Subjects -> RECREATION, TRAVEL AND TOURISM (Total: 204 journals)
    - HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS (2 journals)
    - LEISURE AND RECREATION (24 journals)
    - RECREATION, TRAVEL AND TOURISM (178 journals)

RECREATION, TRAVEL AND TOURISM (178 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 36 of 36 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Economica Et Turistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Almatourism - Journal of Tourism, Culture and Territorial Development     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Tourism Management     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Tourism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Anatolia : A Journal of Tourism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anatolia : An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
ARA : Revista de Investigación en Turismo     Open Access  
ASEAN Journal on Hospitality and Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Antarctic Magazine     Free   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts. Series in Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Caderno Virtual de Turismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cenário : Revista Interdisciplinar em Turismo e Território     Open Access  
Cornell Hospitality Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Craft Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Turismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Issues in Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Dusit Thani College Journal     Open Access  
E-Journal of Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EchoGéo     Open Access  
Educación física y deporte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Espiga     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Event Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Gastroia : Journal of Gastronomy And Travel Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gaze: Journal of Tourism and Hospitality     Open Access  
Geofronter     Open Access  
Geotourism/Geoturystyka     Open Access  
Gestion Turistica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Güncel Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Hospitality & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Infinitum: Revista Multidisciplinar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Information Technology & Tourism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Interaction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Earth Observations and Geoinformation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Sciences in Tourism and Events     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Contemporary Tourism Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Culture Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Digital Culture and Electronic Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Entertainment Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Event and Festival Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Geoheritage and Parks     Open Access  
International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Hospitality and Event Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Hospitality Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Knowledge Management in Tourism and Hospitality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Recreation and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Tourism Anthropology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Tourism Cities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Tourism Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Tourism Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Sciences in Travel and Hospitality     Open Access  
Journal of Business & Hotel Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Journal of China Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ecotourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Franco-Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Halal Product and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Heritage Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Hospitality Financial Management     Open Access  
Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of International and Thai Tourism     Open Access  
Journal of Multidisciplinary Academic Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of New Studies in Sport Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Park and Recreation Administration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Place Management and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sport & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Sustainable Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Tourism & Adventure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Tourism and Heritage Research     Open Access  
Journal of Tourism and Himalayan Adventures     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Education     Open Access  
Journal of Tourism Futures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tourism Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Tourism Intelligence and Smartness     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tourism Research & Hospitality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Travel Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Travel Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Vacation Marketing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journeys     Full-text available via subscription  
Juara : Jurnal Olahraga     Open Access  
Jurnal Analisis Pariwisata     Open Access  
Jurnal Destinasi Pariwisata     Open Access  
Jurnal IPTA     Open Access  
Jurnal Kepariwisataan dan Hospitalitas     Open Access  
Jurnal Master Pariwisata (Journal Master in Tourism Studies)     Open Access  
Jurnal Pariwisata Pesona     Open Access  
Jurnal Pariwisata Terapan     Open Access  
Marketing & Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Matkailututkimus     Open Access  
Matrik : Jurnal Manajemen, Strategi Bisnis dan Kewirausahaan     Open Access  
Mobilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Mondes du Tourisme     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Multiciencias     Open Access  
Nepalese Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
New Approaches in Sport Sciences     Open Access  
Perspectives in Asian Leisure and Tourism     Open Access  
Podium Sport, Leisure and Tourism Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism     Open Access  
RACE - Revista de Administração, Contabilidade e Economia     Open Access  
Rangeland Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recreation and Society in Africa, Asia and Latin America     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Hospitality Management     Open Access  
Revista de Gestão Ambiental e Sustentabilidade - GeAS     Open Access  
Revista de turism - studii si cercetari in turism     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica Academicus     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica de Administração e Turismo     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte     Open Access  
Revista Interamericana de Ambiente y Turismo     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Derecho del Turismo     Open Access  
Revista Internacional de Turismo y Empresa     Open Access  
Revista Organizações em Contexto     Open Access  
ROTUR : Revista de Ocio y Turismo     Open Access  
Sasdaya : Gadjah Mada Journal of Humanities     Open Access  
Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Space and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sport i Turystyka : Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe     Open Access  
Studies in Travel Writing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Téoros     Open Access  
The Journal : Tourism and Hospitality Essentials Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tourism     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Tourism & Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Tourism Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Tourism and Heritage Journal     Open Access  
Tourism and Hospitality Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Tourism and Travelling     Open Access  
Tourism Critiques : Practice and Theory     Open Access  
Tourism Culture & Communication     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Tourism Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Tourism Geographies: An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Tourism in Marine Environments     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Tourism Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Tourism Management Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tourism Planning & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tourism Recreation Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Tourism Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tourism Review International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Tourist Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
TRANSIT     Open Access  
Translation Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Turismo y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Turystyka Kulturowa     Open Access  
Via : Tourism Review     Open Access  
Visitor Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Tourism Economics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.665
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1354-8166 - ISSN (Online) 2044-0375
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1176 journals]
  • Internet use and inverted U-shaped employment polarization in tourism
           occupations

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      Authors: Wei Guo, Jing Wang, Yue Kang
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The existing literature has not fully explored the polarization of tourism employment and the causes of this polarization, and this article makes contributions to addressing this issue. Using data on tourism-related occupations from the China General Social Survey , the article finds that current tourism employment is polarized in an inverted “U” shape, with the top of the polarization occurring in the middle-skilled occupational area. This differs significantly from the existing literature, which concludes that there is a “U” shaped employment polarization. The article finds that workers’ use of the Internet is the main cause of the inverted U-shaped polarization of tourism employment. This is reflected in the relatively low proportion of employment in the low-skilled and high-skilled occupational groups and the relatively high and stable proportion of employment in the middle-skilled occupational groups. However, dynamically, the employment of low-skilled groups tends to increase, and high-employment groups tend to decrease. These results reveal new findings in the tourism labor market and have important implications for current research on tourism employment.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2023-03-22T05:25:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166231161879
       
  • Can immigration moderate the adverse effects of political instability on
           international tourism' A case study of Australia

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      Authors: Charbel Bassil, Ghialy Yap
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      We estimate the impact of political instability and the population of immigrants in Australia on the flow of international tourist arrivals. We hypothesize that political instability has a short-term negative effect while the population of immigrants in Australia may have a positive or negative effect depending on time span. Moreover, we postulate that the population of immigrants resorbs in the short run partially or totally the adverse effect of political instability. Our empirical strategy takes into consideration potential heterogeneity among cross-sections and differentiates between short-term and long-term effects. For this purpose, we use the Pooled Mean Group estimator in a panel Autoregressive Distributed Lag model. Findings from the pooled estimations suggest that, in the short run, the population of immigrants in Australia reduces the negative effect of political instability on international tourism flows. However, its effect is negative in the long run. We also find evidence for heterogeneity across countries.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2023-03-14T10:50:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166231163206
       
  • Fine-grained tourism demand forecasting: A decomposition ensemble deep
           learning model

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      Authors: Jian-Wu Bi, Tian-Yu Han, Yanbo Yao
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Compared with coarse-grained forecasting, fine-grained tourism demand forecasting is a more challenging task, but research on this issue is very scarce. To address this issue, a decomposition ensemble deep learning model is proposed by integrating CEEMDAN, CNNs, LSTM networks, and AR models. The CEEMDAN can decompose complex tourism demand data into multiple components with simpler characteristics, thereby reducing the complexity of forecasting. The CNNs and LSTM networks can fully capture the locally recurring patterns and the long-term dependencies of the components obtained by CEEMDAN. The AR model can capture the scale of tourism demand data, which can overcome the problem that the output scale of the deep neural networks (i.e., CNNs and LSTM networks) is not sensitive to the scale of the inputs. The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified by comparing with five benchmark models using real-time data on tourist volumes at two attractions.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2023-03-06T09:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166231158705
       
  • Modelling the asymmetric productivity effects of tourism demand

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      Authors: Nikeel Nishkar Kumar
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      A recent critique of the tourism-growth literature raises concerns about whether tourism leads to permanent economic growth. We argue that tourism can be linked to total factor productivity. Tourism demand spurs efficiency gains in the tourism sector through learning by doing. However, because tourism is demand-led, asymmetric effects may arise in the tourism-productivity association. To model the permanent growth effects of tourism, we use panel asymmetric ARDL models with annual data from 94 countries over the period 1995–2018. The finding implies that tourism has permanent but asymmetric growth effects.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2023-02-23T06:53:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166231158439
       
  • Metaverse research propositions: Online intermediaries

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      Authors: Apostolos Ampountolas, Giuseppina Menconi, Gareth Shaw
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      One of the sectors with the fastest growth rates worldwide is the hospitality and tourism industry, although the pandemic caused losses and setbacks for the industry. The potential of the metaverse and virtual travel could lead to the emergence of a brand-new sector. Thus, traditional online travel agencies may need to change their utility model in the future to accommodate the new technology. This virtual transformation in the metaverse entails more flexible travel options, customized consumer services, and improved entertainment. The employment of augmented and virtual reality technology in the metaverse may enable seamless interaction between users in real and simulated surroundings. As such future developments in metaverse technology may enable fully immersive experiences. Customers can now get real-time price changes, availability, and promotions bypassing third-party distribution platforms. This research note aims to introduce the metaverse’s enormous potential and to define three research proposals for additional investigation.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2023-02-20T12:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166231159520
       
  • Collaborative forecasting of tourism demand for multiple tourist
           attractions with spatial dependence: A combined deep learning model

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      Authors: Jian-Wu Bi, Tian-Yu Han, Yanbo Yao
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      To forecast the tourism demand across a set of tourist attractions with spatial dependence, a new model is proposed, which has three stages: tourist attraction selection, base predictor generation, and base predictor combination. In stage 1, a method for selecting associated attractions based on multi-dimensional scaling is used to determine the strength of the spatial dependence between each pair of attractions. In stage 2, a hybrid base predictor based on LSTM networks and Autoregressive model is developed, where the LSTM networks are used to capture the spatial dependence among attractions, and the Autoregressive model is used capture the scale of tourist volume at each attraction. In stage 3, a strategy for combining these base predictors is proposed; it can alleviate the overfitting problem of LSTM and improve the stability of forecasts. Finally, the superiority of the model is verified through the data on tourist volumes at 77 attractions in Beijing.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2023-02-09T05:28:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166231153908
       
  • The impact of national tourism day festivals on inbound tourism: A spatial
           difference-in-differences approach

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      Authors: Jiafeng Gu
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      A comprehensive and accurate assessment of the policy effect of national tourism days is of great significance to further promote urban inbound tourism. Based on the panel data of 59 cities in China from 2000 to 2017, this paper evaluates the local and spatial spillover effects of the China Tourism Day policy on urban inbound tourism using a spatial difference-in-differences model based on the establishment of the China Tourism Day as a quasi-natural experiment. The study found that the China Tourism Day policy significantly increased the number of foreign tourists in cities but significantly reduced their average length of stay, with a positive spatial spillover effect on inbound tourism in surrounding cities.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2023-02-06T11:36:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166231155301
       
  • Tourism development and women employment: A study on the European union
           countries

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      Authors: Anil Bolukoglu, Tugce Gozukucuk
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The intergovernmental institutions recommend tourism development as a policy goal for reducing gender inequality through employment channels. However, such approaches ignore the indirect and induced effects of tourism sector development on women’s employment through male dominated forward and backward linkages. Adverse spillover effects of tourism-related sectors limit the impact of tourism on generating women’s employment. With this goal in mind, the study estimates the spillover effect of tourism sector development on the gender gap in selected employment indicators of 27 European Union countries between 2008 and 2019. Results show that development in the tourism sector, measured by the number of tourists per active population, improves the gender gap in labor force participation, employment, and unemployment among EU countries. Considering the precarious working conditions of the tourism sector, results only reflect a limited aspect of women’s empowerment.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2023-02-06T10:21:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166231155535
       
