving. Several of the parks and recreation administrators in this study agreed that their further involvement (i.e., guidelines on snacks and beverages) in the youth sports food environment could improve the environment and better effect youth who are participating, thus enhancing opportunities to improve overall health and well-being. The results from this study show that administrators could bring awareness to youth sports nutrition and support guidelines for the types of snacks and beverages brought to youth sporting activities. Administrators could work with dietitians to develop information that would be appropriate to distribute to youth sports participants and parents. Providing information about what kinds of snacks to bring has the possibility to improve the conditions of the youth sports food environment. Additionally, consideration for policy changes in youth sports and recreation center facilities could be explored. Subscribe to LDMJ
      PubDate: 2021-09-23
      DOI: 10.18666/JPRA-2021-10977
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Parkland Dedication: How are Cities Implementing the Rough Proportionality
           Principle'

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      Authors: John Crompton
      Abstract: As part of local governments’ mandate to regulate for the “health, safety, and general welfare” of their residents, many have included a parkland dedication exaction on new development in their sub-division regulations. The rules governing the magnitude of the dedication were established in 1994 by the U.S. Supreme Court in Dolan v City of Tigard. The Court ruled there must be “rough proportionality” between a dedication exaction and the projected new demand from a development. The ruling requires a local jurisdiction to be proactive in quantifying the justification for the magnitude of a dedication it imposes, but the Court offered no guidance on how the quantification should be done. This study’s two objectives were: (i) to investigate the extent to which cities’ ordinances comply with the Supreme Court’s ruling, and (ii) to identify best practices among cities’ ordinances relating to operationalizing the “rough proportionality” principle. Parkland dedication ordinances were analyzed from 73 Texas cities, supplemented by insights from those of 29 large cities outside Texas. In 65 of the Texas ordinances where “rough proportionality” comparisons could be made, the analyses found percentage under-dedications ranging from 9% to 1,250%. In defiance of the Court’s ruling, almost two-thirds of the ordinances showed no evidence of using an empirical quantitative method to establish “rough proportionality.” Many of these ordinances provided a service level ratio, but it appeared to be arbitrarily determined. These findings are especially egregious in Texas, since state law requires that the quantification of “rough proportionality” be certified as being appropriate by a professional engineer. Three models of best practice that used empirical methods to derive rough proportionality and met the Supreme Court guidelines are identified, described, and illustrated. Under-dedication often reflects the reluctance of elected officials to antagonize the development community. Thus, four strategies are offered to facilitate their efforts to impose a substantive exaction that relieves the burden on taxpayers, while demonstrating sensitivity to any protests arising from members of the development community.
      PubDate: 2021-05-04
      DOI: 10.18666/JPRA-2021-10942
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Exploring Symbolic Meaning in Landscaping Choices within a Desert City

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      Authors: Marena Sampson, Megha Budruk, Kelli L. Larson
      Abstract: Metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona, in the Sonoran Desert, provides an excellent opportunity to understand residents’ preferences for desert-adapted xeric landscaping. While much is known about the relationships between sociodemographics and broad environmental values on xeric landscaping choices, the influence of other variables remains unexplored, especially interactions with and attachments to the desert. We therefore examined the influences of recreational visits to local desert mountain parks and symbolic meanings associated with the native desert on household xeric landscaping preferences. Within a larger study, select questions captured socio-demographics, visitation to desert parks and open spaces, place identity, and xeric landscape preferences. Using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, we confirmed that homeownership and a shorter residency predicted preference for xeric landscapes. Hispanics were less likely to prefer xeric landscaping. Interestingly, the novel factor of identity with the desert significantly and positively predicted xeric landscaping preference while visitation to desert parks and open spaces did not.Findings provide several important management implications. First, Phoenix has an opportunity to foster connections with the surrounding environment through its extensive desert mountain parks. Increasing connections between residents and the parks may help shift personal preferences to xeric yard types. Park managers might also work to further stress how household decisions can affect the desert environment. Second, park visitation alone may not suffice to create connections with the desert environment. Instead, park managers should focus on creating opportunities for visitors to recognize the unique, living aspects of the parks and build personal relationships with the ecosystem. Interpretation encouraging emotional connections to the desert environment may aid in fostering an identity with the desert. In addition, messaging and signage campaigns that link people to the parks may prove a novel way of combatting lawn water usage within desert cities. Given their opportunities to foster place identity, urban parks may be important influencers in promoting native plant landscaping. In conclusion, connecting people to their surrounding environments can influence preferences for similar landscape types at the household level.
      PubDate: 2021-05-03
      DOI: 10.18666/JPRA-2021-10643
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Financing Protected Areas: The Social and Environmental Impact Bond's
           Role in Terrestrial Protected Area Sustainability

