Subjects -> BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (Total: 146 journals)
    - BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)
    - CARPENTRY AND WOODWORK (8 journals)

BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION (138 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 35 of 35 Journals sorted alphabetically
A+BE : Architecture and the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Academia : Architecture and Construction     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Building Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Building Energy Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ambiente Construído     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anales de Edificación     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Civil Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building - Conference Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Baurechtliche Blätter : bbl     Hybrid Journal  
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BER : Architects and Quantity Surveyors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BER : Building and Construction : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
BER : Building Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Building Sub-Contractors' Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Capital Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Building & Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Building Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Building Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Building Services Engineering Research & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BUILT : International Journal of Building, Urban, Interior and Landscape Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Built Environment Inquiry Journal     Open Access  
Built Environment Project and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Built-Environment Sri Lanka     Full-text available via subscription  
Case Studies in Construction Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cement and Concrete Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Cement and Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Change Over Time     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Clay Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Concreto y cemento. Investigación y desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Construction Economics and Building     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Construction Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Construction Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Construction Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Corporate Real Estate Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Dams and Reservoirs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Developments in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Energy and Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Engineering Project Organization Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environment and Urbanization Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Facilities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
FUTY Journal of the Environment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Técnica     Open Access  
GISAP : Technical Sciences, Construction and Architecture     Open Access  
Glass Structures & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Adhesives and Sealants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
HBRC Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Housing and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
HVAC&R Research     Hybrid Journal  
Indoor and Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Informes de la Construcción     Open Access  
Intelligent Buildings International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Built Environment and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Construction Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Masonry Research and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Protective Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of River Basin Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Sustainable Real Estate and Construction Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of the Built Environment and Asset Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Ventilation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal Sustainable Construction & Design     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal for Education in the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Aging and Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Architecture, Planning and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Building Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Building Materials and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Building Pathology and Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Building Performance Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Construction Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Computational Acoustics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Construction Project Management and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Facilities Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Green Building     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Fire Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sustainable Design and Applied Research in Innovative Engineering of the Built Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Transport and Land Use     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Landscape History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Materiales de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Modular and Offsite Construction (MOC) Summit Proceedings |     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Open Construction & Building Technology Journal     Open Access  
Organization, Technology and Management in Construction     Open Access  
PARC Pesquisa em Arquitetura e Construção     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Forensic Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Urban Design and Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Revista ALCONPAT     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de la Construcción     Open Access  
Revista de Urbanismo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Hábitat Sustenable     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista IBRACON de Estruturas e Materiais     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista INVI     Open Access  
RILEM Technical Letters     Open Access  
Room One Thousand     Open Access  
Ruang-Space: Jurnal Lingkungan Binaan (Journal of The Built Environment)     Open Access  
Russian Journal of Construction Science and Technology     Open Access  
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Science and Technology for the Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Steel Construction - Design and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stroitel’stvo : Nauka i Obrazovanie     Open Access  
Structural Concrete     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Buildings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sustainable Cities and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Technology|Architecture + Design     Hybrid Journal  
Terrain.org : A Journal of the Built & Natural Environments     Free   (Followers: 3)
The Historic Environment : Policy & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Tidsskrift for boligforskning     Open Access  
YBL Journal of Built Environment     Open Access  
Zeitschrift für Miet- und Raumrecht     Hybrid Journal  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Architectural Computing
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.213
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1478-0771 - ISSN (Online) 2048-3988
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1149 journals]
  • A decision support tool for building design: An integrated generative
           design, optimisation and life cycle performance approach
    • Authors: Yair Schwartz, Rokia Raslan, Ivan Korolija, Dejan Mumovic
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Building performance evaluation is generally carried out through a non-automated process, where computational models are iteratively built and simulated, and their energy demand is calculated. This study presents a computational tool that automates the generation of optimal building designs in respect of their Life Cycle Carbon Footprint (LCCF) and Life Cycle Costs (LCC). This is achieved by an integration of three computational concepts: (a) A designated space-allocation generative-design application, (b) Using building geometry as a parameter in NSGA-II optimization and (c) Life Cycle performance (embodied carbon and operational carbon, through the use of thermal simulations for LCCF and LCC calculation). Examining the generation of a two-storey terrace house building, located in London, UK, the study shows that a set of building parameters combinations that resulted with a pareto front of near-optimal buildings, in terms of LCCF and LCC, could be identified by using the tool. The study shows that 80% of the optimal building’s LCCF are related to the building operational stage (σ = 2), while 77% of the building’s LCC is related to the initial capital investment (σ = 2). Analysis further suggests that space heating is the largest contributor to the building’s emissions, while it has a relatively low impact on costs. Examining the optimal building in terms compliance requirements (the building with the best operational performance), the study demonstrated how this building performs poorly in terms of Life Cycle performance. The paper further presents an analysis of various life-cycle aspects, for example, a year-by-year performance breakdown, and an investigation into operational and embodied carbon emissions.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2021-03-29T05:11:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077121999802
       
