Subjects -> TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (Total: 41 journals)
    - CLOTHING TECHNOLOGY AND TRADE (6 journals)
    - TEXTILE INDUSTRIES AND FABRICS (35 journals)

CLOTHING TECHNOLOGY AND TRADE (6 journals)

Showing 1 - 4 of 4 Journals sorted alphabetically
Clothing and Textiles Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Costume     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Fashion Theory : The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Textile : The Journal of Cloth and Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
ZoneModa Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.318
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 9  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0955-6222 - ISSN (Online) 1758-5953
Published by Emerald Homepage  [364 journals]
  • Automatic recognition and 3D modeling of the neck-shoulder human shape
           based on 2D images

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      Authors: Ting Wang, Bingfei Gu
      Abstract: This study focused on how to realize automatic recognition of young women's neck-shoulder shape based on the front and side images. The reverse engineering software was used to measure the body sizes of the neck-shoulder part based on the young women's three-dimensional (3D) point cloud data, and the important parameters closely related to the neck-shoulder shape were determined. The neck-shoulder shape of the subjects was classified to establish the classification rules. Then, based on the front and side images, the human body contour was extracted by Matlab, and the data required for neck-shoulder shape classification were obtained by identifying the feature points. Through the cluster analysis based on the shoulder angle, back angle, shoulder depth/width ratio and armpit depth/width ratio, young women's neck-shoulder shape was divided into four categories, namely round wide shoulder, flat narrow shoulder, round drop shoulder and hunchback flat shoulder. The neck-shoulder shape could be automatically recognized based on the established classification rules and two-dimensional (2D) body measurement method, with an accuracy rate of 90%. The neck-shoulder shape automatic recognition system constructed based on this method is effective. This study proposed a simple neck-shoulder automatic recognition method based on the 2D body images. This approach can be extended to other group of human body or other parts of the body.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-04-01
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-05-2020-0079
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Factors influencing thermal resistance of a sleeping bag

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      Authors: Yuying An, Guangbiao Xu, Hua Shen
      Abstract: To have a better understanding of the heat transfer mechanisms in a sleeping bag and to investigate the factors influencing thermal resistance of a down sleeping bag. The mechanism of heat transfer in a sleeping bag was discussed in this paper. The thermal resistances of 24 samples were investigated. Besides, the relation between fill weight and thermal resistance, and that between the air permeability of fabric and thermal resistance, as well as that between down filling rate and thermal resistance were analyzed. The results showed that thermal resistances of samples varied from 0.35 to 0.8 m2 K/W. The fill weight was the most important factor of thermal resistance of sleeping bag and the relation between fill weight and thermal resistance matched well with cubic function. A multiple regression formula was proposed, which with thermal resistance as a dependent variable and with air permeability of fabric, down filling rate, fill weight as independent variables. Thermal properties of a sleeping bag were analyzed through simplified basic unit under simplified environment conditions, which was necessary for building the first stage of systematic study of thermal performance of a sleeping bag.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-30
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-05-2020-0071
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Sustainable antibacterial printing of cellulosic fabrics using an
           indigenous chitosan-based thickener with distinct natural dyes

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      Authors: Zulfiqar Ali Raza, Faiza Anwar, Sharjeel Abid
      Abstract: Chitosan is widely considered as a natural polymer and a diverse finish to impart antibacterial property and enhanced dye uptake of textiles. Herein, the authors have investigated the feasibility of using chitosan/starch blend as a thickener in screen printing of cellulosic fabrics with some natural dyes. The polymeric blend of chitosan/starch was prepared and used as a thickener for screen printing with three natural dye extracts, namely, Curcuma tinctoria (turmeric), Beta vulgaris (beet) roots and Lawsonia alba (henna) leaves on cellulosic fabrics like cotton and viscose. The viscosity and rheological properties of print paste as a fresh and after overnight shelving were examined. The influence of polymeric blends on cellulosic fabrics' print properties was inspected by determining their colorfastness, rubbing fastness, tensile strength and antibacterial activity. The results depicted that chitosan/starch blend as printing thickener increased the shade depth with good wet and dry rubbing fastness for all the test natural dyes. The antibacterial activity of resultant printed cellulosic fabrics was found to be satisfactory against broad-spectrum bacterial strains. This study's outcome is the development of chitosan blend thickeners to print the cellulosic fabrics with indigenous natural dyes. The authors found no previous report on the synthesis of chitosan-based antibacterial blend thickeners with three distinct natural dyes and their application in screen printing of native and regenerated cellulosic fabrics of cotton and viscose, respectively.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-15
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-01-2020-0005
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Force attenuation capacity of weft-knitted spacer fabric in low-velocity
           impact

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      Authors: Ryan Rudy, Wiah Wardiningsih
      Abstract: This study aimed to determine the peak impact force and force attenuation capacity of weft-knitted spacer fabrics intended for padding that can be used for human body protection against impact. A total of five weft-knitted spacer fabrics were fabricated with four different diameters of nylon monofilament yarns and one doubled monofilament yarns, respectively. The impact performances of the weft-knitted spacer fabrics were tested using a drop test method with a customized test rig to simulate falling. Impact tests were conducted on single- and multilayered experimental spacer fabrics to investigate the peak impact force and force attenuation capacity. It was found that weft-knitted spacer fabric with a coarser or larger diameter of monofilament spacer yarn generated lower impact force and higher force attenuation capacity, thus resulting in better impact performance. Greater force attenuation can be achieved by utilizing a higher number of spacer fabric layers. However, the increase in thickness must be considered with the spacer fabric end use. This study employed relatively coarse nylon monofilament yarn as spacer yarns to gain knowledge on the impact performance of weft-knitted spacer fabrics compared to warp-knitted spacer fabrics which are more common. The results showed that the diameter of spacer yarn significantly influenced the impact performance of the experimental weft-knitted spacer fabrics. These results could be useful for designing and engineering textile-based impact protectors.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-15
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-06-2020-0100
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Sensor and photovoltaic dual functions of a-Si:H solar cell in smart
           clothing and eyewear

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      Authors: Miao-Tzu Lin
      Abstract: Flexible hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells have many advantages, including lower weight, good flexibility and light sensitivity. Moreover, a-Si:H solar cells can be used as sensors, as indoor light sources and can also generate electricity. These solar cells are suitable for the design of portable systems and curved materials. The purpose of this study was to integrate flexible a-Si:H solar cells and wearable technology and to apply the dual functions of photovoltaics and photo sensors to smart clothing and eyewear. The integration of flexible a-Si:H solar cells and tri-colour light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was used to develop smart auto-flashing clothing. In addition, we combined flexible a-Si:H solar cells and twisted nematic (TN) liquid crystal (LC) cells to design smart self-activation eyewear. The maximum power resistance value of flexible a-Si:H solar cells was used to deduce the equation of solar cell voltage value generated by different percentages of SUN (100% SUN means 100 mW/cm2). A solar cell was used as a photo sensor that connects a resistor in a series to the Arduino to detect the voltage value, and then different percentages of SUN are calculated from the equation. Applying the deduced equation to the smart phone APP and Arduino code, we developed a human–machine interface (HMI) to facilitate user operation. In this study, the flexible a-Si:H solar cell performs the function of not only photovoltaic power generation but also that of a photo sensor. The smart auto-flashing clothing is suitable for traffic guides, joggers and people engaging in other night activities. This smart self-activating eyewear can adjust to light and protect the eyes.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-11
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-09-2020-0140
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Study on properties of yak cashmere fiber

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      Authors: Xiaoxuan Qin, Lixin Qu
      Abstract: As one natural fiber, yak cashmere has been used more and more widely on textile processing due to its excellent warmth retention property. Yarn spinning is the first and the most important step of textile processing. Yarn spinning is closely related to the fiber properties. That is, for giving the optimization spinning process of one new fiber, the properties of the new fiber should be studied firstly. Meanwhile, during the studying of the properties of the new fiber, comparative analysis method was usually used. That is, the property of the new fiber was common comparatively analyzed with other fibers. During the comparative analysis, the spinning process can be optimized. Therefore, in the paper, the properties of the yak cashmere were studied in detail and comparatively analyzed. The brown yak cashmere, cyan yak cashmere, white cashmere fiber, purple cashmere fiber, cyan cashmere fiber, camel hair fiber and mohair fiber, were chosen as the samples. The fiber length, fineness, strength, curls, moisture regain, mass specific resistance, surface morphology, infrared spectrum, melting behavior, thermal weight loss, friction, x-ray, were tested and comparatively analyzed. It is shown that the compositions of yak cashmere and cashmere are similar, and makes the physical properties of yak cashmere and cashmere fiber similar. Comparing with the mohair, camel hair and cashmere fiber, the average length of yak cashmere is smaller and the dispersion of length distribution is larger, and the dispersion of yak cashmere strength is larger, which makes the yarn spinning of yak cashmere difficult, especially the high count pure yarn. However, comparing with the mohair, camel hair and cashmere fiber, the friction coefficient and friction effect of yak cashmere is larger, and yak cashmere fiber has relatively less curls and larger crimp rate and crimp recovery rate, and can improve the fiber spinnability. In the paper, taking the brown yak cashmere, cyan yak cashmere, white cashmere fiber, purple cashmere fiber, cyan cashmere fiber, camel hair fiber, mohair fibers as the samples, the properties of the yak cashmere were studied in detail. The fiber length, fineness, strength, curls, moisture regain, mass specific resistance, surface morphology, infrared spectrum, melting behavior, thermal weight loss, friction, x-ray, were tested and comparatively analyzed. The studies can establish foundation for the optimization of the yak cashmere spinning process, and also can provide information for the end uses of the fiber.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-10
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-06-2020-0096
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Mannequin fabrication methodology using 3D-scanning, modeling and printing

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      Authors: Seolyoung Oh, Dongae Suh
      Abstract: This paper presents a method to fabricate a fitting-mannequin using 3D-scanning, modeling and printing technologies. Scan data were obtained from 12 subjects with body size in the average range, selected from 208 women aged 20–29. The 3D-scan data were modified by selecting cross-sections from the cloud data, symmetrizing body shapes and obtaining mean points of body shapes. Fifteen spline curves, generated by connecting the mean points on the X–Y plane, were used as sketches and loft features to create the 3D mannequin models. A lower-body fitting mannequin was printed with polylactic acid plastic using a fused deposition-modeling 3D printer. The cross-section circumference discrepancies among the 3D-printed mannequins in each step were within 1%, demonstrating the applicability and reliability of the 3D technologies proposed for mass customization. The proposed methodology demonstrates the value of using 3D-scanning data to manufacture fitting-mannequins via mass customization. The study demonstrates the possibility and practicality of using 3D techniques to produce commercially viable fitting mannequins for the fashion industry.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-05-2020-0076
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Prediction of bursting strength of the nylon parachute fabrics

