Subjects -> RECREATION, TRAVEL AND TOURISM (Total: 204 journals)
    - HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS (2 journals)
    - LEISURE AND RECREATION (24 journals)
    - RECREATION, TRAVEL AND TOURISM (178 journals)

RECREATION, TRAVEL AND TOURISM (178 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Economica Et Turistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Almatourism - Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Tourism Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Tourism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Anatolia : A Journal of Tourism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatolia : An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
ARA : Revista de Investigación en Turismo     Open Access  
ASEAN Journal on Hospitality and Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts. Series in Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caderno Virtual de Turismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cenário : Revista Interdisciplinar em Turismo e Território     Open Access  
Cornell Hospitality Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Craft Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Turismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Issues in Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Dusit Thani College Journal     Open Access  
E-Journal of Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Educación física y deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Espiga     Open Access  
European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Event Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access  
Gaze: Journal of Tourism and Hospitality     Open Access  
Geofronter     Open Access  
Geotourism/Geoturystyka     Open Access  
Gestion Turistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Güncel Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Hospitality & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Infinitum: Revista Multidisciplinar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Information Technology & Tourism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Interaction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Sciences in Tourism and Events     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Contemporary Tourism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Culture Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal of Digital Culture and Electronic Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Entertainment Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Event and Festival Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Geoheritage and Parks     Open Access  
International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Hospitality and Event Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Knowledge Management in Tourism and Hospitality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Tourism Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Tourism Cities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Tourism Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Tourism Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences in Travel and Hospitality     Open Access  
Journal of Business & Hotel Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of China Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ecotourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Halal Product and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Heritage Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hospitality Financial Management     Open Access  
Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International and Thai Tourism     Open Access  
Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Park and Recreation Administration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Place Management and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sport & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Tourism & Adventure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Tourism and Heritage Research     Open Access  
Journal of Tourism and Himalayan Adventures     Open Access  
Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Education     Open Access  
Journal of Tourism Futures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Tourism Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Tourism Intelligence and Smartness     Open Access  
Journal of Tourism Research & Hospitality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Travel Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Travel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Vacation Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journeys     Full-text available via subscription  
Juara : Jurnal Olahraga     Open Access  
Jurnal Analisis Pariwisata     Open Access  
Jurnal Destinasi Pariwisata     Open Access  
Jurnal IPTA     Open Access  
Jurnal Kepariwisataan dan Hospitalitas     Open Access  
Jurnal Master Pariwisata (Journal Master in Tourism Studies)     Open Access  
Jurnal Pariwisata Pesona     Open Access  
Jurnal Pariwisata Terapan     Open Access  
Marketing & Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Matkailututkimus     Open Access  
Matrik : Jurnal Manajemen, Strategi Bisnis dan Kewirausahaan     Open Access  
Mobilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Mondes du Tourisme     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multiciencias     Open Access  
Nepalese Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management     Open Access  
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Perspectives in Asian Leisure and Tourism     Open Access  
Podium Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism     Open Access  
RACE - Revista de Administração, Contabilidade e Economia     Open Access  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recreation and Society in Africa, Asia and Latin America     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Hospitality Management     Open Access  
Revista de Gestão Ambiental e Sustentabilidade - GeAS     Open Access  
Revista de turism - studii si cercetari in turism     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica Academicus     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica de Administração e Turismo     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Interamericana de Ambiente y Turismo     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Derecho del Turismo     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Turismo y Empresa     Open Access  
Revista Organizações em Contexto     Open Access  
ROTUR : Revista de Ocio y Turismo     Open Access  
Sasdaya : Gadjah Mada Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Space and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Studies in Travel Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Téoros     Open Access  
The Journal : Tourism and Hospitality Essentials Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Tourism & Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tourism Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tourism and Heritage Journal     Open Access  
Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Tourism and Travelling     Open Access  
Tourism Critiques : Practice and Theory     Open Access  
Tourism Culture & Communication     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Tourism Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Tourism in Marine Environments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tourism Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Tourism Management Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tourism Planning & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Tourism Recreation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tourism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tourism Review International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Tourist Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
TRANSIT     Open Access  
Translation Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Turismo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Turystyka Kulturowa     Open Access  
Via : Tourism Review     Open Access  
Visitor Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

           

Similar Journals
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Tourism Review
Number of Followers: 6  
 
Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal   * Containing 3 Open Access Open Access article(s) in this issue *
ISSN (Print) 1660-5373 - ISSN (Online) 1759-8451
Published by Emerald Homepage  [360 journals]
  • Smart working in the travel agencies and employees’ quality of life

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      Authors: V.G. Girish , Jin-Young Lee , Choong-Ki Lee , Hossein Olya
      Abstract: This paper aims to understand the impact of smart working on employees’ quality of life. The service-dominant logic indicates that key actors, including employees, are resource integrators. This empirical study contributes to the current knowledge of transformative service by expounding on smart working practices and their relationship with self-efficacy and, ultimately, quality of life of employees. This study contends that smart working enhances employees’ self-efficacy. The current research uses conservation of resources (COR) theory as a basis in hypothesizing that self-efficacy serves as a key resource, which can stimulate workplace creativity, job satisfaction and quality of life. An onsite survey is conducted among employees who have been involved in smart working in the travel agency context. Smart working has a positive effect on self-efficacy, which positively influences workplace creativity, job satisfaction and quality of life. Workplace creativity enhances job satisfaction but does not influence quality of life. Job satisfaction boosts quality of life, which is important to tourism services and their employees amid various crises. Consistent with COR theory, the immediate recommendation to managers is to invest in smart working, which can lead to employees’ creativity, job satisfaction and quality of life. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this empirical study is the first to assess the viability of smart working in the travel agency context. Smart working offers positive outcomes, such as convenience for employees to work independently, improving workplace creativity, job satisfaction and quality of life. Travel agencies are mainly categorized as small and medium enterprises (SMEs). In the future, SMEs may also introduce smart working that can eventually become their competitive advantage to retain talented employees. 旅行社中的智慧办公与员工的生活质量 本文旨在了解智慧办公对员工的影响.服务主导逻辑表明, 员工等关键人物是资源整合者。本文通过实证研究揭示了智慧办公实践及其与员工自我效能和生活质量的关系, 对现有转型服务知识做出贡献。 本研究认为智慧办公可以提高员工的自我效能。基于资源守恒理论(COR), 本研究假设自我效能是激发职场创造力、工作满意度和生活质量的关键因素, 对旅行社中参与智慧办公的员工进行了现场调查。 智慧办公对自我效能有正向影响, 同时自我效能对职场创造力、工作满意度和生活质量均产生正向影响。职场创造力能够提高工作满意度, 但对员工的生活质量不起作用。另外, 工作满意度有利于提升生活质量, 这对面临各种危机的旅游企业和员工具有重要意义。 根据COR理论, 即刻建议管理者投资推行智慧办公, 从而提升员工的创造力, 工作满意度和生活质量。 这一实证研究首次尝试评估旅行社中推行智慧办公的可行性。智慧办公可带来多种积极效果, 如为员工独立工作提供便利, 提升员工的职场创造力、工作满意度和生活质量等。旅行社属于中小型企业(SMEs)。未来, 中小型企业同样可尝试引入智慧办公, 这将成为其留住优秀员工的竞争优势。 关键词:智慧办公, 公平评估, 自我效能, 创造力, 自主, 生活质量 文章类型: 研究型论文 El trabajo inteligente en las agencias de viajes y la calidad de vida de los emplea...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-17
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-09-2021-0409
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Value co-destruction and negative e-WOM behavior: the mediating role of
           tourist citizenship

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      Authors: Resat Arıca , Inci Polat , Cihan Cobanoglu , Abdülkadir Çorbacı , Po-Ju Chen , Meng-Jun Hsu
      Abstract: The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of value co-destruction on customer citizenship and negative electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) behaviors. In addition, the study aims to determine the mediating role of tourist citizenship between value co-destruction and negative e-WOM behaviors. By using a convenience sampling method, data were collected from 704 customers, who purchased their touristic products through co-creation. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the data obtained to determine the factors that make up the dimensions in the research model. The partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to evaluate the relationship in the research model proposed in the study. The results of the study indicated that value co-destruction had an effect on customer citizenship behavior and negative e-WOM. While the helping behavior of customer citizenship had an effect on negative e-WOM, the advocacy behavior of customer citizenship had no effect on negative e-WOM. However, this study found only an indirect mediation effect of helping behavior in the relationship between value co-destruction and negative e-WOM. The research examined the antecedent behaviors that cause value co-destruction and the effects of these behaviors on the outcomes of the holiday experience. This information then was combined in a model and evaluated in a holistic framework. Theoretically, the research helps us understand the impact of value co-destruction behavior on citizenship behavior and on tourists’ negative e-WOM tendency. The research examines value co-destruction behavior and its effect on holiday-experience outcomes simultaneously. The research provides a framework that tourism enterprises can use to produce and offer value-attributing services for their customers and to manage dysfunctional and disruptive business processes and behaviors to reduce value co-destruction. The research also provides a new way for practitioners in the tourism sector to understand and generalize the behavioral changes of tourists caused by value co-destruction during and after their experience. The paper contributes to an understanding of value co-destruction antecedents and outputs from the customer perspective. Further, the research provides information to tourism businesses to effectively and efficiently manage the value co-creation process and prevent value co-destruction. The findings of the study will provide useful suggestions that will contribute to researchers and sectoral representatives. 价值共毁和负面的电子口碑行为:游客公民身份的中介作用 摘要 本论文研究价值共毁对于顾客公民行为和负面网络口碑行为的影响。此外, 本论文还将指明游客公民行为在价值共毁与负面网络口碑行为的中介作用。 本论文采用便利抽样法, 研究样本为704名顾客, 他们曾通过价值共创过程来购买旅游产品。本论文使用了探索性数据分析和验证性数据分析法, 以分析研究模型中的各种变量和维度。通过偏最小平方-方程结构模型(PLS-SEM)数据分析, 本论文验证了研究模型中的各种假设变量关系。 本论文研究结果表明, 价值共毁对顾客公民行为和负面网络口碑行为有显着影响。顾客公民行为中的帮助行为对负面网络口碑行为有显着影响, 然而, 顾客公民行为中的拥护行为并未对负面口碑传播行为有显着影响。此外, 本论文发现了一条中介因子的间接效应:帮助行为对于价值共毁和负面网络口碑行为之间的中介效应。 本论文从顾客角度, 解释了价值共毁的前因后果。此外, 本论文研究结果建议旅游业如何有效率和效能地管理价值共创过程, 防止价值共毁情况出现。本论文研究结果还为其他研究学者...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-05-2021-0219
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Cruise vacation experiences for Chinese families with young children

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      Authors: Sha Wang , Tianyun Chu , Huiying Li , Qianqian Sun
      Abstract: The market segment of families with young children is significant for the cruise industry in China. This study aims to examine the cruise experience of them and facilitate the provision of family cruise vacation products and services. This study collects online comments on the cruise experience of Chinese families with young children and analyzes the data in terms of text, sentiment and content. The results of the text analysis indicate issues with several dimensions of the cruise experience. But the results of a sentiment analysis reveal that only 56.76% of the Chinese families with young children expressed positive feelings about cruise tourism. Almost one third (30.43%) expressed negative feelings, and the rest were neutral. In addition, by conducting a content analysis of the negative sentiment comments, this study identifies areas where cruise products and services need to be improved. Cruise lines are advised to improve the provision of family cruise vacation products and services, such as enhancing physical experience elements, paying attention to human interaction and situational factors and caring for travelers’ personal needs. This paper explores the cruise experience of Chinese families with young children, which is currently underdeveloped. A methodology approach including text analysis, sentiment analysis and content analysis is systematically applied to offer a holistic and deep understanding of travel experience. A framework for the cruise experience is proposed, which has theoretical and practical significance. 携儿童出游的中国家庭邮轮体验研究 摘要 有小孩的家庭细分市场对中国的邮轮行业来说意义重大。本研究旨在通过分析他们的邮轮体验, 提升家庭邮轮度假产品和服务的开发与运营。 本研究通过收集携儿童出游的中国家庭邮轮体验的相关在线评论, 对其从文本分析、情感分析和内容分析等方面对数据进行了分析。 文本分析的结果表明邮轮体验的若干维度上存在问题。但情感分析的结果显示, 只有56.76%的有小孩的中国家庭对邮轮体验表达出了积极情绪。近三分之一 (30.43%) 表达了负面情绪, 其余的则持中立态度。此外, 通过对负面情绪评论进行内容分析, 本研究提出了邮轮产品和服务需要提升的方向。 建议邮轮公司根据本研究的结果改进家庭邮轮度假产品和服务, 如增强身体体验元素, 关注人际互动和情境因素, 关心旅客的个性化需求等。 本文对目前尚没有进行充分探讨的携儿童出行的中国家庭的邮轮体验进行了分析, 为了更全面深入地理解邮轮旅行体验, 本研究系统地应用了包括文本分析、情感分析和内容分析等方法, 提出了邮轮体验的研究框架, 具有一定的理论和实践意义。 Experiencias vacacionales en crucero para familias chinas con niños pequeños Resumen El segmento de mercado de familias con niños pequeños es significativo para la industria de cruceros en China. Este estudio tiene como objetivo examinar la experiencia de crucero de este segmento, así como facilitar la oferta de productos y servicios de vacaciones familiares en crucero. Este estudio recopila comentarios en línea sobre las experiencias de crucero en las familias chinas con niños pequeños, analizando los datos en términos de texto, sentimiento y contenido. Los resultados del análisis del texto indican problemas con varias dimensiones de la experiencia del crucero. Pero los resultados del análisis de sentimientos, revela que solo el 56,76% de las familias chinas con niños pequeños expresaron sentimientos positivos sobre el turismo de cruceros. Casi un tercio (30,43%) expresó sentimientos negativos, y el resto fue neutral. Además, al realizar un análisis de ...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2022-05-12
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-08-2021-0394
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Smiling for tips' Will restaurant servers’ actions affect
           customers’ emotional contagion and tipping behavior'

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      Authors: Chih-Hui Hsiao , Chia-Hsuan Chien , Shih-Shuo Yeh , Tzung-Cheng Huan
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the impacts of restaurant servers’ actions on the customers’ emotional contagion and the impacts of customers’ emotional contagion on their intention to tip and the likelihood of tipping. This study also explores social compliance and examines its impacts on customers’ intentions to tip and the likelihood of tipping. Taking a restaurant in Taiwan as an example, this study uses questionnaires to investigate five constructs of the research framework, which are restaurant servers’ actions, restaurant customers’ susceptibility to emotional contagion, customers’ intention to tip, customers’ likelihood of tipping and customers’ social compliance. The questionnaires were distributed online using Surveycake website. A total of 310 completed questionnaires were collected. The results indicate the following: restaurant servers’ actions positively affect customers’ susceptibility to emotional contagion; customers’ emotional contagion positively affects their intention to tip and likelihood of tipping; customers’ social compliance positively affects their intentions to tip and the likelihood of tipping; and customers’ emotional contagion partially mediates the effects of restaurant servers’ actions on customers’ intention to tip and likelihood of tipping. The hypothesis test results in this article not only successfully integrate or confirm the research findings of past scholars, but also expand the scope of research on related topics. Furthermore, the research findings of this study provide restaurant practitioners with rich marketing implications. 微笑可换来小费吗?餐厅服务员行为会影响顾客的情绪感染和小费行为吗? 摘要 本研究旨在检验餐厅服务员行为对顾客情绪感染的影响, 以及顾客情绪感染对他们给小费意愿和可能性的影响。本研究还探讨了社会合规性, 并检查了其对顾客给小费意愿和给小费可能性的影响。 本研究以台湾一家餐厅为例, 使用问卷调查研究框架的五个结构, 即餐厅服务员行为、餐厅顾客情绪感染、顾客给小费意愿、顾客给小费可能性以及顾客的社会责任。本研究使用了Surveycake线上问卷调查网站, 在线上分发问卷, 并共收集到 310 份已完整问卷。 本研究结果表示:(1)餐厅服务员的行为正向影响顾客情绪感染, (2)顾客的情绪感染正向影响他们给小费的意愿和可能性, (3)顾客的社会责任正向影响他们给小费的意愿和可能性, 以及(4)顾客的情绪感染部分中介了餐厅服务员行为对顾客给小费意愿和小费可能性的影响。 本文的假设检验结果不仅成功地整合或证实了以往学者的研究成果, 而且扩大了相关课题的研究范围。此外, 本研究的研究结果为餐厅从业者提供了丰富的营销意义。 ¿Sonriendo por propinas' ¿Afectarán las acciones de los camareros al contagio emocional y a las propinas de los clientes' Este estudio tiene como objetivo examinar cómo impactan las acciones de los camareros de restaurantes en el contagio emocional de los clientes, y cómo ese contagio emocional influye en su intención de dejar propina y en la probabilidad de hacerlo. Este estudio también explora el cumplimiento social y examina su impacto en la intención de los clientes de dejar propina y la probabilidad de hacerlo. Tomando un restaurante en Taiwán como ejemplo, este estudio utiliza cuestionarios para investigar cinco constructos del marco de investigación, que son las acciones de los camareros del restaurante, la susceptibilidad de los clientes del restaurante al contagio emocional, la intención de los clientes de dejar propina, la probabilidad de hacerloy el cumplimiento social de los...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-21
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-09-2021-0441
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Travel app shopping on smartphones: understanding the success factors
           influencing in-app travel purchase intentions

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      Authors: Xin-Jean Lim , Jun-Hwa Cheah , Alastair M. Morrison , Siew Imm Ng , Siqi Wang
      Abstract: With the diffusion of innovation theory (
      DOI ) and theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as the guiding theoretical perspectives, this research aims to identify the factors motivating user attitudes and in-app purchase intentions (IAPIs). The moderating impact of user inertia towards TPB constructs was also explored. A total of 500 responses were received via an online survey fielded from July to October 2021. The data were then analysed using partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results indicated that attitudes towards travel app shopping were predominantly determined by perceived relative advantages, compatibility and complexity. Findings also suggested that IAPIs are positively influenced by attitudes, communicability and perceived behavioural control and are moderated by user inertia. A holistic framework integrating theoretical foundations from two disciplines (information systems and psychology) was designed to explain factors motivating user intentions to purchase travel products and services from apps. This research found a missing link in previous studies by showing the indirect role of attitudes that bridges the
      DOI and TPB and the importance of inertia as a key boundary condition. 智能手机上的旅游应用程序购物:了解影响旅游应用程序内购买意愿的成功因素 摘要 本研究以创新扩散理论 (
      DOI ) 和计划行为理论 (TPB) 作为指导性的理论视角, 确定了激发用户态度和旅游应用程序内购买意愿的因素。还探讨了用户惯性对 TPB 结构的调节影响。 在 2021 年 7 月至 2021 年 10 月进行了在线调查, 共收到 500 份回复。然后使用偏最小二乘结构方程建模对数据进行分析。 结果表明, 对使用旅游应用程序购物的态度主要由感受到的相对优势、兼容性和复杂性决定的。研究结果还表明, 旅游应用程序内购买意愿受到态度、可传播性和感知行为控制的积极影响, 并受到用户惯性的调节。 一个整合了来自两个学科(信息系统和心理学)的理论基础的整体框架旨在解释激发用户从应用程序购买旅游产品和服务的意愿因素。这项研究通过展示态度在
      DOI 和 TPB之间的间接作用以及惯性作为重要的边界条件, 发现了先前研究中缺失的环节。 Compras de aplicaciones de viajes en los móviles: Comprendiendo los factores de éxito que influyen en las intenciones de compra de las aplicaciones de viaje Con la teoría de la difusión de la innovación (
      DOI ) y la teoría del comportamiento planificado (TPB) como perspectivas teóricas de análisis, esta investigación identifica los factores que motivan las actitudes de los usuarios y las intenciones de compra dentro de las aplicaciones. También se exploró el impacto moderador de la inercia del usuario hacia las construcciones TPB. Se recibieron un total de 500 respuestas a través de una encuesta en línea realizada entre julio y octubre de 2021. Los datos se analizaron utilizando el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales de mínimos cuadrados parciales. Los resultados indicaron que las actitudes hacia la compra de aplicaciones de viajes estaban determinadas predominantemente por las ventajas relativas percibidas, la compatibilidad y la complejidad. Mientras, los hallazgos también sugirieron que las intenciones de compra en la aplicación están influenciadas positivamente por las actitudes, la comunicabilidad y el control del comportamiento percibido, y son moderadas por la inercia del usuario. Se diseñó un marco holístico que integra los fundamentos teóricos de dos disciplinas (sistemas de información y psicología) para explicar los factores que motivan las intenciones de los usuarios a la hora de comprar en las aplicaciones móviles productos y servicios turísticos. Esta investigación encontró un gap en estudios previos al mostrar el papel indirecto de las actitudes que unen a la teoría de la difusión de la innovación (
      DOI ) y la teoría del comportamiento planificado (TPB), y la importancia ...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-04
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Technology acceptance before and after COVID-19: no-touch service from
           hotel robots