  • A comparative analysis of the digital re-constructions of muqarnas
           systems: The case study of Sultanhanı muqarnas in Central Anatolia
    • Authors: Sevde Gülizar Dinçer, Tuğrul Yazar
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a comparative case study on the digital modeling workflows of a particular muqarnas system. After the literature review and the definition of the context, several digital modeling workflows were described as element-based, tessellation-based and block-based workflows by using computer-aided design and parametric modeling software. As the case study of this research, these workflows were tested on a muqarnas design located at the Sultanhanı Caravanserai in Central Anatolia. Then, workflows were compared according to three qualities: analytical, generative, and performative. The outcomes of element-based workflow has more analytical solutions for the study, where tessellation-based workflow has more generative potential and block-based workflow is more performative.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2021-02-12T06:41:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077121992487
       
  • Architecture in the age of the 4th industrial revolution
    • Authors: Gonçalo Castro Henriques, José Pedro Sousa, Paula Gomez-Zamora, Henri Achten
      Pages: 317 - 319
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 317-319, December 2020.

      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-12-10T02:03:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120950939
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Shortcut to the Fourth Industrial Revolution: The case of Latin America
    • Authors: Gabriela Celani
      Pages: 320 - 334
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 320-334, December 2020.
      In the fields of architecture and urban design, there has always been a delay in the impact of industrial revolution technologies, and in the case of less industrialised countries, the delay has been even bigger. This article starts with a review of the history of computer-aided architectural design in Brazil and then describes the state of the field in some Latin American countries. Finally, we discuss the ‘ideal computer curriculum’ for architects in the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-07-15T05:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120942193
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Towards machine learning for architectural fabrication in the age of
           industry 4.0
    • Authors: Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen, Paul Nicholas, Martin Tamke, Sebastian Gatz, Yuliya Sinke, Gabriella Rossi
      Pages: 335 - 352
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 335-352, December 2020.
      Machine Learning (ML) is opening new perspectives for architectural fabrication, as it holds the potential for the profession to shortcut the currently tedious and costly setup of digital integrated design to fabrication workflows and make these more adaptable. To establish and alter these workflows rapidly becomes a main concern with the advent of Industry 4.0 in building industry. In this article we present two projects, which presents how ML can lead to radical changes in generation of fabrication data and linking these directly to design intent. We investigate two different moments of implementation: linking performance to the generation of fabrication data (KnitCone) and integrating the ability to adapt fabrication data in realtime as response to fabrication processes (Neural-Network Steered Robotic Fabrication). Together they examine how models can employ design information as training data and be trained to by step processes within the digital chain. We detail the advantages and limitations of each experiment, we reflect on core questions and perspectives of ML for architectural fabrication: the nature of data to be used, the capacity of these algorithms to encode complexity and generalize results, their task-specificness versus their adaptability and the tradeoffs of using them with respect to conventional explicit analytical modelling.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-08-17T09:31:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120948000
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • CoBuilt 4.0: Investigating the potential of collaborative robotics for
           subject matter experts
    • Authors: Dagmar Reinhardt, Matthias Hank Haeusler, Kerry London, Lian Loke, Yingbin Feng, Eduardo De Oliveira Barata, Charlotte Firth, Kate Dunn, Nariddh Khean, Alessandra Fabbri, Dylan Wozniak-O’Connor, Rin Masuda
      Pages: 353 - 370
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 353-370, December 2020.
      Human-robot interactions can offer alternatives and new pathways for construction industries, industrial growth and skilled labour, particularly in a context of industry 4.0. This research investigates the potential of collaborative robots (CoBots) for the construction industry and subject matter experts; by surveying industry requirements and assessments of CoBot acceptance; by investing processes and sequences of work protocols for standard architecture robots; and by exploring motion capture and tracking systems for a collaborative framework between human and robot co-workers. The research investigates CoBots as a labour and collaborative resource for construction processes that require precision, adaptability and variability.Thus, this paper reports on a joint industry, government and academic research investigation in an Australian construction context. In section 1, we introduce background data to architecture robotics in the context of construction industries and reports on three sections. Section 2 reports on current industry applications and survey results from industry and trade feedback for the adoption of robots specifically to task complexity, perceived safety, and risk awareness. Section 3, as a result of research conducted in Section 2, introduces a pilot study for carpentry task sequences with capture of computable actions. Section 4 provides a discussion of results and preliminary findings. Section 5 concludes with an outlook on how the capture of computable actions provide the foundation to future research for capturing motion and machine learning.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-08-27T11:36:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120948742
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Integrating real-time multi-resolution scanning and machine learning for
           Conformal Robotic 3D Printing in Architecture
    • Authors: Paul Nicholas, Gabriella Rossi, Ella Williams, Michael Bennett, Tim Schork
      Pages: 371 - 384
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 371-384, December 2020.