  • Does industry resilience matter for postshock industrial policy' A
           focus on tourism-related industries

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      Authors: Elena Prodi, Vincenzo Fasone, Marco R Di Tommaso
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Selective industrial policies have been increasingly used by governments to achieve desired normative goals. However, they have been revealed to be complex and vulnerable interventions, demanding robust tools able to justify choices and mitigate potential ‘government failures’. In light of the emerging challenges and potential disruptions that might threaten our economies and societies, we contend that postshock industry resilience can be a valuable analytical framework to understand how different sectors react to unforeseen shocks. Accordingly, we present a methodology that measures postshock industry resilience and apply it to the Italian case in the aftermath of the 2008 shock. Particular attention is devoted to tourism-related industries. Main findings show that the industries reacted heterogeneously to the 2008 shock. For tourism-related industries, the results suggest following an ad hoc approach to the analysis of each tourism-focused industry to avoid generalizations that might lead to incorrect policy interpretations.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2023-02-01T10:15:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166231154314
       
  • Investment sensitivity to market uncertainty in the travel and tourism
           sector

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      Authors: Abbas Valadkhani
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Raising capital is critical for the future expansion of travel and tourism businesses which have been adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Investors sold their travel and tourism stocks below true value due to falling earnings during the pandemic. This study compares the sensitivity of stocks in different sectors to uncertainty when they are aggregated into different exchange-traded funds (ETFs). This reduces the extent of firm-specific peculiarities arising from market overreactions to news, mergers and acquisitions through time. Although previous studies have highlighted the effect of uncertainty on the financial decisions of travel and tourism firms, this study identifies a ‘fear-triggering point’ in the VIX index above which travel and tourism ETFs enter the state of uncertainty. This study has thus important implications for raising capital and financing tourism businesses in the US equity market, particularly during heightened uncertainty.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2023-01-11T08:20:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221151098
       
  • Does high-speed railway affect the cost behavior of tourism firms'
           Evidence from China

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      Authors: Fangjun Wang, Lizhu Ma, Baojun Gao, Yang S Liu
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Cost stickiness, which is also termed cost asymmetry, describes the asymmetric relationship between revenue and cost. In this study, we examine whether high-speed railway (HSR) connection affects the cost stickiness of tourism firms. Employing a sample of 324 Chinese tourism firms from 2003 to 2018 and applying a difference-in-difference (DID) method, we find that the cost stickiness of tourism firms increases after HSR connection. Our results also reveal that the relationship between HSR connection and cost stickiness is more pronounced in firms with higher free cash flow (FCF), higher labor costs, and in state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Our research advances an in-depth understanding of the cost behavior in tourism firms and sheds light on the policy effect of HSR connection.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2023-01-10T04:34:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221150698
       
  • Industry-specific upskilling of seasonal tourism workers: Does
           occupational gender inequality matter'

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      Authors: Vincenzo Fasone, Giulio Pedrini
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Due to technological change and growing digitalization of the workplaces, the post-pandemic economic recovery offers opportunities for workers to upgrade their industry-specific skills in different sectors, including tourism, where an increasing shortage in the seasonal tier of the labor market is emerging. Various barriers have been identified as key factors preventing both tourism firms from implementing skill development interventions, and workers from co-investing in training. An under-investigated possible barrier is women’s occupational segregation, both horizontal and vertical. This paper looks at the former type of segregation, the most frequent in the tourism industry, by showing that this condition penalizes women’s willingness to invest in specific training. Data come from a dedicated survey administered to a sample of seasonal employees who worked in the Rimini Province (Italy) during the summer of 2019 and applies a twofold regression analysis followed by an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Our findings contribute to the debate on gender equality in the tourism industry and on the gendered impact of COVID-19 on workers’ careers.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-12-20T03:09:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221146850
       
  • Tourist choice, competitive tourism markets and the effect of a tourist
           tax on producers revenues

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      Authors: Asensi Descals-Tormo, José-Ramón Ruiz-Tamarit
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      We propose a model for the tourism sector assuming basically two markets, one for tourist services and the other for accommodation. These sub-markets are considered as separate but interrelated. The nature of the feedback is determined by a vertical complementarity between tourist services and lodging. We obtain the optimal solution of the tourist choice problem, the primary demand for tourist services and the derived demand for overnight stays. Then, we focus on the equilibrium outcomes assuming perfectly competitive tourism markets. We do not address the externalities caused by tourism activities. Consequently, we move away from efficiency by introducing a tax on overnight stays and inspecting the consequences for the competitiveness and for producers’ revenues in each market. The answer key elements are, apart from reservation prices, the direct and cross-price elasticities of demand for tourist services. The study of structural parameters extends and completes our analysis of tourism.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-12-13T09:13:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221145081
       
  • Should antitrust regulators be wary of inter-firm coordination agreements
           through a tourism destination card'

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      Authors: Carmen D Álvarez-Albelo, José A Martínez-González
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Inter-firm coordination agreements through a destination card (DC) are a widespread profit-increasing strategy in tourism destinations. Literature on tourism economics argues that this type of coordination increases social efficiency. However, industrial organization studies consider heterogeneous consumers and warn that a DC-type agreement can be welfare impairing. Conflicting views have become an issue for tourism destinations, as collusion is in the crosshairs of antitrust regulators. This paper aims to clarify these contradictory results by developing a duopoly model with heterogeneous tourists. A sensible demand structure is assumed which, unlike previous literature, includes loyal demand segments. A policy prescription is obtained, namely, a DC alliance is welfare enhancing if DC price is equal to or lower than the cost of joint consumption under no coordination. However, a greater total surplus in markets may be accompanied by a reduction in consumer welfare, which differs from the conventional view in tourism economics.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-28T12:47:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221138364
       
  • Current status and future perspective of the link of corporate social
           responsibility–corporate financial performance in the tourism and
           hospitality industry

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      Authors: Seoki Lee, Jihwan Yeon, Hyoung J. Song
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The CSR literature has paid close attention to the effect of CSR on corporate financial performance (CFP), well-known as the CSR–CFP link. Based on the instrumental perspective perceiving CSR as an instrument for enhancing a firm’s performance, people began to see CSR as not only a good deed that benefits society but also a strategy that can benefit the corporation. To empirically test this instrumental perspective, many researchers have investigated whether a firm’s engagement in CSR activities indeed leads to improving the firm’s performance. Through such investigations, the CSR literature has acknowledged that there are still many issues to explore in the CSR–CFP link. The current study, therefore, is to investigate what has been done in the TH literature regarding the CSR–CFP link in the 2000s and further to provide future directions for the CSR–CFP link.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-24T10:44:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221140505
       
  • Impact of COVID-19 on individual income in tourism and hospitality
           industry in India: A difference-in-differences approach

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      Authors: Abhradeep Maiti
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the impact of COVID-19 (or Novel Coronavirus) pandemic on the income and wage of individuals working in tourism and hospitality industry in India. As the tourism and hospitality industry is a labor-intensive industry, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic-induced economic downturn is expected to be particularly severe here. To estimate this impact, I use a large, representative panel survey from India, and employ difference-in-differences method in this study. The estimated decline in total income ranges between 3.12 and 6.39%, and wage fall ranges between 3.21 and 5.98%, for the sample with individuals who are still earning a non-zero income from this industry. Once I include the individuals who have completely lost their livelihood (zero income) due to COVID-19 pandemic in the sample, impact on income is estimated to be a fall of 58.69% and impact on wage is estimated to be a decline of 58.59%. I also discuss the recommendations made by UNWTO to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on tourism and hospitality industry, and map Indian government’s policy measures to those recommendations.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-18T05:23:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221140629
       
  • Tourism distribution at competing destinations: Mobility changes and
           relocation

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      Authors: Isabel P. Albaladejo, Fuensanta Arnaldos, María Pilar Martínez-García
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      We present a dynamic model of competing destinations to study the agglomeration and dispersion forces driving long-run geographical distribution of tourism. The relative strength of these forces determines whether tourism is agglomerated at one destination or is more disperse. Economies of scale in the tourism industry favour agglomeration while tourists’ preference for local tourist attractions and local services is conducive to dispersion. If returns to scale approach constant and tourists do not appreciate local goods, the interaction between the two destinations disappears and our model converges to the well-known Tourism Area Life Cycle model. By contrast, if destinations interact and the price sensitivity of tourists is low enough to offset the economies of scale that induce firms to agglomerate, the sharing of tourism between the two destinations is stable. Otherwise, tourism tends to agglomerate in one destination. Tourism policies interfere with the agglomeration and dispersion forces and could induce tourist relocation. We calibrate the model with real data before and after the restrictions in force during the pandemic in 2021 and those derived from the war in Ukraine.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-17T12:07:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221138991
       
  • Board interlocks and corporate risk-taking: An empirical analysis of
           listed companies from tourism and related industries in China

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      Authors: Chen Hao, Xuegang Feng, Dandan Wu, Xiaodong Guo
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Taking the tourism and related industry companies listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen of China from 2006 to 2019 as samples, this paper examines the impact of board interlock on corporate risk-taking and its micro-mechanism. Empirical evidence shows that board interlock can significantly improve corporate risk-taking, but the degree of influence varies from industry to industry. For the external risk sensitivity of industry, in the industry with high external risk sensitivity, the “quantity embedding” of interlocking directors has a stronger promoting effect on enterprise risk-taking. However, in industries with low external risk sensitivity, the “quality embedding” of interlocking directors has a stronger promoting effect on enterprise risk-taking. For the degree of industry competition, the more intense the industry competition, the stronger the role of board interlocks in promoting enterprise risk-taking. Further analysis shows that the intensity of information effect and the intensity of resource effect vary with the degree of information asymmetry and the type of directors.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-11T03:43:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221138636
       
  • The tourism area life cycle hypothesis: A micro-foundation

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      Authors: Simone Marsiglio, Marco Tolotti
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      We provide a simple micro-foundation of the tourism area life cycle hypothesis, based on tourists’ utility maximization. As a result of social interactions among tourists which determine destinations popularity, the market share of visitors which decides to visit a specific destination follows a logistic dynamics, consistent with what predicted by the tourism area life cycle hypothesis. We show that different preference drivers explain the duration of the different tourism area life cycle stages: the net benefit from visiting the destination characterizes the exploration, involvement, and development phases, while social effects associated with destination popularity characterize the phases of consolidation and stagnation Different from previous studies our results hold true independently of whether we focus on the repeating or non-repeating segment of the tourism market. We also provide a calibration of our model to the case of the city of Venice (Italy) showing that it performs well in capturing the evolution of tourism in the historical center of the city over the last 60 years, suggesting that TALC-like dynamics may occur even in the context of cultural and heritage destinations.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-10T10:42:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221138645
       
  • The determinants of aggressive share buybacks: An empirical examination of
           U.S. publicly traded restaurant firms

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      Authors: Jaehee Gim, SooCheong Jang
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      It has become a common practice for restaurant firms to spend amounts exceeding their earnings on share buybacks by depleting their cash reserves or even by borrowing money. Given restaurant firms’ limited ability to generate internal cash and the high cost of debt financing, using these means to finance share buybacks could jeopardize restaurant firms’ long-term success. However, little is known about the factors influencing restaurant firms’ tendency toward this seemingly aggressive buyback behavior. This study revealed that the more restaurant firms’ earnings reduce, the greater their tendency is to conduct such aggressive share buybacks. This result could provide some evidence that managerial self-serving behavior plays a role in aggressive share buybacks in the restaurant industry. The study also demonstrated that the positive impact of reduced earnings on aggressive buybacks becomes stronger as a firm’s degree of franchising increases.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-10T09:22:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221137956
       
  • Global perspective on the permanent or transitory nature of shocks to
           tourist arrivals: Evidence from new unit root tests with structural breaks
           and factors