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      Authors: Lina Zhong , J. Andres Coca-Stefaniak , Alastair M. Morrison , Liyu Yang , Baolin Deng
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the consumer acceptance of robots in hotels before and after COVID-19, with a specific emphasis on whether COVID-19 had a significant effect on the acceptance of robots by hotel guests and whether guests had higher levels of acceptance of hotel robots since the initial COVID-19 outbreak was brought under control in China. The sample for this research included Chinese hotel guests before and after COVID-19, with 247 responses obtained before its outbreak and a further 601 responses gathered after. Several hypotheses were developed and tested in a pseudo-experimental design. The results showed that COVID-19 increased hotel guest acceptance of robots. After COVID-19, the perceived importance of the usefulness, social influence, attitude and value of robots increased, while the perceived importance of the ease of use and anthropomorphism of robots decreased. As a contactless service, the usefulness of robots was more valued by customers. This led customers to lower their requirements for the ease of use of robots. In addition, people were more concerned about the social influences on robot use. Hotel guest attitudes and behavioral intentions toward robots and the services they can provide are changing. However, whether this change is purely ephemeral and motivated by a pragmatic stance triggered by COVID-19 remains to be established. The hospitality industry is encouraged to create a new profile of guests in terms of their favorable or unfavorable disposition toward being served by robots. Hotels should consider the deployment of robots according to the demographic characteristics of customers (e.g. according to guest age levels). This research demonstrated that major crises affect customer attitudes and behaviors toward new technologies. COVID-19 resulted in guests paying more attention to the advantages of services offered by hotel robots as a means of reducing the probability of contagion. 疫情前后酒店机器人非接触式服务的技术接受度对比研究 摘要 本研究调查了新冠疫情爆发前后酒店顾客对机器人接受程度的变化, 重点研究了新冠疫情是否对机器人的潜在接受程度有显著影响, 以及自疫情在中国得到控制以来, 顾客对酒店机器人的接受程度是否有所提高。 本研究的样本主要是新冠疫情爆发前后的中国酒店顾客, 在疫情爆发前收集了217份样本, 在疫情爆发后收集了601份样本。研究提出了若干假设, 并采用伪实验设计进行了检验。 结果显示, 新冠疫情的爆发提高了酒店顾客对机器人的潜在接受度。新冠疫情后, 机器人的有用性, 社会影响, 态度和价值的影响增加了, 而机器人的易用性和拟人化的影响降低了。由于机器人的无接触服务, 使得顾客更加关注有用性。这导致顾客对易用性的关注降低。此外, 顾客更加关注使用机器人的社会影响。 酒店顾客对机器人服务的态度和行为意图正在发生变化。然而, 这一变化是否是短暂的, 只是由新冠疫情驱动的, 仍有待确定。 我们鼓励酒店业根据客人对机器人的接受/不接受程度来创建一个新的客户档案。酒店也可以根据顾客的人口统计学特征(比如年龄)来部署机器人。 这项研究表明, 重大灾难会影响顾客对新技术的态度和行为。 COVID-19的爆发导致客人更加关注酒店机器人的服务优势(降低传染概率)。 Aceptación de la tecnolo...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2022-04-01
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-06-2021-0276
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Tourists’ travel intention: revisiting the TPB model with age and
           perceived risk as moderator and attitude as mediator

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      Authors: Lan-Hsun Wang , Shih-Shuo Yeh , Kuan-Ying Chen , Tzung-Cheng Huan
      Abstract: This study aims to understand tourists’ travel intention during the COVID-19 pandemic by using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) with additional causal links and moderators. The three research objectives of this study are to explore basic causality, mediating effects of attitude and moderating effects of age and perceived risk, of the extended TPB model, respectively. An online survey was conducted in Taiwan during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, the survey generated 351 responses. The structural model analysis was performed to test the cause-and-effect relationships in the traditional TPB model and the mediating role of an individual’s attitude regarding travel during the COVID-19 pandemic. The SmartPLS multi-group analysis procedure was applied to test the moderation effects of age and perceived risk. It is found that the perceived behavioral control is the main contributor of travel intention for the traditional TPB while attitude partially mediates the relationship between subjective norm and travel intention for the test of mediation. Also, moderation tests confirm that both age and perceived risk show significant moderating effect only on subjective norm to travel intention relationship. The novelty of this research is that this study proposed and verified the mediating influence of attitude and two additional paths, the moderating influence of age and perceived risk, which deepened the understanding of the TPB model and the impact of COVID-19 on travel intention. Because TPB model is context-dependent, using one mediating and two moderating variables allows the study to understand how TPB functions in a different situation. 游客旅游意图:以年龄及感知风险为调解因素态度为中介因素重新审视TPB模型 本研究旨在通过使用计划行为理论 (TPB) 以及额外的因果关系和调节因素来了解 COVID-19 大流行期间游客的旅游意图。本研究的三个研究目标分别是探索 TPB 扩展模型的(1)基本因果关系、(2)态度的中介效应、和(3)年龄和感知风险的调节效应。 本研究在台湾COVID-19大流行期间, 进行了一项线上调查。该调查共收集了351份回复问卷。本研究以结构模型分析测试传统 TPB 模型中的因果关系及个人对 COVID-19 大流行期间旅行态度的中介作用。本研究也应用了 SmartPLS 多组分析程序来测试年龄和感知风险的调节作用。 本研究发现感知行为控制是传统TPB旅行意愿的主要贡献者, 而态度在中介测试中部分中介了主观规范与旅行意愿之间的关系。此外, 本研究在调节测试中证实, 年龄和感知风险均仅对旅行意愿关系的主观规范显示出显着的调节作用. 本研究独创之处在于提出并验证了态度的中介效应, 以及年龄和感知风险的调节效应这两条附加路径, 加深了对 TPB 模型的理解以及 COVID-19 对旅行意愿的影响。由于 TPB 模型是上下文相关的, 因此本研究使用一个中介变量和两个调节变量可以让未来研究了解 TPB 在不同情况下的功能。 Intención de viajar de los turistas: revisitando el modelo TPB con la edad y el riesgo percibido como moderadores y la actitud como mediadora Este estudio tiene como objetivo comprender la intención de viajar de los turistas durante la pandemia de COVID-19 mediante el uso de la teoría del comportamiento planificado (TPB) con vínculos causales y moderadores adicionales. Los tres objetivos de investigación de este estudio son explorar (1) la causalidad básica, (2) los efectos mediadores de la actitud y (3) los efectos moderadores de la edad y el riesgo percibido, del modelo TPB extendido, respectivamen...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-18
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-07-2021-0334
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • The moderation of gender in the effects of Chinese traditionality and
           patriotism on Chinese domestic travel intention

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Ke Shen , Yanbin Wu
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to incorporate Chinese traditionality (CT) and patriotism (PAT) within the theory of reasoned action (TRA). It tests the moderating effect of gender with the aim to provide a deeper understanding of why Chinese tourists choose to take domestic travels. Data is collected from 370 Chinese tourists. Convenience sampling is used. Structural equation modelling is used to test the proposed hypotheses. The results of this paper show that PAT is positively related to tourists’ attitudes (ATs) and Chinese domestic travel intention (CTI). Moreover, CT is found to influence PAT, ATs and subjective norms (SNs) directly, as well as CTI indirectly. However, the positive relationship between PAT and SNs is not supported. Additionally, the influence of PAT on CTI for females is significantly higher than that for males. The current paper adopts convenience sampling; data is collected using an online questionnaire which may cause sample bias and even reduce the reliability of the data. Future studies may adopt quota sampling based on the population of each province to gain more reliable data. Further research can consider including more constructs to better understand why Chinese people choose to travel domestically. This paper is one of the first attempts to include PAT and CT within the TRA and contributes to the pool of literature on the TRA. It provides a comprehensive understanding of CTI. Second, PAT and CT are linked to the TRA, which expands the application of PAT and CT to the context of hospitality and tourism. Finally, the moderating role of gender contributes to the knowledge regarding the moderating effect between their respective relationships. 性别在中国传统与爱国主义对中国国内旅游意愿影响中的调节作用 摘要 本研究将中国传统性与爱国主义引入理性行为理论, 同时将性别作为调节变量, 目的在于探究中国游客选择国内游的原因。 通过分析便利抽样所收集的370份中国游客样本, 运用结构方程模型验证本研究的假设。 中国游客爱国主义能够正向显著影响其国内游的态度和旅游意向; 此外, 中国传统性也直接影响游客的爱国主义、态度和主观规范, 并且分别通过爱国主义、态度和主观规范间接影响旅游意向; 然而, 爱国主义和主观规范之间的关系却并没有得到验证; 最后, 女性游客的爱国主义对于旅游意向的影响作用显著高于男性游客。 首先, 本研究运用网络调研的方式进行便利抽样, 这一点有可能产生样本偏差, 甚至降低了样本的可信度, 未来研究可以根据各省人口数量采用配额抽样的方式进行抽样, 以期进一步提高数据的可信度; 其次, 更多的变量应当被引入研究, 以进一步探究中国游客选择国内游的原因。 首先, 本研究是为数不多的将爱国主义和中国传统性引入理性行为理论, 这一点进一步拓展了关于理性行为理论的研究范围, 也进一步加深了对于国内游原因的认识; 其次, 将爱国主义和中国传统性这一概念引入旅游领域, 进一步拓展了关于两者研究的边界; 最后, 在中国国内游的研究领域中, 将性别作为调节变量引入本研究一定程度上填补了在该领域研究中的不足。 La influencia de la moderaci...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-16
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-07-2021-0303
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Combination forecasting using multiple attribute decision making in
           tourism demand

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      Authors: Yi-Chung Hu
      Abstract: This study aims to address three important issues of combination forecasting in the tourism context: reducing the restrictions arising from requirements related to the statistical properties of the available data, assessing the weights of single models and considering nonlinear relationships among combinations of single-model forecasts. A three-stage multiple-attribute decision-making (MADM)-based methodological framework was proposed. Single-model forecasts were generated by grey prediction models for the first stage. Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje was adopted to develop a weighting scheme in the second stage, and the Choquet integral was used to combine forecasts nonlinearly in the third stage. The empirical results for inbound tourism in Taiwan showed that the proposed method can significantly improve accuracy to a greater extent than other combination methods. Along with scenario forecasting, a good forecasting practice can be further provided by estimating ex-ante forecasts post-COVID-19. The private and public sectors in economies with high tourism dependency can benefit from the proposed method by using the forecasts to help them formulate tourism strategies. This study contributed to presenting a MADM-based framework that advances the development of a more accurate combination method for tourism forecasting. 針對旅遊需求預測, 本研究就降低對於資料統計性質的要求、模式的重要度評估, 以及各別預設值間存在的非線性關係等三項重要議題建立組合預測的研究框架。 研究方法以多屬性決策分析為基礎, 在實作上以灰色預測模式產生各別預測值、以 VIKOR 為模式發展加權方案, 再使用模糊積分以非線性方式組合預測值。 以台灣的入境旅遊需求進行分析, 並與其他組合方法相較, 發現所提出方法的預測準確度顯著較佳。與情境預測結合下, 研究結果亦可呈現新冠疫情下於各季的事前預測。 對旅遊具有高度依賴的經濟體, 所提出方法所產生的預測值有助於其公部門與私部門規劃旅遊策略。 組合預測在旅遊需求的預測上有其研究價值。本研究在旅遊預測議題提出以多屬性決策分析為基礎之框架, 在推進具高準確率組合方法的發展上作出貢獻。 La combinación de pronósticos en este estudio abordó tres cuestiones importantes para la situación del turismo: Reducir las restricciones que surgen con respecto a las estadísticas de datos disponibles, evaluar los pesos con un solo pronóstico, y considerar las relaciones no lineales entre las combinaciones con un único modelo de pronóstico. Se propuso un marco metodológico de tres etapas basado en MADM. Un solo pronóstico fue generado mediante modelos de predicción grises para la primera etapa. Se aplicó VIKOR para desarrollar un esquema de ponderación en la segunda etapa, y la integral de Choquet se usó para combinar los pronósticos de manera no lineal en la tercera etapa. Los resultados empíricos de la demanda turística entrante en Taiwán mostraron que el método propuesto puede mejorar efectivamente la precisión en mayor medida que otros métodos combinados. Una buena práctica del pronóstico puede proporcionar aún más, mediante las previsiones y la estimación exante de pronósticos posteriores al COVID-19. Los sectores públicos y privados de las economías con alta dependencia del turismo pueden beneficiarse del método propuesto al usar los pronósticos para ayudarlos a formular estrategias turísticas. Este estudio contribuye a presentar un marco basado en MADM que avanza en el desarrollo de un método de combinación más preciso para la previsión del turismo.
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2022-03-01
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-09-2021-0451
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Consumers’ adoption of artificial intelligence and robotics in
           hospitality and tourism sector: literature review and future research
           agenda

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      Authors: Pooja Goel , Neeraj Kaushik , Brijesh Sivathanu , Rajasshrie Pillai , Jasper Vikas
      Abstract: The purpose of this study, a current systematic literature review, is to synthesize the extant literature on consumers’ adoption of artificial intelligence and robotics (AIR) in the context of the hospitality and tourism sector (HATS) to gain a comprehensive understanding of it. This study also outlines insights for academia, practitioners, AI marketers, developers, designers and policymakers. This study used a content analysis approach to conduct a systematic literature review for the period of 10 years (2011–2020) of the various published studies themed around consumer’s adoption of AIR in HATS. The synthesis draws upon various factors affecting the adoption of AIR, such as individual factors, service factors, technical and performance factors, social and cultural factors and infrastructural factors. Additionally, the authors identified four major barriers, namely, psychological, social, financial, technical and functional that hinder the consumer’s adoption of artificial intelligence and robots in the hospitality and tourism industry. To the best of the author’s/authors’ knowledge, this study is a first attempt to synthesize the factors that drive consumers’ adoption of artificial intelligence and robots in the hospitality and tourism industry. The present work also advances the tourism and consumer behavior literature by offering an integrated antecedent-outcome framework. Figure 2 The objective of the current systematic literature review is to synthesize the extant literature on consumer’s adoption of artificial intelligence and robotics (AIR) in the context of the hospitality and tourism sector (HATS) to gain a comprehensive understanding of it. For that purpose, authors conducted content analysis of extant literature on consumer’s adoption of AIR in HATS from 2011 to 2020.
      Authors presented an integrated antecedent outcome framework of the factors that drive consumer’s adoption of artificial intelligence and robots in the hospitality and tourism industry. 这篇系统性文献综述的目的是综合现有关于消费者在酒店和旅游部门(HATS)中采用人工智能和机器人(AIR)的文献, 以便全面了解它。这项研究还概述了学术界、从业者、人工智能营销人员、开发人员、设计师和决策者的见解。 本研究使用内容分析方法对 10 年(2011–2020 年)期间的各种已发表研究进行系统的文献回顾, 主题围绕消费者在 HATS 中采用 AIR。 本研究揭示了四大服务:自动化、定制、信息传播、旅游移动性和导航服务。 此外, 作者确定了阻碍消费者在酒店和旅游业采用人工智能和机器人的四大障碍, 即心理、社会、财务、技术和功能 本研究首次尝试综合推动消费者在酒店和旅游业中采用人工智能和机器人的因素。本文还通过提供一个综合的前因结果框架, 推进了旅游和消费者行为文献。 El objetivo de la actual revisión sistemática literaria es sintetizar la literatura existente sobre la adopción de la inteligencia artificial y la robótica (IAR) por parte de los consumidores en el contexto del sector hotelero y turístico (SHT) para ganar un entendimiento comprensivo del mismo. Este estudio también traza visiones para los académicos, profesionales, comercializadores de AI, desarrolladores, diseñadores, y los elaboradores de las políticas a seguir. El presente estudio siguió un enfoque de análisis de contenido para realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura durante el período de 10 años (2011–2020) de los diversos estudios publicados y basados en la adopción de IAR en SHT, por parte de los consumidores. Este estudio desvela cuatro grandes servicios: automatización, personalización, difusión de información, movilidad turística y servicios de navegación. Adicionalmente, los autores identificaron cuatro barreras principales, a saber; psicológicas, sociales, financieras, técnicas y funcionales, que impiden la adopción de la inteligenica artificial y la robótica por parte del consumidor, en la industria de la hospitalidad y el turismo. Este estudio es un primer intento de sintetizar los factores que impulsan la adopción de la inteligencia artificial y la robótica por parte de los consumidores en la industria hotelera y tur...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2022-02-22
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-03-2021-0138
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Tourism destination brand equity, brand authenticity and revisit
           intention: the mediating role of tourist satisfaction and the moderating
           role of destination familiarity

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      Authors: Huike Shi , Yaping Liu , Tafazal Kumail , Liurong Pan
      Abstract: This study aims to explore the relationships among destination brand equity, brand authenticity and revisit intention. The mediating role of tourist satisfaction and the moderating role of destination familiarity in these relationships are also investigated. Based on the stimulus–organism–response theory, a structural equation model was constructed to test the relationships among the study variables. The original data was obtained using a questionnaire survey method from domestic tourists who have traveled to Guilin in China. The findings revealed that brand equity and brand authenticity not only positively and directly affect revisit intention but also have an indirect influence on revisit intention through the mediating role of tourist satisfaction. Destination familiarity positively moderates the direct influence of brand equity on revisit intention. Furthermore, brand authenticity significantly and positively affects brand equity. The findings of this study provide a certain enlightenment for brand marketing and tourist destination management. This study reveals the impact path of brand equity and brand authenticity on revisit intention, compensating for the lack of attention on impact mechanism among them. This study proves the impact of brand authenticity on destination brand equity. This compensates for the deficiencies that ignore possible antecedents affecting destination brand equity and the impact of brand authenticity on brand equity in the context of tourism destination. This study also confirms the specific dimensions of brand equity and brand authenticity in the context of Chinese tourism destinations in response to the current controversy. 旅游目的地品牌资产、品牌真实性与重游意愿: 游客满意度的中介作用与目的地熟悉度的调节作用 摘要 本研究致力于探究旅游目的地品牌资产、品牌真实性与重游意愿之间的关系。本文也研究了游客满意度在这些关系中所起的中介作用以及目的地熟悉度的调节作用。 本文以刺激-机体-反应理论为基础, 通过构建结构方程模型来对变量之间的关系进行检验。原始数据是通过问卷调查法从曾在桂林旅游的国内游客中获得。 目的地品牌资产和品牌真实性在直接正向影响重游意愿的同时, 还通过游客满意度的中介作用来间接影响重游意愿。目的地熟悉度在品牌资产对重游意愿的直接影响中起着正向调节作用。此外, 目的地品牌真实性对品牌资产起着显著正向影响。 本研究揭示了目的地品牌资产与品牌真实性对重游意愿的影响路径, 弥补了对其中影响机制关注不足的缺陷。本研究证实了旅游目的地背景下品牌真实性对品牌资产的具体影响, 弥补了现有文献较少关注影响目的地品牌资产的可能前因以及旅游目的地背景下品牌真实性对品牌资产具体影响的不足。此外, 本研究以中国旅游目的地为研究背景, 证实了品牌资产与品牌真实性的具体维度, 回应了当前的争议。 本研究结论对旅游目的地品牌营销与管理提供一定的启示。 Valor de marca de destino turístico, autenticidad de marca y voluntad de volver a visitar:El papel mediador de la satisfacción del turista y el papel moderador de la familiaridad con el destino Resumen este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar las relaciones entre el valor de la marca de destino, la autenticidad de la marca y la intención de volver a visita...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2022-02-15
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-08-2021-0371
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Livestreaming in tourism: What drives tourism live streamers to share
           their travel experiences'