      Robotic 3D printing applications are rapidly growing in architecture, where they enable the introduction of new materials and bespoke geometries. However, current approaches remain limited to printing on top of a flat build bed. This limits robotic 3D printing’s impact as a sustainable technology: opportunities to customize or enhance existing elements, or to utilize complex material behaviour are missed. This paper addresses the potentials of conformal 3D printing and presents a novel and robust workflow for printing onto unknown and arbitrarily shaped 3D substrates. The workflow combines dual-resolution Robotic Scanning, Neural Network prediction and printing of PETG plastic. This integrated approach offers the advantage of responding directly to unknown geometries through automated performance design customization. This paper firstly contextualizes the work within the current state of the art of conformal printing. We then describe our methodology and the design experiment we have used to test it. We lastly describe the key findings, potentials and limitations of the work, as well as the next steps in this research.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-08-13T10:57:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120948203
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • CREASE: Synchronous gait by minimizing actuation through folded geometry
    • Authors: Olga Mesa, Saurabh Mhatre, Dan Aukes
      Pages: 385 - 403
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 385-403, December 2020.
      The Age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution promises the integration and synergy of disciplines to arrive at meaningful and comprehensive solutions. As computation and fabrication methods become pervasive, they present platforms for communication. Value exists in diverse disciplines bringing their approach to a common conversation, proposing demands, and potentials in response to entrenched challenges. Robotics has expanded recently as computational analysis, and digital fabrication methods are more accurate and reliable. Advances in functional microelectromechanical components have resulted in the design of new robots presenting alternatives to traditional ambulatory robots. However, most examples are the result of intense computational analysis necessitating engineering expertise and specialized manufacturing. Accessible fabrication methods like laminate techniques propose alternatives to new robot morphologies. However, most examples remain overly actuated without harnessing the full potential of folds for locomotion. Our research explores the connection between origami structures and kinematics for the generation of an ambulatory robot presenting efficient, controlled, and graceful gait with minimal use of components. Our robot ‘Crease’ achieves complex gait by harnessing kinematic origami chains rather than relying on motors. Minimal actuation activates the folds to produce variations in walk and direction. Integrating a physical iterative process with computational analysis, several prototypes were generated at different scales, including untethered ones with sensing and steering that could map their environment. Furthering the dialogue between disciplines, this research contributes not only to the field of robotics but also architectural design, where efficiency, adjustability, and ease of fabrication are critical in designing kinetic elements.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-08-04T09:35:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120948204
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Computational design, engineering and manufacturing of a
           material-efficient 3D printed lattice structure
    • Authors: Roberto Naboni, Anja Kunic, Luca Breseghello
      Pages: 404 - 423
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 404-423, December 2020.
      Building with additive manufacturing is an increasingly relevant research topic in the field of Construction 4.0, where designers are seeking higher levels of automation, complexity and precision compared to conventional construction methods. As an answer to the increasing problem of scarcity of resources, the presented research exploits the potential of Fused Deposition Modelling in the production of a lightweight load-responsive cellular lattice structure at the architectural scale. The article offers an extensive insight into the computational processes involved in the design, engineering, analysis, optimization and fabrication of a material-efficient, fully 3D printed, lattice structure. Material, structure and manufacturing features are integrated within the design development in a comprehensive computational workflow. The article presents methods and results while discussing the project as a material-efficient approach to complex structures.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-08-06T05:56:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120947990
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • Integrating expertise and parametric analysis for a data-driven
           decision-making practice
    • Authors: Marcelo Bernal, Victor Okhoya, Tyrone Marshall, Cheney Chen, John Haymaker
      Pages: 424 - 440
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 424-440, December 2020.
      This study explores the integration of expert design intuition and parametric data analysis. While traditional professional design expertise helps to rapidly frame relevant aspects of the design problem and produce viable solutions, it has limitations in addressing multi-criteria design problems with conflicting objectives. On the other hand, parametric analysis, in combination with data analysis methods, helps to construct and analyze large design spaces of potential design solutions and tradeoffs, within a given frame. We explore a process whereby expert design teams propose a design using their current intuitive and analytical methods. That design is then further optimized using parametric analysis. This study specifically explores the specification of geometric and material properties of building envelopes for two typically conflicting objectives: daylight quality and energy consumption. We compare performance of the design after initial professional design exploration, and after parametric analysis, showing consistently significant performance improvement after the second process. The study explores synergies between intuitive and systematic design approaches, demonstrating how alignment can help expert teams efficiently and significantly improve project performance.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-07-21T10:57:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120940975
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 4 (2020)
       