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      Authors: Vijay Kirubakar Raj, Renuka Devi
      Abstract: Parachutes are equipment that is repeatedly used as and when needed. Some of them are used for as many as 60 jumps. The property of the canopy fabric gets deteriorated with use. It is evaluated by destructive tensile and bursting strength. This study aims to focus on the nondestructive evaluation of the canopy fabric's fitness by testing air permeability and relating it with bursting strength. Predictor equations were developed to determine bursting strength from air permeability values. ANOVA techniques and statistical regression equations were formed. A series of samples containing five parachutes fabrics was used seven times, and their air permeability and bursting strength were determined to find the extent to the effect of reuse of parachute fabrics on their bursting strength and air permeability determination. It was found that there was a progressive drop in bursting strength and an increase in air permeability. An investigation of the extent of determination in terms of bursting strength and an increase in air permeability following the sense of five different types of parachute fabrics is reported. The work focuses on the prediction of bursting strength to textile materials only and may not apply to other materials like membranes and sheets. The process of determining air permeability is relatively simpler and faster. The bursting strength can be predicted for used parachutes, which are otherwise subjected to destructive testing. The men using the parachutes can be assured of the superior flawless performance of the parachute as equipment and also contribute to the saving of resources due to nondestructive testing, 100% evaluation of all parachutes is possible. This article describes the nature of the test procedure and discusses the means of introducing it to users of parachutes. It is accepted that the method must undergo field evaluation and possible modification before it can become a routine tool of parachute using organizations.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-03-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-06-2020-0088
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Effect of production speed on polyester/nylon intermingled yarn and
           melange fabric properties

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      Authors: G.L.D. Wickramasinghe G.L.D. Wickramasinghe, Sameera Umesh Dolawatte, Isuru Udayanga Thebuwana, W.W.S. Sampath Botheju
      Abstract: The main objectives of this research work were to investigate the effect of production speed on intermingled yarn properties and melange fabric properties with special reference to melange appearance. Polyester/nylon intermingled yarns were produced using an SSM DP3-C air-intermingling machine using commercial process parameters and Heberlein P212 nozzle. Melange fabric samples were knitted from polyester/nylon intermingled yarns while maintaining the same parameters to avoid knitting variations. The fabric samples were dyed using a sample dyeing machine while maintaining dye recipe and dyeing parameters constant to avoid dyeing variations. The production speed has significant effect on intermingled yarn and melange fabric properties. When the production speed is increased, mingle points, mingle stability, linear density, strength and the elongation of the intermingled yarns decreases. When the production speed is increased, fabric weight decreases and the melange effect varies from dot-like appearance to line-like appearance. Only the effect of production speed on intermingled yarn and melange fabric properties is discussed in this paper. Appearance evaluating systems developed in this research are limited to melange fabrics produced using air-intermingled yarns with two colour components. Results indicate that the intermingled yarns for the application of melange fabrics should be developed with optimum intermingling speeds, and it should not be changed during the production since production speed has significant effect on yarn and fabric parameters. Therefore, melange appearance and fabric weight may vary between fabric lots with different production speeds even though all the other parameters are kept constant. Further, melange appearance evaluation method developed in this research could be used as a guide in developing melange fabrics. This research introduced a qualitative and a quantitative method to analyse melange fabric appearance. This melange appearance evaluation method can be used as a guide to achieve specific melange effect in the sample development stage. Further, when a melange sample appearance catalogue is developed for all the variables for a particular fabric type using this evaluation method, customer requested appearance can be achieved in minimum sample trials which save time, capacity, money and customer credibility.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-25
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-04-2020-0046
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A sequential hybrid method to establish practical sizing systems based on
           anthropometric data

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      Authors: Amir Tjolleng, Kihyo Jung, Hyunsook Han, Hyunjung Han, Jayoung Cho
      Abstract: Size fit and economic efficiency are two crucial aspects that need to be considered in designing a sizing system. However, there could exist a trade-off between those aspects in order to establish a practical sizing system. The purpose of this paper is to develop a sequential hybrid method of grid and optimization to generate a practical sizing system using anthropometric data. The proposed sequential hybrid method consisted of two sequential steps, which employs grid method and optimization method. In the initial step, the grid method creates primary grids that accommodate a designated percentage (e.g. 90%) of users with best size fit. In the subsequent step, the optimization method generated additional grids to provide acceptable fit, with minimum fit penalty scores for users unaccommodated by the primary grids. Our method was applied to the development of a sizing system for men's military jackets. The proposed method performances were evaluated in terms of accommodation percentage, size fit and number of sizing categories. Our proposed method resulted in 26 primary grids during the initial step, which cover 90% of users. Next, we generated six additional grids during the subsequent step that provide minimum fit penalty scores for the rest (10%) users. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: consider accommodation percentage, size fit and number of sizing categories in the design of sizing system; combine the grid and optimization methods and evaluate a sizing system for men's military jackets. The proposed method is applicable to develop optimal sizing systems for multiple-size products.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-04-2020-0047
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Computer vision-based color sorting for waste textile recycling

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      Authors: Jie Zhou, Xingxing Zou, Wai Keung Wong
      Abstract: Efficient and high-accuracy intelligent color and material sorting systems are the main bottlenecks restricting the recycling of waste textiles. The mixing of waste textiles with different colors will make the reconstructed raw material of textile fiber useless or with low quality. In this study, some challenges about the automatic color sorting for waste textile recycling are discussed. A computer vision-based color sorting system for waste textile recycling is introduced, which can classify the required colors well and meet the efficiency requirements of an automatic recycling line. There are four aspects, (1) two cameras with different exposure times and white-balance parameters are involved for establishing the computer vision system. (2) Two standard color databases with two cameras are constructed. (3) A statistical model to determine the colors of textile samples is presented in which uniform sampling of pixels and mid-tone enhancing techniques are exploited. (4) The experiments with a number of waste textile samples from a factory in Hong Kong are conducted to illustrate the efficiency of the developed system. The experiments with a number of waste textile samples from a factory in Hong Kong are reported. The total classification accuracy performs good. The research methods and results reported in this study can provide an important reference for improving the intelligent level of color sorting for waste textile recycling. It is the first time to introduce computer vision technology to a color sorting system for recycling waste textiles, especially in a real recycling factory in Hong Kong. The research methods and results reported in this study also deliver guidance for designing a computer vision-based color sorting system for other industrial scenarios.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-12-2019-0190
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Research on bra component design and perceptual image prediction

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      Authors: Fang Fang, Caili Hu, Ting Ting Yan
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to apply the theory of perceptual image to clothing, study the effect of bra components on the perceptual image of Chinese female consumers aged 18 to 27, explore the relationship between them, promote the computer-aided bra design to be more rapid and accurate and meet consumer's needs better. In this paper, cognitive psychology and mathematical analysis methods were used, and two experiments were conducted. A reaction time experiment was conducted based on 3D virtual bra samples, proving that bra components have an effect on the consumer's perceptual image and obtaining a revised bra component design indicator system by multi-dimensional Scaling (MDS). A projection experiment was conducted to study what kind of relationship exists between the two, and a prediction model was constructed by the quantitative I-class theory. It is found that bra components have an effect on perceptual image of Chinese female consumers aged 18 to 27. A total of five important components (cup area, center front height, torso width, side wing width and center back shape) that affect the consumer's perceptual image were identified by MDS and references analysis, and then a bra perceptual image space composed of five pairs of words was constructed by subjective evaluation and cluster analysis. What is more, a prediction model was obtained by the quantitative I-class theory; after testing, the model can visually and effectively predict consumer's perceptual image according to bra components indicators, which provide a convenience for the positive design of bras. In this article, the authors just studied bra components, but did not take fabric, color and other factors that also affect the perceptual image into consideration. Further research can use this method to study other important influential factors as well as their comprehensive impact. Also, the subjects are Chinese young women; consumers of other age or from other countries are not involved, and more extensive research can be done in the future. The bra component indicator system can help to build a more systematic and clearer bra design library, which provides convenience for designers to search and use them quickly, improving the efficiency of bra design. The prediction model is also helpful to bra designers and companies. When they already design a bra, they can use this model to predict consumer's perceptual image, thus carry out more accurate market positioning and promotion. When they want to satisfy consumers or design a specific effect, they can also refer to this model to reverse design of components. In general, the outcomes of this paper can help companies to quickly establish a computer-aided bra design system, which is conducive to designers to accurately design and better meet market's needs, and the method is also a good attempt to apply the theory of perceptual image in psychology to clothing and can be extended to other relevant fields in the future. Based on cognitive psychology, this paper attempts to apply the theory of perceptual image in psychology into clothing and takes bra as an example to study the relationship between bra components and consumer's perceptual image. The prediction model constructed here is conducive to the development of bra design and to meet personalized needs of consumers. This method can also be extended to other fields in the future.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-12-2019-0186
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • 3D interactive garment parametric pattern-making and linkage editing based
           on constrained contour lines