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      Authors: Fangxuan (Sam) Li , Jianan Ma , Yun Tong
      Abstract: This study aims to explore tourism live streamers’ motivations of sharing their travel experiences based on the grounded theory. The use of purposive and snowball sampling methods was used to conduct 22 in-depth semi-structured interviews. The manuscript was analyzed based on the grounded theory. This study identifies five tourism live streamers’ motivations of sharing their travel experience, including information sharing, entertainment, self-presentation, monetary incentives and socialization. Information sharing and entertainment are identified as the most important motivations of travel livestreaming (TLS) among the motivations. Monetary incentive is identified as a new motivation for tourism live streamers compared to other social media users. This study provides valuable suggestions for livestreaming platforms and tourism product providers to attract more tourism live streamers and better serve them. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the first studies to offer empirical findings and discussions on tourism live streamers’ motivations of sharing their travel experiences. 旅游直播:是什么驱使旅游直播者分享他们的旅游经历? 本研究旨在基于扎根理论探讨旅游直播主分享旅游体验的动机。 使用目的性和滚雪球抽样方法进行了22个深入的半结构化访谈。 本研究采用扎根理论对数据进行分析。 本研究发现了五种旅游直播主分享旅游体验的动机, 包括信息共享、娱乐、自我展示、金钱激励和社交。信息共享和娱乐被认为是旅游直播最重要的动机。与其他社交媒体的用户相比, 货币激励被认为是旅游直播的新动机。 本研究为直播平台和旅游产品提供商提供有用的建议, 以吸引更多的旅游直播者并更好地为他们服务。 这是对旅游直播主分享旅游体验的动机提供实证研究结果和讨论的首批研究之一。 Turismo en vivo: ¿qué conduce un transmiertor en vivo Para compartir su experiencia de viaje' este estudio tiene como objetivo explorar las motivaciones de los transmisores en vivo del turismo para compartir sus experiencias de viaje según la teoría fundamentada. Des méthodes d'échantillonnage raisonné et boule de neige ont été utilisées pour mener 22 entrevues semi-structurées approfondies. Le manuscrit a été analysé sur la base de la théorie ancrée. este estudio identifica las motivaciones de cinco transmisores en vivo del turismo para compartir su experiencia de viaje, incluido el intercambio de información, el entretenimiento, la autopresentación, los incentivos monetarios y la socialización. El intercambio de información y el entretenimiento se identifican como las motivaciones más importantes de la transmisión en vivo de viajes (TLS) entre las motivaciones. El incentivo monetario se identifica como una nueva motivación para el transmisor en vivo del turismo en comparación con los usuarios de otras redes sociales. este estudio proporciona sugerencias útiles para que las plataformas de transmisión en vivo y los proveedores de productos turísticos atraigan a más transmisores turísticos en vivo y les brinden un mejor servicio. este es uno de los primeros estudios que ofrece hallazgos empíricos y debates sobre las motivaciones de los transmisores en vivo del turismo para compartir sus experiencias de viaje.
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2022-02-02
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-09-2021-0420
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2022)
       
  • Mobile-based value co-creation: contextual factors towards customer
           experiences

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      Authors: Sut Ieng Lei, Dan Wang, Rob Law
      Abstract: Collecting information from and interacting with customers through mobile platforms for personalization purposes have become a trend. While mobile-based value co-creation has attracted wide research attention, a noticeable gap exists regarding what might potentially affect the firm–customer interaction process through which value is co-created. This paper aims to explore how customers exchange information and communicate with firms through mobile applications for value co-creation purposes in a travel context. Based on a constructivist research paradigm, this study adopted a qualitative research design. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and were analyzed following narrative analysis approach. The findings highlight the contextual factors (individual characteristics, trip characteristics and computer-mediated communication characteristics) that facilitate and inhibit the firm–customer interaction process. Practitioners are suggested to put more efforts on creating stimuli for interactions and managing customer expectation. This study goes beyond technology adoption and focuses on customers’ post-adoption stage. The findings shed light on the important role of the service provider in facilitating effective interactions for value co-creation with customers. This study focuses on the interaction process, rather than the antecedents and outcomes of mobile-based value co-creation. It contributes empirical evidence on how customers co-create value and why some situations present better opportunities for successful value co-creation. 基于移动资讯科技的价值共创:影响客户体验的情景因素 通过移动资讯科技平台收集客户信息并与客户互动从而提供个性化服务和体验已成为一种趋势。尽管基于移动资讯科技的价值共创已经吸引了广泛的研究关注, 但是什么潜在因素可能会影响企业与客户为了共创价值而进行的互动的过程仍未被确定。这项研究探讨客户如何在旅行环境中透过移动应用程式与服务提供商交换信息和进行交流, 以实现价值共创的目的。 本研究基于建构主义研究范式, 采用了定性研究设计。通过半结构化访谈收集数据, 并根据叙述分析方法进行数据分析。 调查结果突出了有助于和抑制企业与客户透过移动科技互动的情境因素(个人特征、行程特征和电脑媒介传播特征), 建议业界人士在促进互动和管理客户期望方面付出更多的努力。 本研究关注企业和客户的互动过程, 而非着重于价值共创的前提和结果。它提供了经验性证据解释客户如何与企业共创价值, 以及为什么某些情况为成功实现价值共创提供更好的机会。 有别于过去着重探讨影响技术采用因素的研究, 本研究关注客户的采用后阶段。调查结果阐明了服务提供商在促进与客户进行有效互动从而与客户共创价值的重要角色。 El valor de la co-creación basado en dispositivos móviles: Factores contextuales sobre la experiencia de los clientes Basado en un paradigma de investigación constructivista, este estudio adopta un diseño de investigación cualitativa. Los datos se recopilaron a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas y se analizaron siguiendo un enfoque de análisis narrativo. Recopilar información e interactuar con los clientes a través de plataformas móviles con fines de personalización se ha convertido en tendencia. Si bien la co-creación de valor basada en dispositivos móviles ha atraído una amplia atenc...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-17
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-10-2020-0504
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The indirect distribution dilemma: assessing the financial impact of
           participation in Booking.com for hotels

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      Authors: Saddam Abdullah, Philippe Van Cauwenberge, Heidi Vander Bauwhede, Peter O’Connor
      Abstract: This study aims to assess if the benefits outweigh the costs of participation in online travel agencies (OTAs) such as Booking.com. A two-step system generalised method of moments estimation of a regression model of firm-level return on assets (ROA) is used on a dummy variable indicating whether a lodging facility participates in Booking.com. The assessment contained various control variables, including size, age, leverage, liquidity and lagged ROA. The moderating effect of firm age and size was studied by including interaction variables between the Booking.com dummy and age and size, respectively. The model was estimated using participation and financial data of 775 Belgian firms over a 20-year period (1999–2018). The findings indicate that participation in Booking.com is associated with higher profitability, with this effect more economically important and pronounced for smaller hotel properties. The study provides a broadly applicable empirical model to assess the impact of platform participation on the financial performance of tourism, hospitality or retail businesses. The study provides empirical evidence that, from a transaction cost perspective, the benefits of participation in OTAs outweigh the costs, resulting in substantially higher profitability. The evidence can be used to justify the use of OTAs as distribution channels. While prior studies have described and conceptually analysed the evolution and role of OTAs in the hotel sector, and speculated on the net effect of OTA participation, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to empirically assess whether OTA participation creates value for hotel owners and investors. 本文采用了两步系统GMM的估计方法, 用一个虚拟变量指示住宿设施是否参与了Booking.com, 以确定企业级别的资产回报率(ROA)的回归模型。评估涵盖了多种控制变量, 包括公司规模, 年限, 杠杆, 流动性和滞后资产回报率。企业年龄和规模的调节作用是通过加入Booking.com虚拟变量与年龄和规模之间的交互变量实现的。该模型是使用20年(1999–2018年)间775家比利时公司的参与和财务数据估算得出的。 本文目的是评估收益是否超过了参与Booking.com等在线旅行社(OTA)的成本。 研究结果表明, 参与Booking.com与更高的获利能力相关联。这种影响在经济上更加重要, 并且对于较小的酒店物业而言更为明显。 该研究提供了广泛适用的经验模型, 以评估平台参与对旅游业, 酒店业或零售业的财务绩效的影响。 该研究提供了重要的实证依据。从交易成本的角度来看, 参与OTA的收益大于成本, 从而大大提高了盈利能力。该实例证明了使用OTA作为分销渠道是合理的。 尽管先前的研究已经描述并从概念上分析了OTA在酒店领域的演变和作用, 并推测了OTA参与的净效应, 但据我们所知, 这是第一个凭经验评估OTA参与是否为酒店所有者和投资者创造价值的研究。 Una estimación GMM en dos pasos de un modelo de regresión del rendimiento de los activos (ROA) a nivel de empresa sobre una variable ficticia que indica si un establecimiento de alojamiento participa en Booking.com. La evaluación contenía diversas variables de control, como el tamaño, la edad, el apalancamiento, la liquidez y el ROA retardado. El efecto moderador de la edad y el tamaño de la empresa se estudió incluyendo variables de interacción entre la variable ficticia de Booking.com y la edad y el tamaño, respectivamente. El modelo se estimó utilizando datos de participación y financieros de 775 empresas belgas durante un periodo de 20 años (1999–2018). Evaluar si los beneficios superan los costes de la participación en agencias de viajes online (OTAs) como Book...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-14
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-03-2020-0101
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Clusters or networks: interorganizational relationships influence on
           Brazilian hotel performance

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      Authors: Daniel Pires Vieira, Valmir Emil Hoffmann, Edgar Reyes Junior, Cristina Boari
      Abstract: Although interorganizational relationships are acknowledged as positive for tourism, studies on the subject fail to systematically analyze the joint effects of relationships with different types of organizations. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of the interaction between different types of interorganizational relationships over a hotel firm’s performance. A structured questionnaire applied to hotel managers was used to assess hotel relationships. Hotel performance was assessed through Trip Advisor information. Structural equations modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. Results reveal that only relationships with other hotels had a significant influence on performance. The competition had a negative effect on hotel performance, as well as on horizontal and support organization relationships. Relationships with support organizations presented a significant effect on the formation of relationships between companies (horizontal and vertical) and mediated the negative effect of competition over horizontal relations. Hotel relationships are idiosyncratic and path-dependent, hence monitoring and copying competitors’ relationships is not advisable. Hotels may improve their productive integration by relating with support organizations. From a destination management perspective, results show that support organizations facilitate interfirm relationships and productive integration within a destination. The paper systematically analyzes the influence of different interorganizational relationships and competition on hotel performance. Empirical results contradict some aspects of networks and clusters. Some relationships may have positive effects on destinations, but not on hotel firms. Additionally, support organizations play a central role on interfirm relationship formation and maintenance. 集群或网络:组织间关系对巴西酒店绩效的影响Clú 但有关该主题的研究未能系统地分析与不同类型组织之间关系的联合影响。本文的目的是分析不同类型的组织间关系之间的相互作用对酒店公司绩效的影响。 应用于酒店经理的结构化问卷用于评估酒店关系。通过Trip Advisor信息评估了酒店的表现。使用结构方程建模 进行数据分析。 只有与其他酒店的关系才对业绩产生重大影响。竞争对酒店业绩以及横向e支持组织的关系都具有负面影响。与支持组织的关系对公司间关系有显着影响, 对竞争的中介作用对水平关系有负面影响。 本文系统地分析了不同组织间关系和竞争对酒店绩效的影响。实证结果与网络和集群的某些方面相矛盾。某些关系可能对目的地有利, 但对酒店公司却没有相同的影响。此外, 支持组织在公司间关系的形成和维护中起着核心作用。 因此建议不要监视和复制竞争对手的关系。酒店可以改善与支持组织有关的生产整合。从目的地管理的角度来看, 结果表明, 支持组织促进了旅游企业之间的关系以及目的地内的生产整合。 Clústeres o redes: la influencia de las relaciones interorganizacionales en el desempeño de los hoteles brasileños Si bien las relaciones interorganizacionales se reconocen como positivas para el turismo, las investigaciones sobre el tema no logran analizar sistemáticamente los efectos conjuntos de las relaciones con diferentes tipos de organizaciones. El propósito de este artículo es analizar la influencia de la interacción entre diferentes tipos de relaciones interorganizacionales sobre el desempeño de la empresa hotelera. se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado aplicado a los gerentes de hoteles para evaluar las relaciones con los hoteles. El desempeño del hotel se evaluó a través de la información de Trip Advisor. Se utilizó el Modelado de Ecuaciones Estructurales (SEM) para el anális...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-10
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-07-2020-0342
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Local residents’ contribution to tourist experiences: a community
           perspective from Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

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      Authors: Dominik Huber, Sven Gross
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of how local residents in tourism destinations perceive their role in the creation of tourist experiences. Qualitative research was conducted with 16 local residents in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, a tourism hotspot in Germany. The study used thematic analysis combined with qualitative content analysis to identify various themes associated with host–guest-based tourist experience creation. Findings demonstrate how diverse local residents contribute to tourist experiences. A model was developed that suggests a distinction between active and passive contribution to tourist experiences. Only little evidence was found that the concept of co-creation plays a role in host–guest relationships, which contradicts other literature. The chosen qualitative research approach does not allow for generalisation of the research findings. The examination of perceptions raises epistemological questions. This paper includes implications for improved internal marketing strategies and the involvement of local residents in tourism destination development. This study contributes to knowledge by conceptualizing the role of local residents in tourist experience creation. The paper closes research gaps by using a qualitative study design in Germany to explore the underlying conditions that affect host–guest encounters to the discussion of tourist experience creation. Research findings may be adapted to other geographical or cultural settings with similar levels of tourism development. 本文对来自德国热门旅游景点加米施·帕滕基兴的16名当地居民进行了定性研究。本研究采用主题分析与定性内容分析相结合的方法, 探究与创造主客旅游体验相关的各个主题。 本研究旨在探索旅游地居民如何感知自身在旅游体验创造中的作用。 研究结果表明不同当地居民对旅游体验的贡献。本文通过建立模型, 表明旅游体验的主动贡献和被动贡献之间的显著区别。与其他文献相矛盾的是, 只有很少的证据表明共创的概念在主客关系中起到了一定作用。 本研究所选择的定性研究方法无法对研究结果进行概括总结。对知觉的考察提出了认识论的问题。 本文提出了对改进内部营销策略和当地居民参与旅游目的地发展的一些启示。 本研究的理论贡献在于概念化的提出本地居民在旅游体验创造中的作用。本研究采用定性研究方法探索影响主客接触的潜在条件, 从而探讨旅游体验的创造, 填补研究空白。本文研究结果同样适用于其他相似旅游发展水平的地理或文化环境。 Se llevó a cabo una investigación cualitativa con 16 residentes locales en Garmisch-Partenkirchen, un lugar turístico de Alemania. En el estudio se utilizó un análisis temático combinado con un análisis de contenido cualitativo para identificar diversos temas relacionados con la creación de experiencias turísticas por parte de los anfitriones. El objetivo de este estudio exploratorio es aumentar la comprensión de cómo los residentes locales de los destinos turísticos perciben su papel en la creación de experiencias turísticas. Los hallazgos demuestran cómo los diversos residentes locales contribuyen a las experiencias turísticas. Se elaboró un modelo que sugiere una distinción entre la contribución activa y pasiva a las experiencias turísticas. Se encontraron pocas pruebas de que el concepto de co-creación desempeñe un papel en las relaciones anfitrión-huésped, lo que contradice otras publicaciones. El enfoque de investigación cualitativa elegido no permite generalizar los resultados de la investigación. El examen de las percepciones plantea cuestiones epistemológicas. Este documento incluye las implicaciones para mejorar las estrategias de comercialización interna y la participación de los residentes locales en el desarrollo de los destino...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-07
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-08-2020-0401
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Sustainable tourism consumer: socio-demographic, psychographic and
           behavioral characteristics

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      Authors: Asli D.A. Tasci, Alan Fyall, Kyle Maurice Woosnam
      Abstract: This study aims to uncover socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of sustainable consumers as a means to advance the demand for sustainability practices by the tourism and hospitality industry. Socio-demographic and psychographic variables were tested for their influence on an individual’s self-assessment as a sustainable consumer, which was then tested for its influence on behavioral outcomes in the form of environmental and social sustainability concerns, objects of sustainability concerns, subjects considered responsible for sustainability and tourism choice vis-à-vis mass vs alternative forms of tourism. Because of the paucity of a well-established and robust theory on the characteristics of sustainable consumers, both content analysis of the literature and quantitative analysis of survey data were used to identify the socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of consumers. Plausible variables identified in the literature were filtered through principal component analysis and ordinary least squares regression analysis to fine-tune the variables a priori to develop a suitable model, which was subjected to partial least squares-structural equation modeling to further trim variables a posteriori by testing their reliability and validity. Understanding who sustainable consumers are and what they are likely to believe and do is imperative for increasing sustainable practices by the industry. The study shows that people who consider themselves to be sustainable consumers are likely to have higher levels of ethical views, be more feminine and more liberal in personality, demonstrate concern with environmental and social sustainability issues, consider all pertinent parties responsible for sustainability and chose alternative forms of tourism over mass tourism. The study implies that general American consumers have the potential to buy into sustainability practices. Despite researchers’ sporadic attempts to describe different characteristics of sustainable consumers and sustainable tourism consumers, past research has not substantiated a comprehensive description of who is a sustainable consumer in terms of socio-demographics, psychographics and behavioral characteristics. The literature on sustainable consumer characteristics is scarce and atheoretical; thus, the current study sets the stage for the development of this area of work across all sectors of the global tourism and hospitality industry. The model test results provide a clear profile of sustainable tourism consumers in socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral domains for the industry to respond to. 可持续旅游消费者:社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为的特征 本研究旨在揭示可持续消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为的特征, 并以此作为推动旅游业和款待业对可持续发展实践需求的一种手段。本研究首先测试了两个变量:社会人口学特征和心理变数特征对个人作为可持续消费者的自我评估的影响; 然后测试了其对消费者行为性后果的影响, 包括对环境和社会可持续性问题的关注, 关注的主题, 对可持续性问题责任性的关注, 以及针对大众和其他旅游形式选择的比较。 由于缺乏关于可持续消费者特征的公认理论, 本研究采用了对相关文献内容的定性分析和对调查数据的定量分析来识别消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征。在建立合适的模型之前, 研究通过采用主成分分析(PCA)和普通最小二乘法(OLS)回归分析, 首先对文献中已识别的合理变量进行过滤和调整。继而基于偏最小二乘-结构方程建模(PLS- SEM)对可靠性和有效性的测试, 来进一步确定后验变量。 了解可持续消费者的界定, 以及他们的信念和行为对于行业增加可持续性实践至关重要...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-05-17
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-09-2020-0435
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Stakeholders’ perception of the sustainability of a tourism destination:
           a methodological framework to find out relationships and similarity of
           opinions

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      Authors: Ionela Mihaela Damian, Enrique Navarro, Francisco Ruiz
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the similarity of opinions regarding the stakeholder’s perception about the importance of the different aspects considered when measuring the sustainability of a tourism destination (through the assignment of weights to a previously established system of indicators). Besides, the use of stakeholder analysis networks is validated as a means to understand the different perceptions. A combination of techniques is used. The stakeholders have been identified using a snowball sample. The network analysis examines the relationships. A power measure based on resource dependency theories is proposed. Possible tensions, as results of different perceptions among individual stakeholders in the context of the measurement of sustainability, are examined using a degree of similarity of opinions based on the Euclidean distance. Although a large number of stakeholders communicate quite frequently to carry out their activities and believe that they greatly share viewpoints regarding sustainability, the social network analysis reveals that there are significant diversities of opinion. The power indicator and the degree of similarity measure proposed are found to be useful tools for studying the similarities of opinions among the stakeholders. This approach is applied to sustainability governance conditions. Democratic processes are enhanced to measure sustainability. Directions to improve the sustainability of a tourist destination can be provided by achieving a consensus about sustainability policies. The conclusions about the similarities and differences among the perceptions of different stakeholders can be considered in decision-making processes about sustainability. No previous studies have identified and analyzed the stakeholder network from the perspectives of measurement of sustainability of a tourism destination and the degree of similarity of their opinions. 本研究旨在考察利益相关者对衡量旅游目的地可持续性时考虑的不同方面的重要性的看法的相似性(通过对先前建立的指标体系分配权重)。此外,我们验证了分析利益相关者使用的社交网络情况是了解不同看法的一种手段。 利用对社交网络的分析,本研究发现,虽然大量的利益相关者为了开展他们的活动而进行频繁的交流,并且分享了大量对可持续发展的看法,但仍然还是存在明显的意见分歧。此外,我们发现所提出的权力指标和相似度测量是研究利益相关者之间意见相似性的有用工具。 本文采用了多种技术的结合。通过雪球抽样的方式来确定利益相关者,并利用对社交网络的分析来研究他们之间的关系。我们提出了基于资源依赖理论的权力衡量方法。我们利用基于欧几里得距离的意见相似度,考察在衡量可持续性的过程中,各个利益相关者之间的不同看法是否会造成紧张 种应用于可持续发展治理条件下的方法,通过加强民主进程来衡量可持续发展,并通过对可持续发展政策达成共识,为改善旅游目的地的可持续发展提供方向。我们分析不同利益相关者的看法的异同,之后可以在关于可持续性的决策过程中加以考虑。 目前还没有从衡量旅游目的地的可持续性角度和分析有关利益相关者以及他们意见相似程度的有关研究。 Este estudio tiene como objetivo examinar la similitud de opinio...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-05-05
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-07-2020-0292
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Legal aspects of ecotourism: towards creating an international legislative
           framework