  • On the aesthetic significance of imprecision in computational design:
           Exploring expressive features of imprecision in four digital fabrication
           approaches
    • Authors: Malgorzata A Zboinska, Delia Dumitrescu
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Precision of materialized designs is the conventional goal of digital fabrication in architecture. Recently, however, an alternative concept has emerged which refashions the imprecisions of digital processes into creative opportunities. While the computational design community has embraced this idea, its novelty results in a yet incomplete understanding. Prompted by the challenge of the still missing knowledge, this study explored imprecision in four digital fabrication approaches to establish how it influences the aesthetic attributes of materialized designs. Imprecision occurrences for four different digitally aided materialization processes were characterized. The aesthetic features emerging from these imprecisions were also identified and the possibilities of tampering with them for design exploration purposes were discussed. By considering the aesthetic potentials of deliberate imprecision, the study has sought to challenge the canon of high fidelity in contemporary computational design and to argue for imprecision in computation that shapes a new generation of designs featuring the new aesthetic of computational imperfection.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-12-08T06:54:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120976493
       
  • Disregarded solution spaces: A proposed approach to draw connections
           between computationally generated solution spaces and actual built case
           studies
    • Authors: Niloufar Emami
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Many computational studies generate an array of solutions for a design problem paired with their structural or daylighting performance. An enormous investment of effort and computational time is required to create these simulation-based datasets. However, the generated data is usually bound to the specific case studies they were created to explore. Can this data be useful for application to other design cases' This study employed a generative algorithm to fill a database with perforated shell structures covering a courtyard. A shell by Heinz Isler was chosen to be mapped onto the generated solution space based on its performance. The study found that this method is effective for predicting daylight performance, while structural performance modifications can be a source of inspiration for designing other structural forms.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-11-21T10:17:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120969928
       
  • Multimaterial bioprinting—minus the printer: Synthetic bacterial
           patterning with UV-responsive genetic circuits
    • Authors: Gizem Gumuskaya
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, we argue that synthetic biology can help us employ living systems’ unique capacity for self-construction and biomaterial production toward developing novel architectural fabrication paradigms, in which both the raw material production and its refinement into a target structure can be merged into a single computational process embedded in the living structure itself. To demonstrate, here we introduce bioPheme, a novel biofabrication method for engineering bacteria to build biomaterial(s) of designer’s choice into arbitrary 2D geometries specified via transient UV tracing. To this end, we present the design, construction, and testing of the enabling synthetic DNA circuit, which, once inserted into a bacterial colony, allows the bacteria to execute spatial computation by interacting with one another based on the if-then rules encoded in this circuit. At the heart of this genetic circuit is a pair of UV sensor – actuator, and a pair of cell-to-cell signal transmitter – receptor modules, created with genes extracted from the virus λ Phage and marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri, respectively. These modules are wired together to help designers engineer bacteria to build macro-scale structures with seamlessly integrated biomaterials, thereby bridge the molecular and architectural scales. In this way, a bacterial lawn can be programmed to produce different objects with complementary biomaterial compositions, such as a biomineralized superstructure and an elastic tissue filling in-between. In summary, this paper focuses on how scientists’ increasing ability to harness the innate computational capacity of living cells can help designers create self-constructing structures for architectural biofabrication. Through the discussions in this paper, we aim to initiate a shift in today’s biodesign practices toward a greater appreciation and adoption of bottom-up governance of living structures. We are confident that such a paradigm shift will allow for more efficient and sustainable biofabrication systems in the 4th industrial revolution and beyond.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-10-31T05:47:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120963373
       
  • Prefabrication 4.0: BIM-aided design of sustainable DIY-oriented houses
    • Authors: Karolina Ostrowska-Wawryniuk
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      In the context of continuous housing shortage, increasing construction standards and rising labour costs, one of the possibilities to address this array of problems is prefabrication directed towards do-it-yourself (DIY) construction methods. This paper presents a prototype tool for aiding the design of DIY-oriented single-family houses with the use of small-element timber prefabrication. The introduced solution uses the potential of BIM technology for adapting a traditionally designed house to the prefabrication requirements and reduction of waste generated in the assembly process. The experimental tool was developed in the Autodesk Revit software. It incorporates custom Dynamo-for-Revit scripts. The experimental tool implemented the user- and technology-specified boundary conditions and converted an input BIM model into a prefabricated alternative. The tool was tested on the design of a two-story single-family house. The results compare the automated optimized panelization with manual approach. The simulation revealed the possibility of the construction waste reduction by at least 50% when comparing to the non-optimized panelization.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-10-22T06:42:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120966496
       