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      Authors: James E Payne, Junsoo Lee
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study extends the literature on the permanent or transitory nature of shocks to per capita tourist arrivals along several dimensions. First, the study evaluates the nature of shocks to per capita tourist arrivals for a global panel of 129 countries. Second, unlike previous studies, we jointly estimate structural changes that represent either abrupt breaks or as a Fourier approximation of smooth breaks along with introducing a factor structure to test for the presence of unit roots in per capita tourist arrivals. Third, contrary to previous studies, our results show that rejection of the null hypothesis of a unit root in per capita tourist arrivals is quite limited compared to other unit root tests that fail to account for cross-correlations. Policy implications of the findings are also discussed.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-08T07:13:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221137385
       
  • Tang poetry and tourism: Cultural effects after 1000 years

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      Authors: Hung Wan Kot, Ming-Hsiang Chen, Ching-Hui (Joan) Su, Yu-Xia Lin
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      It is impossible to overstate the importance of culture and literature in tourism. Most studies have relied on qualitative evidence to the exclusion of precise secondary data to show a direct link between literature and tourism. Using a novel and unique index of Tang poems ranks as a proxy for cultural status and heritage accumulation to quantify the effects of Tang poetry on the expansion of domestic and international tourism, this research adds significantly to the body of knowledge on literary tourism. Based on ordinary least squares and bias-corrected propensity score matching regression analysis, the top 100 Tang poetry rankings are favorably associated with domestic tourist growth but not with international tourism expansion. These findings are crucial for the development of literary tourism.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-07T02:19:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221138159
       
  • Do international tourist arrivals change residents’ attitudes towards
           immigration' A longitudinal study of 28 European countries

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      Authors: Artjoms Ivlevs, Ian Smith
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Can international tourist arrivals change residents’ attitudes towards immigrants and immigration' We discuss possible underlying mechanisms and provide the first evidence on this question using data from the European Social Survey (2002–2019; n=333,505). We find that, as tourist arrivals grow, residents become more positive towards immigration in Eastern Europe. In Western Europe, the relationship tends to turn from positive to negative at relatively high levels of tourism. The instrumental variable analysis suggests that incoming tourism has a positive causal effect on attitudes towards immigration in both Western and Eastern Europe. Overall, our study reveals an overlooked dimension of the tourism-migration nexus and highlights the role that international tourism may play in shaping attitudes towards immigration and, through these attitudes, immigration policy and flows, immigrant integration and more open and inclusive societies in tourism-receiving countries.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-04T08:08:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221137950
       
  • Corrigendum

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      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-11-01T12:52:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221081285
       
  • Does the combination of models With different explanatory variables
           improve tourism demand forecasting performance'

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      Authors: Xi Wu, Adam Blake
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The aim of this study is to assess whether combining econometric models with different explanatory variables can contribute to better tourism demand forecasts. Inbound tourism demand to the UK from seven leading markets is forecast, respectively, based on quarterly data using both individual and combination models. Causal econometric models that serve as constituents in combination take two specifications which are different in identified influencing factors. The empirical results show that generally including different explanatory variables in combination can produce better predictions according to both predictive accuracy measures and statistical tests. It suggests that the combination forecasting approach is superior to the individual one, and diversified information embedded in different explanatory variables should be integrated to improve tourism demand forecasting performance.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-10-21T01:53:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221132645
       
  • Impact of the Russia–Ukraine war on hospitality equity markets

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      Authors: Faruk Balli, Mabruk Billah, Iftekhar Chowdhury
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study explores the impact of the Russian–Ukraine war on the hospitality equity sector market for the selected 26 countries. It reveals a sharp spike in the return connectivity at the onset of the war. The return of the sector materializes more sensitivity when tourism demand from Russia and Ukraine is more extensive and when a country has a higher energy dependency on Russia. Overall results consistently stipulate the aspect of the efficient market hypothesis.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-10-19T10:55:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221133493
       
  • A revised perspective on tourism-economic growth nexus, exploring tourism
           market diversification

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      Authors: Behnaz Saboori, Zahed Ghader, Abdorreza Soleymani
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      In this study for the first time, we examined the effect of tourism market diversification (TMD) on economic growth for 109 countries categorized by income groups. Employing Quantile regression, the results revealed that TMD contributes to the economic growth of low- and lower-middle-income countries only at the lower, and lower-to-intermediate quantiles. In high-income countries, TMD not only has no significant effect on economic growth at lower quantile of GDP, but its effect tends to be negative at higher quantiles. Our findings indicated that TMD strategies work better at lower levels of economic growth than at higher levels of economic growth.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-10-17T05:06:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221134183
       
  • How important are borders for tourism' The case of Europe

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      Authors: Federico Carril-Caccia, José María Martín Martín, Francisco Javier Sáez-Fernández
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Using a bilateral dataset of trips for 32 European countries for the period 2012–2019, we aim to gauge the size and evolution of the border effect on tourism: the extent to which domestic tourism is greater (or lesser) than international tourism. We found that the tourism flow within countries was 24 times greater than between countries. Also, we show that, relative to 2012, the border effect diminished by 13% in 2019. Our results suggest that the size (and evolution) of the border effect is the same for trips that last between one and three nights (short trips) and those that last four nights or more (long trips). Nonetheless, our findings show that bilateral determinants that represent travel and transaction costs are more important when explaining short trips than long ones.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-10-13T07:40:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221132452
       
  • COVID-19 pandemic, the war in Ukraine and looming risks for
           tourism’s recovery

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      Authors: Lucie Plzáková, Egon Smeral
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-10-10T04:31:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221131722
       
  • Judgmental Adjustments of Algorithmic Hotel Occupancy Forecasts: Does User
           Override Frequency Impact Accuracy at Different Time Horizons'

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      Authors: Larissa Koupriouchina, Jean-Pierre van der Rest, Zvi Schwartz
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Judgmental adjustments of algorithmic predictions with the aim of improving demand forecast accuracy are a common revenue management practice. While empirical evidence on the impact of these user overrides is growing, little research attention has been given to the time horizon and the frequency in which these adjustments take place. Utilizing a multilevel regression model for repeated measures, 20,081,973 forecasts comprising seven different time horizons were analyzed. Data were collected from 1752 hotels of different hotel types belonging to 232 hotel chains in seven geographical regions. We find that the accuracy of algorithmic computer forecasts improves as time nears the date of stay and that the number of user overrides impacts this accuracy. The effect of the override frequency depends on the type of the forecasted demand and on the presence of special events. A higher number of user overrides is beneficial for group segment, but damaging for the transient segment. During special events periods, override frequency enhances accuracy.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-10-06T10:07:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221126572
       
  • Determinant of the tourism economy in Chinese cities: from an urban
           centrality perspective

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      Authors: Jieping Chen, Chao Ma, Shijun Chen
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper aims to analyze and explain how urban centrality influences tourism development in a city. Based on the panel data of 295 prefecture-level cities in China from 2005 to 2018, the paper develops explanatory mechanisms and discusses the influence theoretically and empirically. To advance the analysis, this paper constructs a new index for urban centrality. Our empirical findings are as follows: (1) urban centrality promotes tourism income significantly. (2) Mechanism analysis illustrates that urban centrality fosters tourism through the agglomeration and industrial structure effects. (3) Heterogenous analysis suggests that the influence of urban centrality on tourism varies with city sizes and locations.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-10-06T09:27:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221132124
       
  • Analysing the dynamic co-movement between tourism and expected economic
           growth considering extreme events

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      Authors: Jianxu Liu, Vicente Ramos, Bing Yang, Mengjiao Wang, Songsak Sriboonchitta
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      In the post epidemic period, it is important to clarify the relationship between economic growth and tourism growth. The aim of this study is to characterize the co-movement between expected macroeconomic conditions and inbound tourism, focussing on the nonlinear relationship between these variables. Dynamic copula-based GJR-GARCH models are employed to measure nonlinear dependence. Total inbound tourism to Thailand and its disaggregation for its 10 main origin countries, are considered in the empirical study. The results show that there exists significant co-movement between expected economic growth and inbound tourism, and prove the importance of considering nonlinearities and extreme events. Also, copula nonlinear Granger causality is used to conclude that inbound tourism and expected economic growth have nonlinear bi-directional and unidirectional Granger causality relationship. Finally, this paper puts forward some policy suggestions to restore tourism and boost economic growth in the post epidemic period.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-10-04T06:26:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221129441
       
  • Tourism Demand Analysis: Directions for Future Research

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      Authors: A. George Assaf, Raffaele Scuderi
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-10-03T06:16:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221130466
       
  • Does migration fear affect tourism demand' Evidence from instrumental
           variable cointegration test

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      Authors: Emrah Kocak, Ali Gokhan Yucel
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Migration and migration-caused concerns and uncertainties have been rising dramatically in recent years at the global level. However, our knowledge of the impact of migration-related concerns on tourism is limited. To address this gap, we estimate the impact of the US migration fears on tourist arrivals from Western Europe to the US using a tourism demand model. The paper employs a new robust cointegration approach with instrumental variables. Our estimates suggest that tourists from Western Europe have a negative and significant long-term response to the fear of migration in the US. The results show that migration-related concerns are constraints on the development of the tourism industry in the US.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T09:37:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221128078
       
  • How do hotels expand into new markets' The relationship between hotel
           agglomeration and entry mode

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      Authors: Linda Woo, Sung Gyun Mun, Kwanglim Seo
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      When a hotel decides to open in a new location, it must select a specific entry mode that determines its degree of control and ownership. This study combines agglomeration theory with information economics to explain how hotel agglomerations influence the entry modes of new hotels. In particular, we argue that when facing different levels of information asymmetry derived from hotel agglomerations, new hotels should reduce the risk of adverse selection in choosing their entry modes. Using a sample of new hotels in China, this study shows that in areas of co-located higher-quality hotels, new hotels choose shared-control modes (franchise or management contracts) over full-control modes. Evidence from a sample of foreign hotels also indicates that in areas of co-located same-country-of-origin hotels, new hotels are encouraged to choose shared-control modes (franchise or management contracts) over full-control modes.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-26T04:03:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221129433
       
  • Why tourism economists should treat resident well-being more seriously

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      Authors: Larry Dwyer
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Recognising that well-being is a primary policy objective, tourism economics must incorporate resident well-being outcomes into conceptual analysis, empirical findings and policy assessment in a more inclusive way. Use of a well-being lens allows the research effort in tourism economics to convert tourism development impacts into resident well-being outcomes and better align with the broader Beyond GDP research agenda to measure societal progress. Several areas of tourism research are identified where determination of well-being outcomes can enrich economic analysis and its input into policymaking. This requires new concepts and new systems of measurement to support tourism policymaking with tourism economists expected to play an important role in the research effort.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T02:59:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221128081
       
  • Collusive behaviour, risk and performance of tourism firms

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      Authors: Vu Quang Trinh, Neelu Seetaram, Kiet Tuan Duong, Xuan Vinh Vo
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper aims to enrich social network and managerial powers theories by examining the effects of board-CEO friendship ties in tourism firms. Specifically, we focus on the association between the board-CEO social network ties (e.g. serving external boards together or sharing memberships at social organisations) and performance and risk-taking behaviour among tourism firms. The findings show that friendship ties between CEO and board members result in higher risk-taking, lower profitability and market values. In addition, professional ties (i.e. current and past employment) significantly impact tourism firms’ outcomes, whereas non-professional ties (i.e. education and other social organisations) do not. The findings prevail after controlling for the Covid-19 pandemic. However, friendship ties lead to better information sharing, resulting in more effective decision-making by board members.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T02:43:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221125988
       
  • Better-connected boards and their influence on corporate social
           responsibility: Evidence from U.S. restaurant industry