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      Authors: Vera Stanković, Ana Batrićević, Vladan Joldžić
      Abstract: This study aims to highlight the most important preventive measures that should be proposed by policymakers and adopted by (inter)national legislative bodies by changing existing or adopting new legal documents. The implementation of these measures should be performed by state bodies responsible for ecotourism, natural and cultural resources protection and ecotourism services users. The theoretical legal approach was applied, based on a systematic review of international legally binding and non-binding documents related to ecotourism, adopted by relevant international organizations. Analysis of norms for preventive protection of natural and cultural values was done and followed by law-reform research in the form of recommendations that should be adopted as binding. International legal documents relevant to ecotourism analysed in this paper are divided into two groups. The first regulates exclusively ecotourism issues, whereas the second deals with sustainable development and indirectly refers to ecotourism, as one of its segments. Analysed international legal documents require unambiguous norms regulating preventive protective measures in ecotourism by prescribing actual obligations and prohibitions for relevant subjects. Given recommendations are grouped into five types according to the subjects they are addressing (ecotourism experts, policymakers, legislators, natural and cultural conservationists, local communities, educators). This study is the first that points to the need to amending international legal documents related to ecotourism through recommendations regarding natural and cultural values’ preventive protection. 这项研究旨在通过改变现有法律文件或建立新的法律文件, 强调决策者应提出并由(国际)国家立法机构通过最重要的预防措施。这些措施应由负责旅游、自然和文化资源保护的国家机构以及生态旅游服务用户来实施。 在系统审查相关国际组织采用的与生态旅游有关的具有法律约束力和非法律约束力的文件的基础上, 采用理论的法律方法对自然和文化价值的预防性保护规范进行分析, 然后以建议的形式进行了法律改革研究, 这些建议应被采纳为具有约束力的法律条文。 本文将与生态旅游相关的国际法律文件分为两组。第一组专门规范生态旅游的问题, 第二组则涉及可持续发展, 而生态旅游也将作为部分内容在这一组进行阐述分析。经过分析的国际法律文件要求明确规范生态旅游的预防性保护措施, 规定有关主题的实际义务和禁止事项。根据所提出的主题(生态旅游专家、政策制定者、立法者、自然和文化保护主义者、当地社区、教育工作者), 这些建议会被分为五类进行阐述和分析。 本论文首次提出了通过修改与生态旅游有关的国际法律文件对自然和文化价值的预防性保护的必要性。 El presente estudio tiene como objetivo destacar las medidas preventivas más importantes que deberían proponer los formuladores de políticas y adoptar los órganos legislativos (inter)nacionales mediante la modificación de los documentos legales existentes o la adopción de nuevos. La implementación de estas medidas debe ser realizada por los organismos gubernamentales responsables del ecoturismo, la protección de los recursos naturales y culturales y los usuarios de los servicios de ecoturismo. Se ha aplicado un enfoque jurídico teórico, basado en la revisión sistemática de documentos internacionales legalmente vinculantes y no vinculantes relacionados con el ecoturismo, adoptados por las organizaciones internacionales pertinentes. Se ha realizado un análisis de las normas para la protección preventiva de los va...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-03-26
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-07-2019-0286
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Wellness tourism: customer-perceived value on customer engagement

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      Authors: Lishan Xie, Xinhua Guan, Yingxin He, Tzung-Cheng Huan
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the process of value co-creation within wellness tourism by constructing a structural equation model of customer interactions with the environment, service employees and other customers relating to customer-perceived value and customer engagement. Questionnaires, including wellness tourists’ customer-environment interaction, customer-service employee interaction, customer-customer interaction, customer-perceived value, customer engagement and demographic background, were developed and distributed at well-known wellness tourism destinations around Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China. This study collected 528 valid questionnaires from hot spring resorts, national forest parks, mountain parks and spa wellness facilities located in Guangdong Province, China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the obtained data. The results reveal that all three types of interactions, which include the customer-environment interaction (CEI), the customer-service employee interaction (CSI) and the customer-customer interaction (CCI), have positive effects on customer-perceived value (CPV) and that CPV positively affects customer engagement (CE). Based on these findings, recommendations for the management of wellness tourism service enterprises are given. The causes and effects of CPV in wellness tourism, from the perspective of value co-creation, is a rather unexplored area of study. It contributes not only to knowledge about factors that foster CPV but also to the understanding of connections between CPV and CE. 本研究通过构建顾客与环境、服务员工和其他顾客之间互动对顾客感知价值和顾客契合的结构方程模型, 探究养生旅游中的价值共创过程。 本研究在中国广东省广州市附近知名的养生旅游目的地发放问卷, 问卷内容包括养生旅游者的顾客-环境互动, 顾客-服务员工互动, 顾客-顾客互动, 顾客感知价值, 顾客契合和人口统计学背景。本研究从广东省温泉度假区、国家森林公园、山脉等旅游目的地收集了有效问卷528份, 使用结构方程模型(Structural Equation Modeling, SEM)对所获得的数据进行分析。 本研究数据分析结果显示, 顾客与环境互动、顾客与服务人员互动和顾客与顾客互动三种互动类型均对顾客感知价值有正向影响, 而顾客感知价值正向影响顾客契合。在此基础上, 本文针对养生旅游服务企业提出了管理建议。 本研究从价值共同创造的角度对养生旅游中顾客感知价值的因果关系进行了一项未被探索的研究, 这不仅有助于我们识别并培育影响顾客感知价值的因素, 而且有助于我们理解顾客感知价值与顾客契合之间的联系。 Este estudio evaluó el proceso de la creación conjunta de valor dentro del turismo de bienestar, mediante la construcción de un modelo de ecuación estructural de las interacciones de los clientes con (1) el medio ambiente, (2) los empleados de servicio y (3) otros clientes relacionados con el valor percibido por el cliente y el compromiso del cliente. Los cuestionarios fueron distribuidos en destinos de turismo de bienestar conocidos cerca de la ciudad de Guangzhou, provincia de Guangdong, China. El contenido del cuestionario incluye: interacción cliente-medio ambiente, interacción cliente-empleado de servicio, interacción cliente-cliente, valor percibido por el clientes, compromiso del clientes y el contexto demográficos. Este estudio recopiló 528 cuestionarios válidos de centros turísticos de aguas termales, parques forestales nacionales, montañas y spas de bienestar localizados en la provincia de Guangdong,China. Se utilizó el modelo de la ecuación estructural (Structural Equation Modeling, SEM) para analizar los datos obtenidos. Los resultados revelan que los tres tipos de interacciones, que incluyen la interacción cliente-medio ambiente (ICMA), la interacción cliente-empleados de se...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-03-19
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-06-2020-0281
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Like, tag and share: bolstering social media marketing to improve
           intention to visit a nature-based tourism destination

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      Authors: Vanessa Gaffar, Benny Tjahjono, Taufik Abdullah, Vidi Sukmayadi
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore the influence of social media marketing on tourists’ intention to visit a botanical garden, which is one of the popular nature-based tourism destinations in Indonesia. This study sent questionnaires to 400 followers of the botanical garden’s Facebook account who responded to the initial calls for participation and declared that they have not visited the garden before. Analyses were conducted on 363 valid responses using the structural equation model. The findings revealed several key determinants influencing the image of the botanical garden and its future value proposition, particularly in supporting the endeavour to shift from a mere recreational destination to a nature-based tourism destination offering educational experiences. This paper offers a fresh look into the roles of social media marketing in increasing the intention to visit a tourism destination that is considerably affected by the destination image. 本文探讨了社交媒体营销对游客参观植物园的意图的影响, 植物园是印度尼西亚最受欢迎的自然旅游胜地之一 我们向植物园的Facebook帐户的400位关注者发送了调查表, 他们回应了我们最初的参与邀请, 并宣布他们以前从未访问过该花园。 使用结构方程模型(SEM)对363个有效响应进行了分析。 调查结果揭示了影响植物园形象及其未来价值主张的几个关键因素, 特别是在支持从单纯的娱乐性目的地向提供教育经历的自然旅游目的地转变的努力中。 本文重新审视了社交媒体营销在增加受目的地形象显着影响的旅游目的地的访问意向中的作用。 Me gusta, etiqueta y comparte: reforzar el marketing en redes sociales para mejorar la intención de visitar un destino turístico basado en la naturaleza Este documento explora la influencia del marketing en las redes sociales en la intención de los turistas de visitar un jardín botánico, que es uno de los destinos turísticos más populares en Indonesia. Enviamos cuestionarios a 400 seguidores de la cuenta de Facebook del jardín botánico que respondieron a nuestras llamadas iniciales de participación y declararon que no habían visitado el jardín antes. Los análisis se realizaron en 363 respuestas válidas utilizando el Modelo de Ecuación Estructural (MEE). Los hallazgos revelaron varios determinantes clave que influyen en la imagen del jardín botánico y su propuesta de valor futura, particularmente en el apoyo al esfuerzo de cambiar de un mero destino recreativo a un destino turístico basado en la naturaleza que ofrece experiencias educativas. Este documento ofrece una nueva mirada a las funciones del marketing en redes sociales para aumentar la intención de visitar un destino turístico que se ve considerablemente afectado por la imagen del destino.
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-02-01
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-05-2020-0215
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Children’s dominance in family vacation decision-making (FVDM): a
           multi-national analysis

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      Authors: Yu Chih Chiang, Che-Jen Su, Hsin-Hsing Liao, Monica Chaudhary, Yi-Fang Lan
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore adolescents’ perceptions of child-parent dominance in family vacation decision-making (FVDM) by investigating child-parent relative influence (CPRI) and responsibility-sharing (RS) within the family in regard to 15 vacation issues. This paper adopts Davis and Rigaux’s (1974) framework for identifying adolescents’ perceptions of child-parent dominance across a set of subjects concerning FVDM, by inspecting the distribution of family decision roles across 25 nations. This study then segments the issues regarding family vacations and nations, judging by CPRI and RS within the family. In addition, this paper introduces Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and diverse indices of development for each surveyed nation and compares their respective correlations with CPRI and RS at the national level. The results, derived from data collected in 25 countries or territories, illustrate a climate of a parent-dominant-to-autonomous style of FVDM for all decision issues and all nations. Overall, both information availability and economizing attribute of issues are related to the democratization of FVDM. The relationship between the child-parent role distribution and national clusters varied across issue clusters. In addition, the paper found the national effectiveness more effective than the cultural dimension in explaining the dispersal of CPRI-RS profiles. The data collected from 25 nations provide strong evidence for profiling child-parent dominance in FVDM. The data also serve as a basis for analyzing the role of sociocultural and ideological influences on child-parent dominance in FVDM, which was not established in previous research. 子女在家庭渡假决策中的主导地位:多国分析研究 中文摘要 我们针对15个度假决策项目,调查青少年子女与父母的相对影响力(CPRI)和责任分担(RS),以探讨青少年在家庭渡假决策(FVDM)中相对于父母的支配地位的看法。 我们应用戴维斯(Davis)和里加(Rigaux)发表于1974 年的理论架构,调查25国中家庭决策角色的分配情况,从而确定青少年在家庭渡假决策相关决策项目中,子女-父母主导地位之看法。此外,我们根据”相对影响力”和”责任分担”来分别区隔决策项目与国家。我们也应用霍夫斯泰德的文化维度和多元社会发展指数,比较它们与”相对影响力”和”责任分担”的相关性。 从25个国家或地区收集的数据得出的结果表明,对于所有决策问题和所有国家来说,家庭渡假决策属于父母主导或自治风格的氛围。总体而言,资讯的可用性和问题的节约属性都与家庭渡假决策的民主化有关。子女-父母角色分布与国家集群之间的关系因决策项目集群而异。此外,我们发现,在解释”相对影响力-责任分担”侧像的分散方面,国家效能比文化维度更具影响力。 我们从25个国家/地区收集的数据为分析家庭渡假决策中子女-父母的主导地位提供了有力的证据。并分析社会文化和意识形态影响对家庭渡假决策中子女-父母主导地位的基础,在现有的文献中尚未被建立。 Nosotros exploramos las percepciones adolescentes sobre la predominancia de padre e hijo en la toma de decisiones vacaciones en familiares (FVDM) mediante la investigación de la influencia relativa entre padres e hijos (CPRI) y la respons...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-01-27
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-07-2020-0317
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Entrepreneurial resilience and business continuity in the tourism and
           hospitality industry: the role of adaptive performance and institutional
           orientation

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      Authors: Ibrahim A. Elshaer , Samar Kamel Saad
      Abstract: This study aims to explore the dynamics of resilience in tourism and hospitality enterprises by investigating the influence of internal and external contextual factors (i.e. adaptive performance and institutional orientation) on the relationship between entrepreneurs’ resilience and business continuity indicators (i.e. perception of career insecurity and business exit intention). In the Covid-19 pandemic context, quantitative data were collected using self-administrated questionnaires from entrepreneurs (founders of small-sized restaurants and travel agents in Egypt) using structural equation modeling. The study reveals that entrepreneurs’ resilience under adversities directly correlates with business continuity indicators, with adaptive performance and institutional orientation functioning as mediators. The socio-demographic characteristics of entrepreneurs could be further investigated to observe the differences based on age, education and region. The type of business (i.e. restaurants and travel agents) could have an impact on the examined relationships. Therefore, further studies can use multi-group analysis to examine such differences between various sub-sectors of the hospitality business. Finally, the cross-sectional sample method used in this study is another limitation. In any study in which causality is inferred, longitudinal research confirms stronger inferences (Morgan & Hunt, 1994). An instant implication is that entrepreneurs can take proactive actions to enhance their resilience. Entrepreneurs should seek to influence their own skills and abilities through various educational and training programs. For example, they can take advantage of business seminars, workshops and executive education courses. Entrepreneurs who have the chance of enhancing their skills in solving complex problems, identifying their strengths, managing their emotions are better able to adapt to unfavorable circumstances. The inhabited environment. Entrepreneurs should be institutionally oriented by building strong communications and networks with key actors and business-to-business customers. This would help entrepreneurs to understand the rules of the game, adapt to the environment, gain market legitimacy and accordingly acquire the social and financial support when hazards occur. The extant literature lacks evidence about the internal and external contextual factors underlying the process of resilience in small and medium-sized enterprises and its outcomes. Research on entrepreneurship has rarely discussed the antecedents of business withdrawal. This study contributes to addressing this research gap. 本研究通过考察内部和外部环境因素(即适应性绩效和制度导向)对企业家弹性与企业持续经营指标(即职业不安全感与离职意愿)。 在Covid-19大流行的背景下, 采用结构方程模型, 通过对企业家(埃及小型餐馆和旅行社的创始人)的自我管理问卷收集定量数据。 企业家逆境韧性与企业持续经营指标直接相关, 适应性绩效和制度导向发挥中介作用。 现有文献缺乏中小企业弹性过程及其结果的内外部环境因素的证据。关于创业的研究很少讨论企业退出的原因。本研究有助于解决这一研究差距。 Esta investigación explora la dinámica de la resiliencia en las empresas de turismo y hotelería mediante la investigación de la influencia de factores contextuales internos y externos (es decir, desempeño adaptativo y orientación institucional) en la relación entre la resiliencia de los emprendedores y los indicadores de continuidad empresarial (es decir, percepción de carrera inseguridad e intención de salida del negocio). En el contexto de la pandemia de Covid-19, se recopilaron datos cuantitativos mediante cuestionarios autoadministrados de empresarios (fundadores de pequeños restaurantes y agentes de viajes en Egipto) utilizando modelos de ecuaciones estructurales. El estudio revela que la resiliencia de los emprendedores ante las adversidades se correlaciona directamente con los indicadores de continuidad del negocio, con el desempeño adaptativo y la orientación institucional funcionando como mediadores. La literatura existente carece de evidencia sobre los factores contextuales internos y externos que subyacen al proceso de resiliencia en las pequeñas y medianas empresas y sus resultados. La investigación sobre el espíritu empresarial rara vez ha discutido los antecedentes de la retirada de empresas. Este estudio contribuye a abordar esta brecha de investigación.
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-12-28
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-04-2021-0171
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Gender as moderator of the influence of tourists’ risk perception on
           destination image and visit intentions

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      Authors: Rita R. Carballo , Carmelo J. León , María M. Carballo
      Abstract: This paper aims to study the influence of gender on the theoretical and empirical relationships between tourists’ risk perceptions and both destination image and behavioural intentions. An empirical study was carried out with potential tourists at home in Germany and the UK considering travelling to Spain, Egypt, Morocco, Brazil, Colombia and Indonesia. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling with multi-group analysis. Results show that gender moderates the theoretical relationships between risk perception and both destination image and behavioural intentions. Risk perception is higher for women than for men and depends on the type of risks and the characteristics of the destination. Women are more likely than men to reduce their visit to a destination whenever there is an increase in their risk perceptions. However, the influence of risk perception on destination image is higher for men than for women. Thus, results prove there are significant gender differences in the theoretical relationships between risk perceptions and destination image and visiting intentions. This paper provides new evidence on the gender differences in risk perceptions in tourism and their impact on destination image and visiting intentions, showing that whenever there are higher risks at a tourist destination women do change more than men their behavioural intentions. The results are useful for designing risk management and promotion policies at destinations that avoid the masculinisation bias, thereby considering the impact of gender differences on travel behaviour and consumption decisions. 本文研究了性別對遊客風險感知與目的地形象和行為意圖之間的理論和實證關係的影響。 對考慮前往西班牙, 埃及, 摩洛哥, 巴西, 哥倫比亞和印度尼西亞的德國和英國的潛在遊客進行了一項實證研究。使用具有多組分析的結構方程建模來分析數據。 結果表明, 性別調節風險感知與目的地形象和行為意圖之間的理論關係。 女性的風險認知高於男性, 這取決於風險類型和目的地的特徵。每當風險認知增加時, 女性比男性更有可能減少前往目的地的次數。然而, 男性的風險感知對目的地形象的影響要高於女性。 因此, 結果證明風險感知與目的地形象和訪問意圖之間的理論關係存在顯著的性別差異。 本文提供了關於旅遊風險認知的性別差異及其對目的地形象和訪問意圖的影響的新證據, 表明每當旅遊目的地的風險較高時, 女性的行為意圖變化確實比男性多。結果有助於在目的地設計風險管理和促銷政策, 避免男性化偏見, 從而考慮性別差異對旅行行為和消費決策的影響。 行為 目的地 性別 性別化 形象 風險 文章类型:研究型论文 Este artículo analiza la influencia del género en las relaciones teóricas y empíricas entre las percepciones de riesgo de los turistas y la imagen del destino y las intenciones de visitar. Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio empírico a turistas potenciales en Alemania y Reino Unido que consideran viajar a España, Egipto, Marruecos, Brasil, Colombia e Indonesia en un futuro próximo. Los datos se analizaron utilizando un Modelado de Ecuaciones Estructurales con Análisis Multigrupo. Los resultados muestran que el género actúa como variable moderadora en las relaciones teóricas entre la percepción del riesgo, la imagen del destino y las intenciones de comportamiento. La percepción del riesgo es mayor para las mujeres que para los hombres y depende del tipo de riesgo y de las características del destino. Las mujeres están más dispuestas que los hombres no visitar un destino cuando aumenta la percepción del riesgo. Sin embargo, la influencia de la percepción del riesgo en la imagen del destino es mayor para los hombres que para las mujeres. Por tanto, los resultados demues...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-11-10
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-02-2021-0079
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Identifying hidden semantic structures in Instagram data: a topic
           modelling comparison

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      Authors: Roman Egger , Joanne Yu
      Abstract: Intrigued by the methodological challenges emerging from text complexity, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of different topic modelling algorithms based on Instagram textual data. By taking Instagram posts captioned with #darktourism as the study context, this research applies latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), correlation explanation (CorEx), and non-negative matrix factorisation (NMF) to uncover tourist experiences. CorEx outperforms LDA and NMF by classifying emerging dark sites and activities into 17 distinct topics. The results of LDA appear homogeneous and overlapping, whereas the extracted topics of NMF are not specific enough to gain deep insights. This study assesses different topic modelling algorithms for knowledge extraction in the highly heterogeneous tourism industry. The findings unfold the complexity of analysing short-text social media data and strengthen the use of CorEx in analysing Instagram content. 基于对文本复杂性的兴趣, 本研究以Instagram文本数据为基准, 旨在比较不同主题建模的算法的有效性。 本研究以标有 #darktourism的Instagram帖子作为背景, 评估直观理解(LDA), 相关解释(CorEx)和非负矩阵分解(NMF)在分析与黑暗观光相关的帖子的实用性。 CorEx分析出17个新兴的黑暗景点和活动, 亦胜过LDA和NMF。虽然LDA能探讨出较多的主题数, 但它们的内容几乎重复。同样的, 尽管NMF适用于短文本数据, 但它提取出主题相当笼统且不够具体。 透过将营销和数据科学学科相结合, 本研究为分析非结构化的文本奠定了基础, 并证实了CorEx在分析短文本社交媒体数据(如Instagram数据)中的效益。 Intrigado por los desafíos metodológicos que surgen de la complejidad del texto, este estudio evalúa la efectividad de diferentes algoritmos de modelado de temas basados en datos textuales de Instagram. Al tomar publicaciones de Instagram con #darktourism como contexto de estudio, esta investigación aplica la asignación de Dirichlet latente (LDA), la explicación de correlación (CorEx) y la factorización matricial no negativa (NMF) para descubrir experiencias turísticas. CorEx supera a LDA y NMF al clasificar los sitios y actividades oscuros emergentes en 17 temas distintos. Los resultados de LDA son homogéneos y se superponen, mientras que los temas extraídos de NMF no son lo suficientemente específicos como para obtener conocimientos profundos. Este estudio evalúa diferentes algoritmos de modelado de temas para la extracción de conocimiento en la industria del turismo. Los hallazgos revelan la complejidad de analizar datos de redes sociales de texto corto y fortalecen el uso de CorEx para analizar el contenido de Instagram.
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-14
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-05-2021-0244
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • The companion effect on adventure tourists’ satisfaction and subjective
           well-being: the moderating role of gender