  • Towards Hallucinating Machines - Designing with Computational Vision
    • Authors: Matias del Campo, Alexandra Carlson, Sandra Manninger
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      There are particular similarities in how machines learn about the nature of their environment, and how humans learn to process visual stimuli. Machine Learning (ML), more specifically Deep Neural network algorithms rely on expansive image databases and various training methods (supervised, unsupervised) to “make sense” out of the content of an image. Take for example how students of architecture learn to differentiate various architectural styles. Whether this be to differentiate between Gothic, Baroque or Modern Architecture, students are exposed to hundreds, or even thousands of images of the respective styles, while being trained by faculty to be able to differentiate between those styles. A reversal of the process, striving to produce imagery, instead of reading it and understanding its content, allows machine vision techniques to be utilized as a design methodology that profoundly interrogates aspects of agency and authorship in the presence of Artificial Intelligence in architecture design. This notion forms part of a larger conversation on the nature of human ingenuity operating within a posthuman design ecology. The inherent ability of Neural Networks to process large databases opens up the opportunity to sift through the enormous repositories of imagery generated by the architecture discipline through the ages in order to find novel and bespoke solutions to architectural problems. This article strives to demystify the romantic idea of individual artistic design choices in architecture by providing a glimpse under the hood of the inner workings of Neural Network processes, and thus the extent of their ability to inform architectural design.The approach takes cues from the language and methods employed by experts in Deep Learning such as Hallucinations, Dreaming, Style Transfer and Vision. The presented approach is the base for an in-depth exploration of its meaning as a cultural technique within the discipline. Culture in the extent of this article pertains to ideas such as the differentiation between symbolic and material cultures, in which symbols are defined as the common denominator of a specific group of people.1 The understanding and exchange of symbolic values is inherently connected to language and code, which ultimately form the ingrained texture of any form of coded environment, including the coded structure of Neural Networks.A first proof of concept project was devised by the authors in the form of the Robot Garden. What makes the Robot Garden a distinctively novel project is the motion from a purely two dimensional approach to designing with the aid of Neural Networks, to the exploration of 2D to 3D Neural Style Transfer methods in the design process.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-10-17T11:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120963366
       
  • Framework for decentralised architectural design BIM and Blockchain
           integration
    • Authors: Theodoros Dounas, Davide Lombardi, Wassim Jabi
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The paper introduces a framework for decentralised architectural design in the context of the fourth industrial revolution. We examine first the constraints of building information modelling in regard to collaboration and trust. We then introduce Blockchain infrastructure as a means for creating new operational and business models for architectural design, through project governance, scaling collaboration nominally to thousands of agents, and shifting trust to the infrastructure rather than the architectural design team. Through a wider consideration of Blockchains in construction projects we focus on the design process and validate our framework with a prototype of BIM design optimisation integrated with a Blockchain mechanism. The paper concludes by outlining the contributions our framework can enhance in the building information modelling processes, within the context of the fourth industrial revolution.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-10-14T07:28:16Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120963376
       
  • Soft actuated material: Exploration of a programmable composite
    • Authors: Lynn Hyun Kieffer, Paul Nicholas
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This paper describes the development of a programmable composite material and investigates its application in architecture as flexible and controllable surfaces. The composite leverages qualities found in the field of soft robots, that is, strength, precision, and the ability to change shape through vacuum actuation. It is an exploration of a range of applications for shape shifting composites within different phases of architecture. This research has deployed a controlled form-actuator of a designed surface as a reusable and flexible approach for concrete formwork and as a continuously changing spatial element, which aims to create a more engaging relationship between habitat and inhabitant. The design method linked to this composite aims to converge technology and material behavior and therethrough create a more linear process from design to construction. This paper elaborates on the design, simulation and fabrication methods, and their development through empirical research from individual actuatable cells to a controllable multi-cell surface and associated design tool.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-09-28T10:02:32Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120957527
       
  • Inside the Matrix: Immersive Live Coding for Architectural Design
    • Authors: Renata Castelo-Branco, Catarina Brás, António Menezes Leitão
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Algorithmic Design (AD) uses computer programs to describe architectural models. These models are visual by nature and, thus, greatly benefit from immersive visualization. To allow architects to benefit from the advantages of Virtual Reality (VR) within an AD workflow, we propose a new design approach: Live Coding in Virtual Reality (LCVR). LCVR means that the architect programs the design while immersed in it, receiving immediate feedback on the changes applied to the program. In this paper, we discuss the benefits and impacts of such an approach, as well as the most pressing implementation issues, namely the projection of the programming environment onto VR, and the input mechanisms to change the program or parts of it. For each, we offer a critical analysis and comparison of the various solutions available in the context of two different programming paradigms: visual and textual.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-09-28T10:02:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120958164
       