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      Authors: Chen Bao, Yongwei Miao, Bingfei Gu, Kaixuan Liu, Zhen Liu
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to propose an interactive 2D–3D garment parametric pattern-making and linkage editing scheme that integrates clothing design, simulation and interaction to design 3D garments and 2D patterns. The proposed scheme has the potential to satisfy the individual needs of fashion industry, such as precise fit evaluation of the garment, interactive style editing with ease allowance and constrained contour lines in fashion design. The authors first construct a parametric pattern-making model for flat pattern design corresponding to the body dimensions. Then, the designing 2D patterns are stitched on a virtual 3D mannequin by performing a virtual try-on. If the customer is unsatisfied after the virtual try-on, the adjustable parameters (appearance parameters and fit parameters) can be adjusted using the 2D–3D linkage editing with hierarchical constrained contour lines, and the fit evaluation tool interactively provides the feedback. The authors observed that the usability and efficiency of the existing garment pattern-making method simplifies the garment pattern-making process. The authors utilize an interactive garment parametric flat pattern-making model to generate an individualized garment flat pattern that effectively adjust and realize the local editing of the garment pattern-making. The 2D–3D linkage editing is then employed, which alters the size and shape of garment pattern for a precise human model fit of the 3D garment using hierarchical constrained contour lines. Various instances have validated the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, which can increase the reusability of the existing garment styles and improve the efficiency of fashion design. First, the authors do not consider the garment pattern-making design of sophisticated styles. Second, the authors do not directly consider complex garment shapes such as wrinkles, folds, multi-layer models and fabric physical properties. The authors propose a pattern adjustment scheme that uses the 3D virtual try-on technology to avoid repetitions of reality-based fit tests and garment sample making in the designing process of clothing products. The proposed scheme provides interactive selections of garment patterns and sizes and renders modification tools for 3D garment designing and 2D garment pattern-making. The authors present the 2D–3D interactive linkage editing scheme for a custom-fit garment pattern based on the hierarchical constraint contour lines. The spatial relationship among the human body, pattern pieces and 3D garment model is adequately expressed, and the final design result of the garment pattern is obtained by constraint solving. Meanwhile, the tightness tension of different parts of the 3D garment is analyzed, and the fit and comfort of the garment are quantitatively evaluated.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-15
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-09-2020-0137
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Investigating facemask problems associated with wearing comfort and fit

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      Authors: Mika Morishima, Koya Kishida, Miho Fukagawa
      Abstract: A facemask is used to cover the nose and mouth to protect a wearer's health in daily life. The authors’ long-term goal aimed to ensure more people with different physical characteristics and different attitudes can wear a high performance and comfortable facemask. In the present paper, wearers were surveyed by a questionnaire. Additionally, a prototype improvement pattern with a fit performance was investigated. The survey of facemask wearers was conducted with local students and international students in Japan. A basic pattern with high fit performance was analyzed using a combination of triangles based on the measured three-dimensional coordinates of the head shape of a Japanese mannequin. The aggregated survey data indicated that 85.0% of the Japanese female students, 77.2% of international female students, 70.8% of Japanese male students and 54.3% of international male students were facemask wearers. Wearers had problems related to their masks' thermal, hygroscopic and airflow properties. Japanese nonusers did not wear them due to dislike related to the problems above. International nonusers had no experience of wearing them. It was concerned that these discomfort factors influence fit performance and reduction of wearing effects. Therefore, the authors analyzed a sheet pattern with a high fit performance for a Japanese head mannequin. These results will contribute in improving hygienic facemasks for people at the global level. The survey results and pattern analysis provide of necessary conditions of development of the mask with comfortable and high fit performance.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-05-2020-0067
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Experimental study of heat and moisture transfer in vertical air gap under
           protective clothing against dry and wet heat exposures

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      Authors: Yun Su, Miao Tian, Yunyi Wang, Xianghui Zhang, Jun Li
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study heat and steam transfer in a vertical air gap and improve thermal protective performance of protective clothing under thermal radiation and hot steam. An experiment-based model was introduced to analyze heat and moisture transfer in the vertical air gap between the protective clothing and human body. A developed test apparatus was used to simulate different air gap sizes (3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 mm). The protective clothing with different air gap sizes was subjected to dry and wet heat exposures. The increase of the air gap size reduced the heat and moisture transfer from the protective clothing to the skin surface under both heat exposures. The minimum air gap size for the initiation of natural convection in the dry heat exposure was between 6 and 9 mm, while the air gap size for the occurrence of natural convection was increased in the wet heat exposure. In addition, the steam mass flux presented a sharp decrease with the rising of the air gap size, followed by a stable state, mainly depending on the molecular diffusion and the convection mass transfer. This research provides a better understanding of the optimum air gap under the protective clothing, which contributes to the design of optimum air gap size that provided higher thermal protection against dry and wet heat exposures.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-06-2020-0091
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Electrophysiological assessment of cushions as attachment objects

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      Authors: Okkyung Lee, Yejin Lee
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects a cushion has on electrophysiological signals and to identify the important design elements required for manufacturing better therapy cushions. Four types of attachment cushions were manufactured by changing the shell fiber (cotton or microfiber) and the interlining (synthetic loose fiber or buckwheat). The products were evaluated by 20 healthy individuals (10 stable cushions and 10 unstable cushions). We examined the participants by electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG). The authors found significant differences in both EEG and ECG between participants with unstable and stable attachment types. A complex approach to emotional product evaluation was attempted by analyzing differences due to design variables of cushions through subjective evaluation as well as EEG and ECG.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-11
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-07-2020-0111
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Influence of sublimation process on air permeability and water absorption
           dynamics

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      Authors: Brigita Kalendraite, Jolita Krisciunaite, Daiva Mikucioniene
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to find the influence of sublimation process on air permeability and water absorption dynamics of knitted and woven polyester-based fabrics. Three different sublimation designs were prepared and applied (keeping the same sublimation parameters) for eight variants of knitted and four variants of woven polyester-based fabrics. Air permeability and water absorption dynamics during 180s period was measured and compared before and after the sublimation process. According to the obtained results, high temperature and pressure applied in sublimation process have influence on the porosity and air permeability of knitted fabrics; however, the influence on water absorption dynamics is minimal. Sublimation design dos not have any influence on the mentioned properties. The obtained results of the sublimation process influence on air permeability and water absorption dynamics of knitted and woven polyester-based fabrics will help to understand how sublimation process can affect comfort properties of textile fabrics.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-09
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-04-2020-0050
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The chameleonic garment integrated POF fabric with a tricolour LED and
           wearable device technology

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      Authors: Miao-Tzu Lin
      Abstract: The purpose of this article is to develop a smart illuminated polymeric optical fibre (POF) chameleonic garment, using a wearable device technology for camouflage or safety warnings based on user needs. This study integrates the theory of the optical foundation, control system, wireless communication, program development and apparel design into a chameleonic garment, displaying some vests, bags and shoes. After selecting a pixel in the photo taken by the smart phone, the four modes of the application developed in this study are used to change the POF colour of the garment. This study develops four modes of smart phone application; picked mode: picks a pixel colour on a smart phone canvas, contrastive mode: transfers to contrastive colour of the picked pixel, customized mode – gives input colour number manual and random mode – it based on a system random number. When users have different functional requirements, the four modes provide various choices.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-09
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-06-2020-0084
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • An identification method of cashmere and wool by the two features fusion

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      Authors: Yaolin Zhu, Jiayi Huang, Tong Wu, Xueqin Ren
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to select the optimal feature parameters to further improve the identification accuracy of cashmere and wool. To increase the accuracy, the authors put forward a method selecting optimal parameters based on the fusion of morphological feature and texture feature. The first step is to acquire the fiber diameter measured by the central axis algorithm. The second step is to acquire the optimal texture feature parameters. This step is mainly achieved by using the variance of secondary statistics of these two texture features to get four statistics and then finding the impact factors of gray level co-occurrence matrix relying on the relationship between the secondary statistic values and the pixel pitch. Finally, the five-dimensional feature vectors extracted from the sample image are fed into the fisher classifier. The improvement of identification accuracy can be achieved by determining the optimal feature parameters and fusing two texture features. The average identification accuracy is 96.713% in this paper, which is very helpful to improve the efficiency of detector in the textile industry. In this paper, a novel identification method which extracts the optimal feature parameter is proposed.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-09
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-06-2020-0101
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • A three-dimensional shoulder protector based on ergonomics for workers

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      Authors: Ran-i Eom, Yejin Lee
      Abstract: The use of shoulder protectors is strongly recommended when carrying objects on the shoulder to ensure the health and safety of workers. Thus, this study aimed to develop and verify an ergonomic shoulder protector that considers human body shape and carrying posture from an ergonomic perspective. Ultimately, this study will present a shoulder protector with enhanced fit and safety for carrying workers at construction sites. The shoulder protector was designed and printed using three-dimensional printing technology with variable side neck points and shoulder point heights to reflect the human body's shoulder line shape and to position the carried object stably on the shoulder. The developed shoulder protectors were evaluated in terms of their fit according to the work posture of the carrier, adherence upon motion and durability through structural analysis. The design of the shoulder protector for carrying workers followed the shoulder line. It is best placed above the side neck point by 1.0 cm and above the shoulder point by 2.0 cm. Its length is slightly shorter than the human shoulder for superior fit and safety. The final shoulder protector (FSP) for carrying workers reflects the body curvature while enhancing fit and safety by considering activity and protective factors. As functional studies and evaluations on the need for protectors are scarce, this study provides fundamental data in the evaluation of protective gears.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-04-2020-0048
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The pattern design of fabrics produced by three-channel rotor-spun
           colorful melange yarn

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      Authors: Bo Pan, Xiao Yi Yang, Rui Hua Yang
      Abstract: The purpose of this article is to design and make fabrics with colorful melange yarns spun by a three-channel rotor spinning machine. The three-channel digital rotor-spun machine controls the blending proportion by adjusting the feeding of three-primary color fiber slivers online, so that a piece of colorful yarn presents a variety of colors along the longitudinal direction where constant yarn linear density can be produced flexibly. Various fabric patterns can be produced by three-channel rotor-spun colorful melange yarn with different periods of color. The fabric, made by the rotor-spun colorful melange yarn, is rich in color, clear in layers, soft in the hand and has a hazy three-dimensional effect. The product is environmentally friendly and saves energy. An innovative idea to develop various colorful fabrics is proposed by combining their pattern with colorful melange yarn produced by a three-channel rotor spinning machine.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-05-2020-0075
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Development of parametric garment pattern design system

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      Authors: Yeonghoon Kang, Jihyun Oh, Sungmin Kim
      Abstract: The development of a parametric garment pattern design system that utilizes anthropometric data for consumer-oriented garment pattern design. Action list and interactive user interface were developed to design flat garment patterns. Three-dimensional drape simulation was also implemented to verify the fit of patterns. Patterns generated by the parametric design system developed in this study could be modified easily by providing appropriate anthropometric data regardless of their complexities. Parametric pattern design system can reduce considerable amount of time and cost by replacing the trial-and-error based grading processes. Parametric pattern design system can generate customized garment patterns quickly and easily. Therefore, it is expected to contribute to the production of sustainable fashion and textile by reducing the loss of time and resource. A versatile and comprehensive action list structure was implemented to manage the drawing actions of the user. Various numerical analysis methods were also used to maintain the geometrical validity of patterns.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-02-05
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-07-2020-0114
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • The effect of repeated laundering on the softness and smoothness of
           terry-cloth towels using a sound spectrum analysis