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      Authors: Lujun Su , Jin Cheng , Scott Swanson
      Abstract: In an adventure tourism context (i.e. sky diving, bungee jumping) the effect of the absence or presence of a travel companion; companion relative ability (i.e. perception of a companion’s possessed resources useful for the achievement of travel goals); and tourist gender on the impact of companion relative ability on tourists’ satisfaction and subjective well-being is examined. This paper aims to investigate the mediating role of satisfaction that combines companion relative ability, tourist gender, tourist satisfaction and subjective well-being. This research uses three situational experiments. A one-factor between-subjects experimental design was used for Study 1. Studies 2 and 3 used a one-factor between-subjects and a 2 × 3 factorial between-subjects design. Participants included tourists visiting a national park in China assigned to scenarios using an anonymous intercept approach and an online survey. Having a companion with greater/comparable relative ability produces a greater effect on tourist satisfaction and subjective well-being than having a companion with lower relative ability. Furthermore, the perceived relative ability of a travel companion results in a stronger positive effect on tourist satisfaction and subjective well-being for female tourists. Meanwhile, satisfaction fully mediates the impact of the interaction between companion relative ability and tourist gender on subjective well-being. The current research validates the companion effect on adventure tourists’ satisfaction and subjective well-being. An additional contribution is an investigation into the effect of companion relative ability. The study is the only one the authors are aware of that examines the moderating role of tourist gender on the effect of companion relative ability on tourist satisfaction and subjective well-being and identifies the mechanism that combines companion relative ability, tourist gender, tourist satisfaction and subjective well-being. 同伴效应对冒险旅游者满意度与主观幸福感的影响:性别的调节作用 本研究探讨了在冒险旅游情境下, 有旅游同伴和感知同伴相对能力对旅游者满意度和主观幸福感的影响。 研究1采用了单因子组间设计。研究2采用了一个单因子组间设计和一个2×3双因子组间设计。 与拥有一个相对能力较低的同伴相比, 拥有一个相对能力较高/相等的同伴对旅游满意度和主观幸福感的影响更大。此外, 旅游同伴相对能力感知对女性旅游者的满意度和主观幸福感有较强的正向影响。同时, 满意度完全中介同伴相对能力与旅游者性别之间的交互效应对主观幸福感的影响。 本研究验证了同伴效应对冒险旅游者满意度和主观幸福感的影响。另一个贡献是对同伴相对能力影响的研究。本研究是我们唯一所知:1)检验旅游者性别在同伴相对能力对旅游者满意度和主观幸福感影响中的调节作用; 2)考察联结了同伴相对能力、旅游者性别、旅游者满意度和主观幸福感的机制。 El efecto Peer de la satisfacción y el bienestar subjetivo de los turistas de aventura: el efecto moderador del género Este estudio investigó la influencia de la capacidad relativa de los pares y la percepción de los pares en la satisfacción de los turistas y el bienestar subjetivo en el contexto del Turismo de aventura. En el estudio 1 se utilizó un diseño experimental de un solo factor entre sujetos.El estudio 2 utilizó un diseño factorial único entre sujetos y 2 □ 3 entre sujetos. En comparación con los pares con menor capacidad relativa, los pares con mayor capacidad relativa tienen un mayor impacto en la satisfacción de los turistas y el bienestar subjetivo.Además, la capacidad relativa percibida de las mujeres turistas hacia sus pares tiene un fuerte efecto positivo en la satisfacción de los turistas y el bienestar subjetivo.Al mismo tiempo, la satisfacción mediaba plenamente la influencia de la interacción entre la capacidad relativ...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-02
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-02-2021-0063
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Airline service: low-cost-carriers (LCCs) failure and passenger emotional
           experience

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      Authors: Halimin Herjanto , Muslim Amin , Fevzi Okumus , Cihan Cobanoglu
      Abstract: This study aims to analyze low-cost-carrier (LCC) passengers’ comments about their flight experience on Asian LCCs. A netnography approach was used to review and content analyzed 230 LCC passengers’ negative feedback on the TripAdvisor website. LCC service failures generated 17 different negative emotions; among them, shock, disappointment and surprise were the most frequent emotions felt by passengers. Maintaining a high level of customer service and ensuring easy access to information reduces LCC passenger’s negative emotions and meets LCC passengers’ service expectations and satisfaction. This study provides guidelines for the LCCs management who want to implement a netnography technique as a marketing research strategy. A better understanding of this concept will help the LCCs industry to build a robust business model than competitors, maintain their competitive advantages in the global market and develop effective marketing strategies to attract more passengers. 本文旨在分析低价航空公司乘客对他们在亚洲低价航空飞行体验的评价。 本研究使用网络志方法审查和内容分析了230名低价航空乘客在TripAdvisor网站上的负面评价。 低价航空公司的服务失误共产生了17种不同的负面情况。其中, 震惊、失望、惊讶为乘客最常感受到的情绪。 保持高水平的客户服务并确保其轻松获取有效信息可以减少低价航空公司乘客的负面情绪, 提高他们的服务期望和满意度。本研究为拟实施网络志技术作为营销研究策略的低价航空公司管理人员提供了指导意见。 更好地理解这一概念将有助于低价航空行业建立起比竞争对手更稳健的商业模式, 保持其在全球市场的竞争优势, 并制定有效的营销策略以吸引更多乘客。 Sevicio de aerolineas: problemas con provedores de bajo costo y experiencias emocionales de pasajerosResumen Este estudio analizó los comentarios sobre la experiencia de vuelo de los pasajeros de las aerolíneas de bajo costo (LCCs, por sus siglas en inglés) de Asia. Se utilizó un enfoque de netnografía para revisar y analizar el contenido de los comentarios negativos de 230 pasajeros de LCCs en el sitio web de TripAdvisor. Las fallas en el servicio de las LCCs generaron 17 emociones negativas diferentes; entre ellas, conmoción, decepción y sorpresa fueron las emociones más frecuentes que sintieron los pasajeros. Mantener un alto nivel de servicio al cliente y garantizar un acceso fácil a la información reduce las emociones negativas de los pasajeros de las LCCs y cumple con sus expectativas de servicio y satisfacción. Este estudio proporciona pautas para los gerentes de las LCCs que desean implementar una técnica de netnografía como estrategia de investigación de mercados. Entender mejor este concepto ayudará a la industria de las LCCs a construir un modelo comercial más sólido que el de sus competidores, mantener sus ventajas competitivas en el mercado global y desarrollar estrategias de mercadotecnia efectivas para atraer a más pasajeros. Aerolíneas de bajo costo (LCC), emociones negativas, falla en el servicio, destino turístico
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-18
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-01-2021-0025
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Recreational scuba diving as a special form of tourism: lessons from
           Taiwan

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      Authors: You-De Dai , Fei-Hsin Huang , Kuan-Yang Chen , Wei-Jen Chen , Tzung-Cheng Huan
      Abstract: Recreational scuba diving is one of the fastest growing tourism industries around the world and has become a popular activity in Taiwan. Few studies focus on enduring involvement with a high risk or difficult activity specialization, so this study aims to explore the causal relationship between enduring involvement and specialization and seeks to explain sustained involvement in scuba diving activity as a recreation specialization. This research selects four diving sites in Taiwan as survey locations, specifically Yeliou, Longdong, Kenting and Green Island. The questionnaire consists of three sections, including demographic information, enduring involvement and specialization. By analyzing the data collected from 810 scuba divers in Taiwan, structural equation modeling is used to examine the causal relationships among the variables. The primary findings of this study are as follows: attraction positively affects divers’ commitment and lifestyle through joy, relaxation and sharing diving experiences; the results indicate that self-expression is associated with past experience of participating in scuba diving activity; and centrality indicates that participants’ daily life and recreation are related to each other and become central to their life. Results show that most theoretical hypotheses are supported, but there is no significant evidence of attraction impacting past experience or self-expression influencing commitment and lifestyle. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine the causal influence of enduring involvement and specialization in the scuba diving context. The findings provide a solid theoretical basis for the study of sustained involvement motivation and behavior on specialization. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. 休闲水肺潜水是全球发展最快的旅游业之一, 已成为台湾的热门活动。很少有研究关注持续涉入高风险或困难活动的专门化, 因此本研究探讨持续涉入和专门化之间的因果关系, 并试图解释持续参与水肺潜水活动作为休闲专门化。 这项研究选择了台湾的四个潜水地点作为调查地点, 特别是野柳, 龙洞, 垦丁和绿岛。问卷分为三个部分, 包括人口统计信息, 持续参与和专门化。通过分析从台湾810名潜水员那里收集的数据, 使用结构方程模型检查变量之间的因果关系。 这项研究的主要发现是:(1)吸引力通过愉悦, 放松和分享潜水经历积极影响潜水员的承诺和生活方式; (2)结果表明自我表达与过去参加水肺潜水活动的经历有关(3)中心性表示参与者的日常生活和娱乐彼此相关, 并成为他们生活的中心。结果表明, 大多数理论假设均得到支持, 但没有显着证据表明吸引力会影响过去的经历或自我表达影响承诺和生活方式。 据我们所知, 本研究是第一个研究在潜水环境中持续涉入和专门化的因果关系影响的研究。研究结果为专门化持续参与动机和行为的研究提供了坚实的理论基础。 讨论了对未来研究的影响和建议。 El buceo recreativo como una forma especial de turismo: lecciones de Taiwán El buceo recreativo es una de las industrias turísticas de más rápido crecimiento en todo el mundo y se ha convertido en una actividad popular en Taiwán. Pocos estudios se centran en la participación duradera con una especialización de actividad difícil o de alto riesgo, por lo que este estudio explora la relación causal entre la participación duradera y la especialización y busca explicar la participación sostenida en la actividad de buceo como una especialización recreativa. Esta investiga...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-13
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-11-2020-0547
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • eWOM, destination preference and consumer involvement – a
           stimulus-organism-response (SOR) lens

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      Authors: Neha Yadav , Sanjeev Verma , Rekha D. Chikhalkar
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the moderated-mediation impact of consumer involvement and destination preference on travel intentions. Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) and elaboration likelihood model (ELM) guided the conceptual framework of this study. Churchill’s (1979) guidelines instrumentalize the scientific development and validation of measurement scales for data collection. The authors used higher-order multivariate analyzes such as structural equation modeling (SEM) and the Hayes process model for evaluating the hypotheses. The study uses Bauer et al. (2006) method to assess the conditional indirect effects of Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) on travel intention through destination preference at varying levels of consumer involvement. SOR and ELM model successfully explained the moderated-mediation effect of eWOM, consumer involvement and destination preference in influencing the travel intentions. Results broaden the applicability of SOR and ELM in tourism marketing. Results indicate that consumer involvement moderated the direct and indirect influence of eWOM on travel intention via destination preference, such that the eWOM influence in shaping travel intention is stronger for highly involved consumers. The present study broadens the applicability of integrated SOR and ELM models to explain the moderated-mediation network between eWOM and travel intentions. Study findings offer new avenues to tourism marketers for the magnified effect of eWOM for promoting tourism. Tourism marketers may use customer journeys to build destination preference through organic information exchange with prospective travelers. Future researchers and practitioners can build prescriptive and predictive models based on altered levels of consumer involvement. Present study pioneers in examining the interactive effect of moderated mediation network of consumer involvement and destination preference in shaping the travel intention. Grounded in SOR and ELM model, the present study is a trailblazer to offer the integrated moderated-mediation model between eWOM, destination preference, consumer involvement and travel intention. 本研究考察了消费者参与和目的地偏好对旅行意图的适度中介影响。刺激-有机体-响应 (SOR) 和精细化可能性模型 (ELM) 指导了本研究的概念框架。 Churchill (1979) 指南将科学发展和数据收集测量尺度的验证工具化。我们使用高阶多元分析, 如结构方程模型 (SEM) 和 Hayes 过程模型来评估假设。该研究使用 Bauer et al. (2006) 的方法来评估 eWOM 通过不同消费者参与水平的目的地偏好对旅行意愿的条件间接影响。 SOR 和 ELM 模型成功解释了 eWOM、消费者参与和目的地偏好在影响旅行意图方面的调节中介效应。结果拓宽了 SOR 和 ELM 在旅游营销中的适用性。结果表明, 消费者参与通过目的地偏好调节了 eWOM 对旅行意愿的直接和间接影响, 因此对于高度参与的消费者而言, eWOM 在塑造旅行意愿方面的影响更强。 本研究扩大了综合 SOR 和 ELM 模型的适用性, 以解释 eWOM 和旅行意图之间的调节中介网络。研究结果为旅游营销人员提供了新的途径, 以扩大电子口碑对促进旅游业的影响。旅游营销人员可以通过与潜在旅行者的有机信息交换, 利用客户旅程来建立目的地偏好。未来的研究人员和从业者可以根据消费者参与程度的变化建立规范和预测模型。 目前的研究先驱在检验消费者参与和目的地偏好的调节中介网络在塑造旅行意图方面的交互作用。本研究以 SOR 和 ELM 模型为基础, 是提供 eW...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-09-11
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-10-2020-0506
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Harnessing social media to understand tourist mobility: the role of
           information technology and big data

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      Authors: Jinyan Chen , Susanne Becken , Bela Stantic
      Abstract: This paper aims to examine key parameters of scholarly context and geographic focus and provide an assessment of theoretical underpinnings of studies in the field of social media and visitor mobility. This review also summarised the characteristics of social media data, including how data are collected from different social media platforms and their advantages and limitations. The stocktake of research in this field was completed by examining technologies and applied methods that supported different research questions. This literature review applied a mix of methods to conduct a literature review. This review analysed 82 journal articles on using social media to track visitors’ movements between 2014 and November 2020. The literature compared the different social media, discussed current applied theories, available technologies, analysed the current trend and provided advice for future directions. This review provides a state-of-the-art assessment of the research to date on tourist mobility analysed using social media data. The diversity of scales (with a dominant focus on the city-scale), platforms and methods highlight that this field is emerging, but it also reflects the complexity of the tourism phenomenon. This review identified a lack of theory in this field, and it points to ongoing challenges in ensuring appropriate use of data (e.g. differentiating travellers from residents) and the ethics surrounding them. The findings guide researchers, especially those with no computer science background, on the different types of approaches, data sources and methods available for tracking tourist mobility by harnessing social media. Depending on the particular research interest, different tools for processing and visualization are available.
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-02-2021-0090
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Chineseness and behavioural complexity: rethinking Chinese tourist gaze
           studies

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      Authors: Mohan Li , Hazel Tucker , Ganghua Chen
      Abstract: This study aims to reconsider Chinese tourist gaze studies, examining the extent to which extant studies and theoretical models relating to the Chinese tourist gaze have overcome the Eurocentric limits of John Urry’s concept of the tourist gaze and elaborated the complexity of Chinese tourists’ gazes and visual practices. Content analysis is carried out, examining research articles, books, book chapters and PhD and MSc theses collected from multiple English and Chinese databases. The research results manifest that, overall, the previous studies, mobilise cultural essentialism, with an overestimation of the “Chineseness” of Chinese tourists’ behavioural patterns, which are widely believed to be framed by, but also constituting of, unique Chinese culture. Overdependence on Chinese cultural values and traditional philosophies as sources for rationale has resulted in a handful of theoretical frameworks, which appear to be of insufficient magnitude both in terms of their contribution to the original tourist gaze model and in their manifesting of the complexity of Chinese tourists’ visual behaviour. Indeed the divide that once deliberately set apart West and East, or more precisely Western and Chinese tourist gazes, seems to become accentuated in most attempts to study and write about Chinese tourist gaze(s). The previous studies thus largely serve to mirror the Eurocentrism of Urry’s gaze, rather than challenging it. This study has a few limitations, especially, as this study only reviews and analyses the studies of the Chinese tourist gaze. It means that the conclusion might not well be generalised to either the investigation of the tourist gaze in another culture or the Chinese tourist studies, at large, which might exhibit a different pattern deserving more academic attention in future. Moreover, the authors recommend the future researchers, who are eager to probe Chinese tourists’ behavioural pattern, to seek for new pathways and alternative paradigms, which would be useful in overcoming the limits of cultural representations and in reducing the problematic Sino-Western divide. Despite not aiming to reconceptualise the Chinese tourist gaze, this review paper contributes to the field of tourist gaze studies by engaging critically with the bias and theoretical insufficiencies that have emerged, while this concept is appropriated and re-formulated to explain Chinese tourists’ gazes and visual practices. On this basis, the authors suggest a critical redirection of the extant Chinese tourist gaze studies, which would be rather significant to those researchers in future with an interest to research what the Chinese tourists prefer to see in travel and how they engage with the gazee. 中国性与行为复杂性:反思中国游客凝视研究 本文重新检视有关中国游客凝视的研究, 审视现有研究和理论模型在多大程度上克服了约翰·厄里提出的游客凝视概念所蕴含的欧洲中心主义的局限, 并阐述中国游客凝视和视觉实践的复杂性。 本研究进行了内容分析; 资料来源于多个渠道的期刊论文、书籍、书章和博硕论文。 总体而言, 以往研究调动了文化本质主义, 过分强调了中国游客行为模式的“中国性”–被广泛认为受制于中国文化, 且也是中国文化一部分。对作为基本理论来源的中国文化价值观和传统哲学的过度依赖产生了一系列理论框架, 但它们在对最初的游客凝视模型的贡献上, 以及在对中国游客视觉行为的复杂性的阐释上, 都是不够的。在大部分中国游客凝视研究中, 以往对西方游客和中国游客的凝视的刻意区分都得以凸显, 从而映照出厄里的游客凝视概念所蕴含的欧洲中心主义。 虽然本评述论文并不致力于对中国游客凝视进行重新概念化, 但依旧对游客凝视研究领域做出了贡献。当游客凝视这一概念被挪用ߎ...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-22
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-02-2021-0088
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Antecedents of tourists’ solo travel intentions

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      Authors: Constanza Bianchi
      Abstract: This study aims to empirically investigate the antecedents of tourists’ intentions to continue solo traveling. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), an extended model on solo travel intentions is developed that incorporates variables related to past solo travel experiences, namely, tourist satisfaction, pleasure and self-development. An online survey was applied to 187 solo tourists from different countries. Hypotheses were tested with structural equation modeling. All the variables, except for subjective norms, are significant predictors of tourists’ intentions to continue solo traveling. Results confirm a good explanatory power of the extended TPB model. Caution must be exercised with the results as tourists’ actual solo travel behavior may differ from their intentions. Future research may investigate tourists’ actual behavior by using longitudinal methods and include additional demographic variables as antecedents. This study empirically investigated the antecedents of tourists’ intentions to continue solo traveling – an under-researched topic. Previous research is mostly exploratory and largely focuses on female solo travelers. 游客单人旅行意愿的前因研究 摘要 基于计划行为的理论, 开发了关于单人旅行意愿的扩展模型, 其中包含与过去的单人旅行经历相关的变量:游客满意度, 愉悦感和自我发展。在线调查收集了来自不同国家的187位单人游客。假设用结构方程模型进行了检验。 本研究实证调查了游客继续单人旅行意愿的原因。 除主观标准外, 所有变量都是游客继续单人旅行意图的重要预测指标。结果证实了计划行为模型扩展理论的良好解释能力。 必须谨慎对待结果, 因为游客的实际单人旅行行为可能与他们的意愿不同。未来的研究可能会使用纵向方法来调查游客的实际行为, 并将其他人口统计变量作为前因。 这项研究实证调查了游客继续单人旅行意愿的前因, 这是一个尚未得到充分研究的话题。先前的研究主要是探索性的, 并且主要针对女性单身旅行者。 单人旅行;计划行为理论,游客满意度,愉悦感,自我发展 Antecedentes de las intenciones de viaje en solitario de los turistas Resumen Basándose en la teoría del comportamiento planificado, se desarrolla un modelo extendido sobre las intenciones de viajar en solitario que incorpora variables relacionadas con experiencias pasadas de viajes en solitario: satisfacción del turista, placer y autodesarrollo. Se aplicó una encuesta en línea a 187 turistas en solitario de diferentes países. Las hipótesis se probaron con un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales. Este estudio investiga empíricamente los antecedentes de la intención de turistas de continuar viajando solos. Todas las variables, excepto las normas subjetivas, son predictores significativos de la intención de los turistas de seguir viajando en solitario. Los resultados confirman un buen poder explicativo del modelo ampliado de la teoría del comportamiento planificado. Se debe tener precaución con los resultados, ya que el comportamiento real de los turistas cuando viajan solos puede diferir de sus intenciones previas. Las investigaciones futuras pueden investigar el comportamiento real de turistas que viajan solo mediante el uso de métodos longitudinales e incluir variables demográficas adicionales como antecedentes. Este estudio investiga empíricamente los antecedentes de la intención de los turistas de seguir viajando en solitario, un tema poco investigado. Las investigaciones anteriores son en su mayoría exploratorios y se centran principalmente en las mujeres que viajan solas. Viaje en solitario, satisfacción del turista, placer del turista , autodesarrollo del turista , Teoría del comportamiento planificado Revisión de literatura
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-12
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-12-2020-0611
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Accessible tourism: a bibliometric review (2008–2020)