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      Authors: Yue Vaughan, Yoon Koh
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Many studies on the impact of boards of directors on corporate social responsibility have focused on the human capital of board members (i.e., structures and characteristics). However, the relational capital of board members (i.e., board interlock centrality) has yet to be fully explored. This study examines the extent to which board members are connected in their networks (i.e., board interlock centrality) on corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance in the restaurant industry. It also recognizes the moderating role of board effectiveness on the relationship between board centrality and CSR performance. On the basis of organization legitimacy theory and resource dependence theory, this study found that high-centrality boards increase positive CSR performance. The effect is more substantial when a firm has more standing board committees. The theories view firms as components of the larger social environment, and their performance depends on their ability to procure crucial resources from other firms through mutual exchange. No significant link was found between negative CSR performance and the moderating effect of board committees.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-24T01:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221124974
       
  • Go moderate! How hotels' cancellation policies affect their financial
           performance

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      Authors: Mehmet Altin, Chih-Chien Chen, Arash Riasi, Zvi Schwartz
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Hotel cancellation policies have shifted considerably in recent years. This is mainly in response to growing rates of last-minute cancellations and no shows and the resulting negative impact on the hotel’s performance. This study explores how two key policy elements, the penalty and the cancellation window, are likely to benefit the hotel. That is, how the severity of the policies is likely to positively impact the hotel’s financial performance. We developed a mathematical model and used cancellation and performance information data from a random sample of over 500 U.S. hotels to examine the effectiveness of a range of cancellation policies. The empirical findings support the mathematical model’s prediction that moderate cancellation policies are likely to generate better financial performance levels, compared to more lenient or more stringent policies.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-23T02:34:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221128450
       
  • Examining the effects of sales and marketing on performance: An
           exploratory study of the timeshare industry

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      Authors: Kwanglim Seo, Jungtae Soh
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The timeshare industry has relied heavily on costly traditional sales and marketing tactics that are extremely labor intensive and consume considerable time and resources. It remains controversial whether conventional sales and marketing strategies are effective in improving firm performance, presenting one of the greatest challenges the timeshare industry is facing. However, while limited research on timeshare is available, there is no scholastic literature discussing this important issue. This study aims to fill this research gap by developing an integrated model to analyze the interrelationships between capital investment, sales and marketing expenses, and performance in the timeshare industry. Findings of this study provide distinct empirical evidence emphasizing the importance of efficient timeshare sales and marketing strategies in contributing to healthy and sustainable growth.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-22T03:45:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221128076
       
  • Specialization versus diversity: The role of city size in tourist cities

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      Authors: Mulan Ma, Weishu Zhao, Guanxu Wan, Taotao Deng, Yi Yang
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The paper examines the impact of specialization and diversity on economic growth of tourist cities. Industrial diversity is decomposed into two parts, related and unrelated diversity (UV). The paper constructs a panel threshold model with city size as the threshold variable, and empirically tests the nonlinear effects of specialization and diversity on economic growth of tourist cities from the perspective of city size. The results show that: First, tourism specialization has a positive impact on economic growth of tourist cities, and there is a double threshold effect based on city size. When the city size exceeds two thresholds, tourism specialization plays a significant role in promoting economic growth of tourist cities. Second, related diversity (RV) has a positive impact on economic growth of tourist cities, and there is no threshold effect based on city size. Third, the impact of unrelated diversity on economic growth of tourist cities has a single threshold effect based on city size. Specifically, when the city size is lower than the threshold value, unrelated diversity inhibits economic growth of tourist cities. Otherwise, unrelated diversity will promote economic growth of tourist cities. The conclusions are still valid after a series of robustness tests. The paper highlights that local governments of tourist cities should not pursue absolute tourism specialization or industrial diversity, but should design and adjust industrial structure reasonably according to the city size.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-15T02:48:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221125840
       
  • The effect of tourism on the shadow economy: The level of economic
           development is key

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      Authors: Ting Xu, Zhike Lv
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Using panel data covering the 2002–2015 period for 93 countries, this article provides substantial evidence that economic development levels drive the nonlinear relationship between tourism and the shadow economy. When the economic development level is below 1408.1 US dollars, tourism tends to increase the scale of the shadow economy. Then, the influence becomes insignificant when the economic development level is between 1408.1 US dollars and 6310.69 US dollars. With the development of the economy, tourism becomes beneficial to limit the scope of the shadow economy, and the magnitude of its marginal influence first increases, and then decreases with economic development. Our findings are relevant for policymakers in tailoring their policies toward limiting the scope of the shadow economy in the process of tourism development.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-14T01:57:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221126577
       
  • Does healthcare sector development affect inbound tourism' Evidence
           from ASEAN countries

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      Authors: Salih Türedi, Mustafa Şit, Haydar Karadağ, Chew Ging Lee
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Using the concepts of medical tourism and travel medicine, this research note proposes healthcare sector development has a positive impact on inbound tourism. This hypothesis is tested with the data of ASEAN countries from 2000 to 2018. Because of the presence of cross-section dependence and heterogeneity, appropriate panel cointegration test, panel coefficient estimation method and panel Granger causality test are used. The findings indicate that (1) evidence of cointegration between inbound tourism and healthcare sector development is found when inbound tourism is the dependent variable and (2) there is a Granger causality from healthcare sector development to inbound tourism. The findings suggest that there are temporal relationships from healthcare sector development to inbound tourism in both short-run and long-run. In summary, healthcare sector development has an impact on inbound tourism.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-07T08:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221119320
       
  • Does vaccination help to reduce financial stress on tourism
           subsectors'

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      Authors: Oguzhan Cepni
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Although there is rapid vaccination progress in the US and improvement in broad service activity upon reopening, no meaningful recovery has been achieved in tourism-related sectors until now. Therefore, we take a deep dive into tourism-related sectors and investigate how the effect of COVID-19 vaccination progress differentiates on the financial distress of tourism subsectors. Using a time-varying parameter VAR model, we quantify the financial distress in each tourism subsector and relate these measures with a daily number of newly vaccinated people. Our empirical findings indicate that specific tourism subsectors respond more to vaccination progress, and accordingly, financial stress has started to decline in these sectors. However, the effects of vaccination on airlines and hotel sectors are insignificant, implying that the recovery process will take longer in these subsectors.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T10:28:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221123233
       
  • Bimodal length of stay in the accommodation sharing economy

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      Authors: Emilio Gómez–Déniz, Jorge V Pérez–Rodríguez, Juan M Hernández
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper analyses the determinants of tourist length of stay in sharing accommodation. Methodologically, the paper proposes a new approach to account for the observed bimodality of length of stay. More specifically, the determinants of length of stay are analyzed by modeling both the conditional mean and conditional modal frequencies, which represent shorter and longer tourist stays, unlike previous contributions on length of stay where modeling has been based exclusively on the conditional mean. The empirical analysis examines the length of stay in sharing accommodation lodgings (Airbnb and Homeaway) of tourists visiting the Canary Islands (Spain) before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show a bimodal distribution of length of stay: 1 and 7 nights in the pre-pandemic period, reduced to 1 and 2 nights in the pandemic period. The results also indicate that the model approach followed in this paper is preferable to other previous bimodality models in terms of estimation simplicity and fit. In addition, the model allows an analysis of the determinants of length of stay and differentiation of the influence of each determinant on shorter and longer stays.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-09-02T09:39:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221123232
       
  • Investigating the determinants of outbound long-haul tourist daily
           expenditure and length of stay

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      Authors: Ermias Kifle Gedecho, Lorenzo Masiero, Ernest Balutie Wavei, Richard Tianran Qiu, Provia Kesande
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the determinants of long-haul tourists’ daily expenditure and length of stay. Relative price competitiveness, travel party size, activity engagement in entertainment, and trip organization method affect both daily spending and length of stay. Income and engagement in outdoor activities further contribute to predict daily expenditure, whereas activity engagement in nature and culture activities significantly affects the length of stay. The study presents helpful information to stakeholders responsible for outbound long-haul tourist destination policy and planning in mature and emerging destinations.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-08-31T11:34:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221122490
       
  • Nexus between Twitter-based sentiment and tourism sector performance amid
           COVID-19 pandemic

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      Authors: K Shiljas, Dilip Kumar, Hajam Abid Bashir
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and the steps taken to contain its spread resulted in a decline in tourism sector stock prices. Using linear and quantile regressions, we examine the impact of Twitter-based investor sentiment for COVID-19 and Twitter-based sentiment towards uncertainty on the performance of tourism stocks. The findings indicate a heterogenous effect of tweets and Twitter economic uncertainty on tourism sector equity returns with a major impact on the lower quantiles.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-08-27T03:34:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221123102
       
  • Deteriorating Australia-China relations and prospects for the Australian
           tourism industry: A dynamic demand analysis

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      Authors: Saroja Selvanathan, Maneka Jayasinghe, Eliyathamby A. Selvanathan Eliyathamby
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Inbound tourism from China contributes to around 15% of Australian tourist arrivals. However, the political and trade relations between the two countries began to deteriorate since 2018. Considering this environment, using annual data from 1991 to 2019, this study enables the identification of alternative tourism markets for Australia. The results suggest that maintaining price competitiveness and consumer satisfaction should be high priorities of the Australian tourism policy to attract more tourists. The findings of this study provide insights to formulate new strategies to attract tourists from the other top markets in the event of a decline in Chinese tourist arrivals to Australia.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-08-22T05:00:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221122469
       
  • The effect of type of lodging and professionalism on the efficiency of P2P
           accommodation

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      Authors: Jorge V. Pérez-Rodríguez, Juan M. Hernández
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper analyses the effect of the different levels of hosts’ professionalism (single and multi-unit host) and accommodation types on the time-varying technical efficiency of P2P accommodation. To do this, we employ a panel data stochastic frontier model which disentangles time-varying efficiency from unobserved heterogeneity. We use a database from Airbnb listings for the Canary Islands (Spain) from January 2019 to September 2020, including the lockdown period due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The results indicate that the lowest priced lodgings are the most efficient accommodation type and that properties managed by single-unit hosts are more efficient than those managed by multi-unit hosts. These results are theoretically founded on the existence of positive agglomeration effects in the hospitality industry.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-08-11T05:53:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221114228
       
  • The effect of virtual proximity and digital adoption on international
           tourism flows to Southern Europe

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      Authors: Alexandre Guedes, Samuel Faria, Sofia Gouveia, João Rebelo
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper extends the traditional gravity model to explain the effect of digitalization on international tourism flows to five Southern European countries, where tourism plays an important economic role. The analysis is based on balanced panel data covering the period 2004–2019. Internet-user statistics and Google Trends search data are used as a proxy for digital adoption and virtual proximity, respectively, by source markets. Results lend support to the notion that virtual proximity rather than digital adoption aided international travel, demonstrating that digitalization cannot be interpreted as a fluid and vague concept that exerts a consistent effect. Results also present evidence that Southern European countries should not be treated as a block of homogenous destinations. These findings inform stakeholders regarding the significance of digital platforms as strategic tools to empower consumers.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-07-21T03:18:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221116704
       
  • Tourism specialization, growth stage, and economic growth

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      Authors: Herman Sahni, Christian Nsiah, Bichaka Fayissa
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the nonlinear relationship between tourism and economic growth using a balanced sample of 58 countries in three continental samples (Africa, Asia, and Latin America) for the 2003–2017 period. First, we document an asymmetric threshold effect of tourism on economic growth. By utilizing an endogenous threshold regression model, we show that a single tourism threshold cutoff exists and that tourism receipts influence growth only till the threshold cutoff point in all three continental samples; however, this influence is nonexistent past the threshold point. Second, a quantile effect decomposition shows separate marginal effects for the tourism and economic growth relationship across the growth distribution. By using an unconditional quantile regression approach, we show that compared to their regional cohorts, slow- and medium-growth African countries, slow-growth Asian countries, and medium-growth Latin American countries exhibit substantially higher economic growth benefits from tourism. We explain these empirical observations and discuss their policy implications.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-07-18T05:50:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221111311
       