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      Authors: Louise O'Flynn, Stephen Schweinsberg, Stephen Wearing
      Abstract: Insufficient funding for terrestrial protected areas is a global challenge, and the ability of a protected area management agency to secure sustainable financing is an obstacle in the effective management of these important areas. While the role of public sector agencies in establishing, financing, and managing protected areas, and in providing a supportive legislative and policy environment will remain essential into the future; the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) recommends that alternative finance mechanisms be adopted to help achieve financial sustainability. With this recommendation in mind, one approach is to look to other policy areas which traditionally rely on governments as their primary funding source, to understand the alternative finance mechanisms they have adopted and appraise the suitability of these mechanisms for terrestrial protected areas. One alternative finance mechanism is the social and environmental impact bond which is a subset of impact investment and an example of a pay for success or results-based contract.This paper reviews literature on the social and environmental impact bond with a view to assessing its potential applicability to assist in the effective management of terrestrial protected areas that fall within the management categories defined by the IUCN. Three examples of existing and proposed impact bonds with an environment focus are explored, including the world’s first environmental impact bond in Washington D.C., the publicly offered Atlanta environmental impact bond and the proposed wildlife conservation bond in South Africa. The selected impact bonds will help to illustrate the establishment, operation, and evaluation of impact bonds in a real-world context. It will be argued that the social and environmental impact bond can be a useful finance model for a range of uses in a variety of social sectors and conservation settings, including terrestrial protected areas. The paper further considers how the impact bond might result in both improved social and/or environmental outcomes as well as the perceived challenges associated with this alternative finance mechanism. While the focus of this paper is on terrestrial protected areas, the lessons discussed may also be applicable to marine protected areas. Subscribe to JPRA
      PubDate: 2021-05-03
      DOI: 10.18666/JPRA-2021-10870
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2021)
       
  • Bicycling as a Positive Youth Development Mechanism

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      Authors: Thomas Clanton, H. Charles Chancellor, Harrison V. Pinckney IV, Venera Balidemaj, Parisa Hadiandehkordi
      Abstract: Recreational activities are uniquely suited for the implementation of a positive youth development (PYD) approach, as they create space for youths’ physical, psychological, and social development. This may be especially true for vulnerable youth who face additional risk factors such as single parent homes and living in low-income communities. Momentum Bicycle Clubs (MBC), based in Greenville, South Carolina, use noncompetitive recreational bicycling as a mechanism to facilitate group mentoring opportunities for high-risk youth. MBC engage youth with their community while providing opportunities for leadership, building positive relationships, exercise, and learning new skills.This exploratory project’s purpose is to better understand the bicycle as a PYD mechanism through group mentoring by studying MBC program design, processes, and outcomes. Researchers identified three primary themes that indicated the bicycle provided youth opportunities to gain responsibility, confidence, and improved health. Sub themes provided additional context. For example, youth gained responsibility for their bikes and related equipment, as well as their individual and the group’s safety.MBC is an example of using individual specialized recreation equipment as an effective PYD mechanism that allows the program to meet more PYD desired outcomes than traditional programs. The bicycle rides differentiate the program dynamic from other PYD programs as the mentors are also group participants. This allows the mentors to share in the experience and role model behavior, which may foster stronger group identity and cohesiveness. Year-round asset intensive programs of this nature have management challenges, including sufficient resources (e.g., bicycle storage and maintenance), mentors willing to ride bicycles, as well as ensuring youth safety while riding. The resource challenges are met through extensive partnerships with government, nonprofit, and commercial agencies, which has also benefitted the program through a wider variety of mentors, adult role models, internship opportunities for the youth, and community knowledge about MBC. Safe bicycling is accomplished through extensive training, locating the clubs in areas with access to low traffic streets, and a 20-mile paved multiuse path. Lastly, since it is difficult to have meaningful conversations while riding, mentors must build in time before and after rides and at planned stops to facilitate the most meaningful mentor-mentee relationships.Subscribe to JPRA
      PubDate: 2021-04-28
      DOI: 10.18666/JPRA-2021-10589
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2021)
       
 
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