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      Authors: Guanghui Qiao , Liu Ding , Linlin Zhang , Huili Yan
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to reveal the knowledge evolution process, research hotspots and future trends in the accessible tourism research literature from 2008 to 2020. A total of 213 articles on accessible tourism were selected from the core collection database of Web of Science (WoS) and analyzed using CiteSpace. Over the 13-year period between 2008 and 2020, an increasing number of studies have been published concerning accessible tourism, but the overall base is still small. The research content mainly includes six modules. Among institutions, the University of Technology Sydney has published the largest number of papers. Cooperation among countries involves the USA, the United Kingdom, Australia, Portugal and China. Tourism Management is the leading journal for disseminating research on accessible tourism. Definition of “Accessible tourism” and the different scope of this phenomenon are re-discussed. In recent years, “experience” and “participation” have become the “new favorites” in accessible tourism research, which could reveal insights into future research directions. The sampling frame was defined in terms of the WoS database and even though this is an important database for global academic information, in the big data era, the authors may have to integrate information from multiple sources to comprehensively reveal and understand knowledge maps. Second, because of the operational constraints of the CiteSpace software, the authors only selected outputs published in peer-reviewed journals, excluding other published works, such as books and conference papers. Finally, because of the language restrictions of the authors, this research is limited to journals published in the English language. Practically, the results of this study made a conclusion of accessible tourism research so that the researchers can easily know what has currently been done and what future research can do. Tourism managers can also understand the demands and the constraints of tourism for the people who have barriers to travel. They can supply more specific products for the accessible tourism and further promote the construction of barrier-free travel environments. This paper unifies the literature on senior tourism and people with disabilities tourism, and uses CiteSpace to construct data and network visualizations, including a burst and dynamic analysis for the period covered by the sample. Furthermore, this paper proposed a more diversified accessible tourism. 无障碍旅游:文献计量学研究综述 (2008-2020) 此篇论文目的是通过对2008年到2020年间无障碍旅游研究文献进行科学计量和可视化分析, 展示该领域的知识演变进程、研究热点和未来趋势。 从Web of Science核心合集数据库中经过多次筛选, 挑选出213篇文章, 并利用CiteSpace进行分析。 13年来无障碍旅游的研究文献数量总体呈上升趋势, 但总体基数仍然不大, 研究内容主要包含六个模块。机构中悉尼科技大学的发文量最多。国家间的合作以美国、英国、澳大利亚、葡萄牙和中国为基础。主要发行期刊是Tourism Management。本文还对无障碍旅游的定义和内涵重新进行了思考和讨论。近年来“体验”和“参与”成为了无障碍旅游研究中的“新宠”, 揭示出未来的研究方向。 此篇论文将老年旅游和残障旅游统一起来, 并利用CiteSpace做出清晰的数据和网络展示, 包含了过去13年的突发性和动态性分析。并且, 本文提出了更为广泛和多元的无障碍旅游。 无障碍旅游; 残障旅游; 老年旅游; 文献综述; CiteSpace 文章类型: 研究综述 Turismo accesible: una revisión bibliométrica (2008–2020) El objetivo de este trabajo es revelar el proceso evolutivo del conocimiento, los puntos críticos de la investigación y las futuras tendencias de la literatura de investigación del turismo accesible del 2008 a 2020. De la base de datos central de la red científica, se seleccionaron 213 artículos sobre turismo accesible y se analizaron utilizando citespace. En los 13 año...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-12
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-12-2020-0619
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Transformational leadership and trust in leadership impacts on employee
           commitment

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      Authors: Yue Yuan , Haiyan Kong , Tom Baum , Yining Liu , Chao Liu , Naipeng Bu , Kangping Wang , Zihan Yin
      Abstract: This paper aims to explore the effects of leadership style and trust in leadership on employees’ affective commitment under the epidemic situation. A total of 580 valid questionnaires were collected online targeting the hospitality and tourism employees working from home during the particular period of the COVID-19 Coronavirus crisis. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data with AMOS software. The findings indicated that perceived transformational leadership was a positive predictor of trust in leadership and affective commitment. In addition to the positive contribution to commitment, trust in leadership also mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. The current study contributes to the literature on leadership and organizational commitment. The results of this study may provide a valuable guide to organizations, leaders and young employees. 变革型领导对员工信任及员工情感承诺的影响研究 本文旨在研究在新冠疫情背景下, 变革型领导对员工信任度以及情感承诺的影响。 本文研究对象为旅游及酒店行业工作人员, 由于新冠疫情, 调查问卷通过线上的方式向居家办公的酒店工作人员进行发放, 调查结束共收集到580份有效问卷, 利用AMOS软件对收集到的数据进行结构方程分析。 本研究发现, 变革型领导对员工组织信任具有正向影响, 员工信任对员工的组织情感承诺具有正向影响, 变革型领导正向影响员工的组织情感承诺, 并且, 变革型领导通过增强员工信任度, 正向影响员工的组织情感承诺, 即员工信任在变革型领导和情感承诺中间起中介作用。 本研究为拓展企业管理领域研究做出了贡献, 本文研究结果验证了相关的领导理论及组织管理理论, 丰富了职业承诺领域的研究, 为组织、领导以及青年员工的职业发展提供了参考借鉴。 Investigación sobre la influencia del liderazgo transformacional en la confianza y el compromiso emocional de los empleados Este artículo tiene como objetivo estudiar la influencia del liderazgo transformacional en la confianza y el compromiso emocional de los empleados bajo el impacto del Covid-19. El objeto de investigación de este artículo es el personal del sector turístico y hotelero. Se recogieron un total de 580 cuestionarios válidos y se analizaron los datos recopilados mediante ecuación estructural utilizando el software AMOS. Esta investigación encontró que el liderazgo transformacional tiene una influencia positiva en la confianza de los empleados, la confianza de los empleados tiene una influencia positiva en el compromiso emocional de los empleados, el liderazgo transformacional afecta positivamente el compromiso emocional de los empleados y la confianza de los empleados juega un papel intermediario entre el liderazgo transformacional y el compromiso emocional. Esta investigación enriquece la investigación sobre la teoría del liderazgo y el compromiso organizacional, y proporciona una referencia para el desarrollo profesional de organizaciones, líderes y empleados jóvenes.
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-10-2020-0477
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Tourist gaze through computer vision: where, what, how and why'

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      Authors: Kun Zhang , Hanqin Qiu , Jingyue Wang , Chunlin Li , Jinyi Zhang , Dora Dongzhi Chen
      Abstract: This paper aims to answer the following four research questions: Where do tourists gaze at the destination' What do tourists gaze at the destination' How do tourists gaze differently' Why do tourists gaze differently referring to relevant theory' With a computer vision approach, this study illustrated a series of maps that reflect where and what do tourists gaze at and compared the differences in the visual perceptions among Asian, European and North American tourists in Hong Kong. The findings confirm that the “tourist gaze” is influenced by geographical and cultural conditions. The conclusions provided three types of implementations for destination management strategies and advocated a high engagement with computer vision technology. In theory, this study proves that the “tourist gaze” is influenced by geographical and cultural conditions. The study’s methodological contribution lies in applying advanced technology of visual content analysis for big data relevant to the issue of the tourist gaze. Practically, the finding that has not been achieved via previous questionnaire surveys will serve as a reference for tourism recommendations and precision marketing. In addition, its practical contribution is that it offers a means by which to explore tourists’ perceptions of destinations and understand the attractiveness of destinations to tourists. 研究一方面使用计算机视觉深入学习模型对游客照片内容进行识别, 比较了亚洲、欧洲和北美游客在香港不同空间场景的视觉感知差异。另一方面, 研究借助ArcGIS软件对游客凝视地点和内容差异进行了具体可视化分析。 这项研究有四个研究子问题: (1) 游客在哪里凝视? (2) 游客凝视了什么? (3) 游客凝视内容有什么不同? (4) 为什么游客凝视不同? 不同游客在旅游目的地的“凝视”存在差异, 差异表征具体体现在地点选择和内容偏好等维度。同时, 研究结果显示计算机视觉技术在旅游研究领域呈现较好的应用潜力。 理论上, 本研究佐证了”游客凝视”受地理和文化条件影响的理论。技术上, 本研究探索了视觉分析技术在游客凝视议题上应用, 为旅游目的地感知评估提供了新的视角。应用层面, 研究结论为旅游目的地精准营销提供了参考。 Con un enfoque de visión artificial, este estudio ilustra una serie de mapas que reflejan dónde y qué miran los turistas, y compara las diferencias en las percepciones visuales entre los turistas asiáticos, europeos y norteamericanos en Hong Kong. El estudio tiene cuatro preguntas de investigación: (1) ¿Dónde miran los turistas en el destino' (2) ¿Qué miran los turistas en el destino' (3) ¿Cómo miran los turistas de forma diferente' (4) ¿Por qué los turistas miran de forma diferente en referencia a la teoría pertinente' Las conclusiones confirman que la “mirada del turista” está influida por las condiciones geográficas y culturales. Las conclusiones aportan tres tipos de aplicaciones para las estrategias de gestión de destinos y abogan por un alto compromiso con la tecnología de visión artificial. En teoría, este estudio demuestra que la “mirada del turista” está influenciada por las condiciones geográficas y culturales. La contribución metodológica del estudio radica en la aplicación de tecnología avanzada de análisis de contenido visual para big data relevante para el tema de la mirada del turista. En la práctica, los hallazgos que no se han logrado a través de encuestas anteriores servirán de referencia para las recomendaciones turísticas y el marketing de precisión. Además, su contribución práctica es que ofrece un medio para explorar las percepciones de los turistas sobre los destinos, y comprender el atractivo de los mismos para los turistas.
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-04
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-04-2020-0185
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Automation and artificial intelligence in hospitality and tourism

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      Authors: Fauzia Jabeen , Sameera Al Zaidi , Maryam Hamad Al Dhaheri
      Abstract: This study aims to develop a framework to identify and prioritize the key factors in automation and artificial intelligence (AI) implementation in the hospitality and tourism industry. This paper used the analytic hierarchy process, a multi-criteria decision-making method, to prioritize the factors influencing automation and AI implementation. This paper developed a model with five criteria (human knowledge, services, robotics applications, internal environment and institutional environment) and 23 sub-criteria obtained from previous studies. This paper designed a questionnaire in the form of pairwise comparisons based on the proposed hierarchical structure. This paper used a nine-point ranking scale to show the relative significance of each variable in the hierarchy and tested the model among staff from 35 five-star hotels and top-rated tourism agencies in the United Arab Emirates. Human knowledge, services and robotics applications were the most significant factors influencing automation and AI implementation. Practitioners and researchers in the hospitality and tourism industry could apply the proposed framework to develop sustainable strategies for implementing and managing automation and AI. The proposed framework may also be useful in future studies examining AI implementation in the hospitality and tourism industry. This paper developed a framework for policymakers that identifies and could help to overcome some of the challenges in implementing automation and AI in the hospitality and tourism sector around the world. The results provide an agenda for future research in this area. 酒店业和旅游业中的自动化和人工智能 摘要 本研究旨在开发一个框架, 以确定和优先考虑酒店业和旅游业自动化和人工智能(AI)实施的关键因素。 我们使用层次分析法, 一种多准则决策方法, 对影响自动化和人工智能实施的因素进行优先排序。我们建立了一个包含五个标准(人类知识、服务、机器人技术应用、内部环境和制度环境)的模型, 并从先前的研究中获得了23个子标准。基于所提出的层次结构, 我们设计了一份以成对比较的形式进行的问卷调查。我们使用九点评分量表来说明每个标准或子标准在层级中的相对重要性, 并在阿联酋35家五星级酒店和顶级旅游机构的员工中测试了该模型。 人类知识、服务和机器人应用是影响自动化和人工智能实施的最重要因素。酒店业和旅游业的从业人员和研究人员可以应用拟议的框架来制定实施和管理自动化和人工智能的可持续战略。拟议的框架也可能有助于未来研究人工智能在酒店业和旅游业的实施。 我们为决策者开发了一个框架, 用来识别并帮助其克服全球酒店业和旅游业实施自动化和人工智能方面的一些挑战。研究结果为今后该领域的研究提供了一个议程。 Automatización e inteligencia artificial en hostelería y turismo Resumen Este estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un marco para identificar y priorizar los factores clave en la implementación de la automatización y la inteligencia artificial (IA) en la industria hotelera y turística. utilizamos el proceso de jerarquía analítica, un método de toma de decisiones de varios criterios, para priorizar los factores que influyen en la automatización y la implementación de la IA. Desarrollamos un modelo con cinco criterios (conocimiento humano, servicios, aplicaciones robóticas, entorno interno y entorno institucional) y 23 subcriterios obtenidos de estudios previos. Diseñamos un cuestionario en forma de comparaciones por pares basados en la estructura jerárquica propue...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-28
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-09-2019-0360
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Tourists’ perceptions of urban space: a computer vision approach

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      Authors: Kun Zhang , Jinyi Zhang , Chunlin Li , Yan Jiao , Ying Wang
      Abstract: This study aims to conduct an empirical investigation of differing perceptions of nine types of urban space and nine visual elements among tourists in destination using a computer vision (CV) approach. The data for this study was extracted from YFCC 100 M dataset. Nine types of urban space in Beijing were initially identified using a scene recognition model. Subsequently, a semantic segmentation model was applied, which yielded substantial evidence relating to nine visual elements that were used to elicit differing perceptions among tourists from different continents. Tourists from three continents had different perceptions about corridors, old buildings, overlooks and traffic spaces, reflecting their cultural convention. Asians, Europeans and North Americans diversely gazed at the landscape element of buildings, foliage, sky and people in urban space. All those provided evidence to contribute to the tourist gaze theory's construction. This study firstly depicted how tourists perceive the tourism symbol of urban space. The novel approach of employing two CV models offer methodological insights to tourism research relevant to visual perception. 游客对城市空间的感知:计算机视觉途径 本研究采用计算机视觉方法, 探究游客对旅游目的地九种城市空间类型及九种视觉元素的感知差异。 本研究数据提取自YFCC 100M图片数据集。首先, 利用场景识别模型识别了游客图片中的九种城市空间类型。其次, 应用语义分割模型识别了游客图片的九个视觉元素。这些分析结果被用于探究不同大洲游客的视觉感知差异。 来自不同大洲的游客对城市空间有不同的感知偏好。亚洲人更喜欢拍摄自己与著名的城市建筑, 欧洲人和北美人更喜欢自然元素, 如水、树叶和天空。不同大洲游客对视觉元素的偏好佐证了旅游凝视理论。 本研究选取了独特的城市空间为研究对象, 来验证游客凝视理论。此外, 两种计算机视觉模型为旅游研究提供了新的方法论视角。 La percepción de los turistas del espacio urbano: Un enfoque de vision artificial Los datos para este estudio se extrajeron del conjunto de datos YFCC 100 M. Inicialmente se identificaron nueve tipos de espacio urbano en Pekín mediante un modelo de reconocimiento de escenas. Posteriormente, se aplicó un modelo de segmentación semántica, que aportó pruebas sustanciales en relación con nueve elementos visuales que se utilizaron para suscitar percepciones diferentes entre turistas de distintos continentes. El objetivo de este estudio es llevar a cabo una investigación empírica sobre las diferentes percepciones de nueve tipos de espacio urbano y nueve elementos visuales entre los turistas en destino, utilizando un enfoque de visión artificial (CV). Los turistas de tres continentes tenían percepciones diferentes sobre los pasillos, los edificios antiguos, los miradores y los espacios de tráfico, lo que refleja su convención cultural. Los asiáticos, los europeos y los norteamericanos observaron de forma diversa el elemento paisajístico de los edificios, el follaje, el cielo y las personas en el espacio urbano. Todos ellos aportaron pruebas para contribuir a la construcción de la teoría de la mirada turística. Este estudio describe por primera vez cómo los turistas perciben el símbolo turístico del espacio urbano. El novedoso enfoque de emplear dos modelos de vision artificial ofrece conocimientos metodológicos para la investigación del turismo relacionados con la percepción visual.
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-26
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-06-2020-0287
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Effect of B&B host responses to online reviews on subsequent reviews: the
           moderating effects of class level

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      Authors: Tao Lan , Xiaodong Feng , Zhimin Zeng
      Abstract: This study aims to focus on understanding how the characteristics of the bed and breakfast (B&B) host responses to online reviews impact the subsequent business performance of review volume, including volume, timeliness and length of responses. The study constructs a theoretical framework to model for the relationships among characteristics of the B&B host responses, heterogeneity of B&B houses and subsequent reviews. The model is then examined by an econometric model using data from Ctrip.com. Prompt and lengthy responses to online reviews increase the number of subsequent reviews, and the effects are larger for higher level houses. The main theoretical contribution is to build a model explaining how multiple attributes of the host responses can affect business performance and how these effects are moderated by the class levels of B&B houses, which are empirically tested by real data. This study highlights managerial implications of host responses for online B&B business practices. For the higher-quality B&B houses, based on price and reviews, lengthy and timely responses are necessary, as tourists expect increased customer service from these hosts. The research provides insights in understanding the mechanism of B&B host responses on subsequent reviews. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the moderating effect of price and volume of online reviews on responses. 本研究旨着重探讨民宿房主对网上评论的回应特性如何影响评论量的后续经营绩效, 包括回复数量、及时性和回复的长度。 方法 -- 本研究首先构建理论框架, 对民宿房主的在线回应特征、民宿房屋的异质性特征与后续评论之间的关系进行建模。该模型通过一个计量经济学模型对从携程网收集的数据进行了检验. 研究结果 -- 本研究的结果显示, 对在线旅游评论提供及时和冗长的回复, 可能会增加未来的预订数量, 从而增加后续的评论,并且这个影响随着房屋等级的提高而增加。本文的主要理论贡献是建立一个模型来解释房屋主人在线回应的多重属性如何影响他们的经营绩效, 以及这些影响是如何被房屋等级所调节的,并通过真实数据对理论进行了验证。 研究意义 -- 该研究有助于将研究重点从在线评论和口碑转移到管理层的回应效应。我们的研究结果印证了之前的研究关于评论量可以影响口碑信息说服力及其他口碑相关特征(如管理层回应)影响的结论。 管理启示 -- 本研究的结果, 向民宿房主提供了具体的管理启示, 为网上民宿商业管理提供参考。对于价格更高、在线声誉较高的B&B房屋, 应提供更多及时的回应, 因为游客期望得到更友好的客户服务。 原创性 -- 这项研究提供了关于民宿房主在线回应对后续评论量影响机制的探索。并将是首次尝试验证价格和在线评论量对在线回复影响的调节作用。 Resumen Este estudio se centra en comprender cómo las características de las respuestas de los anfitriones de alojamientos B&B influyen en el rendimiento empresarial de volumen de reseñas; esto incluye el número de respuestas, la puntualidad de la respuesta y la duración de la misma. En primer lugar, el estudio construye un marco teórico para establecer un modelo de rel...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-12
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-10-2020-0474
      Issue No: Vol. ahead-of-print , No. ahead-of-print (2021)
       
  • Stakeholders’ perceptions of competitive tourism destination:
           empirical evidence from Serbia