  • Estimation of direct net effects of events

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      Authors: Marcus Roller
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      We provide three estimation strategies for the estimation of direct net effects of events and the respective substitution effects based on a quantitative model. We apply the strategies to estimate the effect of fairs on overnight stays in Basel. We show that deseasonalizing by year day fixed effects is superior to month and week fixed effects and semi-parametric deseasonalizing. We find that fairs increase the overnight stays in nights during fairs by 17% and by 8% and 4% in the preceding nights. The net effect of fairs on overnight events is only one fourth of the gross effect. These results demonstrate that the distinction between net and gross effects is crucial also for the estimation of direct effects of events. The study therefore contributes to the literature on the estimation of economic effects of events which recently has focused on this distinction for indirect effects. It also contributes to the theoretical an empirical literature of event tourism in cities.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-07-14T01:44:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221114583
       
  • Methods to examine omitted variable bias in hedonic price studies

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      Authors: David Boto-García
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Many studies use the hedonic pricing method to uncover consumers’ willingness to pay for accommodation characteristics in the hospitality industry. In most empirical applications using cross-sectional data, implicit prices might be biased if omitted time-invariant variables correlate with observed attributes. This paper proposes a set of diagnostic checks to inspect the potential bias in the estimates through exploiting repeated information for the same accommodations. Due to the limitations imposed by standard fixed and random effects panel regressions, we advocate for the use of Mundlak and Hausman–Taylor estimators. The proposed methods are applied to a study of Airbnb hedonic prices in Ibiza using a 14-month time window. In doing so, we document a novel finding: Superhosts set lower prices conditional on time-invariant quality.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-07-13T09:12:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221113437
       
  • Economic and political uncertainties and sustainability disclosures in the
           tourism sector firms

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      Authors: Dilip Kumar
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The paper investigates the impact of national-level economic and political uncertainties on the quantity of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) sustainability disclosures by the tourism sector firms. The findings indicate that with the increase in economic and political uncertainties, tourism firms make more of the sustainability disclosures mainly to build good relationships with various stakeholders and to spread good word of mouth about the firm’s contribution to social welfare and environmental conservatism. The findings show the role of sustainability disclosures in moderating the impact of economic uncertainty on firm value during the COVID-19 period and global financial crisis period.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-07-11T05:30:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221113434
       
  • The permanent or transitory nature of shocks to tourism expenditures and
           receipts: Evidence from new panel stationarity tests with breaks and
           factors

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      Authors: James E Payne, Saban Nazlioglu
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Tourism expenditures and receipts are an important component of many countries’ balance of payments. Indeed, the determination of whether shocks to tourism expenditures and receipts are permanent or transitory in nature is relevant to understanding the appropriate policy response. This study introduces new panel stationarity tests that simultaneously model structural breaks and a common factor structure. The results from several panel stationarity tests including the new tests reject the null hypothesis of stationarity for the panel of 63 countries. Based on tests of stationarity with a common factor structure without structural breaks at the individual country level, the null hypothesis of stationarity is rejected in 24 and 26 countries with respect to per capita international tourism expenditures and tourism receipts, respectively. The inclusion of the Fourier approximation for smooth structural breaks alongside the common factor structure increases the number of rejections of the null hypothesis of stationarity to 48 and 54 countries for per capita international tourism expenditures and receipts, respectively. Hence, shocks to either tourism expenditures or receipts will likely be permanent in nature requiring a policy response in order to return tourism expenditures and receipts to their original trend path.JEL Codes: Z32, C33.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-06-28T05:11:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221110988
       
  • Peer-to-peer accommodation prices: City listing concentration and host
           listing share

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      Authors: Elena Bárcena-Martín, Beatriz Benítez-Aurioles, Salvador Pérez-Moreno
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This article examines the relationship of city listing concentration and host listing share with prices in the peer-to-peer accommodation market. To this end, a multilevel analysis is applied to data from 216,960 Airbnb listings in 45 cities. The results reveal that while city-level concentration does not significantly affect prices, the listing share of each supplier does have a significant effect. This highlights that host listing shares can explain the ability of agents to influence the price of their accommodations even in relatively competitive markets such as peer-to-peer accommodation. Our findings have theoretical implications relating to the idiosyncratic aspects that affect business pricing, as well as practical implications in the private sphere for the rest of the hospitality and tourism industry, and for public policy in terms of regulations.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-06-27T04:43:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221110526
       
  • Tourist arrivals and overnight stays along the Croatian Adriatic Coast:
           Changes in persistence and seasonality from the COVID-19 disruption

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      Authors: James E Payne, Luis A Gil-Alana, Andrea Mervar, Maria Goenechea
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the changes in the persistence and seasonality inherent in the Croatian tourism sector in light of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. First, we differentiate between the changes in the persistence and seasonal behavior with respect to domestic and foreign tourist arrivals and overnight stays. Second, with nearly 90% of the Croatian tourism sector tied to the seven counties along the Adriatic coast we investigate the differential regional impact on persistence and seasonal behavior. Our results indicate the disruption was much more prominent for foreign tourist arrivals and overnight stays relative to domestic tourist arrivals and overnight stays with respect to the increased persistence associated with the onset of the pandemic along with the seasonal autoregressive component reduced considerably.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T03:35:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221110528
       
  • Vacation rental market regulation and accommodation supply growth

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      Authors: David Boto-García, José Francisco Baños-Pino, Eduardo Del Valle, Inés Sustacha
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Short-term residential vacation rentals (RVRs) have increased their popularity in recent years. Local governments have introduced different regulatory changes to control their supply growth. This paper evaluates a policy intervention in a Northern Spanish destination that has reduced the bureaucratic procedures to officially open a RVR since 2016. We compare the evolution of accommodation growth of RVRs with that of tourist apartments exploiting a panel data set of 78 municipalities between 2013 and 2019. Using difference-in-differences, we provide evidence that the easing of the administrative procedures increased the number of establishments and bed places in RVRs by 5 and 26 units, on average, per municipality.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-06-24T02:31:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221110530
       
  • Does climate policy uncertainty affect tourism demand' Evidence from
           time-varying causality tests

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      Authors: Nicholas Apergis, Konstantinos Gavriilidis, Rangan Gupta
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines whether climate policy uncertainty affects the propensity of people to travel. To do so, we employ the Climate Policy Uncertainty (CPU) index and US air-travel data to eight regional overseas destinations for the period 2000–2019. Using time-varying causality tests to deal with the structural breaks that exist in the relationship between CPU and US air travel, we find that CPU is a major determinant of air-travel demand to all destinations examined. The results are robust when we control for macroeconomic factors, uncertainty and geopolitical risks. The findings have important implications for destination countries and tourism professionals.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-06-23T04:20:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221110540
       
  • The long-run tourism effect of historical celebrities: Evidence from one
           of the most influential literatus in China

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      Authors: Yanyan Gao, Wei Su
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Do historical celebrities contribute to city tourism today' While the existing literature has widely examined the tourism effect of modern film celebrities, it has not yet explored the long-run impact of historical and cultural celebrities on tourism economies. We answer this question by tracing the places of residence of Su Shi, one of the greatest Chinese cultural celebrities in the Northern Song Dynasty (960–1127), and estimating the effect on average city tourism between 2002 and 2019. Our ordinary least square estimation finds that one more month of Su Shi’s residence increases domestic tourism revenue today by about 0.3%, leading to an average tourism value of around 118 million Chinese Yuan (about 18 million US dollars). We consolidate the long-run effect with several robustness checks. Channel analysis further shows that his residence facilitates tourism development today and increased cultural heritage in subsequent dynasties. These findings highlight the roles of historical celebrities in fostering cultural heritages and forming city tourism competitiveness.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-06-22T11:04:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221109665
       
  • Compositional tourists’ expenditure: Modeling through Dirichlet
           regression

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      Authors: Juan Gabriel Brida, Bibiana Lanzilotta, Leonardo Moreno
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study models the relative expenditure of tourists in terms of budget allocation according to their dependence on a group of covariates. A model that captures how tourist distributes its budget among the diverse items is introduced to characterize and compare different types of tourists according to their relative expenditure patterns. For the empirical exercise, data for the period 2014–2019 collected by the Ministry of Tourism from the Inbound Tourism survey in Uruguay is analyzed by means of the compositional data analysis and modeled by a Dirichlet regression. The empirical results show that the expending pattern in accommodation, food, and others items depend on the destination, the season, the nationality, and the type of accommodation. In addition, the inferential analysis reveals different typologies of tourist, providing a novel interpretation of the tourist behavior from the microeconomic perspective.JEL ClassificationL83, Z30, C14.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-06-21T09:58:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221108819
       
  • Proposing spacetime scale for space tourism economics

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      Authors: Kang-Lin Peng, Cathy H.C. Hsu, Pearl M.C. Lin, Meng Su
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This research proposes the spacetime scale to derive a space tourism economic model based on the General Relativity Theory. The space curvature is considered in the economic model analogized to a physic theory to expand the horizons of tourism economics. The deductive reasoning and analogy methods were adopted to propose the spacetime scale for space tourism economics, accommodating the conventional economic models of near-flat space commodities on the earth. Conclusions suggest conquering our perception acceptance from linear time to curvilinear spacetime for space tourism economics.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-06-17T06:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221109666
       
  • An early assessment of COVID-19’s impact on tourism in U.S. counties

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      Authors: Luyi Han, Stephan J Goetz, Daniel Eades, Jason Entsminger, Doug Arbogast
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      We use county-level data to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the tourism and hospitality sector, which was by far the most impacted of all sectors, focusing on employment and wage changes. Results support our hypothesis that rural counties experienced fewer negative impacts or even benefited from the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of job growth. We present maps showing the pandemic’s effects on leisure and hospitality (L&H) employment across the nation, identifying the communities both hardest hit and least impacted. A linear regression model is developed to explore independent factors that influenced the pandemic’s local impact. Results are robust across different measures of the key variable (rurality), including rural-urban continuum codes, distance from metropolitan areas, and population density. We also consider the impacts of social capital, income, and local economic diversification, among other factors. Our results suggest that remote, less-populated counties were more likely to experience stable employment in the L&H sector relative to pre-pandemic levels, and in some cases even experienced employment growth.JEL Classification: J2, J3, R1
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-06-16T09:43:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221107814
       
  • Tourism, urbanization, and urban income inequality in China

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      Authors: Jiekuan Zhang
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the persisting interest in the nexus of tourism and income inequality, the relationships between tourism and urban income inequality remain unknown. In the past few decades, tourism, urbanization, and urban income inequality are all prominent social and economic phenomena in China. This study investigates such relationships and the underlying influence mechanism of urbanization based on provincial panel data in China between 1995 and 2019. The results show that tourism significantly increases urban income inequality. Moreover, there exists a Kuznets curve between tourism and urban income inequality. When the ratio of tourism revenue to GDP reaches the value of 0.416, the positive influence of tourism on urban income inequality reaches its maximum. Most of China’s provinces currently face the positive influence of tourism on urban income inequality. Besides, urbanization partially mediates tourism’s effects on urban income inequality. Heterogeneity analysis indicates that in high-urbanization, high-income, and low economic levels regions, tourism increases urban income inequality to a greater extent. This article enriches the knowledge of the association between tourism and income distribution.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-06-13T01:41:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221108121
       
  • Spatial spillovers of tourism activity on housing prices: The case of
           Croatia