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      Authors: Maruska Giselle Salvatierra Blaisdell, Changsang Yun
      Abstract: This study aims to examine the effect of laundering on the softness and smoothness of terry-cloth towels by different washing machine type, washing temperature, drying method and the use of fabric softener, using a newly developed sound spectrum analysis known as Textile Softness Analyzer. The experiment was designed to analyze the most significant laundering parameter in the reduction of softness and smoothness of terry cloth during one laundering cycle up to ten cycles by testing samples using TSA machine. A front-loading washer had a significant effect on reducing softness and smoothness in comparison to a top-loading machine; line-drying resulted in a higher decrease in softness and smoothness than tumble-drying. Washing temperature showed no significant effect, and the use of softener during washing was able to reduce the negative effect of line-drying on the softness and smoothness of terry cloth. This paper provided information on the laundering parameters that can maintain the softness and smoothness of terry-cloth towels, and this was examined with sound spectrum analysis to measure softness and smoothness of textiles.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-02-2020-0015
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Ensemble learning-based CNN for textile fabric defects classification

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      Authors: Xueqing Zhao, Min Zhang, Junjun Zhang
      Abstract: Classifying the types of fabric defects in the textile industry requires a way to effectively detect. The traditional textile fabric defects detection method is human eyes, which performs very low efficiency and high cost. Therefore, how to improve the classification accuracy of textile fabric defects by using current artificial intelligence and to better meet the needs in the textile industry, the purpose of this article is to develop a method to improve the accuracy of textile fabric defects classification. To improve the accuracy of textile fabric defects classification, an ensemble learning-based convolutional neural network (CNN) method in terms of textile fabric defects classification (short for ECTFDC) on an enhanced TILDA database is used. ECTFDC first adopts ensemble learning-based model to classify five types of fabric defects from TILDA. Subsequently, ECTFDC extracts features of fabric defects via an ensemble multiple convolutional neural network model and obtains parameters by using transfer learning method. The authors applied ECTFDC on an enhanced TILDA database to improve the robustness and generalization ability of the proposed networks. Experimental results show that ECTFDC outperforms the other networks, the precision and recall rates are 97.8%, 97.68%, respectively. The ensemble convolutional neural network textile fabric defect classification method in this paper can quickly and effectively classify textile fabric defect categories; it can reduce the production cost of textiles and it can alleviate the visual fatigue of inspectors working for a long time.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2021-01-21
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-12-2019-0188
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2021)
       
  • Aesthetics and comfort requirements of breast prosthesis in the case of
           mastectomy in cancer patients

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      Authors: Hee-Kyoung Oh, Chi Cuong Vu, Jooyong Kim
      Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate an appropriate breast prosthesis of pattern with center of gravity that exerts less clothing pressure on women who are breast cancer patients. From November 2018, clothing pressure was measured with silk fabric breast prosthesis (SBP) of three different patterns above an affected breast (AB) by the force-sensitive resistance (FSR) sensor. When wearing SBP above the AB, clothing pressure was significantly different in the healthy breast (HB) and the AB; the highest clothing pressure was at the center of nipple in the AB. Meanwhile, the top of the nipple area in the HB experienced higher clothing pressure than before wearing it. Because wearing heavy breast prosthesis presses down, influencing the HB as well. However, below the bottom of the breast bra curve in the AB, clothing pressure becomes lower than before wearing it. Because when the breast prosthesis was inserted into the bra, the clothing pressure not only increased generally but also the clothing pressure divided at some areas. Also, when comparing three different patterns of SBP, the result indicated a significant difference in clothing pressure only inside of breast cap and the center of gravity of the lower breast prosthesis has the lowest clothing pressure. A comparison in pressure based on a circuit design (FSR sensors) and an air pack (AP) device was presented. Further work will be focused on the generation of pressure clothing for breast cancer patients. The paper demonstrates that wearing breast prosthesis with a center of gravity in the lower position from the nipple area has less effect on breast cancer women. The results of this paper facilitate the pattern design of clothing for patients.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-12-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-12-2019-0200
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Removal behavior of methylene blue from graphene oxide/gluten composite
           material: kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics

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      Authors: Xiaoping Zhang, Yanhui Li, Meixiu Li, Qiuju Du, Hong Li, Yuqi Wang, Dechang Wang, Cuiping Wang, Kunyan Sui, Hongliang Li, Yanzhi Xia, Yuanhai Yu
      Abstract: In order to discover a new adsorbent that can be used to purify dye wastewater in the textile and apparel industry, a novel type of graphene oxide/gluten composite material using an improved acid bath coagulation method was synthesized, which can remove methylene blue in an aqueous environment. After experimentally compounding different ratios of graphene oxide and gluten, the graphene oxide/gluten composite material with 20% graphene oxide content and superlative adsorption effect was chosen. The synthesized material was characterized by different techniques such as FT-IR and SEM, indicating the microstructure of the material and the success of the composite. Various factors were considered, namely, the influence of temperature, dosage, pH and contact time. The isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters were successively discussed. The qmax value of 214.29 mg/g of the material was higher compared to the general sorbent, thus, the graphene oxide/gluten composite material was a suitable sorbent for methylene blue removal. Overall, the graphene oxide/gluten composite material can be considered as an effectual and prospective adsorbent to remove methylene blue in the textile and apparel industrial effluent. Graphene oxide is a potentially excellent sorbent. However, the high dispersibility of GO is detrimental to adsorption, it disperses rapidly in an aqueous solution making separation and recovery difficult. The high load capacity and recyclability of gluten as a colloid make it a suitable carrier for fixing GO. Studies on the combination of GO and GT into composite adsorption material and for the removal of dyes from dyeing wastewater have not been reported. The composite material research on GO and GT can provide new ideas for the research of these kinds of materials and contribute to its wider and convenient application in wastewater treatment.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-12-10
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-04-2020-0056
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Sound absorption of weft knitted fabrics: influence of fibers
           cross-section shape, stitch density and mechanical modification of surface
           

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      Authors: Mohammad-Reza Saffari, Mehdi Kamali Dolatabadi, Abosaeed Rashidi, Mohammad Esmail Yazdanshenas
      Abstract: One of the recent applications of fabrics is to use them for sound insulation. Accordingly, due to their low production cost and low relative density, fabrics have drawn attention in some of the industries such as the automotive and aircraft industries. The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of the fiber cross-section, porosity, thickness of samples and fuzzing of the knitted fabric on the sound absorption coefficient. In the present study, fabrics with three different stitch densities were knitted by yarns consist of three different forms of fiber cross-section shapes (circular, elliptical and plus-shaped). In this work, the sound absorption coefficient of knitted fabrics was investigated with regard to the different fiber cross-sections and structural parameters using an impedance tube. As indicated by the obtained results, the cross-section, porosity, thickness and mass per unit area of the fabrics were the determinant factors for the sound absorption coefficient. In addition to, the sound absorption coefficient and porosity were shown to have an inverse relationship. A section of the present paper has been allocated to the investigation of the effect of the fiber cross-section and fuzzing of fabric on the sound absorption of plain knitted fabrics.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-12-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-01-2020-0006
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Research on underwear pressure prediction based on improved GA-BP
           algorithm

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      Authors: Pengpeng Cheng, Daoling Chen, Jianping Wang
      Abstract: For comfort evaluation of underwear pressure, this paper proposes an improved GA algorithm to optimize the weight and threshold of BP neural network, namely PSO-GA-BP neural network prediction model. The objective parameters of underwear, body shape data, skin deformation and other data are selected for simulation experiments to predict the objective pressure and subjective evaluation in dynamic and static state. Compared with the prediction results of BP neural network prediction model, GA-BP neural network prediction model and PSO-BP neural network prediction model, the performance of each prediction model is verified. The results show that the BP neural network model optimized by PSO-GA algorithm can accelerate the convergence speed of the neural network and improve the prediction accuracy of underwear pressure. PSO-GA-BP model provides data support for underwear design, production and processing and has guiding significance for consumers to choose underwear.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-12-04
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-05-2020-0078
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Degumming silk by CO supercritical fluid and their dyeing ability with
           plant indigo