  • Real design practice, real design computation
    • Authors: Zichu Will Wang
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The business model of architecture has been accused of being technologically deficient. Through case studies, this paper investigates alternatives to the status quo of computation in architecture, with a focus on design-oriented service providers. It first examines the discourse on computation within the field, then describes the experiments of a relevant design firm before discussing implications for the wider industry. In the process, the paper articulates the gap between theoretical computing applications and the realities of the architecture business. It addresses difficult technological adaptations within the industry with concrete use cases of integrated computing expertise, highlighting opportunities, benefits, and, more importantly, the need for a computational workforce.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-09-19T11:41:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120958165
       
  • Virtual reality rendering methods for training deep learning, analysing
           landscapes, and preventing virtual reality sickness
    • Authors: Tomohiro Fukuda, Marcos Novak, Hiroyuki Fujii, Yoann Pencreach
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Virtual reality (VR) has been proposed for various purposes such as design studies, presentation, simulation and communication in the field of computer-aided architectural design. This paper explores new roles for VR; in particular, we propose rendering methods that consist of post-processing rendering, segmentation rendering and shadow-casting rendering for more-versatile approaches in the use of data. We focus on the creation of a dataset of annotated images, composed of paired foreground-background and semantic-relevant images, in addition to traditional immersive rendering for training deep learning neural networks and analysing landscapes. We also develop a camera velocity rendering method using a customised segmentation rendering technique that calculates the linear and angular velocities of the virtual camera within the VR space at each frame and overlays a colour on the screen according to the velocity value. Using this velocity information, developers of VR applications can improve the animation path within the VR space and prevent VR sickness. We successfully applied the developed methods to urban design and a design project for a building complex. In conclusion, the proposed method was evaluated to be both feasible and effective.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-09-17T06:47:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120957544
       
  • The design of social and cultural orientated urban tissues through
           evolutionary processes
    • Authors: Jason Choi, Phat Chi Thanh Nguyen, Mohammed Makki
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The research examines how social and cultural properties can be utilised as an alternative planning scheme to improve urban morphology and enhance the overall experience of individuals within the city. The aim is for these socio-cultural properties to be translated into quantitative data sets that define the morphological characteristics of the urban tissue. Through the use of evolutionary optimisation methods, the process of urban growth is simulated through a series of individuals that adapt and optimise for multiple design criteria. The experiment presented quantifies the social and cultural properties of a superblock within the city of Kyoto to generate an urban tissue that is susceptible to future growth.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-09-02T06:27:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120951948
       
  • Homeostatic generative design process: Emergence of the adaptive
           architectural form and skin to excessive solar radiation
    • Authors: Milad Showkatbakhsh, Saam Kaviani
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Natural organisms through their evolutionary developments, acquire adaptive morphological and behavioural characteristics within their environmental contexts. Through homeostatic behaviours, organisms, individually and collectively, will sustain internal and external equilibrium in face of environmental fluctuations. There is a wide range of morphological and behavioural traits across multiple species that are rooted in their homeostatic mechanisms throughout their lives. This paper presents an evolutionary design workflow with embedded homeostatic principles to generate a building cluster that is adapted to the contexts with extreme solar radiation.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-08-21T12:12:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120951947
       
  • Computational design and fabrication of highly customizable architectural
           space frames: Making a flat-cut Weaire-Phelan structure
    • Authors: Jingyang Liu, Yi-Chin Lee, Daniel Cardoso Llach
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This paper documents a computational approach to the design, fabrication, and assembly of customizable space structures built entirely out of flat-cut interlocking elements without the need of nodes, fasteners, cement, or glue. Following a Research by Design (RbD) methodology, we establish a framework comprising geometric and parametric modeling, structural analysis, and digital fabrication stages to examine the following research question: how might the modularity of a construction kit be combined with the plasticity of parametric descriptions to facilitate the design and fabrication of flat-cut space structures' We find that an adaptive joint design that resolves local deformations at the node and element levels can facilitate the construction of flat-cut space structures by making modular components responsive to local geometric, material, and mechanical demands. The research centers on the design and construction of an architecture-scale installation based on the Weaire-Phelan structure—an aperiodic space-filling geometric structure that approximates the geometry of foam—entirely out of flat-cut interlocking elements. Documenting the process in technical detail, as well as some limitations, the paper contributes to recent efforts to develop digital materials suitable for architectural applications. In addition, it contributes to extend the formal and architectural possibilities of flat-cut space structure design by facilitating “bottom-up” design explorations in concert with the structure’s tectonic resolution.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-08-21T12:12:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120949033
       