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      Authors: Maruška Vizek, Nebojša Stojčić, Josip Mikulić
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The tourism effects on housing prices within cities and regions have been analyzed in the literature, but there is a lack of evidence on the spatial effects of these processes. In areas hit by overtourism, house price hikes have the potential of spillovers to adjacent cities and towns as well as across wider space. Our study widens existing knowledge on the tourism-housing relationship by exploring the existence and extent of spatial spillovers from tourism-intensive cities and towns on housing prices of neighboring areas. A Durbin spatial autoregression panel model is applied on a population of cities and towns from Croatia, one of the small tourism-driven European economies during the 2012–2019 period. Different spatial weight matrices are applied to the model to explore the spatial reach of effects. Our findings, robust to the use of different tourism activity proxies, provide support to the existence of spatial spillover effects. The strongest effects of tourism on housing prices within and between cities come through the conversion of housing stock in rental properties rather than through the increase of private accommodation share in total accommodation capacities. Particularly strong effects are found once full spatial correlation is taken into account.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-06-11T07:49:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221106442
       
  • Measuring tourism demand nowcasting performance using a monotonicity test

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      Authors: Han Liu, Yongjing Wang, Haiyan Song, Ying Liu
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Tourism demand nowcasting is generally carried out using econometric models that incorporate either macroeconomic variables or search query data as explanatory variables. Nowcasting model accuracy is normally evaluated by traditional loss functions. This study proposes a novel statistical method, the monotonicity test, to assess whether the nowcasting errors obtained from the ordinary least squares, generalised dynamic factor model and generalised dynamic factor model combined with mixed data sampling model are monotonically decreasing when new data on explanatory variables become available, based on the mixed frequency data between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2019. The results of the empirical analysis show that nowcasts generated results based on two data sources combined are superior to that based on a single data source. Compared with traditional loss functions, the monotonicity test leads to a more objective and convincing nowcasting model performance. This study is the first attempt to evaluate tourism demand nowcasting performance using a monotonicity test.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-27T10:00:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221104291
       
  • Psychological factors of Canadian and Mexican tourists and the US tourism
           sector

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      Authors: Khandokar Istiak
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper investigates the impact of psychological factors of Canadian and Mexican tourists on the US tourism sector. Using the data of 1996–2019, the study uses vector autoregression models and the spillover analysis to perform the investigation. The paper discovers that high insecurity of tourists significantly reduces tourist arrivals, passenger fare receipts, and expenditure of tourists in the US. Also, tourist inflows are highly influenced by insecurity during terrorist attacks, natural disasters, and the financial crisis of the US. It is found that high sentiment of Canadian and Mexican tourists increases their outbound travel to the US, but the impact of sentiment is relatively stronger for the Canadian tourists. Results show that the tourist inflows from Canada and Mexico are influenced by low sentiment during recessionary periods of Canada and Mexico, respectively. The paper finds no robust evidence of mood and nationalism-based retaliation of tourists for traveling to the US.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T04:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221104390
       
  • Willingness to pay for attributes of Templestay and implications on
           marginal utility of different meditation forms

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      Authors: Se-Hyuk Kim, James W Mjelde, Tae-Kyun Kim, Choong-Ki Lee, Byunggil Chun
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Templestays are a form of cultural tourism in which participants visit a Buddhist temple to experience their culture. Using a choice experiment, the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) is estimated for various attributes of Templestay programs of location, accommodations, and type of meditation. Respondents are willing to pay a premium for private accommodations and to experience the natural mountain settings over an urban setting. The MWTP varies by type of meditation and by how often respondents have participated in a Templestay. For the most physically demanding form of meditation, 108 prostrations, there is weak evidence marginal utility decreases with increasing number of visits. Brewing tea and talking to a monk do not lead to a change in marginal utility. The most spiritually demanding meditation, Seon meditation, shows increasing marginal utility. Seon meditators could benefit from additional stays, as the benefits of this form of meditation can only be achieved through practice and learning from experienced meditators. It is expected that these results will provide information for the diversification of Templestay experience programs.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-23T02:47:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221095796
       
  • Do birds of a feather flock together' Analyzing environmental
           performance and tourist behavior using a gravity approach

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      Authors: Muhammad Shafiullah, Usman Khalid, Luke Emeka Okafor
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines whether international tourism flows are affected by differences in the environmental performance of origin and destination countries by conducting an empirical analysis with a gravity panel dataset of 169 origin countries and 157 destination countries from 2000 to 2015. Estimated results show that the difference between environmental performance of a country pair adversely affects international tourism flows. This implies that tourist behavior is particularly influenced by familiarity, behavior conformity, and the need for virtue-signaling. Results also suggest that better environmental performance of the destination relative to the origin, as captured by an overall environmental performance index or its sub-indices, lowers international tourism more than vice-versa. This effect potentially hinges on the tradeoff between functionality and the image of the international tourist destination. Policies that create an enabling milieu for sustainable tourism and environmental practices—such as ecolabeling and targeted advertising—would help attract more environmentally conscious tourists.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-21T03:52:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221097025
       
  • Does firm strategy influence corporate social responsibility and firm
           performance' Evidence from the tourism industry

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      Authors: Ali Uyar, Mehmet Ali Koseoglu, Cemil Kuzey, Abdullah S Karaman
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      In this study, we explore whether cost leaders and differentiators assume different positions in terms of corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagement. Furthermore, we deepen the investigation by examining whether shareholders appreciate cost leaders or differentiators' CSR engagement which bears implications for the firms and stockholders. The data concerning CSR, firm strategy, and board characteristics for all the companies belonging to the hospitality, tourism, and airline industry between 2013 and 2019 was fetched from Thomson Reuters, and fixed-effects panel regression analysis and Hayes’s moderation analysis methodology are executed. The findings indicate, first, that cost leadership is significantly associated with composite CSR performance and governance performance but not with environmental and social performance. Second, differentiation is significantly associated with composite CSR performance and environmental and social performance but not with governance performance. Third, moderation analysis revealed that cost leadership does not moderate the association between CSR performance in all dimensions and firm value, differentiation moderates the association between CSR performance in all dimensions and firm value negatively.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-20T06:16:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221102806
       
  • Emigrants’ visit home and remittance inflows nexus

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      Authors: Faruk Balli, Thi Thu Ha Nguyen, Hatice Ozer Balli
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Immigrants have created better living standards by emigrating, and they also contribute to their homeland in one of two ways: by visiting as tourists or by sending remittances back home. In this paper, we examine the nexus between these two crucial channels: remittance inflows and emigrants' visits home. We model the emigrants' visits back home and show that remittances inflows per emigrant have a strong impact on emigrants' visits home. However, the relationship is mixed among different regions. For emigrants from Africa and Latin America and Asia, the remittances have a negative impact on home visits, indicating that emigrants send more money and skip visiting their homes subsequently. For emigrants from MENA, there is a significant positive impact of the remittance inflows on home visits.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T04:37:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221098619
       
  • Global pandemic uncertainty, pandemic discussion and visitor behaviour: A
           comparative tourism demand estimation for the US

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      Authors: Emrah Kocak, Fevzi Okumus, Mehmet Altin
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Tourism is one of the most vulnerable sectors to pandemics. The number of cases and deaths caused by the pandemic directly affects travel decisions. Answering how the public perception of the pandemics affects visitor behaviour can provide important implications for the new normal in tourism. In this context, this paper investigates the impact of global pandemic uncertainty and pandemic discussion on visitor arrivals to the United States from the top 25 origin countries over the period 1999–2020. Non-quantile and quantile panel estimators are employed for heterogeneity and short–long run findings. Accordingly, in the short run, global pandemic uncertainty negatively affects visitor behaviour. However, the pandemic discussion does not have a significant effect. In the long run, pandemic uncertainty and pandemic discussion negatively affect tourist arrivals in all quantiles.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-19T02:12:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221100692
       
  • Analysis on the impact of technological innovation on tourism development:
           The case of Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration in China

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      Authors: Chang Gan, Kai Wang, Mihai Voda, Jun Ye, Lijun Chen
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Despite the recognition of the relationship between technological innovation and tourism development, there is a dearth of rigorous empirical specifications to examine the effect of technological innovation on the latter. With 27 cities of the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) in China as an empirical case, this study explores whether technological innovation can promote tourism development by using a series of panel regression models. The empirical results indicate that technological innovation has a positive effect on the development of tourism in the YRDUA. With respect to different regions, types of cities, and stages, there are differences in the positive impact of technological innovation on tourism development. Additionally, the impact of different types of technological innovations on tourism development is also diverse.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T11:57:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221102590
       
  • The paradox of airbnb, crime and house prices: A reconciliation

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      Authors: Ka Shing Cheung, Chung Yim Yiu
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      While in many housing studies, Airbnb is evidenced to be a demand driver that leads to a positive effect on property rents and prices, it is also argued that such tourist accommodation in a neighbourhood causes an increase in criminal activities that weigh on its property values. How can we reconcile such contradictory arguments' This research note aims to use a difference-in-differences model to empirically disentangle the moderating effect of Airbnb on the relationship between crime and house prices. Using the housing transaction data in the two census years of the Auckland Region, New Zealand, we demonstrate that the impact of crime on house prices is contingent on the density of Airbnb. After controlling neighbourhood qualities, such as household incomes, ethnicity concentration and proportion of public housing in each census tract, the effect of crime rate on house prices is negatively moderated by the number of Airbnb listings, especially in apartment-type housing. The result can be interpreted as showing the effects of trespassing-related crime on house prices.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-16T09:12:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221102808
       
  • Stronger together: International tourists “spillover” into
           close countries

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      Authors: Chansoo Park, Young-Rae Kim, Jihwan Yeon
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This paper explores the spillover effect of spatial proximity on international tourism in all 195 countries using data from the World Bank. We use a spatial proximity measure to calculate the number of neighbors that each country has and how the neighboring nations’ international tourist arrivals “unintentionally” affect each country’s international tourism. We define spatial proximity using both the conventional contiguity measure and the minimum-distance measure (MDM) of proximity: the two closest points between countries on their outer boundaries. By constructing spatial lag models (SLM) and spatial error models (SEM), we capture the spillover effects between neighbors. Our findings suggest that a country’s international tourism flows over the period of 1995–2019 are strongly influenced by international tourist arrivals to the nation’s neighboring countries; ranging from 8.1% to 45.8%, depending on the model used. Particularly, the spillover effect was more prominent for the period from 2015–2019, as compared to 1995–1999, implying increasing dependence among neighboring countries in international tourism, which directly contrasts the common assumption that technology is making geographic distance less relevant. This paper provides several important implications for both scholars and practitioners, although further study is required to determine the effects of historical interactions and spatial relations.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-15T05:33:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221098320
       
  • Escape from air pollution: How does air quality in the place of residence
           shape tourism consumption'

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      Authors: Luojia Wang, Kerui Du, Bin Fang, Rob Law
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Air quality has been demonstrated to be an important determinant influencing tourist decision making. In this paper, we investigate the effect of air quality in the place of origin on a resident’s tourism consumption and the moderating effect of household income on this relationship. We develop a conceptual framework to rationalize the effect and empirically examine it at the household level using China Labor-force Dynamics Survey data from 2016. The results show that poor ambient air quality increases tourism consumption. Furthermore, this relationship becomes stronger for the higher-income group: One standard deviation increase in the Air Quality Index would increase tourism expenditure as much as a 22.56% increase in family income. The methods of instrumental variable and functional-coefficient regression were employed for robustness analysis. These findings contribute to the literature by providing a new perspective for tourism demand studies and direct implications for tourism management and policy making.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-13T01:02:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221091749
       
  • Does air pollution affect the tourism industry in the USA' Evidence
           from the quantile autoregressive distributed lagged approach

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      Authors: Fengsheng Chien, YunQian Zhang, Arshian Sharif, Muhammad Sadiq, Minh Vu Hieu
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study scrutinised the influence of air pollution on the USA’s tourism industry along with macroeconomic variables from 1990 to 2020. The analyses were conducted using a novel quantile autoregressive distributed lagged (QARDL) technique to examine the nonlinear association in the long and short run. Additionally, the constancy of the parameters under the short- and long-run estimations was investigated using the Wald test. The QARDL results under different quantiles confirmed that air pollution in terms of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and particulate matter (PM2.5) had a negative association with the arrival of international tourists in the USA. However, the long-run estimation for the nonlinear association between gross domestic product (GDP) and tourists' arrival (TA) and between the real effective exchange rate (REER) and TA was positively significant under different quantiles. Alternatively, the estimation of the short run corroborated that the past and lagged values of TA showed a positive correlation with the current and lagged values of international TA. Moreover, the findings of the study confirmed, through Granger causality, the bidirectional causality between tourism, GDP, haze pollution such as PM2.5 and CO2 emissions and REER in the USA.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-12T01:26:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221097021
       