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      Authors: Chung-haur Howard Lo
      Abstract: Dyeing process is usually to blame negatively for deteriorating the environment. Eco-friendly silk fibers are able to exercising their commercial values well followed by eco-friendly processing. One of the supporting examples is the process of changing the colors of silk fabrics. This would include the dyeing process used to change the colors of silk fabric. The intention of the study is to reach the goal of creating an eco-friendly finishing process using a local natural plant-based indigo dyeing process that would complement an eco-friendly degumming process. Currently, most dye houses use sodium hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4) and alkali (NaOH) as the substances for providing hydrogen as a reducing agent. Since the sodium hydroxide by-products are acidic, they may damage equipment in the dye houses, generate air pollution in working environment. The other problems associated with the use of sodium hydrosulfite are the cost and instability with low storage. This paper is based on continuing improvements to the commercialization of the raw materials via the innovative degumming process elaborated in the author’s previous study: “Degumming of Silk Fibers by CO2 Supercritical Fluid.” The initial study has already proved that it was possible to remove sericin from raw silk fiber by using an organic acid pretreatment and CO2 supercritical fluid over the heavy processes the industry currently deploys. The sericin removed from this innovative and eco-friendly processing of silk fiber will be remained in a clean state, not in the form of waste via the existing technologies in use. Clean sericin, rich in silk protein with high market values, can be a potentially perfect substitute of collagen the medical and cosmetic industries widely use. The continued research is focused on the other by-product coming out from this eco-friendly degumming process the silk fibers post degumming. Dyeing process is usually to blame negatively for deteriorating the environment. Eco-friendly silk fibers are able to exercising their commercial values well followed by eco-friendly processing. One of the supporting examples is the process of changing the colors of silk fabrics. This would include the dyeing process used to change the colors of silk fabric. The intention of the study is to reach the goal of creating an eco-friendly finishing process using a local natural plant-based indigo dyeing process that would complement an eco-friendly degumming process. Degumming is an important stage in the silk manufacturing. Due to removing sericin from silk fibers, when subjected the degumming process, these silk fibers acquire the properties, which are of high consumer and commercial values, those include gloss, perfect color, soft handle and texture, elegant drape. Another purpose for the silk fabric degumming is preparing for the next step in processing, such as dyeing or printing. The author has developed a new approach to the degumming process exploiting a supercritical fluid carbon dioxide and found it as a good alternative to the conventional methods that are currently used in industry. Silk fabrics treated by the scCO2 degumming process are characterized by improved dyeing ability or color strength, while this process does not adversely affect the environment. The implications or potential applications of the findings: as it is clearly seen from Table 1, the effectiveness of the degumming process can be improved by at least 38% applying scCO2. Moreover, implementation of the scCO2 silk degumming process into the textile industry may help manufactures to consume less water and energy resources (Elmaaty and Abd El-Aziz, 2017), as well as to obtain pure sericin as a valuable end-product that can be used in the medical and cosmetic industries. The innovation and novel aspects of research: degumming is an important stage in the silk manufacturing. Due to removing sericin from silk fibers, when subjected the degumming process, these silk fibers acquire the properties, which are of high consumer and commercial values, those include gloss, perfect color, soft handle and texture, elegant drape. Another purpose for the silk fabric degumming is preparing for the next step in processing, such as dyeing or printing. The author has developed a new approach to the degumming process exploiting a supercritical fluid carbon dioxide and found it as a good alternative to the conventional methods that are currently used in industry. Silk fabrics treated by the scCO2 degumming process are characterized by improved dyeing ability or color strength, while this process does not adversely affect the environment. The author has developed a new approach to the degumming process exploiting a supercritical fluid carbon dioxide and found it as a good alternative to the conventional methods that are currently used in industry. Silk fabrics treated by the scCO2 degumming process are characterized by improved dyeing ability or color strength, while this process does not adversely affect the environment. As it is clearly seen from Table 1, the effectiveness of the degumming process can be improved by at least 38% applying scCO2. Moreover, implementation of the scCO2 silk degumming process into the textile industry may help manufacturers to consume less water and energy resources (Elmaaty and Abd El-Aziz, 2017), as well as to obtain pure sericin as a valuable end-product that can be used in the medical and cosmetic industries. To make the silk manufacturing more green, the author has developed a technology for obtaining a plant-based indigo dye applying only locally grown agricultural products. The author has found that banana paste and banana peel paste have a sufficiently enough reduction potential for converting the indigo dye into indigo white, which is an important stage in the dyeing processes. The investigation performed showed that both these pastes can serve as a green alternative to sodium hydrosulfite, widely used in industry as a r...
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-12-04
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-06-2019-0072
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Development of a 3D technology-based pattern prototype for female girdles

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      Authors: Xiaofeng Yao, Jianping Wang, Kaixuan Liu, Shuo Xu
      Abstract: An exact pattern prototype is a prerequisite for female girdle pattern-making. The purpose of this paper is to develop new ways to make girdle pattern prototypes based on 3D technology. This paper presented two novel methods for creating girdle pattern prototypes. The first one was the girdle's parametric foundation pattern developing method based on 3D geometric modeling. In this method, considering the different characteristics of a female's lower body shape, several models were created to define the relationship between the female's lower body shape and the pattern, such as a side-waist curvature model, an interior-posterior waist-warping model, a buttocks' parametric model and an abdomen parametric model. Then, parameters of drawing the prototype were abstracted to facilitate transforming the 3D geometric model into the 2D pattern. Another method was implemented by 3D virtual modeling and unwrapping. The whole process included surface division, surface reconstruction and surface unwrapping. The prototypes created by these two methods were tested using the 3D virtual trying-on examination. Trial tests showed that the patterns can be dressed in the right positions on the virtual model with little pressure. This means that the proportions and shapes of the pattern are correct. The prototypes obtained through the methods proposed in this paper have good effects and high precision. Both methods can be used for making the girdle's foundation pattern. Two pragmatic approaches of girdle's prototype building have been put forward. The parametric prototype designing method has changed the unconstrained state of free modeling. The pattern structure can be controlled by parameter constraints. In the other method, with 3D scanning and surface modeling technology, personalized girdle's pattern is generated, and the segmentation lines of the girdle can be designed flexibly according to the requirements. These findings also can be used in other tight garments' prototype making.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-12-04
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-10-2019-0158
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Universal gripper for fabrics – design, validation and integration

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      Authors: Yousef Ebraheem, Emilie Drean, Dominique Charles Adolphe
      Abstract: The paper aims to present the design, validation and integration of a universal fabric gripper. Flexible material handling is one of the most challenging problems occurring in the field of manipulator robots. Because textile products shape and properties can widely vary, each textile and each technological operation should have its own specialized gripper. The objective of the work described here is therefore to design a universal gripper able to grip and transfer every kind of textile. The design objectives are the ability to handle panels of varying shapes and sizes without material deformation and/or folding, and the easy integration with commercially available manipulator robots. To answer initial requirements and increase the textile gripping reliability, we opted to combine three different gripping technologies: vacuum, intrusion and pinch. Each system was first validated independently through static tests. The vacuum technology offers a high reliability to handle impermeable materials. The intrusion technology is reliable for the manipulation of high porosity materials, while the pinch technology shows good results for all soft fabrics when combined with the vacuum technology. Then, the limits of the new gripper in terms of gripping capacity, compressed air consumption and characteristics and limitations of the flexible material handled were put in evidence using a robot arm. An automated selection program of the gripper based on the material characteristics has also been developed and implemented. This paper fulfills an identified need to design a universal gripper able to grip and transfer every different kind of cut textile.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-12-04
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-11-2019-0180
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Somatotype identification of middle-aged women based on decision tree
           algorithm

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      Authors: Lanmin Wang, Hongmin Wang, Huiyan Zhang, Naiseman Akemujiang, Aimin Xiao
      Abstract: Body type classification has a great influence on plate making and garment sizing system, and the accuracy of body type classification method will greatly affect the fit of garment production. The purpose of this paper is to use the decision tree algorithm to study body classification rules, develop a decision tree body recognition model and judge the body shape of middle-aged women in Xinjiang. First, perform dimensionless processing on the collected data of 256 middle-aged women in Xinjiang, and the dimensionless data were used for K-means body clustering; Then, quantitatively analyze the effectiveness of different classification clusters based on the silhouette coefficients. Second, the decision tree algorithm is used to divide the classified sample data into a training set and a test set at a ratio of 70/30, and select the best node and the best branch based on the Gini coefficient to construct a classification tree. Last, the overall optimal decision tree is generated by means of hyperparameter pruning. The body shape of middle-aged women in Xinjiang can be divided into three types: standard body, plump body and obese body. The decision tree model has an excellent effect on body classification of middle-aged women in Xinjiang (precision (macro), 95.46%; precision (micro), 95.95%; recall (macro), 95.46%; recall (micro), 95.95%; F1 (macro), 95.46%; F1 (micro), 95.95%). For scientific research, this paper is conducive to increasing the regional body type theory and stimulating the establishment of a garment sizing subdivision system in Xinjiang. In terms of production practice, this paper not only establishes a model for judging the shape of middle-aged women in Xinjiang, but also provides reference data for intermediates of various sizes. In addition, to facilitate pattern-making and the establishment of a subdivision system for the size of middle-aged women's garments in Xinjiang, this paper provides the grading values of various body control parts of middle-aged women in Xinjiang.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-12-01
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-12-2019-0193
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Heat transfer modeling within the microclimate between 3D human body and
           clothing: effects of ventilation openings and fire intensity

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      Authors: Miao Tian, Jun Li
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of ventilation openings and fire intensity on heat transfer and fluid flow within the microclimate between 3D human body and clothing. On account of interaction effects of fire and ventilation openings on heat transfer process, a 3D transient computational fluid dynamics model considering the real shape of human body and clothing was developed. The model was validated by comparing heat flux history and distribution with experimental results. Heat transfer modes and fluid flow were investigated under three levels of fire intensity for the microclimate with ventilation openings and closures. Temperature distribution on skin surface with open microclimate was heavily depended on the heat transfer through ventilation openings. Higher temperature for the clothing with confined microclimate was affected by the position and direction of flames injection. The presence of openings contributed to the greater velocity at forearms, shanks and around neck, which enhanced the convective heat transfer within microclimate. Thermal radiation was the dominant heat transfer mode within the microclimate for garment with closures. On the contrary, convective heat transfer within microclimate for clothing with openings cannot be neglected. The findings provided fundamental supports for the ease and pattern design of the improved thermal protective systems, so as to realize the optimal thermal insulation of the microclimate on the garment level in the future. The outcomes broaden the insights of results obtained from the mesoscale models. Different high skin temperature distribution and heat transfer modes caused by thermal environment and clothing structure provide basis for advanced thermal protective clothing design.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-11-30
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-12-2019-0191
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Study on multi-color emotion based on fashion color in 2019

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      Authors: Yuanyuan Bai, Yuan Xue
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to derive the relationship between color schemes and emotion to serve for designers and consumers. The three attributes of hue, brightness and saturation of the selected sample color are analyzed, and the Semantic Differential (SD) method is used for the emotional evaluation of color schemes, and data obtained from the emotional evaluation of color schemes is analyzed by using Excel software for mean statistics and SPSS software for factor analysis and cluster analysis. From the results of the factor analysis, three main factors that affect the feeling of the color scheme can be extracted: “personality”, “gender” and “fashion”. Color emotions can be achieved by changing the level of color saturation and brightness, the cold and warmth of the hue and the way of color combination. Since it takes a long time to fill out the questionnaire, the number of valid questionnaires collected is a little less and the research data is limited. In addition, some problems are not taken into account such as geography and so on, so the results of the statistical analysis are not very precise and further research is needed. It can provide information of emotional color schemes for designers and consumers, and based on the SD method, an emotional color matching questionnaire is designed and statistical analysis is conducted to establish the relationship between emotion and color schemes. Based on the fashion color sample and color harmony theory, the color matching rules and color matching schemes are designed independently.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-11-25
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-06-2019-0084
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Objective evaluation of fabric pilling based on image analysis and deep
           learning algorithm