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      Authors: Verica Milutinovic , Jelena Musanovic , Dejan Beric
      Abstract: This study made an advance over previous work by providing a modified model for measuring the competitiveness of tourism destinations based on competitive performance from a stakeholder perspective. Furthermore, this paper aims to evaluate the sources of relative strengths and weaknesses perceived of a destination. This study uses a quantitative approach to seek opinions of 135 tourism stakeholders. Univariate and bivariate statistical analyses were used to describe the profile of the respondents, quantify the main findings and test the proposed hypotheses. The results highlight the importance of safety in determining the attractiveness of a destination and its significance for the competitiveness of a destination. The strongest indicator of competitiveness is “Core resources and attractions,” while the weakest indicator is “Destination management.” Also, employees in public institutions and in the tourism industry in general have different opinions about competitive tourism destinations for most dimensions. Despite the fact that the findings do not consider the demand side, which has a major impact on the destination, they minimize the research gap and contribute to the existing literature review. The results are of particular value to stakeholders and destination management responsible for strengthening the competitiveness of tourism destinations. The research progressed over previous studies by developing and empirically testing a modified conceptual model for measuring destination competitiveness from a supply-side perspective and recommending improvements for the emerging tourism destinations. 利益相关者对竞争性旅游目的地的看法:来自塞尔维亚的经验证据 本研究提供了一个修正模型, 用于从利益相关者的角度基于竞争绩效来衡量旅游目的地的竞争力, 从而比以前的工作有所进展。此外, 它旨在评估目的地感知的相对优势和劣势的来源。 本研究采用定量分析法征求了135 名旅游业利益相关者的意见。采用单变量和双变量统计分析方法对受访者的概况进行描述, 量化主要研究结果并检验所提出的假设。 结果强调了安全在决定目的地吸引力方面及其对目的地竞争力的重要性。竞争力最强的指标是“核心资源和景点”, 最弱的指标是“目的地管理”。 此外, 公共机构和旅游业的从业人员对竞争性旅游目的地在大多数方面的看法普遍不同。 尽管研究结果没有考虑对目的地有重大影响的需求方, 但它们最大限度地缩小了研究差距并对现有的研究综述有所帮助。 研究结果对于利益相关者和旅游目的地管理层加强旅游目的地的竞争力具有特别价值。 相较于以往的研究而言, 该研究的进展在于形成和实证检验一个修正的概念模型, 从供应方的角度衡量目的地竞争力, 并为新兴旅游目的地的竞争地位提出改进建议。 Las percepciones de las partes interesadas del destino turístico competitivo: las pruebas empíricas de Serbia Este estudio avanzó sobre el anterior con proporcionar un modelo modificado para medir la competitividad de los destinos turísticos desde la perspectiva de las partes interesadas.  Además, el objetivo es evaluar los fuentes de las fuerzas y debilidades relativas, percibidas de un destino.  Este estudio usa el enfoque cuantitativo para buscar opiniones de 135 actores del turísmo. Se utilizaron análisis estadísticos univariados y bivariados para describir el perfíl de encuestados, para cuantificar los resultados principales y para comprobar la hipótesis propuesta.  Los resultados destacan la importancia de la seguridad para deter...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-02-2021-0092
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Perceived COVID-19 impacts and travel avoidance: application of protection
           motivation theory

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      Authors: Shama Nazneen , Hong Xu , Nizam Ud Din , Rehmat Karim
      Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and the travellers’ behaviour towards travel risk is an emerging issue. Nonetheless, the travellers’ perceived COVID-19 impacts, travel risk perception, health and safety perception and travel avoidance concerning protection motivation theory is unnoticed. Following the protection motivation theory, the current study investigates the direct and indirect relationships between perceived COVID-19 impacts and travel avoidance. Moreover, the travellers’ cognitive perceptions of risk may vary with their demographic characteristics; therefore, the present study aims to test the differences in group-specific parameter estimates using a multi-group analysis. The authors approached travellers from Tianjin, China using different communication services, including WeChat and email, through a snowball sampling technique. The study used 553 valid questionnaires for analysis. The results of 553 questionnaires in structural equation modelling (SEM) with AMOS 21 indicated that travellers’ perceived Covid-19 impacts positively correlate with travel avoidance. The study model based on protection motivation theory specifies that travel risk perception and health and safety perception as a cognitive mediating process partially mediated the relationship between perceived COVID-19 impacts and travel avoidance. The findings specified that during COVID-19, travellers assessed the severity of travel risks and adopted preventive measures which influenced their travel behaviour and led to travel avoidance. The multi-group analysis results indicated no difference in perception for gender and education; however, concerning age, the significant nested p-value specifies a difference in perception. The study offers implications for policymakers and the tourism industry to understand the travellers’ perceptions of travel during the pandemic and ensure health and safety measures to encourage travelling and reviving the tourism industry. The application of protection motivation theory to analyse the travellers’ perceived COVID-19 impacts and travel avoidance in the presence of travel risk perception and health and safety perceptions as a cognitive mediating process is novel. COVID-19大流行下的旅行风险问题日益重要。目前, 有关旅游者COVID-19影响感知、旅行风险感知以及健康安全感知与避免旅行之间关系的问题尚未引起学者广泛关注。基于保护动机理论, 本文对COVID-19影响感知与避免旅行之间的直接关系和间接关系进行深入研究。鉴于旅游者旅行风险认知因其人口特征而异, 本文采纳多组分析来检验群体间特定参数估计差异。 采用滚雪球抽样方法在中国天津利用微信和电子邮件共收集了553份有效问卷。 结构方程模型分析结果显示, 旅游者Covid-19影响感知与避免旅行之间呈正相关关系。基于保护动机理论的研究模型表明, 旅行风险感知和健康安全感知作为认知中间过程, 在COVID-19影响感知与避免旅行之间起到部分中介作用。这说明在COVID-19期间, 旅游者首先评估旅行风险等级并采取预防措施, 而这将影响他们的旅行行为, 甚至导致放弃旅行。此外, 多组分析结果表明, Covid-19影响感知在性别和受教育程度上并不存在显著差异, 但在年龄上差异显著。 研究对于政策制定者和旅游业界理解旅游者在疫情期间对旅行的看法以及采取健康和安全措施鼓励游客出游进而实现旅游业复苏具有重要启示。 基于保护动机理论, 引入旅行风险感知和健康安全感知作为中介变量来分析旅游者Covid-19影响...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-11-16
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-03-2021-0165
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Tourism and carbon emissions: a bibliometric review of the last three
           decades: 1990–2021

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      Authors: Hari Govind Mishra , Shailesh Pandita , Aasif Ali Bhat , Ram Kumar Mishra , Sonali Sharma
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review the diversified existing literature on tourism and carbon emissions using bibliometric analysis to churn down the multiple studies under one paper, which not only provides insights into the evolution and progress of the research area but also sets the future research agenda. The study adopted the Scientometrics review methodology based on the bibliometric analysis. Bibliometric analysis is conducted through the following techniques, namely, citation analysis, thematic mapping, country collaboration, co-citation analysis and co-occurrence of keywords with the help of R-based bibliometrix and visualization of similarities (VOS) viewer open-source software. The study identified the most prominent authors, studies, journals, affiliations and countries in the field of sustainable tourism, as well as the most co-cited authors and journals, based on a bibliometric analysis of 398 research papers retrieved from the Scopus database during the past three decades (1990–2021). Moreover, some of the relevant themes identified by the authors are energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission of the tourism sector, economic impacts of tourism and CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions and carbon tax. The outcome of the selected studies is a unique contribution to the field of sustainable tourism as it is one of the first known studies to review tourism and carbon emissions. It provides in-depth bibliometric analysis of articles and identification of the important research trends.
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-29
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-07-2021-0310
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The role of farm-to-table activities in agritourism towards sustainable
           development

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      Authors: Siti Fatimahwati Pehin Dato Musa , Wei Lee Chin
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of farm-to-table (FTT) activities in agritourism towards sustainable development based on three agritourism farms in Brunei. The study is based on qualitative data using semi-structured interviews with 23 participants involved in the management of the farms. In-depth interviews are considered the most appropriate approach to gain the unexplored perspectives of the agriculture community at the three agritourism farms. The study found that FTT activities imparted in agritourism contribute towards sustainable development economically, socially and environmentally. FTT leads to the establishment of small medium and micro enterprises, which, in turn, creates employment for the local people. It also plays a part in preserving the ethno-culinary heritage of indigenous food, promoting food localism and sustainable agriculture. These findings suggest that FTT activities play an important role in revitalizing the local community. The outcome of this empirical research may enable planners to better formulate regional policy based on a balanced approach taking into account the three dimensions of sustainability towards agritourism development. From a theoretical standpoint, this study adds value to the literature by identifying the contributions of FTT activities towards sustainable development emphasising on the consumption of local ethnic food and food localism. The contributions of agritourism for local farms has not been extensively discussed especially in Brunei’s local agriculture industry. This study will provide evidence that FTT activities contribute towards a moderate form of food activism; one that re-forges the disrupted linkages between people, nature and cultural heritage. 在农业旅游可持续发展中农场到餐桌活动的作用 本文的目的是利用三个汶莱农业旅游农场来评估农场到餐桌 (FTT) 活动在发展农业旅游可持续中的作用。 该研究基于对参与农场管理的 23 名参与者进行半结构化访谈的定性数据。 深入访谈被认为是获得三个农业旅游农场农业社区未探索观点的最合适方法。 结果表明, 农业旅游中的 FTT 活动有助于经济、社会和环境的可持续发展。 FTT 导致中小型企业的建立进而为当地人民创造就业机会。 它还在保护民族烹饪文化遗产的土著食品、促进食物本地化和可持续农业方面发挥作用。 这些发现表明 FTT 活动在振兴当地社区方面发挥着重要作用。 这项实证研究的结果可使规划者能够更好地制定基于平衡方法的区域政策, 同时考虑到农业旅游可持续性发展的三个维度。 理论来说, 本研究通过确定 FTT 活动对可持续发展的贡献, 强调当地民族食品的消费和食品地方主义, 为文献增加了价值。 农业旅游对当地农场的贡献尚未得到广泛讨论, 尤其是在文莱当地的农业产业中。 这项研究提供的证据表明 FTT 活动有助于适度形式的食物激进主义; 一种重建人、大自然和文化遗产之间被破坏的联系的方法。 El propósito de este documento es evaluar el papel de las actividades de agroturismo «de la granja a la mesa» (FTT, por sus siglas en inglés) hacia el desarrollo sostenible con base en tres granjas de agroturismo en Brunéi. El estudio se basa en datos cualitativos mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas con 23 participantes involucrados en la gestión de las granjas. Las entrevistas en profundidad se consideran el enfoque más apropiado para obtener las perspectivas inexploradas de la comunidad agrícola en las tres granjas de agroturismo. Los resultados sugieren que las actividades FTT impartidas en el agroturismo contribuyen al desarroll...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-11
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-02-2021-0101
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Negotiating interdisciplinary practice under the COVID-19 crisis:
           opportunities and challenges for tourism research

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      Authors: Xinyi Liu , Jun Wen , Metin Kozak , Yangyang Jiang , Zhiyong Li
      Abstract: COVID-19 is currently the most serious crisis facing the world, and scholars in the medical and social sciences are working to save lives and mitigate the societal effects of the pandemic. This global public health emergency requires interdisciplinary work to provide comprehensive insight into a rapidly changing situation. However, attempts to integrate the medical and social sciences have met several barriers. This paper aims to identify feasible research opportunities for interdisciplinary studies across tourism and public health regarding COVID-19. This paper presents a critical review of the literature and generates corresponding conceptual and theoretical frameworks to provide an in-depth discussion. Tourism-related issues of destination management policies and capital are addressed from an interdisciplinary perspective. The conclusions encourage interdisciplinary research into global health problems, which will promote tourism’s renaissance and sustainable development while enhancing social welfare. This study focuses on integrating tourism and public health to offer stakeholders recommendations regarding destination management and tourism industry recovery amid COVID-19. This paper represents a frontier study, critically uncovering a host of innovative interdisciplinary research directions and tourism-focused collaboration opportunities related to COVID-19. 新冠疫情是当今世界面对的最严重的危机, 医学和社会科学领域的学者们在共同努力, 拯救生命, 减轻疫情的社会影响。基于快速变化的形势, 这项全球突发的公共卫生事件亟需跨学科工作来进行全面的调查, 但目前医学和社会科学的融合存在一些阻碍因素。为了应对新冠疫情的爆发, 本文旨在探讨旅游与公共卫生跨学科合作的可行性和研究机会, 并总结潜在的研究主题和未来的研究议程。 本研究对文献进行了批判性的回顾, 并生成了相应的概念和理论框架, 以提供一个全面的, 深入的主题讨论。 研究结果从跨学科的角度讨论了旅游产业中的目的地管理、政策和资本问题。我们的结论鼓励对全球健康问题进行跨学科研究, 这将促进旅游业的复兴和可持续发展, 同时提高社会福利。 目前的研究重点是旅游研究和公共卫生的融合, 为利益攸关方提供关于在危机中目的地管理和旅游业复苏的建议。 本文是一项前沿研究, 批判性地、全面地确定了一系列与新冠疫情相关的旅游领域的跨学科研究方向和合作机会。 关键词:医学, 社会科学, 公共健康, 旅游管理, 跨学科研究, 新冠肺炎 文章类型: 研究型论文 Este trabajo presenta una revisión crítica de la literatura y genera los correspondientes marcos conceptuales y teóricos para proporcionar una discusión en profundidad. El COVID-19 es actualmente la crisis más grave a la que se enfrenta el mundo, y los especialistas en ciencias médicas y sociales están trabajando para salvar vidas y mitigar los efectos sociales de la pandemia. Esta emergencia de salud pública mundial requiere un trabajo interdisciplinario para proporcionar una visión completa de una situación que cambia rápidamente. Sin embargo, los intentos de integrar las ciencias médicas y sociales han encontrado varios obstáculos. El objetivo de este artículo es identificar las oportunidades de investigación viables para los estudios interdisciplinares entre el turismo y la salud pública en relación con la COVID-19. Las cuestiones relacionadas con el turismo en materia de gestión de destinos, políticas y capital se abordan desde una perspectiva interdisciplinar. Nuestras conclusiones alientan la investigación interdisciplinaria de lo...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-10-07
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-01-2021-0034
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Thanatopsis and mortality mediation within “lightest” dark
           tourism

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      Authors: Duncan Light , Preslava Ivanova
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the visitor experience at a “lightest” dark tourism attraction, focusing on issues of thanatopsis and mortality mediation. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 visitors to a “Dungeon”-style attraction in the UK (a site of “lightest” dark tourism). The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis; four themes were identified. Reflection on, and contemplation of, issues of life and death was a common (but not universal) component of the visitor experience. Four forms of such reflection were apparent: considering absent/present death; thanatopsis (reflection on the self’s inevitable mortality); reflecting on the nature of death and dying in the past; and enjoyment of the opportunity to engage with death without fear in the safe setting of a visitor attraction. Some visitors also reflected on issues of individual and collective morality, in both past and present. “Lightest” dark tourism is not necessarily about shallow experiences. Instead, many visitors are active agents, engaged in acts of making meaning about issues of death and life. This calls for a more sophisticated conceptualisation of such visitors. The mortality mediation model is widely accepted as a way of explaining the experience of visiting places of death but has rarely been subject to empirical scrutiny. This is one of few studies to explore in detail issues of mortality mediation and thanatopsis in the context of “lightest” dark tourism. 数据是通过对 24 名英国“地牢”式景点(“最轻微”黑色旅游景点)游客的半结构化访谈收集的。访谈采用主题分析法进行分析并确定了 4 个主题。 本文是对“最轻微”黑暗旅游景点的游客体验的实证调查,重点关注死亡冥想和死亡临界问题。 对生死问题的反思和思考是游客体验的一个常见(但不普遍适用)组成部分。这种反思的四种形式是显而易见的:缺席/现有的死亡认知; 死亡冥想(对自我不可避免的死亡的反思);反思死亡的本质和过去的死亡;并享受在安全的旅游景点环境中毫无畏惧地与死亡打交道的机会。一些参观者还反思了过去和现在的个人和集体道德问题。 “最轻微”的黑暗旅游不一定是肤浅的体验。相反,许多访客是积极的中间人,从事为生死问题赋予意义的行为。这需要对此类访问者进行更复杂的概念化理解。 死亡临界/调节模型作为一种解释访问死亡地的体验的方式被广泛接受,但很少通过经验研究来验证。这是在“最轻微”黑暗旅游背景下详细探讨死亡临界和死亡问题的少数研究之一。 Los datos se recopilaron a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas con 24 visitantes a un calabozo, un estilo de atracción turística en el Reino Unido (se diseña como un lugar de turismo oscuro "más ligero"). Las entrevistas se analizaron mediante análisis temático; Se identificaron 4 temas. Este artículo es una investigación empírica de la experiencia del visitante en una atracción turística oscura "más ligera", que se centra en cuestiones de tanatopsis y mediación de la mortalidad. La reflexión y la contemplación de cuestiones de la vida, así como la muerte, plantean un componente común (pero no universal) en la experiencia del visitante. Se identificaron, aparentemente, cuatro formas de reflexión: considerar la muerte presente/ausente; tanatopsis (reflexión sobre la inevitable mortalidad del yo); reflexionar sobre la naturaleza de la muerte y morir en el pasado y disfrute de la oportunidad de relacionarse con la muerte sin miedo a un entorno seguro, dentro de una atracción turística. Algunos visitantes también reflexionaron sobre cuestiones de moralidad individual y colectiva,...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-30
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-03-2021-0106
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Tourism public-private partnership (PPP) projects: an
           exploratory-sequential approach

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      Authors: Marwa Ghanem , Ibrahim Elshaer , Samar Saad
      Abstract: This study aims to address the absence of a thorough understanding of commitment in tourism public-private partnerships (PPP) by exploring antecedents of PPP commitment and their underpinning relationships in regard to the destination management system (DMS). An empirical investigation of the case of the Egyptian DMS, a PPP which was forsaken by the government partner and which subsequently failed. Qualitative and quantitative approaches are used for a comprehensive overview of the researched phenomena pertaining to external and internal stakeholders. The results indicated that stakeholder management, relational capital, perceived benefits and stakeholder capabilities could influence intentions to commit to a tourism PPP project. Also, the latter three factors were found to mediate the relationship between stakeholder management and long-term PPP commitment. The results also shed light on the important aspects of non-contractual, interpersonal relationships between internal and external PPP stakeholders. This research pioneers inquiries on the commitment of Tourism PPP/DMS projects and its possible drivers in a non-Western context. Also, this study contributes to knowledge by exploring the relationship within and between internal (partners) and external (e.g. local service providers) stakeholder groups and provided evidence on the crucial role of both on long-term PPP commitment and success. The current study has a few significant contributions to the PPP literature regarding the commitment and success of PPP in the complicated environments in which tourism PPP projects are operated. Moreover, this study offers essential information and practices for improving partner relationships with external stakeholders. 本研究通过探讨PPP承诺的前因及其相互关系, 解决了对旅游公私合作伙伴关系(PPP)中的承诺缺乏透彻了解的问题。 经验证据来自埃及目的地管理系统(DMS)的经验, 在这种情况下, 旅游PPP由于公共部门放弃了该项目而失败。采用混合方法来全面理解主题, 分析内部(合作伙伴)和外部(例如旅游提供商)利益相关者的观点。 结果表明, 利益相关者的管理, 关系资本, 可感知的收益和利益相关者的能力可能会影响致力于旅游PPP项目的意图。另外, 发现后三个因素可以调解利益相关者管理与长期PPP承诺之间的关系。结果还阐明了内部和外部PPP利益相关者之间非合同, 人际关系的重要方面。 这是第一个研究旅游PPP/DMS项目的承诺及其在非西方背景下的驱动力的研究。此外, 这项研究还通过探索内部(合作伙伴)与外部(例如本地服务提供商)利益相关者群体之间以及两者之间的关系, 为知识做出了贡献, 并提供了证据证明两者在长期PPP承诺和成功中都发挥着关键作用。当前的研究对PPP文献在PPP在旅游PPP项目运行的复杂环境中的承诺和成功做出了重要贡献。此外, 这项研究提供了必要的信息和实践, 以改善与外部利益相关者的合作伙伴关系。 este estudio aborda la ausencia de una comprensión profunda del compromiso en las asociaciones público-privadas (APP) de turismo al explorar los antecedentes del compromiso de las APP y sus relaciones subyacentes. la evidencia empírica se deriva de la experiencia del sistema de gestión de destinos (DMS) egipcio, un caso en el que una APP de turismo fracasó debido al abandono del proyecto por parte del sector público. Se adopta un enfoque de métodos mixtos para comprender de manera integral el tema, analizando las perspectivas de los interesados internos (socios) y externos (por ejemplo, proveedores de turismo). los resultados indicaron que la gestión de las par...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-12
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-03-2021-0105
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Sex tourism in an era of globalisation, harm reduction and disease
           migration: a new conceptual model

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      Authors: Alyson Hillis , Conan Leavey , Stephanie Kewley , Marie Claire Van Hout
      Abstract: This paper aims to contribute to sex tourism literature by placing it into a contemporary context of globalisation, harm reduction and disease migration. The paper takes a public health and social science approach to map sex tourism, drawing on sex worker and tourist situations alongside global forces including technology, human rights, law enforcement and health. A new, holistic conceptual model is presented, containing interacting, multi level associations. Whilst the separate micro, contextual, meso and macro levels are versatile, decision makers and practitioners will be equipped to understand sex tourism in its entirety. The paper’s originality is found in the proposed conceptual model. 全球化、减害和疾病迁移时代的性旅游:一种新的概念模型 该论文采用公共卫生和社会科学方法, 利用性工作者和旅游者的情况以及包括技术、人权、执法和健康在内的全球力量, 分析了性旅游的状况。 本文将性旅游文献置于全球化、减少危害和疾病迁移的当代背景下, 为性旅游文献做出了贡献。 本文提出了一个新的、整体的概念模型, 包含相互作用的多层次关联。虽然单独的微观、背景、中观和宏观层面是多变的, 但决策者和从业者将可以全面的了解性旅游。 该论文的独创性体现在提出的概念模型中。 El turismo sexual en la era de la globalización, la reducción de daños y la migración de enfermedades: un nuevo modelo conceptual Este artículo contribuye a la literatura sobre el turismo sexual situándolo en el contexto contemporáneo de la globalización, la reducción de daños y la migración de enfermedades. El documento adopta un enfoque de salud pública y ciencias sociales para delimitar el turismo sexual, basándose en las situaciones de los trabajadores del sexo y los turistas junto con las fuerzas globales, como la tecnología, los derechos humanos, la aplicación de la ley y la salud. Se presenta un nuevo modelo conceptual holístico que contiene asociaciones interactivas de varios niveles. Mientras que los niveles micro, contextual, meso y macro separados son versátiles, los responsables de la toma de decisiones y los profesionales estarán equipados para entender el turismo sexual en su totalidad. La originalidad del artículo se encuentra en el modelo conceptual propuesto. Investigación
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-12
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-04-2021-0184
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Investigating the mediating role of visitor satisfaction in the
           relationship between memorable tourism experiences and behavioral
           intentions in heritage tourism context