  • How to better incorporate geographic variation in Airbnb price
           modeling'

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      Authors: Yifei Jiang, Honglei Zhang, Xianting Cao, Ge Wei, Yang Yang
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Since entering the Chinese market in 2015, Airbnb has become a major player in the Chinese home-sharing arena. This article uses data from 8012 active Airbnb listings in Shanghai and presents three models (linear regression, geographically weighted regression, and random forest) to study the determinants of Airbnb listing prices and incorporate geographic variation in price modeling. Results show that property quality plays a key role in shaping listing prices. Due to Airbnb’s distinctions from traditional lodging in both features and business models, Airbnb pricing determinants differ accordingly. For example, location conditions were found to have a limited impact in regions with established transportation networks. Among the three models, random forest performed best in terms of prediction accuracy. Lastly, practical implications are discussed.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-05T04:10:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221097585
       
  • The impacts of domestic and global economic policy uncertainties on the
           hotel room demand: Evidence from Singapore

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      Authors: Chew Ging Lee, Shi-Min How
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Applying cointegration analysis on the monthly data of Singapore, this research note examines the impacts of global economic policy uncertainty (GEPU) and domestic economic policy uncertainty (DEPU) on the hotel room demand. Although control variables, such as average room rates, industrial production index and international tourist arrivals, are used and the specific-to-general modelling is adopted, the results show that the standard diagnostic tests may be incapable of identifying possible model mis-specification. The main findings show that DEPU has a negative impact, but GEPU has a positive impact on the hotel room demand. DEPU is linked to the political instability of Singapore, which discourages international travellers to visit Singapore. GEPU enhances Singapore’s position as a stable business and financial hub in relation to others and thereby increases business travel.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-03T03:21:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221086062
       
  • A simultaneous valuation model on positive and negative tourism benefits
           under suppressed consumption

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      Authors: Tadahiro Okuyama
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to develop a benefit valuation model with household production under consumption suppressed by self-restraint, as observed during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This study proposes a model to measure the benefits of the value of time (VOT), value of environmental quality (VOQ), and value of self-restrained consumption (VOS). Numerical simulations show that 1) the benefits can be measured in a single modeling system, 2) the absolute VOS might be larger than the other benefits, 3) the VOS decreases exponentially with an increase in self-restrained consumption, and 4) the VOT may be sensitive to the degrees of the parameter values.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-05-02T04:33:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221098321
       
  • Retirement and household tourism consumption—A case study in China

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      Authors: Taotao Deng, Weishu Zhao, Yukun Hu
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      To date there has been little agreement on the effect of retirement on tourism consumption, and “retirement-tourism consumption puzzle” has not been empirically tested. Taking advantage of the mandatory retirement policy in China, this study adopts the fuzzy regression discontinuity design (RDD) approach to examine whether there is a “retirement-tourism consumption puzzle.” The findings indicate that the retirement of household heads significantly boosts household tourism consumption. The results also illustrate the considerable moderating effects of self-assessed health level and pension level on household tourism consumption. The research framework can be generalized to other countries to identify the effect of retirement on tourism consumption.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-04-28T11:29:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221090170
       
  • Chase for lucky numbers and take positive actions

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      Authors: Peng Luo, Yukuan Xu, Rob Law
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Number 8 is regarded as a lucky number in Chinese culture and is preferred over other numbers, especially in financial and retail market. To explore the impact of lucky numbers in room prices, we collect data from a room-sharing platform (Mayi) in China. The results indicate that a room with the lucky number in its price receives more bookings and higher customer ratings than other rooms without that price feature. Moreover, a host setting price with the lucky number 8 will receive more positive ratings. This study contributes to the existing literature and provides practical insights for room hosts and operators in room-sharing platforms.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-04-26T05:26:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221095793
       
  • Labour market regulations and efficiency in tourism industry

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      Authors: Emmanuel Mamatzakis, Panagiotis Pegkas, Christos Staikouras
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the effect of the labour market regulations on Greek tourism industry performance. The tourism industry, the steam engine of the Greek economy, always drives to enhance efforts to reach further savings in operating costs. However, the labour regulations that influence the tourism sector’s ability to adjust costs have not been thoroughly investigated. We present a novel methodology that permits the evaluation of the effect of labour market regulations on technical and allocative efficiency in one step. The empirical results demonstrate the complexity of the relationship between labour regulations and efficiency. Labour market liberalization is associated with improvements in allocative efficiency but may have opposite effects on technical efficiency. Policymakers should pay attention to these complicated interactions when planning reforms on labour market.JEL codes: D24, D61, J30, J80, Z30
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-04-18T06:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221081522
       
  • Last chance to travel or safety first' The influence of exposure to
           natural hazards and coping capacities on tourism consumption

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      Authors: Canh P Nguyen
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The literature shows that natural disasters adversely affect international (arrivals) tourism. However, there seems to have been a lack of consideration of the dynamics of domestic and outbound (departure) tourism consumption in respect of natural hazards. To address this gap, this study uses a unique dataset of exposure to natural hazards and coping capacities for a global sample of 145 economies from 2011 to 2019 to examine the influence on domestic, outbound and total tourism spending. Exposure appears to have inverted U-shaped relationships with domestic and total tourism spending, and a U-shaped relationship with outbound spending. Coping capacities, in contrast, have U-shaped relationships with domestic and total tourism spending, with an inverted U-shaped relationship with outbound spending. Lastly, the analyses for four income groups and seven regions show some heteroscedasticity. The findings suggest that governments should build coping capacities for the recovery of tourism after disaster events.JEL codes: Z32, Z38, Q01, Q54
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-03-29T10:05:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221077648
       
  • Travel and tourism competitiveness index and the tourism sector
           development

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      Authors: Ali Uyar, Cemil Kuzey, Mehmet Ali Koseoglu, Abdullah S Karaman
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The objective of this study is to test whether Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) enhances tourism sector development in terms of tourist arrivals, tourism receipts, and the change in both tourist arrivals and tourism receipts. The results found that TTCI main index (Level 1) is positively associated with tourist arrivals but not tourism receipts and the change in tourist arrivals and tourism receipts. Further analysis (Level 2) reveals that while the T&T policy and enabling conditions index is positively associated with tourist arrivals, the infrastructure index is positively associated with tourism receipts. None of the Level 2 indices drives the change in tourist arrivals and tourism receipts. Among results obtained from Level 3 sub-indices, while price competitiveness, air transportation infrastructure, and cultural resources indices have a positive association with tourist arrivals, only ground and port infrastructure have a positive association with tourism receipts. Moreover, while safety and security, human resources and labor market, and air transportation infrastructure sub-indices drive a positive change in tourist arrivals, ICT readiness and natural resources drive a negative change in tourist arrivals and none of the sub-indices drives a change in tourism receipts. The study suggests several practical implications for tourism firms and policymakers.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-03-28T10:08:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221080357
       
  • The contagion effect of COVID-19-induced uncertainty on US tourism sector:
           Evidence from time-varying granger causality test

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      Authors: Oguzhan Cepni, Tarik Dogru, Ozgur Ozdemir
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the effect of COVID-19-induced uncertainty on the overall stock market and the stock performance of the tourism and hospitality industry and its subsectors utilizing a novel time-varying robust Granger causality test. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic–induced uncertainty has an adverse impact on the overall economy, tourism and hospitality industry, and subsectors of tourism and hospitality. However, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic–induced uncertainty is more significant in the tourism and hospitality industry and its subsectors. In particular, hotels sector has experienced the largest impact from the COVID-19 pandemic, followed by restaurants and airline sectors, respectively. Research and practical implications are discussed.JEL Classification: C1, C5, F2, G11, G17, G41
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-03-27T04:02:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221077633
       
  • Does World Heritage inscription promote regional tourism' Evidence
           from China

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      Authors: Cheng Zhang, Wei Cheng, Wanli Zhang
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Using the panel data from 2002 to 2018 of 287 prefecture-level cities in China and the propensity score matching–difference-in-differences method, our study sought to reexamine the effect of World Heritage inscription on regional tourism. The results show that World Heritage sites improve regional tourism significantly, further confirmed by a series of robustness tests. However, the arrival and revenue effects of World Heritage inscription on inbound tourism are not significant. Moreover, World Heritage sites generate significant tourism economic benefits for the eastern and western regions in China but not for the central region. Last, a mechanism analysis shows that tourism public services increase the arrival and revenue effects significantly. The conclusions provide important insights for governments and tourism operators regarding the sustainable development of World Heritage sites and regional tourism.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-03-23T05:13:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221075453
       
  • Assessing the ability of regions to attract foreign tourists: The case of
           Italy

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      Authors: Bernardina Algieri, Antonio Álvarez
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the ability of Italian regions to attract foreign tourists and the factors influencing the choice of regional destinations using a novel Stochastic Frontier Demand Model. The results show that several factors including climate, seasonality, cultural heritage and infrastructures influence tourism performance. Easy accessibility to World Heritage Sites drives international tourism demand too. On average, Southern regions lie below the stochastic frontier and are inefficient, while Northern regions tend to be efficient. Calabria, Sardinia and Molise have a low ability to entice foreign tourists, while Veneto maximizes the number of tourist arrivals, overnight stays and expenditures.JEL Classification: C51; R11; Z32.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-03-05T03:59:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211068669
       
  • Can tourism market diversification mitigate the adverse effects of a
           blockade on tourism' Evidence from Qatar

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      Authors: Ghialy Yap, Shrabani Saha, Nelson O Ndubisi, Saif S Alsowaidi, Ali S Saleh
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study examines the effects of an unfavorable political event or environmental hostility, namely, a blockade affecting international tourist inflows, and how tourism market diversification (TMD) could mitigate the adverse effects in the case of Qatar. To quantify these effects, we adopted a standard tourism-demand model and augmented it with a Herfindahl index (HI) for the geographical diversification of tourism exports, a dummy variable for the blockade, and an interaction variable. We further analyzed the tourist inflows from various regions using regional dummies and their interaction terms to capture the different impacts of the blockade on Qatar’s inbound tourists from 46 source countries between 2006 and 2019. This study applied a panel-based differenced system-generalized method-of-moments estimation to reveal several interesting findings. First, there was a significant positive individual effect of TMD on inbound tourism. Second, during the blockade, Qatar witnessed growing tourist inflows from Asia and Australasia, the Americas, and Europe. However, the incident inevitably placed severe constraints on some tourist flows to Qatar, primarily from Middle Eastern and African countries. Moreover, although the HI has a positive impact on tourism growth, our study revealed that the interaction terms between the HI and the blockade are only statistically significant in some cases, implying that a diversification strategy cannot completely mitigate the harmful effects of a blockade on tourism due to the severity of blockade effect. Nevertheless, a TMD strategy appears to be successful at the individual level.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-03-03T06:39:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211070742
       
  • Does corporate social responsibility affect the institutional ownership of
           firms in the hospitality and tourism industry'

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      Authors: Danielle Lyssimachou, Pawel Bilinski
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      As hospitality and tourism (H&T) businesses mature, they often seek institutional equity financing to support their growth. Capital intensive H&T firms, such as cruise operators, casinos and large restaurant and hotel chains, continuously rely on institutional capital to fund their operations. This study examines which corporate social responsibility dimensions affect H&T firms’ ability to attract institutional equity capital providers. We document that firms with better social and governance performance have higher institutional ownership, particularly by investors focused on long-term growth and value creation, such as dedicated institutional investors, domestic investors and blockholders. Community and environmental performance do not increase institutional holdings.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T09:44:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211069899
       