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      Authors: Qi Xiao, Rui Wang, Hongyu Sun, Limin Wang
      Abstract: The paper aims to build a new objective evaluation method of fabric pilling by combining an integrated image analysis technology with a deep learning algorithm. Series of image analysis techniques were adopted. First, a Fourier transform transformed images into the frequency domain. The optimal resolution matrix of an exponential high-pass filter was determined by combining the energy algorithm. Second, the multidimensional discrete wavelet transform determined the optimal division level. Third, the iterative threshold method was used to enhance images to obtain a complete and clear pilling ball images. Finally, the deep learning algorithm was adopted to train data from pilling ball images, and the pilling levels were classified according to the learning features. The paper provides a new insight about how to objectively evaluate fabric pilling grades. Results of the experiment indicate that the proposed objective evaluation method can obtain clear and complete pilling information and the classification accuracy rate of the deep learning algorithm is 94.2%, whose structures are rectified linear unit (ReLU) activation function, four hidden layers, cross-entropy learning rules and the regularization method. Because the methodology of the paper is based on woven fabric, the research study’s results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test other kinds of fabric further, such as knitted and unwoven fabrics. Combined with a series of image analysis technology, the integrated method can effectively extract clear and complete pilling information from pilled fabrics. Pilling grades can be classified by the deep learning algorithm with learning pilling information.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-11-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-02-2020-0024
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Suitable ranges of ease allowance for appearance of women's shirts of fit
           and straight styles

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      Authors: Yuika Sakata, KyoungOk Kim, Masayuki Takatera
      Abstract: This study investigated changes in appearance due to variations in the amount of ease allowance at the bust, waist and hips with ready-made women's shirts in two different styles. The authors also examined the suitable range for ease allowance with those two styles using a sensory test for evaluating appearance. The authors employed two women's shirts (samples I and II) in different styles (fit and straight). The authors modified the size of the bust, waist and hips with a changeable-size dress form using 1-cm intervals. The authors observed the shape changes. With the pictures at 2-cm intervals, the authors conducted a sensory test to evaluate appearance. 20 Japanese university students in their 20s made their assessments using seven items (wrinkles, fit, silhouette, beauty, fashionable impression, comfort and purchase intention) with a five-point scale. The proportion of subjects who scored 1 or more was 40% or greater when using ease allowance in the suitable range. The appropriate ranges of ease allowance differed according to the style and evaluation items. Regarding appearance and purchase intention with sample I from the front, the suitable range of ease allowance was 1–7 cm for the bust, 2–6 cm for the hips and 13 cm for the waist. From the side, the range was 0–6 cm for the hips and 7 cm for the bust. With sample II from the front, the suitable range of ease allowance was about 4 cm for all parts. From the side, the range was 11 cm for the bust and 4 cm for the hips. Using a dress form, the authors determined suitable ranges of ease allowance for two women's shirts in fit and straight styles with seven bust, six waist and six hip sizes. The authors found that the suitable range of ease allowance varied according to the style, direction and parts of the shirt. Our results can act as a guideline for designing and selecting ease allowance for women's shirts, taking into account comfort from appearance, purchase intention and beauty.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-11-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-03-2020-0031
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Development of gait assistive clothing-typed soft wearable robot for
           elderly adults

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      Authors: Sumin Helen Koo, Young Bin Lee, Changhwan Kim, Gibaek Kim, Giuk Lee, Je-Sung Koh
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to develop clothing-typed soft wearable robot embedded with textile-based actuators on ankles for elderly adults needing gait assistance. Design guidelines were developed and they included function (type, targeting area, routing line and anchor points), design (size/fit, fabric/material, fastener, detail, color) and actuator (shape memory alloy type, size, deformation type, integration material, integration technique and evaluation method). Fabric-based actuator, integration methods to fabrics, routing lines and anchoring points were developed based on the guidelines and evaluated. Then, three long socks types and a pants type were designed and prototyped. Routing line position displacement measurement test was conducted with the prototypes. A survey was conducted to investigate satisfaction, likeness and use intention on the design/prototype to modify the designs. Important design factors were identified, and design guidelines for clothing-typed soft wearable robots (SWRs) were developed. People satisfied the developed SWR designs and prototypes with mean scores over 4.60. The results are expected to be helpful for designers and developers of SWRs in the development process, and they will ultimately be beneficial to members of the elderly population who have gait difficulties.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-11-24
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-04-2020-0052
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • A normative method for the classification and assessment of women's 3-D
           scanned morphotypes

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      Authors: Reena Pandarum, Simon Christopher Harlock, Lawrance Hunter, Gerald Aurther Vernon Leaf
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was for a panel of experts to initially make visual assessments of female body morphotypes from their 3-D scanned images, and, thereafter, use these and their anthropometric data to derive algorithms to specify anthropometric parameters corresponding to a specific body morphotype categories. This paper presents a method to quantitatively define women's body morphotypes derived from the visual assessments of the 3-D scans of the body. Nine morphotype categories are defined and algorithms are derived to define the range of values of bust-to-waist and hip-to-waist girth ratios corresponding to the different categories. The method showed an 81.9% prediction accuracy between the visually assessed and predicted morphotypes. This compared to a 71.9% prediction accuracy of another published method. This new normative method (NNM) enables a quantitative evaluation of how visual assessments of body morphotypes from different populations of women, made by different assessors, differ. The panel assessed morphotype category with the largest number of subjects was rectangle (52.0%), followed by spoon (39.5%), hourglass (5.6%) and triangle (2.9%). The NNM shows similar predicted categories, with only slightly differing values, viz. the morphotype category with the largest number of subjects was rectangle (54.1%) followed by spoon (40.4%), hourglass (4.8%), inverted U (0.6%) and Y (0.3%). The morphotype with the worst correlation between the predicted and the assessed was the triangle (0% – 0/10), followed by the hourglass (31.6% – 6/19). The NNM did not generate more than one prediction for a given visually assessed morphotype. The geographical location of the authors meant that it was convenient to develop and evaluate the NNM from a sample of South African women. Further work can be conducted where a large number of national and international experts perform an assessment of a set of body morphotypes. The anthropometric data derived according to ISO 8559-1 protocols may then be used to determine the criteria used by each assessor with the aim of reaching a consensus and, hence, movement toward body morphotype standardization for both men and women and thereby mass customization. The advantage of the method is that it provides for a, transparent, universally applicable procedure that is simple to use and implement in the clothing and retail sectors The NNM did not predict more than one morphotype for a given category; hence, it enables objective comparisons to be made between the visual assessments of morphotype categories of different populations by different assessors, to also evaluate how and where the assessments differ. Studies such as this highlight the need for standardization of both the criteria used in the expert panel visual assessments and an agreement on the anthropometric measures or landmarks required to define women 3-D body morphotypes standardized to international protocols for target market segmenting in the clothing and retail sectors and in industries where variability in body morphotype, size and proportions has ergonomic implications. The theoretical concept is novel, easy to follow and implement in the clothing and related sectors and has not been published to date. The approach was to develop a theoretical concept standardized to ISO 8559-1 that enable objective comparisons between visual assessments of morphotypes of different populations by different assessors, and to also evaluate how and where the assessments differ. The knowledge and experience of domain experts were to initially conduct the visual assessments of women morphotypes from their 3-D scans and thereafter to use these and their anthropometric data to derive algorithms to specify anthropometric parameters corresponding to a specific body morphotype category.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-11-23
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-06-2020-0089
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • A design of wetsuit based on 3D body scanning and virtual technologies

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      Authors: Xinzhou Wu, Victor Kuzmichev
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present a method of digital twins of female bodies and the optimization of wetsuit patterns with the help of virtual technologies. First, the new anthropometrical grouping of female torsos has been developed with 3D body scanning technology. Second, soft tissue deformation under the influence of typical diving postures and hydraulic pressure has been explored. Through real experiments, the relationship between textile material strain and body measurement changing has been applied to establish deformed digital twins of female bodies. Finally, during the evaluation of the virtual wetsuit test on digital twins through material strain and pressure values in CLO 3D, the optimized pattern of the wetsuit has been designed. The experimental results show that the digital twins based on real data transformation are feasible and practical, and the process of establishing digital twins with 3D body scanning technology is valid and accurate. The researches on the wetsuit of structure and body dynamic measurements still have many gaps existing in the real and virtual experiments. Thus the manuscript addresses these issues and provides the deformed digital twin for wetsuit pattern design for the first time. This study can be used for designing and optimizing the wetsuit and further improving the efficiency of manufacture and evaluation.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-11-20
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-02-2020-0021
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • The behavioral analysis of choice difficulty states during clothing online
           shopping

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      Authors: Yumiao Chen, Zhongliang Yang
      Abstract: Choice overload in e-commerce induces choice difficulty, which is detrimental to shopping decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to provide relatively simple and effective methods and indicators to detect and assess the choice difficulty states of customers during clothing online shopping. In order to find out the behavioral performance of choice difficulty states during clothing online shopping, the authors performed the following steps: at first, the authors conducted an experiment to record the videos of the purchasing process during clothing online shopping. Then, the authors carried out the behavioral analysis of customers, correlating each behavioral index to choice difficulty states. The results of the behavioral analysis in this study have indicated that three types of behavior were significantly correlated to the choice difficulty states of customers. It is expected that it would be possible to use the threshold values of behavioral indicators to determine whether and when the customer is suffering from choice phobia disorder. Based on the findings, a recommender system with timely interventions to help customers with choice difficulty to make shopping decisions will be developed in the future. This is the first reported study that explores the possibility of using behavioral indicators to detect choice difficulty, which will remain helpful to the scientific community to start further customer-centered research work and development of clothing online shopping.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-11-18
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-12-2019-0189
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Influencing factors and rules of shielding effectiveness of
           electromagnetic shielding clothing sleeve