  • SOM’s Computer Group: Narratives of women in early architectural
           computing
    • Authors: Shelby Elizabeth Doyle, Nick S Senske
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Cultural narratives of digital technology in architecture rely heavily upon stories of unique, almost always male, genius and often deny the collective intellectual labor of technology’s construction. These narratives are perpetuated by a historical record which does not fully address the contributions of women to the history of digital technology. Because this history is not well-documented, there is an opportunity to represent these events in a manner which is more inclusive and equitable. Toward that end, this article focuses on narratives from the SOM Computing Group (1964–1990), as a means of correcting the historical record and addressing gender equity in the profession. The interviews collected here highlight several women who helped to integrate technologies into architecture through professional experimentation and cross-disciplinary collaboration. While it is not a comprehensive history, this work represents the beginning of an agenda to produce a history of technology in architecture which better reflects the contributions of women to the digital designs of today.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-08-18T07:56:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120950713
       
  • Computational screening-LCA tools for early design stages
    • Authors: Michael Budig, Oliver Heckmann, Markus Hudert, Amanda Qi Boon Ng, Zack Xuereb Conti, Clement Jun Hao Lork
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been widely adopted to identify the Global Warming Potential (GWP) in the construction industry and determine its high environmental impact through Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, energy and resource consumptions. The consideration of LCA in the early stages of design is becoming increasingly important as a means to avoid costly changes at later stages of the project. However, typical LCA-based tools demand very detailed information about structural and material systems and thus become too laborious for designers in the conceptual stages, where such specifications are still loosely defined. In response, this paper presents a workflow for LCA-based evaluation where the selection of the construction system and material is kept open to compare the impacts of alternative design variants. We achieve this through a strict division into support and infill systems and a simplified visualization of a schematic floor layout using a shoebox approach, inspired from the energy modelling domain. The shoeboxes in our case are repeatable modules within a schematic floor plan layout, whose enclosures are defined by parametric 2D surfaces representing total ratios of permanent supports versus infill components. Thus, the assembly of modular surface enclosures simplifies the LCA evaluation process by avoiding the need to accurately specify the physical properties of each building component across the floor plan. The presented workflow facilitates the selection of alternative structural systems and materials for their comparison, and outputs the Global Warming Potential (GWP) in the form of an intuitive visualization output. The workflow for simplified evaluation is illustrated through a case study that compares the GWP for selected combinations of material choice and construction systems.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-08-13T10:58:08Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120947996
       
  • An open, integrated modular format: For flexible and intelligible
           architecture, engineering and construction design and production
    • Authors: Robert Melvin Doe
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      The architecture, engineering and construction sector is fragmented, and its computer-aided design systems suffer data loss and errors in workflow between design and realisation. An open source, integrated, modular format is proposed to address the technological nature of these problems. Accordingly, this research updates the notion of the modular format as a more flexible and intelligible computational design method by leveraging knowledge from the computer science and manufacturing sectors where the design and realisation process is intentional and explicit. The research design of this article comprises a theoretical approach combined with an empirical case study. Principles of modularity are extracted from the computer science and manufacturing sectors to assist with a better definition of architecture, engineering and construction computer-aided design processes that use materials and resources more efficiently and sustainably. The methodology of the modular format contributes to the emerging concept of a building lifecycle management system for the architecture, engineering and construction sector.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-07-25T12:24:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120943795
       
  • Using genetic algorithm to automate the generation of an open-plan office
           layout
    • Authors: Chen Chen, Ricardo Jose Chacón Vega, Tiong Lee Kong
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Today, the concept of open plan is more and more widely accepted that many companies have switched to open-plan offices. Their design is an issue in the scope of space layout planning. Although there are many professional architectural layout design software in the market, in the real life, office designers seldom use these tools because their license fees are usually expensive and using them to solve an open-plan office design is like using an overly powerful and expensive tool to fix a minor problem. Therefore, manual drafting through a trial and error process is most often used. This article attempts to propose a lightweight tool to automate open-plan office layout generation using a nested genetic algorithm optimization with two layers, where the inner layer algorithm is embedded in the outer one. The result is enhanced by a local search. The main objective is to maximize space utilization by maximizing the size of the open workspace. This approach is different from its precedents, in that the location search is conducted on a grid map rather than several pre-selected candidate locations. Consequently, the generated layout design presents a less rigid workstation arrangement, inviting a casual and unrestrictive work environment. The real potential of the approach is reflected in the productivity of test fits. Automating and simplifying the generation of layouts for test fits can tremendously decrease the amount of time and resources required to generate them. The experimental case study shows that the developed approach is powerful and effective, making it a totally automated process.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-07-25T12:23:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120943532
       