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh , Siamak Seyfi , Raouf Ahmad Rather , Colin Michael Hall
      Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the interplay of memorable tourism experiences (MTE) dimensions in driving behavioral intentions of heritage tourists through the mediating role of satisfaction. Empirical data were collected from tourists in the heritage city of Kashan, Iran. Partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) were applied to analyze the data. The results of PLS-SEM showed that three dimensions of MTE as follows: local culture, involvement and knowledge, significantly directly or indirectly influence tourists’ behavioral intention toward a destination. However, the results of fsQCA identified greater heterogeneity among the respondents by highlighting the positive effects of hedonism and novelty on satisfaction and revisit and word-of-mouth intentions. This study enriches the empirical evidence on MTE by constructing a composite picture of the memorability of tourists’ experiences within a heritage tourism context. This study is one of the first to investigate the effects of dimensions of MTE on behavioral intentions using both symmetric (PLS-SEM) and asymmetric approaches to identify the more significant dimensions of MTE, as well as sufficient combinations of dimensions to predict behavioral intentions. 本文旨在研究难忘旅游体验 (MTE) 各维度通过满意度这个中介变量来驱动遗产旅游游客行为意图的机制 实证数据是从伊朗遗产城市卡尚的游客那里收集的。本研究采用偏最小二乘结构方程模型(PLS-SEM)和模糊集定性比较分析(fsQCA)对数据进行分析 偏最小二乘结构方程模型的研究结果表明,难忘旅游体验(MTE)的三个维度:当地文化、参与度和熟悉程度,显著地直接或间接地影响游客对目的地的行为意向。然而,模糊集定性比较分析的研究结果表明受访者间存在更大的异质性,其结果凸显了享乐主义和新鲜感对满意度、重游意向和口碑(WOM)意向的正效应 本研究通过构建遗产旅游背景下游客体验难忘性的相互影响机制,丰富了关于难忘旅游体验(MTE)的实证研究证据。本研究是第一个同时使用对称方法(PLS-SEM)和非对称方法(fsQCA)来探究MTE各维度对行为意向的影响的研究之一,通过这种方式可以识别出MTE各维度中更为重要的维度以及维度组合,以此来预测行为意向 Este artículo investiga la influencia de las dimensiones de las experiencias turísticas memorables (ETM) en el fomento de las intenciones de comportamiento de los turistas del patrimonio a través del papel mediador de la satisfacción. Se recogieron datos empíricos de turistas en la ciudad patrimonial de Kashan, Irán. Para analizar los datos se aplicaron las técnicas partial least squares – structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) y fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Los resultados que proporcionó el análisis PLS-SEM mostraron que tres dimensiones de las ETM: cultura local, implicación y conocimiento, influyen significativamente, de forma directa o indirecta, en la intención de comportamiento de los turistas hacia un destino. Sin embargo, los resultados del enfoque fsQCA identificaron una mayor heterogeneidad entre los encuestados al destacar los efectos positivos del hedonismo y la novedad sobre la satisfacción y las intenciones tanto de volver a visitar el destino como de realizar una comunicación de boca a boca (WOM). Este estudio enriquece la evidencia empírica sobre las ETM al construir una imagen combinada del carácter memorable de las experiencias de los turistas dentro de un contexto de turismo patrimonial. Este estudio es uno de los primeros en investigar los efectos de las dimensiones las ETM en las intenciones de comportamiento utilizando enfoques simétricos (PLS-SEM) y asimétricos para identificar las dimensiones más significativas las ETM, así como para determinar las combinaciones necesarias de dimensiones para predecir las i...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-12
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-02-2021-0086
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Dark tourism destinations: the relationships between tourists’ on-site
           experience, destination image and behavioural intention

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      Authors: Lili Qian , Chunhui Zheng , Jinwei Wang , María de los Ángeles Pérez Sánchez , Eduardo Parra López , Hanliang Li
      Abstract: This study aims to explore how tourists construct destination images in the context of dark tourism and reveals the relationships between on-site experience, destination image and behavioural intention. The earthquake-ravaged county town of Beichuan in China was chosen as the study site. The study collected 298 viable questionnaires from tourists. Partial least squares structural equation modelling was performed to explore the relationships between the variables of on-site experience, destination image and behavioural intention. The study identified four dimensions of dark tourism destination image (TDI) from its attribute and functional perspective. It found that “image of memorial place” and “image of educational place” were the most perceptual images and positively related with most subdimensions of on-site experience and behavioural intention. “Image of leisure place” and “image of landscapes of fear” were less perceived by tourists and negatively related with some subdimensions of on-site experience and behavioural intention. To our knowledge, this study is the first attempt to explore the complex mechanisms of dark TDI formation with the framework of “on-site experiences–destination images–behavioural intentions”. By identifying tourists’ most and least perceptual images and their effective antecedents and consequences help to reconcile and manage the controversial and contradictory images of a dark tourism destination. 本文探讨了游客如何建构黑色旅游目的地形象, 进一步研究了游客现场体验、目的地形象、行为意愿之间的作用关系。 以汶川地震重灾区北川老县城遗址为案例地, 本研究收集了游客结构化问卷298份, 采用偏最小二乘结构方程模型(PLS-SEM)分析了游客现场体验、目的地形象和行为意愿各维度之间的作用关系。 从目的地属性和功能角度, 本文区分了黑色旅游目的地形象四个维度。研究发现“纪念地形象”和“教育地形象”是游客感知最强的两大维度, 与绝大多数游客现场体验和行为意愿的维度呈显著正向影响关系。 “休闲地形象”和“恐惧景观形象”, 游客感知较弱, 与现场体验和行为意向的一些维度呈负向影响关系。 本文首次利用“现场体验-目的地形象-行为意愿”这一研究框架, 揭示黑色旅游目的地形象的复杂生成机制。通过识别游客感知最强和最弱的形象维度, 揭示其前因与后果, 有助于调和与管理有争议和矛盾的黑色旅游目的地形象。 Este estudio explora cómo los turistas construyen la imagen del destino en el contexto del turismo oscuro, revelando las relaciones entre experiencias en el lugar, imágenes del destino e intenciones de comportamiento. El terremoto que devastó la ciudad del condado de Beichuan en China fue elegido lugar de estudio por sus peculiaridades para el desarrollo del destino oscuro. El estudio recopiló 298 cuestionarios viables de turistas. Se planteo un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales (PLS-SEM) para explorar las relaciones entre las variables de experiencias en el lugar, imágenes de destino e intenciones de comportamiento. El estudio identificó cuatro dimensiones de la imagen del destino turístico oscuro desde su atributo y perspectiva funcional. De igual forma, se encontró que la “imagen del lugar conmemorativo” y la “imagen del lugar educativo” eran las imágenes más perceptivas y estaban relacionadas positivamente con la mayoría de los subdimensiones de las experiencias en el lugar e intenciones de comportamiento. Los turistas percibieron menos la “imagen de un lugar de ocio” y la “imagen de paisajes de miedo” y se relacionaron negativamente con algunos subdimensiones de las experiencias en el lugar e intención de comportamiento. Hasta donde sabemos, este estudio es el primer intento de explorar el complejo mecanismo en la formación de TDIs oscuros con el marco de “experiencias en el lugar- imágenes de de...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-08-09
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-08-2020-0360
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Airportscape and its effect on airport sense of place and destination
           image perception

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      Authors: Walanchalee Wattanacharoensil , Pipatpong Fakfare , Anne Graham
      Abstract: This study aims to validate a conceptual definition of airportscape and develop a multidimensional scale that integrates servicescape and service quality dimensions to comprehensively investigate airport service management. In addition, this study examines the structural relationships amongst airportscape, sense of place, airport image and destination image. Covariance-based structural equation modelling has been used. This study has collected the responses from 1,189 Thai respondents who had their experience in an international airport in the past 12 months. Key findings reveal the set of three airportscape attributes which positively influenced the air traveller’s perceived sense of place. Four other dimensions were found to positively influence the airport image. The results also suggested the positive relationships amongst sense of place, airport image and destination image. Sense of place strongly predicted the destination image and airport image and was found to be an important mediator of the relationship between airportscape dimension and perceived image variables. This study validates the airportscape scale and introduces “sense of place”, a concept that has not been objectively investigated in the airport context, and in relation to tourism. The findings provide insights to airport managers and tourism authorities by examining areas that highlight an airport’s sense of place and representation of the destination. The study also strengthens the theoretical link between airport and tourism knowledge, by showing that the airport’s sense of place can strongly influence airport image and destination image. The result ascertains that the airport can be a representative of a destination through the creation of a sense of place. 本研究旨在確定機å ´景觀的概念性定義, 並開發一個將服åå ´景和服å品質維度整合在一起的多維尺度, 為機å ´的服å管理調查帶來全面性。此外, 研究還調查了機å ´景觀、地方感、機å ´形象和目的地形象之間的結構關係。 æ 用基於協方差的結構方程建模。本研究收集了曾在過去12個月中體驗過國際機å ´的1189名泰國受訪者的回答。 關é'µ結果揭示了三個機å ´景觀屬性的集合, 這些屬性對航空旅行者的感知地方感產生了ç©'極影響。 其他四個維度被發現對機å ´形象產生ç©'極影響。結果還表明, 地方感、機å ´形象和目的地形象之間存在正相關關係。地方感å¼·烈地預測了目的地形象和機å ´形象, 並被發現是機å ´景觀維度與感知形象變量之間關係的重要中介。 研究確定了機å ´景觀尺度, 並引入了“地方感”, 這是一個尚未在機å ´背景內和旅遊相關領域客觀研究的概念。研究結果é¡釋了突出機å ´地方感並代表目的地的項目和區域, 為機å ´管理者和旅遊當局提供洞察。研究還表明, 機å ´的地方感可以極大地影響機å ´形象和目的地形象, 從而加å¼·機å ´與旅遊認知之間的理論聯繫。研究結果發現, 通過構建地方感, 機å ´可以成為目的地的一個代表。 Este estudio tiene como objetivo validar una definición conceptual del paisaje aeroportuario y desarrollar una escala multidimensional que integre el paisaje de servicios y las dimensiones de la calidad del servicio con el fin de aportar exhaustividad a la investigación de gestión de servicios del aeropuerto. Además, el estudio examina las relaciones estructurales entre el paisaje aeroportuario, la percepción del lugar, la image...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-27
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-01-2021-0036
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Wellness tourism and the components of its offer system: a holistic
           perspective

         This is an Open Access Article Open Access Article

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      Authors: Mauro Dini , Tonino Pencarelli
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to conceptually examine the phenomenon of wellness tourism under a holistic and systemic lens, focusing on the offer system and the main components necessary for the staging of wellness experiences. This approach to holistic wellbeing within the tourism sector has led to a broadening of the type of services and experiences that make up the value propositions that can positively contribute to people’s wellbeing. This study identifies and defines the components of wellness tourism (including sectors not traditionally associated with it) through a review and analysis of the extant literature on “wellness tourism” and “wellbeing tourism” of the past two decades; the components were classified through an open coding process. Wellness tourism, as a broad multidimensional concept, is composed by ten different components of the offer system: hot springs, spas, medical tourism, care of the body and mind, enogastronomy, sports, nature and environment, culture, spirituality and events. Each of these categories may represent a single touristic offer targeted to specific market segments, but they may also be one of several components within an integrated mix of tourism products proposed. A holistic view of wellness tourism has implications for strategic marketing processes. Destination Management Organizations and company managers should segment their demand according to more innovative criteria than what has traditionally been adopted for wellness in terms of health care and medical procedures. Value propositions for tourists should be wellness-driven to satisfy the growing demand for wellness/well-being and should involve the participation of all the various actors and producers within the wellness tourism offer system at wellness destinations. 康养旅游及其组成元素:一个全方位的视角 此一论文会以全面和有系统的目光, 谈及康养旅游的现象, 并集中于康养旅游的供应系统和主要组成元素。此一以全面身心健康为目的的旅游行业, 使不同服务的覆盖范围和经验得以扩而充之, 提供有利条件正面地影响着人们的身心健康。 本研究会分辨和定义康养旅游的组成元素(以及其他在传统定义上被排除的行业), 透过重新审视和分析近20年有关于康养旅游(Wellness tourism)和健康旅游(Wellbeing tourism)的现存文献。同时, 所有元素会以开放式译码 (open coding)来分类。 康养旅游, 作为一个多元概念, 基本上与十个不同的供应行业相关:温泉, 水療, 医疗旅游, 身心护理, 饮食, 运动, 自然环境, 文化, 灵修和特办活动。不同类别的行业可以在代表市场上不同供需关系的同时, 也可以代表供应上可以有一种混合套餐供应。 以全面的目光去看康养旅游可以为市场策略定下基础。目的地管理公司(DMO)和不同的公司经理应该在分辨服务需求的时候, 多采用新颖的标准, 摒弃只包括医疗的传统健康观念。为游客订立的价值主张(Value propositions)应以全面身心健康为主导, 以满足对康养(Wellness)和健康(Wellbeing)不断上升的需求; 亦应大力度地提升所有安康旅游工作人员与顾客的互动和参与。 El turismo de bienestar y los componentes de su sistema de oferta: una perspectiva holística Este artículo examina conceptualmente el fenómeno del turismo de bienestar desde una perspectiva holística y sistémica, centrándose en el sistema de oferta y los principales componentes necesarios para la puesta en escena de experiencias de bienestar. Este enfoque d...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-26
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-08-2020-0373
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Airline quality assessment towards strategic tourism management
           improvements

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      Authors: André Philippi Gonzaga de Albuquerque , Fagner José Coutinho de Melo , Denise Dumke de Medeiros
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to compare the results of customer satisfaction indices (SI) in the literature and to propose equations to show that the reverse attribute needs to be taken into account in these calculations owing to its impact on customer satisfaction. To propose equations that take into account all types of quality attributes and in opposition to the models proposed by Berger (1993) and Wang (2013), in this work, a questionnaire adapted from the Kano model was developed, using the dimensions of the SERVQUAL model and applied to tourists who use the airline service. Data collection was carried out through social media, obtaining 694 responses. The findings show that the attributes considered as reverse were linked to the delay in the service late check-in, delay in the dispatch of luggage, delay in on-board service and take-off delay, generating dissatisfaction among tourists. Moreover, the same database used to compare the results of the dissatisfaction indices of Berger (1993) and Wang (2013) showed inconsistencies reinforcing the gap that this research intends to close. After the proposal of the SI made by the authors of the present research it was possible to verify the confirmation regarding the definition of reverse attribute developed by the Kano model, reinforcing that the customer satisfaction decreases with the presence of reverse attribute. The originality of this research seeks to contribute to the academic literature and organizational practices by investigating a gap in the SI proposed by Berger et al. (1993) for not inserting the reverse attributes and, later, studied by Wang (2013). Furthermore, this research uses the Kano questionnaire as an input to assist in the correct identification and evaluation of all attributes present in the service offered. 航空质量评估以改善战略旅游管理 这项研究的目的是比较文献中客户满意度指数的结果, 并提出方程式, 以显示由于反向属性对客户满意度的影响, 需要在这些计算中考虑反向属性。 为了提出考虑所有类型质量属性且与Berger (1993)和Wang (2013)提出的模型相反的方程式, 在这项工作中, 使用Kano模型改编了问卷。 SERVQUAL模型的维度, 并应用于使用航空公司服务的游客。数据收集是通过社交媒体进行的, 获得了694条回应。 调查结果表明, 被认为是反向的属性与服务的延迟(延迟登机(属性23), 行李寄送的延迟(属性24), 机上服务的延迟(属性25)有关。以及起飞延迟(属性26)引起游客的不满, 此外, 用于比较Berger (1993)和Wang (2013)的不满指标结果的同一数据库显示出不一致的地方, 从而加剧了本研究打算缩小的差距根据本研究的作者提出的满意度指标的提议, 有可能验证由Kano模型开发的关于反向属性定义的确认, 从而加强了客户满意度随着反向属性的存在而降低的事实。 本研究的独创性旨在通过调查Berger等人(1993)提出的不插入反向属性的满意度指标方面的差距来为学术文献和组织实践做出贡献, 后来由Wang (2013)研究。此外, 本研究使用Kano问卷作为输入, 以帮助正确识别和评估所提供服务中存在的所有属性。 Evaluación de la calidad de las aerolíneas para mejorar la gestión estratégica del turismo El propósito de este estudio es comparar los resultados de los índices de satisfacción del cliente en la literatura y proponer ecuaciones para mostrar que el atributo inverso debe tenerse en cuenta en estos cálculos debido a su impacto en la satisfacción del cliente. Con el fin de proponer ecuaciones que tengan en cuenta todo tipo de atributos ...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-07-08
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-07-2020-0354
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Health tourism: behavioural intention and protection motivation theory

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      Authors: Ai Na Seow , Yuen Onn Choong , Chee Keong Choong , Krishna Moorthy
      Abstract: Health tourism is recognised as a recent new pattern of taking a break while accessing health-care services overseas. Past studies have explored this research area, but few have focussed on the theoretical perspective. Applying an appropriate theoretical model to guide interventions in planning and programme development is crucial, particularly when the focus of the study is on the cognitive mediation processes of change in individual behaviour. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory with the influence of threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The purpose is to trigger the behavioural intention to engage in international health tourism. A total of 299 international tourists participated in the survey. The partial least squares structural equation modelling technique was used to test the research framework. Both the measurement model and the structural model were assessed as adequate. The empirical results demonstrate that tourists’ high risk perception must be complemented by coping ability to produce a motivational response. Further, the adaptive behaviours of international tourists are focussed more on perceived efficacy than on the perception of threats related to behavioural intentions towards health tourism. The study presents an effective theoretical model intervention applicable to health tourism. Future studies should conduct a more comprehensive assessment to generate strong decision-making effectiveness from the theoretical model. 共有299名国际游客参加了此次调查。使用偏最小二乘结构方程建模技术来测试研究框架。测量模型和结构模型均被评估为足够。 健康旅游业被公认为是最近在海外获得医疗服务时休息的新模式。过去的研究已经探索了这个研究领域, 但是很少有人关注理论观点。应用适当的理论模型来指导计划和程序开发的干预措施至关重要, 特别是当研究的重点是个人行为改变的认知中介过程时。本研究在威胁评估和应对评估的影响下检验了保护动机理论(PMT)的有效性。目的是激发从事国际健康旅游的行为意图。 实证结果表明, 游客的高风险感知必须通过应对能力来补充, 以产生激励反应。此外, 国际游客的适应行为更多地集中在感知的效能上, 而不是感知与针对健康旅游的行为意图有关的威胁。 该研究提出了一种适用于健康旅游的有效理论模型干预措施。未来的研究应进行更全面的评估, 以从理论模型中产生强大的决策效力。 关键词 健康旅游, 行为意图, 保护动机理论, 国际游客, 马来西亚 文章类型: 研究型论文 Un total de 299 turistas internacionales participaron en la encuesta. Se utilizó la técnica de modelización de ecuaciones estructurales por mínimos cuadrados parciales para probar el marco de investigación. Tanto el modelo de medición como el modelo estructural se consideraron adecuados. El turismo de salud se reconoce como un nuevo modelo reciente de descanso para acceder a los servicios sanitarios en el extranjero. Estudios anteriores han explorado esta área de investigación, pero pocos se han centrado en la perspectiva teórica. La aplicación de un modelo teórico adecuado para guiar las intervenciones en la planificación y el desarrollo de programas es crucial, especialmente cuando el estudio se centra en los procesos de mediación cognitiva del cambio en el comportamiento individual. Este estudio examina la eficacia de la teoría de la motivación de la protección (PMT) con la influencia de la valoración de la amenaza y la valoración del afrontamiento. El objetivo es activar la intención conductual de realizar turismo sanitario internacional. Los resultados empíricos demuestran que la percepción de alto riesgo de los turistas debe complementarse con la capacidad de afrontamiento para producir una respuesta ...
      Citation: Tourism Review
      PubDate: 2021-06-18
      DOI: 10.1108/TR-11-2020-0546
      Issue No: Vol. 77 , No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Tourism Review

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