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      Authors: Xiuchen Wang, Zhe Liu, Long Wu, Yue Wang, Ying Su
      Abstract: The change rules of the shielding effectiveness (SE) of the sleeve has not been clarified, which leads to the lack of the basis for the design, manufacture and evaluation of the electromagnetic shielding (EMS) clothing. According to a simplified analysis model, a series of sleeve samples with different fabrics and styles are designed and manufactured. The SE of the sleeve is tested with the proposed special test method in a semi-anechoic chamber to analyze the influence of different factors on the SE of the sleeve. The SE is greatly reduced about 60–90% after the fabric is manufactured into the sleeve. The larger the sleeve length is, the higher the peak value of the SE is. When the sleeve length is low, the SE value is easy to appear negative. As the cuff circumference increases, the SE of the sleeve will change with the frequency band. The influence of the cuff style on the SE of the sleeve mainly depends on the cuff width and style. The larger the cuff width is, the lower the overall SE of the sleeve is. The more wrinkles there are at the cuff, the better the SE of the sleeve is. Our results provide a reference for the design, production and evaluation of the sleeve and the whole EMS clothing.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-10-30
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-02-2020-0013
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Study on the tearing behaviour of woven shirting fabrics – the effect of
           yarn and fabric properties

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      Authors: Elnaz Safari Gorjan, Nazanin Ezazshahabi, Fatemeh Mousazadegan
      Abstract: Occurrence of fabric rupture is a problem that can influence fabric performance during wear. In this regard, fabric tearing resistance is considered by manufacturers and consumers and enhancing tear resistance through optimization of related parameters is beneficial. In this study, the tearing resistance of a series of shirting fabrics with various weave patterns and weft densities were investigated by both static and dynamic tear test methods. Moreover, the constituent yarn's frictional and tensile behaviour was evaluated and their relation with tear resistance was analysis. According to the outcomes, the fabric firmness and density and friction of yarns affect the tear resistance, reversely. However an improvement in yarn's tenacity can raise the tear resistance. In this study it was aimed to not only consider influence of both static and dynamic tear test approach on the tearing performance of fabrics regarding their structural parameters, the impact of the constituent's yarn properties include tensile behaviour and friction coefficient on the tearing performance of fabric considered, as well.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-10-19
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-06-2020-0092
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • A review of the current status of microfiber pollution research in
           textiles

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      Authors: R. Rathinamoorthy, S. Raja Balasaraswathi
      Abstract: Microfiber is one of the major sources of microplastic emission into the environment. In recent times, research on microfiber has gained momentum, and research across different disciplines was performed. However, no complete study was performed from the viewpoint of textiles to analyse the microfiber shedding behaviour by relating the properties textiles. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the microfiber shedding behaviour in textiles. Articles on the microfiber shedding across different disciplines were collected and analysed systematically to identify the influencing factor. The influence of laundry parameters is found to be majorly discussed section, yet very few research data is found on the effect of yarn and fabric properties on the microfiber shedding. Most of the articles listed laundry detergent addition, higher temperature, use of softeners, type of washing machines used and amount of liquid used as the major factors influencing the fiber shedding. Concerning the fiber and yarn characteristics, yarn twist, fiber type (staple/filament), method of production, fabric structure and specific density are reported as influencing factors. Some articles highlighted the influence of ageing of textiles on the fiber shedding. The review identified the research gap in the textile sector and reports that so far, no research performed on microfiber shedding with the textile parameters. The review further urges the importance of research works to be performed in the textile by considering the fabric and yarn properties.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-10-16
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-04-2020-0051
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Investigating consumer behaviour for environmental, sustainable and social
           apparel

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      Authors: Kerri Byrd, Jin Su
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate consumers' perceptions of and consumer behaviour towards apparel labels and environmental, sustainable and social apparel. Quantitative research was conducted, and empirical data were collected from 399 US consumers. Findings indicate that consumers expressed positive sentiments towards apparel sustainability, yet they lacked knowledge about socially and environmental practices within the apparel industry. Overall, it is apparent that the respondents have an interest in environmental and social labelling; but they are not aware of brands that sell these types of garments nor their validity. It was also found that consumers may not have much knowledge regarding environmental, sustainable and social apparel or their meanings. By surveying the consumers about their perspectives on apparel labels and environmental, sustainable and social apparel, valuable market information was obtained. Sustainably and ethically produced garments are of demand as transparency in the apparel industry grows. Brands looking to become more transparent about their production methods will need to find new ways to reach their target market by accurately labelling products and educating their consumers about these label claims.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-10-13
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-03-2020-0040
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Designing new sizing bulletproof vests for Taiwanese soldiers

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      Authors: Chih-Hao Wen, Yuh-Chuan Shih
      Abstract: Combining the collected human body variables by a 3D body scanner and the research results of medical computed tomography (CT) imaging, this research aims to develop a military bulletproof vest that is both protective and fit. In particular, the protective part must be able to cover the vital human internal organs completely. The results of this research help to make military bulletproof vests of different sizes for Taiwanese male and female soldiers. At the same time, the research results can provide a reference for the industry of making special-purpose clothing. 17 important human body variables of 988 participants (male: 716, 72.5%; female 272, 27.5%) are used for the analysis. The K-means algorithm firstly builds clusters of different body shapes for both sexes; the silhouette coefficient helps to determine the optimal number of clusters to be six. Thus, the standard size of the bulletproof vest for soldiers is determined. The specifications of the bulletproof vest's inner core and textile vest are calculated for each cluster user. Our research then makes twelve prototypes of the bulletproof vest. After that, 12 subjects are invited to try on the new version (the vest designed in this study) and the old version (the vest currently used) to contrast the differences between the two. According to the index of the silhouette coefficient, the optimal number of clusters is determined to be six for both male and female clusters. Therefore, this study has designed six sizes of the bulletproof vest for male and female soldiers in Taiwan. After trying the new and old vests on, the subjects all indicate that the new vest fits better than the old one. In addition, the coverage of the bulletproof vest designed in this study is 94.38% for male users and 92.75% for female users. The design of bulletproof vests must take note of the fit of the clothing itself and its protective function. Apart from the size design of general clothing only focusing on the human shape exteriorly, the bulletproof vest also needs to pay attention to the relative positions of vital organs inside the human body. Besides, for practical applications, it is quite effective to use the silhouette coefficient to determine the results of cluster analysis. Thus, the value of this research lies in the cross-field combination, enabling the integration of body measurement, data science and clothing design. Generally, bulletproof vests of newly designed sizes can meet the requirements of Taiwan's military. The research results can be used in the development of various military clothing for Taiwanese military personnel. At the same time, the results can be provided to the clothing industry as relevant parameters for designing unique functional clothing.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-10-07
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-09-2019-0150
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Finite element simulation on the relationship between pressure and
           displacement for the waist of elastic pantyhose

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      Authors: Rui Dan, Zhen Shi
      Abstract: Objective appraisal of pressure comfort is the key point of optimal designing of clothing. The purpose of this paper is to study a new method to provide pressure comfort for the waist of elastic pantyhose through the relationship between pressure and displacement using the finite element method (FEM). This paper presented a simulation model of the waist cross section consisting of three parts, namely skin, soft tissue and lumbar vertebrae, respectively, according to CT scan. The finite element the model of waist cross-section was established using Mimics software. The pressure–displacement quadratic equation can be obtained using ANSYS software and fitting curves. Meanwhile, we divide the waist cross-section into 12 equal regions according to angle, and then the area shrinkage mass of the waist cross-section can be calculated, respectively. In this research work, we got the displacement distribution trend of elastic pantyhose at the waist cross section according to the area shrinkage mass of 12 regions, and this displacement could be used as an objective evaluation index for pressure comfort. All these solutions supply a theoretical reference for optimal design of the women's elastic pantyhose. The paper analyzed the relationship between pressure and displacement for the waist of elastic pantyhose using FEM, and then got the displacement distribution trend of elastic pantyhose at the waist cross section according to the area shrinkage mass of different regions. It can supply a new method to appraise pressure comfort.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-08-31
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-03-2020-0037
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Consumer visual attention and behaviour of online clothing

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      Authors: Xiaohong Mo, Enle Sun, Xian Yang
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study online clothing consumers' behaviour and their visual attention mechanism to provide objective and quantitative evidences for the display and sales of online clothing. Firstly, this paper conducted a Focus Group Methodology and questionnaire survey to obtain concern factors of online clothing. Secondly, the online clothing's bottom-up visual stimulation and consumer's top-down expectations were analysed, and proposed the hypotheses about significant stimulus of clothing and consumer's emotional experience. Thirdly, the online clothing consumer's visual attention rules and related qualitative results were discussed, and proposed visual attention law for online clothing. Finally, took the company's 84th quarter clothing design practices as research projects, all the hypotheses were demonstrated through eye movement physiology experiments, online clothing trial release and node sales data. Online clothing has unique visual display ways compared with other online products such as online advertising, brands and food packaging. Clothing patterns of unfamiliar (fresh) font shapes are more attractive than the patterns of familiar fonts. The cause of the bottom-up visual attention bias is the contrast between clothing features, not the absolute stimulus intensity of the features themselves. Clothing factors can change their emotional experience from no difference to significant difference under the influence of other clothing factors. Put forward hypotheses of online clothing consumer behaviour and its visual attention mechanism, provided objective and quantitative evidences through eye tracker.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-08-31
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-02-2020-0029
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Characteristics of women's basic bodice pattern formation in relation to
           the anthropometric references

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      Authors: In Hwa Kim, Hyunsook Han, Su-Jeong Hwang Shin
      Abstract: The purpose of study is to investigate effectiveness of pattern technique in relation to the use of anthropometric references for drafting women's basic bodice patterns by assessing characteristics of pattern formation, quantification of wearing ease on the transverse plan and actual ease distribution on body forms. Three pattern drafting techniques were analyzed, which have different frequency of using direct body measurements for pattern formulation. Ease quantification and wearing ease distribution were evaluated on the two different body forms: a young female body and a heavy woman body. Women's basic bodice patterns were drafted with YUKA CAD and virtually draped on the two body forms with CLO 3D. Rapidform was used to evaluate garment appearance. Areal ease and its distribution were assessed. A deviation map was used for wrinkle analysis. Compared to the pattern formation derived from few anthropometric references, patterns using sufficient anthropometric references provided overall better fit for the different body forms. Ease distribution without considering body arcs was found to be a cause of garment fit problems. Patterns with little or no ease caused transverse fine wrinkles and skewed side seams. Pattern techniques those used linear equations caused problems on the bust because the formulation could not reflect bust protrusions in relation to the body torso shape differences. This study revealed characteristics of pattern formulae and linear equations in relation to anthropometric references and body shapes. The findings may be effective in developing algorithm of the customized pattern formation in the industry.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-07-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-10-2019-0159
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Synthesis of ultraviolet (UV)-curable water-borne polyurethane acrylate
           binders and comparison of their performance for pigment printing on
           synthetic leather