  • Uneven domestic tourism demand in times of pandemic

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      Authors: Martin Falk, Eva Hagsten, Xiang Lin
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study investigates the short-run impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of domestic overnight stays at the regional level in the summer season 2020. Official data for 65 regions in four countries are used for the analysis (Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany and Switzerland). Dynamic panel data models are employed to estimate a tourism demand equation (real GDP and price fluctuations) augmented by average temperatures. Estimation results reveal that domestic overnight stays evolve unevenly in the first summer after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The short-run effects show that the number of domestic overnight stays in densely populated regions decreases by 27% in July as well as in August 2020, in comparison with the same months in previous years, ceteris paribus. To the contrary, there is a surge of 27 and 10%, respectively, for sparsely populated areas in the same months.JEL: Z3, R11 and R12.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T05:45:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211059409
       
  • Impacts of red tide in peer-to-peer accommodations: A multi-regional
           input-output model

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      Authors: João-Pedro Ferreira, Bijeta Bijen Saha, Gabriel Cardoso Carrero, Jinwon Kim, Christa Court
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Increases in the incidence or severity of hazard events significantly alter the attractiveness of tourism destinations and tourism inflow. In 2018, a significant red tide event limited access to marine and coastal areas in Florida, heavily impacting the tourist sector. The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic impacts of red tides in the state economy through the shock in the Airbnb market. We combined microdata on Airbnb properties and water sample records and estimated that water sample indicating the presence of red tide conditions within a county decreases the average daily rate price of Airbnb rentals by $0.45 and the number of reservation days by 345. This event generated $317 million in sales revenue losses and resulted in the loss of nearly 2900 job-years throughout Florida. Knowledge of such consequences is essential to inform decision-making processes for policy makers and tourism management professionals.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-03-02T04:22:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211068276
       
  • Economic policy uncertainty and international tourist arrivals: A
           disaggregated analysis of the Croatian Adriatic coast

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      Authors: James E Payne, Saban Nazlioglu, Andrea Mervar
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This is the first study to examine the differential impact of Croatian and European economic policy uncertainty indices while controlling for the real effective exchange rate and industrial production on international tourist arrivals for the seven coastal counties of Croatia and the country as a whole. The Toda-Yamamoto long-run causality modeling approach with a Fourier approximation is employed to capture structural shifts. This approach is particularly useful in light of the disruption from the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism sector. The results show unidirectional causality from both Croatian and European economic policy uncertainty indices to international tourist arrivals with the impact of the economic policy uncertainty indices negative and statistically significant across the respective coastal counties. Moreover, the findings show that European economic policy uncertainty exhibits a greater adverse impact on international tourist arrivals relative to Croatian economic policy uncertainty.JEL Codes: C30; Z30; Z32; Z38
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-03-01T09:23:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166221078807
       
  • Chinese consumer confidence: A catalyst for the outbound tourism
           expenditure'

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      Authors: Chi-Wei Su, Xian-Li Meng, Ran Tao, Muhammad Umar
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This study performs the bootstrap full- and sub-sample rolling-window Granger causality tests, in order to investigate the time-varying causal relationship between the consumer confidence index (CCI) and the outbound tourism expenditure (OTM) in China. For this purpose, it introduces the variable of consumer confidence as a subjective psychological perception variable into the gravity model and explores its impact on the outbound travel. The results reveal that CCI tends to exert positive impacts on the OTM in most subsamples. That is to say that the Chinese consumer confidence can be considered as a catalyst for the OTM. However, the impact tends to be negative during times such as the global financial crisis, caused by the appreciation in the renminbi. In turn, OTM does not affect CCI. This suggests that the only change of private expenditure on outbound tourism cannot alter consumer confidence regarding the current economic and income situation. These findings compel the foreign tourism authorities to take CCI into account, especially when predicating the tourism arrivals from China, and hence plan their tourism strategy accordingly. Also, Chinese travel agencies should ideally take notice of the CCI in order to plan their international tour packages.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T02:08:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211065250
       
  • Recreational travel behavior and COVID-19: Insights from expected utility
           and the theory of planned behavior

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      Authors: Kehinde E Ojo, Susana Ferreira, John Bergstrom, John Salazar, Kyle Maurice Woosnam
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Understanding what factors play a role in people’s decisions to travel during a pandemic is important to public health officials and to stakeholders in the travel and tourism industry in the United States (US) and worldwide. This study examines factors influencing people’s decisions to cancel/postpone recreational travel within the US amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Our conceptual framework extends the Expected Utility model, commonly used in economics to model decisions under risk and uncertainty, to incorporate subjective norms and perceived behavioral control from the Theory of Planned Behavior. Our results suggest that risk perceptions, subjective norms, and concerns over transmitting COVID-19 to others play a significant role in the decision to cancel and postpone recreational travel. Results also suggest that perceived behavioral control may be less relevant to travel decisions when traveling involves elevated health risks.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-02-22T04:18:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211059642
       
  • The economic implications of the COVID-19 outbreak on tourism industry:
           Empirical evidence from Turkey

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      Authors: Emrah Koçak, Tarik Dogru, Khurram Shehzad, Umit Bulut
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused tremendous fear and uncertainty and affected health, economy, and social life in an unprecedented form worldwide. Yet, the level of knowledge on its economic implications is very limited. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to explain the health, social, and economic impacts of COVID-19. Because the tourism is one of the most affected industries by the pandemic, this study aims to explain the effects of COVID-19 cases and deaths, global fear, and government responses on Turkey’s tourism industry. Empirical findings show that the tourism industry reacts negatively to new cases, number of deaths, and global fear measures. Also, government containment and health measures and economic supports positively affect the tourism industry. Furthermore, government stringency policies drive down the tourism industry’s performance. The findings of this study provide significant implications for tourism and travel firms, policy makers, and future research.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-02-11T02:51:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211067188
       
  • Modeling censored tourism expenditures in Turkey with non-normal and
           heteroscedastic errors: An application of the inverse hyperbolic sine
           double-hurdle model

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      Authors: Faruk Urak, Nihat Küçük, Abdulbaki Bilgiç, Steven T Yen
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      Censoring, extreme values, and non-normal distribution are common features in microdata. These data features can compromise the statistical distributions of the estimators when an appropriate model is not used. We use an inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) transformation in the double-hurdle (DH) model to accommodate extreme values and skewness in censored accommodation spending among Turkish households. The full-parameterized model nests many restricted specifications which do not accommodate dependence, heteroscedasticity, and non-normality in the error terms. Statistical test results support the use of the fully parameterized dependent IHS-DH specification. The statistically significant correlation between the binary and level decisions of accommodation precludes the use of a model with a two-step structure. Some of the findings in our study have a determining or driving force in expressing causality relationship in monthly accommodation probability and level decisions. The study made also prudent policy recommendations about what the results might mean to policymakers and stakeholders.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T07:13:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211067191
       
  • Measuring hidden demand and price behavior from US outbound health tourism
           spending

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      Authors: Jorge Ridderstaat
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The health tourism literature has covered several topics, but studies on the workings of health tourism demand and prices are still under-highlighted. This study investigates US outbound health tourism demand and price developments (real exchange rates) for 50 destinations, using outbound health tourism spending as a reference variable. The study applies the dynamic time warping approach, a sophisticated technique to assess similarities between time series, specifically, the outbound health spending with demand and prices. The results show that demand developments have similarities with US outbound health tourism spending in the short-run, with about 1.2% of all US outbound travelers being health tourists. Price developments have both long- and short-term similarities with outbound health tourism spending. The findings could help policy-makers in better managing the health tourism industry.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-02-08T05:50:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211067925
       
  • How do prosperity and aspiration underlie leisure tourism expenditure
           patterns'

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      Authors: Usamah F Alfarhan, Hossein Olya, Khaldoon Nusair
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This research advances the current knowledge of tourism expenditure by adapting a new analytical approach to understand expenditure differentials along their conditional distributions, based on multiple segmentation criteria. Using data from survey and secondary sources, we approximate tourists’ required utilities via prosperity at their countries of residence, a macro-level criterion, and individual-travel aspirations, a micro-level criterion. Subsequently, expenditure differentials between more and less prosperous/aspired tourists are decomposed into two components. First, group differences in expenditure covariates that represent tourists’ relative consumption behaviors and, second, differences in the estimated returns to those covariates, measuring potential third-degree price discrimination. Our results guide policy makers in the tourism industry to develop pricing strategies capable of generating mark-ups within all viable segmentations.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-01-04T08:44:18Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211064215
       
  • Competition for domestic tourism in the COVID-19 pandemic: A
           characterization using a contest model

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      Authors: Juan Antonio Duro, António Osório, Alejandro Perez-Laborda
      First page: 378
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      The COVID-19 has caused a dramatic fall in international tourism demand. Destinations within countries have revised their promotion strategies, intensifying the competition for the domestic market, less affected by mobility restrictions. This paper proposes a contest theory model for characterizing this new context. Two types of destinations, coastal (sun and sand) and rural, compete for the existing demand in terms of promotion spending. The competition is driven by two main factors: the relative strategic advantage of each destination in the international and domestic markets and the strategic value given to each market. The pandemic has likely modified these factors, reducing the traditional advantage of coastal destinations and shifting the valuation towards the domestic market. According to the model, these changes may increase competition for the domestic market, with destinations rising promotion spending even in a context of reduced demand, which is consistent with the empirical evidence.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-01-17T11:53:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211049870
       
  • Optimum spatial scale of regional tourism cooperation based on spillover
           effects in tourism flows

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      Authors: Nina Zhu, Gang Zeng, Xue Li, Zhangqi Zhong
      First page: 409
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      This research investigates the optimum spatial scale of regional tourism cooperation based on the tourism flows spillover in Mainland China. Using panel data from 341 prefecture-level cities in Mainland China, spatial econometric modeling is employed to estimate the spillover effects to determine the optimum spatial scale of regional tourism cooperation. The findings reveal that there are spatial correlations of tourism flow. In addition, tourism economic fundamental factor, surrounding market factor, tourism transportation facility factor, and tourist attraction factors have a positive and significant impact not only on local tourism flows but also on the surrounding areas. Finally, it is found that the optimum spatial scale of the regional tourism cooperation in Mainland China is [5, 15] cities, whereas for the eastern, western, southern, and northern regions, the optimum scale of the regional tourism cooperation is [5, 21], [5, 26], [5, 26], and [5, 11] cities, respectively.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-02-28T02:28:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211052810
       
  • Building a system dynamics model to analyze scenarios of COVID-19
           policymaking in tourism-dependent developing countries: A case study of
           Cambodia

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      Authors: Shuangjin Li, Shuang Ma, Junyi Zhang
      First page: 488
      Abstract: Tourism Economics, Ahead of Print.
      To control the COVID-19 pandemic, various policies have been implemented to restrict the mobility of people. Such policies, however, have resulted in huge damages to many economic sectors, especially the tourism sector and its auxiliary services. Focusing on Cambodia, this study presents a system dynamics (SD) model for assessing and selecting effective policy responses to contain the spread of COVID-19, while maintaining tourism development. Policies targeted in this study include international and domestic transportation bans, quarantine policy, tourist-centered protection measures, and enterprise-led protection measures. Two types of scenario analyses are conducted: one targets each policy separately and the other combines different policies. Among all scenarios, quarantine policy is evaluated to be the most effective policy as it balances the containment of the spread of COVID-19 and support for tourism development. This study provides a new way of guiding COVID-19 policymaking and exploring effective policies in the context of tourism.
      Citation: Tourism Economics
      PubDate: 2022-01-18T12:20:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/13548166211059080
       
 
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