  • Beyond typologies, beyond optimization: Exploring novel structural forms
           at the interface of human and machine intelligence
    • Authors: Karla Saldana Ochoa, Patrick Ole Ohlbrock, Pierluigi D’Acunto, Vahid Moosavi
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      This article presents a computer-aided design framework for the generation of non-standard structural forms in static equilibrium that takes advantage of the interaction between human and machine intelligence. The design framework relies on the implementation of a series of operations (generation, clustering, evaluation, selection, and regeneration) that allow to create multiple design options and to navigate in the design space according to objective and subjective criteria defined by the human designer. Through the interaction between human and machine intelligence, the machine can learn the nonlinear correlation between the design inputs and the design outputs preferred by the human designer and generate new options by itself. In addition, the machine can provide insights into the structural performance of the generated structural forms. Within the proposed framework, three main algorithms are used: Combinatorial Equilibrium Modeling for generating of structural forms in static equilibrium as design options, Self-Organizing Map for clustering the generated design options, and Gradient-Boosted Trees for classifying the design options. These algorithms are combined with the ability of human designers to evaluate non-quantifiable aspects of the design. To test the proposed framework in a real-world design scenario, the design of a stadium roof is presented as a case study.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-07-23T12:52:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120943062
       
  • JointSearch: Efficient parametric detailing preparation through
           user-defined and property-based joint type filtering
    • Authors: John Haddal Mork, Marcin Luczkowski
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Detailing joints are important when designing structures. In this design process, a structure is divided into different joint types. Digital fabrication and algorithmic aided design have changed the conceptions and requirements of joint detailing. However, parametric tools that can efficiently identify joint types based on the solution space are not available. This article presents a methodology that efficiently generates topological relations and enables the user to assign joint instances to joint types. A series of property-based search criteria components is applied to define the solution space of a joint type. Valid joints are coherently filtered, deconstructed and outputted for detailing. The article explains both the methodology and programming-related aspects of the joint type filtering. The article concludes that the developed methodology offers the desired flexibility and may be suitable for other materials and applications.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-07-20T12:09:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120943176
       
  • PolyTile 2.0: Programmable microtextured ceramic architectural tiles
           embedded with environmentally responsive biofunctionality
    • Authors: Viola Zhang, David Rosenwasser, Jenny E Sabin
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      PolyTile 2.0 interrogates the potential of programmable biofunctionalities in our constructed architectural environments through the development of advanced ceramic bio-tiles. These tiles utilize novel patterning techniques and hydrogel biomaterials to tune surface conditions at the micro- and macroscale. This trans-disciplinary work builds upon recent advancements in the fields of three-dimensional printing, digital ceramics, materials science, bioengineering, chemical biology, and architecture. PolyTile 2.0 enables designers and architects to implement biofunctionality and microscale patterning fittingly and with the ability to continuously adjust design iterations across scales. The refinement utilizes glazing strategies as a directable fluidic device and biocompatible hydrogels as a sensing platform to further developments in responsive built environments. This article outlines methods for the production of bulk-scale hydrogel materials, stereolithography-based three-dimensional printed ceramic tiles, and scalable glazing techniques, which bring building-scale application of this technology to the foreground.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-07-08T11:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120932421
       
  • Generative systems in the architecture, engineering and construction
           industry: A systematic review and analysis
    • Authors: Samer BuHamdan, Aladdin Alwisy, Ahmed Bouferguene
      Abstract: International Journal of Architectural Computing, Ahead of Print.
      Researchers have been extensively exploring the employment of generative systems to support design practices in the architecture, engineering and construction industry since the 1970s. More than half a century passed since the first architecture, engineering and construction industry’s generative systems were developed; researchers have achieved remarkable leaps backed by advances in computing power and algorithms’ capacity. In this article, we present a systematic analysis of the literature published between 2009 and 2019 on the utilization of generative systems in the design practices of the architecture, engineering and construction industry. The present research studies present trends, collaborations and applications of generative systems in the architecture, engineering and construction industry in order to identify existing shortcomings and potential advancements that balance the need for theory development and practical application. It provides insightful observations that are translated into meaningful recommendations for future research necessary to progress the incorporation of generative systems into the design practices of the architecture, engineering and construction industry.
      Citation: International Journal of Architectural Computing
      PubDate: 2020-06-29T10:04:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/1478077120934126
       
 
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