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      Authors: Gülçin Baysal, Gizem Keleş, Berdan Kalav, F. Seniha Güner, Burçak Karagüzel Kayaoğlu
      Abstract: In this study, it is aimed to synthesize ultraviolet (UV)-curable water-borne polyurethane acrylate (WPUA) binders using different types of polyols (poly (propylene glycol), PPG1000 and PPG2000 and poly (ethylene glycol), PEG1000 and PEG2000) at different molecular weights, DMPA (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) propionic acid) at different amounts and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) and use for pigment printing on synthetic leather. UV-cured films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The effect of binder structure on printing performance was determined with hardness, crock fastness, abrasion resistance and color measurements. The highest abrasion resistance (60,000 cycles) and crock fastness values (dry crock and wet crock: 3/4) were obtained with binder PEG-C synthesized with PEG2000 and lower DMPA amount of 4.89 wt%; however, PEG-C binder showed lower hardness values. Due to lower urethane groups in PEG-C binder, more flexible films were obtained which imparted good adhesion property to printing film. Synthesized binders provided lower crock fastness and abrasion resistance properties than commercial WPUA binder. Pigmented formulations including UV-curable water-borne synthesized PUA binder were developed and for the first time applied onto synthetic leather using screen printing method. Within this context, a new environmentally friendly printing method was proposed in this study including binder synthesis in the preparation of printing formulations.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-07-17
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-02-2020-0026
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Assessment of the thermal insulation properties of multilayered mittens
           considering the airflow speed

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      Authors: Fatemeh Zahra Hourian Tabarestani, Fatemeh Mousazadegan, Nazanin Ezazshahabi
      Abstract: In the present work, the thermal insulation characteristics of multilayered mittens were studied in different airflow conditions. In this study, the thermal behavior of four groups of mittens consisting of one two-layer and three three-layer mittens containing nonwoven wadding materials with various weights and thicknesses was investigated during the exposure to airflows with different speeds. In order to evaluate the correlation between the heat transfer rates of different mittens with the human perception of cold, a set of pair-comparison tests was performed using Thurstone's law of comparative judgment. The analysis of the results revealed that by an increment in the weight and the thickness of the wadding material, the thermal protection performance of mittens improves. Moreover, in the presence of airflow and by increasing its speed, due to the forced convective heat loss, the outer surface temperature of the mittens decreases and therefore the conductive heat transfer rate rises. This fact leads to the transfer of higher quantity of body warmth to the environment and thus feeling of coldness. According to the results, there was a proper correlation between the subjective perception of cold and the heat transfer rate of mittens. The statistical analysis of the results clarified that the effect of mitten's structural parameters and the airflow speed on the thermal protection behavior of mittens are significant at the confidence range of 95%. Mitten is one of the important personal protective clothing, especially in cold environments. Thus, the thermal resistance of them has a prominent role in the protection of the hands and fingers from cold and frostbiting.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-07-15
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-01-2020-0007
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Similarities and differences between virtual and actual pants

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      Authors: Siti Zulaikha Binti Zulkifli, KyoungOk Kim, Masayuki Takatera
      Abstract: This study aimed to clarify the criteria for subjective evaluation of the similarities and differences between virtual and actual pants and propose a quantitative evaluation method for those similarities and differences based on geometric features related to the evaluation. Using patterns, we made five pairs of actual pants for a dummy in five fabrics. We simulated virtual pants with a 3-D simulator. Sensory evaluation was conducted with images of the virtual and actual pants: 20 participants compared the images based on a questionnaire. For the structure of evaluation, the authors undertook analysis of variance and principal component analysis. The actual and virtual pants were geometrically compared using the 3-D scanned data. To investigate the relationship between quantitative and sensory evaluation, the authors calculated the correlation coefficients. The authors found that subjects perceived the differences between actual and simulated pants. When comparing the virtual and actual pants, the criteria for the differences were the silhouette from the front view, hem width, waist and wrinkles. Using differences in the hem width, it would be possible to evaluate the differences between actual and simulated pants. Roughness and smoothness of the silhouette also affected evaluation. The authors clarified the evaluation criteria for the similarities and differences between virtual and actual pants. The authors proposed a quantitative evaluation method for the similarities and differences between virtual and actual garment based on our criteria. This study will be of benefit to 3-D simulator users and developers.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-07-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-03-2020-0038
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Color fastness of fabrics after dyeing with fungal dyes

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      Authors: Vicente Hernández, Felipe Galleguillos, Nicole Sagredo, Ángela Machuca
      Abstract: The study aims to test the color fastness of wool and linen fabrics dyed by simple immersion in ethanol dissolutions of fungal dyes. Ethanol dissolutions of Talaromyces australis and Penicillium murcianum dyes were prepared to a concentration of 0.3% and used to dye wool and linen samples by immersion. Color fastness to washing, dry cleaning, wet and dry rubbing, perspiration and light, were tested according to AATCC standards. Color fastness reached acceptable results at dry cleaning and wet and dry rubbing by crocking but did not performed well at laundering, perspiration and light exposure. Results indicate that ethanol dissolutions of tested dyes had better affinity for wool fabrics than linen, but the dyeing method requires further improvements to be considered attractive for full scale applications. In this work sustainability of fabrics dyeing is improved by using natural pigments produced by filamentous fungi and a method to dye that requires no increment of temperature and mordants.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-07-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-12-2019-0196
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Response surface optimization of cotton tufts opening degree using
           Box–Behnken designs

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      Authors: Weaam Jameel Alkhateeb
      Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effect of process parameters of blow room machines on openness degree and quality of cotton tufts in a blow room. For this purpose, an experimental Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used, and the process parameters were the angles of the grid bars underneath the opening rollers of CVT3 beaters and the distance between feed roller of the first opening roller of CVT3. It was found that the cotton tuft openness increased by increasing the angles of grid bars and by decreasing the distance between the feed roller and first opening roller on CVT3 beater. Further, the optimization procedure showed that an optimum value of cotton tuft openness (in laser method) was determined for specific levels of the process parameters. The originality of this investigation is that it showed the individual effects and interactions of the most important factors in two tufting machines instead of only one machine. This study is important because it helps cotton yarn spinners to improve the quality of the final yarns by optimizing the levels of tuft openness which in turn improves fiber cleaning.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-07-14
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-11-2019-0165
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Effect of stitch patterns on moisture responsiveness of seamless knitted
           wool fabrics for activewear

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      Authors: Adriana Gorea, Fatma Baytar, Eulanda Sanders
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of knit fabric stitch patterns, as indicated by fabric thickness variations, on moisture responsiveness for different seamless knitted wool-based fabrics. Forty fabrics were created on a Santoni Top-2 circular knitting machine by using combinations of jersey, tuck and float stitches in combinations of wool/Nylon, wool, and spandex yarns. Physical properties of the knit fabrics as well as changes in fabric thickness during dry, wet, after 30 min air-drying and after 60 min air-drying conditions were compared. Repeated measures ANOVA tests and bivariate correlation analysis were conducted. The results indicated that changes in moisture conditions had a significant effect on fabric thickness, and these changes differed by stitch pattern groups. Float patterns and tuck/rib patterns showed a continued relaxation of fabric thickness through all conditions, but tuck stitches and rib stitches showed a thickness recovery. Wool swatches, unlike the wool/Nylon swatches, increased their average thickness in after 60 min air-drying condition compared to 30 min air-drying condition. This research documents the moisture responsive properties for wool based yarns, as emerging natural functional materials for seamless knitting industry, with applications in garments for activewear as well as healthcare.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-07-08
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-11-2019-0173
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Performance attributes relevant to thermal wear comfort of hip protective
           garment: influence of comprising pad materials, pad thickness, pad area,
           and pocket fabric structure

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      Authors: Wiah Wardiningsih, Olga Troynikov
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the performance attributes relevant to thermal wear comfort of the commercially available hip protective pads and materials intended for impact protection that can be used for the hip protective pad. The performance attributes relevant to thermal wear comfort (i.e. dry thermal resistance and evaporative resistance) of the pads were tested using MTNW Integrated Sweating Guarded Hotplate (iSGHP). It was found that: the pad with more porous structure has more advantages in terms of evaporative resistance; the permeability index will be higher on the pad with an opening such as a segmented pad; the permeability index will be lower on the thicker and larger pad. The pocket fabric with open structure will have lower dry thermal resistance and evaporative resistance. The study results showed that the properties of the utilised materials influenced thermal comfort performance. These results could be useful for designing and engineering hip protective garments.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-07-03
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-10-2019-0156
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • Evaluation on the pressure distribution and body-shaping effectivity of
           graduated compression shaping pants

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      Authors: Haixia Li, Yongrong Wang, Zhian Chen
      Abstract: Graduated compression shaping pants (GCSPs) are shapewears sharing the same action mechanisms as medical compression stockings (MCSs), setting four stages of pressure on lower limbs that gradually decreasing from the ankle to the thigh root. They are claimed to be able to not only shaping bodies but also promoting blood circulation in legs. However, there are few studies on whether GCSPs perform the advertised functions and how effective GCSPs could be. The purpose of this paper is to explore and evaluate the pressure distribution and body-shaping effectivity of GCSPs. The authors first select two graduated compression shaping pants (GCSPs-A, GCSPs-B) and a pair of professional shaping pants as the Controls. Then objective pressure test and 3D body scanning test are conducted. Finally, the pressure distribution and body-shaping effectivity are demonstrated by ORIGIN and MATLAB, compared with controls. GCSPs-A perform significant body-shaping effectivity at the calf, thigh and thigh root, which are less effective than the Controls. The body-shaping effectivity of GCSPs-B is predicted weaker than GCSPs-A at the calf and thigh, while better at the thigh root. Both GCSPs-A and GCSPs-B show gradual pressure, which could be classified into Class I or II of MCSs. Comprehensively, GCSPs-A are superior than GCSPs-B. In this paper, authors evaluate the pressure distribution and body-shaping effectivity of GCSPs, which could provide guidance for enterprises to further optimize and produce GCSPs, performing better functions that meet consumers' needs better.
      Citation: International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology
      PubDate: 2020-07-02
      DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-02-2020-0018
      Issue No: Vol. 33, No. 2 (2020)
       
  • International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology

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